Abstract

Flexible organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are emerging as a leading technology for rollable and foldable display applications. For the development of high-performance flexible OLEDs on plastic substrate, we report a transparent nanocomposite electrode with superior mechanical, electrical, and optical properties, which is realized by integrating the nanoimprinted quasi-random photonic structures into the ultrathin metal/dielectric stack to collectively optimize the electrical conduction and light outcoupling capabilities. The resulting flexible OLEDs with green emission yield the enhanced device efficiency, reaching the maximum external quantum efficiency of 43.7% and luminous efficiency of 154.9 cd/A, respectively.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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  3. N. Aizawa, Y. J. Pu, M. Watanabe, T. Chiba, K. Ideta, N. Toyota, M. Igarashi, Y. Suzuri, H. Sasabe, and J. Kido, “Solution-processed multilayer small-molecule light-emitting devices with high-efficiency white-light emission,” Nat. Commun. 5, 5756 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  7. N. Li, S. Oida, G. S. Tulevski, S. J. Han, J. B. Hannon, D. K. Sadana, and T. C. Chen, “Efficient and bright organic light-emitting diodes on single-layer graphene electrodes,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2294 (2013).
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. H.-Z. Geng, K. K. Kim, K. P. So, Y. S. Lee, Y. Chang, and Y. H. Lee, “Effect of acid treatment on carbon nanotube-based flexible transparent conducting films,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129(25), 7758–7759 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. D. S. Hecht, L. Hu, and G. Irvin, “Emerging transparent electrodes based on thin films of carbon nanotubes, graphene, and metallic nanostructures,” Adv. Mater. 23(13), 1482–1513 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. Y. Xia, K. Sun, and J. Ouyang, “Solution-processed metallic conducting polymer films as transparent electrode of optoelectronic devices,” Adv. Mater. 24(18), 2436–2440 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. W. Gaynor, S. Hofmann, M. G. Christoforo, C. Sachse, S. Mehra, A. Salleo, M. D. McGehee, M. C. Gather, B. Lüssem, L. Müller-Meskamp, P. Peumans, and K. Leo, “Color in the corners: ITO-free white OLEDs with angular color stability,” Adv. Mater. 25(29), 4006–4013 (2013).
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    [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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  17. J. Zou, C. Z. Li, C. Y. Chang, H. L. Yip, and A. K. Jen, “Interfacial engineering of ultrathin metal film transparent electrode for flexible organic photovoltaic cells,” Adv. Mater. 26(22), 3618–3623 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. J. Huang, C.-Z. Li, C.-C. Chueh, S.-Q. Liu, J.-S. Yu, and A. K. Y. Jen, “10.4% power conversion efficiency of ITO-Free organic photovoltaics through enhanced light trapping configuration,” Adv. Energy Mater. 5(15), 1500406 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  21. R. Betancur, P. Romero-Gomez, A. Martinez-Otero, X. Elias, M. Maymó, and J. Martorell, “Transparent polymer solar cells employing a layered light-trapping architecture,” Nat. Photonics 7(12), 995–1000 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  22. T. Schwab, S. Schubert, S. Hofmann, M. Fröbel, C. Fuchs, M. Thomschke, L. Müller-Meskamp, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Highly efficient color stable inverted white top-emitting OLEDs with ultra-thin wetting layer top electrodes,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1(10), 707–713 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  23. H. M. Stec, R. J. Williams, T. S. Jones, and R. A. Hatton, “Ultrathin transparent Au electrodes for organic photovoltaics fabricated using a mixed mono-molecular nucleation layer,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(9), 1709–1716 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  24. R. Wang, L.-H. Xu, Y.-Q. Li, L. Zhou, C. Li, Q.-D. Ou, J.-D. Chen, S. Shen, and J.-X. Tang, “Broadband light out-coupling enhancement of flexible organic light-emitting diodes using biomimetic quasi-random nanostructures,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(2), 203–210 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  25. S. Schubert, L. Müller-Meskamp, and K. Leo, “Unusually high optical transmission in Ca:Ag blend films: high-performance top electrodes for efficient organic solar cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 24(42), 6668–6676 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  26. H. M. Stec, R. J. Williams, T. S. Jones, and R. A. Hatton, “Ultrathin transparent Au electrodes for organic photovoltaics fabricated using a mixed mono-molecular nucleation layer,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(9), 1709–1716 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  27. H. Y. Xiang, Y. Q. Li, L. Zhou, H. J. Xie, C. Li, Q. D. Ou, L. S. Chen, C. S. Lee, S. T. Lee, and J. X. Tang, “Outcoupling-enhanced flexible organic light-emitting diodes on ameliorated plastic substrate with built-in indium-tin-oxide-free transparent electrode,” ACS Nano 9(7), 7553–7562 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  28. L.-H. Xu, Q.-D. Ou, Y.-Q. Li, Y.-B. Zhang, X.-D. Zhao, H.-Y. Xiang, J.-D. Chen, L. Zhou, S.-T. Lee, and J.-X. Tang, “Microcavity-free broadband light outcoupling enhancement in flexible organic light-emitting diodes with nanostructured transparent metal-dielectric composite electrodes,” ACS Nano 10(1), 1625–1632 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (1)

L.-H. Xu, Q.-D. Ou, Y.-Q. Li, Y.-B. Zhang, X.-D. Zhao, H.-Y. Xiang, J.-D. Chen, L. Zhou, S.-T. Lee, and J.-X. Tang, “Microcavity-free broadband light outcoupling enhancement in flexible organic light-emitting diodes with nanostructured transparent metal-dielectric composite electrodes,” ACS Nano 10(1), 1625–1632 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (4)

J. Huang, C.-Z. Li, C.-C. Chueh, S.-Q. Liu, J.-S. Yu, and A. K. Y. Jen, “10.4% power conversion efficiency of ITO-Free organic photovoltaics through enhanced light trapping configuration,” Adv. Energy Mater. 5(15), 1500406 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Wang, L.-H. Xu, Y.-Q. Li, L. Zhou, C. Li, Q.-D. Ou, J.-D. Chen, S. Shen, and J.-X. Tang, “Broadband light out-coupling enhancement of flexible organic light-emitting diodes using biomimetic quasi-random nanostructures,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(2), 203–210 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Y. Xiang, Y. Q. Li, L. Zhou, H. J. Xie, C. Li, Q. D. Ou, L. S. Chen, C. S. Lee, S. T. Lee, and J. X. Tang, “Outcoupling-enhanced flexible organic light-emitting diodes on ameliorated plastic substrate with built-in indium-tin-oxide-free transparent electrode,” ACS Nano 9(7), 7553–7562 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Kang, S. Jung, S. Jeong, G. Kim, and K. Lee, “Polymer-metal hybrid transparent electrodes for flexible electronics,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6503 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (8)

N. Aizawa, Y. J. Pu, M. Watanabe, T. Chiba, K. Ideta, N. Toyota, M. Igarashi, Y. Suzuri, H. Sasabe, and J. Kido, “Solution-processed multilayer small-molecule light-emitting devices with high-efficiency white-light emission,” Nat. Commun. 5, 5756 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q.-D. Ou, L. Zhou, Y.-Q. Li, S. Shen, J.-D. Chen, C. Li, Q.-K. Wang, S.-T. Lee, and J.-X. Tang, “Extremely efficient white organic light-emitting diodes for general lighting,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 24(46), 7249–7256 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Li, J. Liang, S.-Y. Chou, X. Zhu, X. Niu, ZhibinYu, and Q. Pei, “A solution processed flexible nanocomposite electrode with efficient light extraction for organic light emitting diodes,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4307 (2014).
[PubMed]

L. Zhou, H.-Y. Xiang, S. Shen, Y.-Q. Li, J.-D. Chen, H.-J. Xie, I. A. Goldthorpe, L.-S. Chen, S.-T. Lee, and J.-X. Tang, “High-performance flexible organic light-emitting diodes using embedded silver network transparent electrodes,” ACS Nano 8(12), 12796–12805 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Jung, S. Lee, M. Song, D.-G. Kim, D. S. You, J.-K. Kim, C. S. Kim, T.-M. Kim, K.-H. Kim, J.-J. Kim, and J.-W. Kang, “Extremely flexible transparent conducting electrodes for organic devices,” Adv. Energy Mater. 4, 1300474 (2014).

J. Zou, C. Z. Li, C. Y. Chang, H. L. Yip, and A. K. Jen, “Interfacial engineering of ultrathin metal film transparent electrode for flexible organic photovoltaic cells,” Adv. Mater. 26(22), 3618–3623 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. W. An, B. G. Hyun, S.-Y. Kim, M. Kim, M.-S. Lee, K. Lee, J. B. Koo, H. Y. Chu, B.-S. Bae, and J.-U. Park, “Stretchable and transparent electrodes using hybrid structures of graphene-metal nanotrough networks with high performances and ultimate uniformity,” Nano Lett. 14(11), 6322–6328 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Schubert, L. Müller-Meskamp, and K. Leo, “Unusually high optical transmission in Ca:Ag blend films: high-performance top electrodes for efficient organic solar cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 24(42), 6668–6676 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (5)

R. Betancur, P. Romero-Gomez, A. Martinez-Otero, X. Elias, M. Maymó, and J. Martorell, “Transparent polymer solar cells employing a layered light-trapping architecture,” Nat. Photonics 7(12), 995–1000 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Schwab, S. Schubert, S. Hofmann, M. Fröbel, C. Fuchs, M. Thomschke, L. Müller-Meskamp, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Highly efficient color stable inverted white top-emitting OLEDs with ultra-thin wetting layer top electrodes,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1(10), 707–713 (2013).
[Crossref]

I. N. Kholmanov, S. H. Domingues, H. Chou, X. Wang, C. Tan, J.-Y. Kim, H. Li, R. Piner, A. J. Zarbin, and R. S. Ruoff, “Reduced graphene oxide/copper nanowire hybrid films as high-performance transparent electrodes,” ACS Nano 7(2), 1811–1816 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Gaynor, S. Hofmann, M. G. Christoforo, C. Sachse, S. Mehra, A. Salleo, M. D. McGehee, M. C. Gather, B. Lüssem, L. Müller-Meskamp, P. Peumans, and K. Leo, “Color in the corners: ITO-free white OLEDs with angular color stability,” Adv. Mater. 25(29), 4006–4013 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Li, S. Oida, G. S. Tulevski, S. J. Han, J. B. Hannon, D. K. Sadana, and T. C. Chen, “Efficient and bright organic light-emitting diodes on single-layer graphene electrodes,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2294 (2013).
[PubMed]

2012 (5)

K. Ellmer, “Past achievements and future challenges in the development of optically transparent electrodes,” Nat. Photonics 6(12), 809–817 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Cai, Z. Ye, T. Xiao, R. Liu, Y. Chen, R. W. Mayer, R. Biswas, K. M. Ho, R. Shinar, and J. Shinar, “Extremely efficient indium-tin-oxide-free green phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 24(31), 4337–4342 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Sandström, H. F. Dam, F. C. Krebs, and L. Edman, “Ambient fabrication of flexible and large-area organic light-emitting devices using slot-die coating,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1002 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Xia, K. Sun, and J. Ouyang, “Solution-processed metallic conducting polymer films as transparent electrode of optoelectronic devices,” Adv. Mater. 24(18), 2436–2440 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T.-H. Han, Y. Lee, M.-R. Choi, S.-H. Woo, S.-H. Bae, B. H. Hong, J.-H. Ahn, and T.-W. Lee, “Extremely efficient flexible organic light-emitting diodes with modified graphene anode,” Nat. Photonics 6(2), 105–110 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (4)

D. S. Hecht, L. Hu, and G. Irvin, “Emerging transparent electrodes based on thin films of carbon nanotubes, graphene, and metallic nanostructures,” Adv. Mater. 23(13), 1482–1513 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. B. Wang, M. G. Helander, J. Qiu, D. P. Puzzo, M. T. Greiner, Z. M. Hudson, S. Wang, Z. W. Liu, and Z. H. Lu, “Unlocking the full potential of organic light-emitting diodes on flexible plastic,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 753–757 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. M. Stec, R. J. Williams, T. S. Jones, and R. A. Hatton, “Ultrathin transparent Au electrodes for organic photovoltaics fabricated using a mixed mono-molecular nucleation layer,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(9), 1709–1716 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. M. Stec, R. J. Williams, T. S. Jones, and R. A. Hatton, “Ultrathin transparent Au electrodes for organic photovoltaics fabricated using a mixed mono-molecular nucleation layer,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(9), 1709–1716 (2011).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

H.-Z. Geng, K. K. Kim, K. P. So, Y. S. Lee, Y. Chang, and Y. H. Lee, “Effect of acid treatment on carbon nanotube-based flexible transparent conducting films,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129(25), 7758–7759 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ahn, J.-H.

T.-H. Han, Y. Lee, M.-R. Choi, S.-H. Woo, S.-H. Bae, B. H. Hong, J.-H. Ahn, and T.-W. Lee, “Extremely efficient flexible organic light-emitting diodes with modified graphene anode,” Nat. Photonics 6(2), 105–110 (2012).
[Crossref]

Aizawa, N.

N. Aizawa, Y. J. Pu, M. Watanabe, T. Chiba, K. Ideta, N. Toyota, M. Igarashi, Y. Suzuri, H. Sasabe, and J. Kido, “Solution-processed multilayer small-molecule light-emitting devices with high-efficiency white-light emission,” Nat. Commun. 5, 5756 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

An, B. W.

B. W. An, B. G. Hyun, S.-Y. Kim, M. Kim, M.-S. Lee, K. Lee, J. B. Koo, H. Y. Chu, B.-S. Bae, and J.-U. Park, “Stretchable and transparent electrodes using hybrid structures of graphene-metal nanotrough networks with high performances and ultimate uniformity,” Nano Lett. 14(11), 6322–6328 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bae, B.-S.

B. W. An, B. G. Hyun, S.-Y. Kim, M. Kim, M.-S. Lee, K. Lee, J. B. Koo, H. Y. Chu, B.-S. Bae, and J.-U. Park, “Stretchable and transparent electrodes using hybrid structures of graphene-metal nanotrough networks with high performances and ultimate uniformity,” Nano Lett. 14(11), 6322–6328 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bae, S.-H.

T.-H. Han, Y. Lee, M.-R. Choi, S.-H. Woo, S.-H. Bae, B. H. Hong, J.-H. Ahn, and T.-W. Lee, “Extremely efficient flexible organic light-emitting diodes with modified graphene anode,” Nat. Photonics 6(2), 105–110 (2012).
[Crossref]

Betancur, R.

R. Betancur, P. Romero-Gomez, A. Martinez-Otero, X. Elias, M. Maymó, and J. Martorell, “Transparent polymer solar cells employing a layered light-trapping architecture,” Nat. Photonics 7(12), 995–1000 (2013).
[Crossref]

Biswas, R.

M. Cai, Z. Ye, T. Xiao, R. Liu, Y. Chen, R. W. Mayer, R. Biswas, K. M. Ho, R. Shinar, and J. Shinar, “Extremely efficient indium-tin-oxide-free green phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 24(31), 4337–4342 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cai, M.

M. Cai, Z. Ye, T. Xiao, R. Liu, Y. Chen, R. W. Mayer, R. Biswas, K. M. Ho, R. Shinar, and J. Shinar, “Extremely efficient indium-tin-oxide-free green phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 24(31), 4337–4342 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, C. Y.

J. Zou, C. Z. Li, C. Y. Chang, H. L. Yip, and A. K. Jen, “Interfacial engineering of ultrathin metal film transparent electrode for flexible organic photovoltaic cells,” Adv. Mater. 26(22), 3618–3623 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, Y.

H.-Z. Geng, K. K. Kim, K. P. So, Y. S. Lee, Y. Chang, and Y. H. Lee, “Effect of acid treatment on carbon nanotube-based flexible transparent conducting films,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129(25), 7758–7759 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, J.-D.

L.-H. Xu, Q.-D. Ou, Y.-Q. Li, Y.-B. Zhang, X.-D. Zhao, H.-Y. Xiang, J.-D. Chen, L. Zhou, S.-T. Lee, and J.-X. Tang, “Microcavity-free broadband light outcoupling enhancement in flexible organic light-emitting diodes with nanostructured transparent metal-dielectric composite electrodes,” ACS Nano 10(1), 1625–1632 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Wang, L.-H. Xu, Y.-Q. Li, L. Zhou, C. Li, Q.-D. Ou, J.-D. Chen, S. Shen, and J.-X. Tang, “Broadband light out-coupling enhancement of flexible organic light-emitting diodes using biomimetic quasi-random nanostructures,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(2), 203–210 (2015).
[Crossref]

Q.-D. Ou, L. Zhou, Y.-Q. Li, S. Shen, J.-D. Chen, C. Li, Q.-K. Wang, S.-T. Lee, and J.-X. Tang, “Extremely efficient white organic light-emitting diodes for general lighting,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 24(46), 7249–7256 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Zhou, H.-Y. Xiang, S. Shen, Y.-Q. Li, J.-D. Chen, H.-J. Xie, I. A. Goldthorpe, L.-S. Chen, S.-T. Lee, and J.-X. Tang, “High-performance flexible organic light-emitting diodes using embedded silver network transparent electrodes,” ACS Nano 8(12), 12796–12805 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, L. S.

H. Y. Xiang, Y. Q. Li, L. Zhou, H. J. Xie, C. Li, Q. D. Ou, L. S. Chen, C. S. Lee, S. T. Lee, and J. X. Tang, “Outcoupling-enhanced flexible organic light-emitting diodes on ameliorated plastic substrate with built-in indium-tin-oxide-free transparent electrode,” ACS Nano 9(7), 7553–7562 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, L.-S.

L. Zhou, H.-Y. Xiang, S. Shen, Y.-Q. Li, J.-D. Chen, H.-J. Xie, I. A. Goldthorpe, L.-S. Chen, S.-T. Lee, and J.-X. Tang, “High-performance flexible organic light-emitting diodes using embedded silver network transparent electrodes,” ACS Nano 8(12), 12796–12805 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, T. C.

N. Li, S. Oida, G. S. Tulevski, S. J. Han, J. B. Hannon, D. K. Sadana, and T. C. Chen, “Efficient and bright organic light-emitting diodes on single-layer graphene electrodes,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2294 (2013).
[PubMed]

Chen, Y.

M. Cai, Z. Ye, T. Xiao, R. Liu, Y. Chen, R. W. Mayer, R. Biswas, K. M. Ho, R. Shinar, and J. Shinar, “Extremely efficient indium-tin-oxide-free green phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 24(31), 4337–4342 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chiba, T.

N. Aizawa, Y. J. Pu, M. Watanabe, T. Chiba, K. Ideta, N. Toyota, M. Igarashi, Y. Suzuri, H. Sasabe, and J. Kido, “Solution-processed multilayer small-molecule light-emitting devices with high-efficiency white-light emission,” Nat. Commun. 5, 5756 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choi, M.-R.

T.-H. Han, Y. Lee, M.-R. Choi, S.-H. Woo, S.-H. Bae, B. H. Hong, J.-H. Ahn, and T.-W. Lee, “Extremely efficient flexible organic light-emitting diodes with modified graphene anode,” Nat. Photonics 6(2), 105–110 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chou, H.

I. N. Kholmanov, S. H. Domingues, H. Chou, X. Wang, C. Tan, J.-Y. Kim, H. Li, R. Piner, A. J. Zarbin, and R. S. Ruoff, “Reduced graphene oxide/copper nanowire hybrid films as high-performance transparent electrodes,” ACS Nano 7(2), 1811–1816 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chou, S.-Y.

L. Li, J. Liang, S.-Y. Chou, X. Zhu, X. Niu, ZhibinYu, and Q. Pei, “A solution processed flexible nanocomposite electrode with efficient light extraction for organic light emitting diodes,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4307 (2014).
[PubMed]

Christoforo, M. G.

W. Gaynor, S. Hofmann, M. G. Christoforo, C. Sachse, S. Mehra, A. Salleo, M. D. McGehee, M. C. Gather, B. Lüssem, L. Müller-Meskamp, P. Peumans, and K. Leo, “Color in the corners: ITO-free white OLEDs with angular color stability,” Adv. Mater. 25(29), 4006–4013 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chu, H. Y.

B. W. An, B. G. Hyun, S.-Y. Kim, M. Kim, M.-S. Lee, K. Lee, J. B. Koo, H. Y. Chu, B.-S. Bae, and J.-U. Park, “Stretchable and transparent electrodes using hybrid structures of graphene-metal nanotrough networks with high performances and ultimate uniformity,” Nano Lett. 14(11), 6322–6328 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chueh, C.-C.

J. Huang, C.-Z. Li, C.-C. Chueh, S.-Q. Liu, J.-S. Yu, and A. K. Y. Jen, “10.4% power conversion efficiency of ITO-Free organic photovoltaics through enhanced light trapping configuration,” Adv. Energy Mater. 5(15), 1500406 (2015).
[Crossref]

Dam, H. F.

A. Sandström, H. F. Dam, F. C. Krebs, and L. Edman, “Ambient fabrication of flexible and large-area organic light-emitting devices using slot-die coating,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1002 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Domingues, S. H.

I. N. Kholmanov, S. H. Domingues, H. Chou, X. Wang, C. Tan, J.-Y. Kim, H. Li, R. Piner, A. J. Zarbin, and R. S. Ruoff, “Reduced graphene oxide/copper nanowire hybrid films as high-performance transparent electrodes,” ACS Nano 7(2), 1811–1816 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Edman, L.

A. Sandström, H. F. Dam, F. C. Krebs, and L. Edman, “Ambient fabrication of flexible and large-area organic light-emitting devices using slot-die coating,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1002 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Elias, X.

R. Betancur, P. Romero-Gomez, A. Martinez-Otero, X. Elias, M. Maymó, and J. Martorell, “Transparent polymer solar cells employing a layered light-trapping architecture,” Nat. Photonics 7(12), 995–1000 (2013).
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Ellmer, K.

K. Ellmer, “Past achievements and future challenges in the development of optically transparent electrodes,” Nat. Photonics 6(12), 809–817 (2012).
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Fröbel, M.

T. Schwab, S. Schubert, S. Hofmann, M. Fröbel, C. Fuchs, M. Thomschke, L. Müller-Meskamp, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Highly efficient color stable inverted white top-emitting OLEDs with ultra-thin wetting layer top electrodes,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1(10), 707–713 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fuchs, C.

T. Schwab, S. Schubert, S. Hofmann, M. Fröbel, C. Fuchs, M. Thomschke, L. Müller-Meskamp, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Highly efficient color stable inverted white top-emitting OLEDs with ultra-thin wetting layer top electrodes,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1(10), 707–713 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gather, M. C.

T. Schwab, S. Schubert, S. Hofmann, M. Fröbel, C. Fuchs, M. Thomschke, L. Müller-Meskamp, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Highly efficient color stable inverted white top-emitting OLEDs with ultra-thin wetting layer top electrodes,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1(10), 707–713 (2013).
[Crossref]

W. Gaynor, S. Hofmann, M. G. Christoforo, C. Sachse, S. Mehra, A. Salleo, M. D. McGehee, M. C. Gather, B. Lüssem, L. Müller-Meskamp, P. Peumans, and K. Leo, “Color in the corners: ITO-free white OLEDs with angular color stability,” Adv. Mater. 25(29), 4006–4013 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gaynor, W.

W. Gaynor, S. Hofmann, M. G. Christoforo, C. Sachse, S. Mehra, A. Salleo, M. D. McGehee, M. C. Gather, B. Lüssem, L. Müller-Meskamp, P. Peumans, and K. Leo, “Color in the corners: ITO-free white OLEDs with angular color stability,” Adv. Mater. 25(29), 4006–4013 (2013).
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Geng, H.-Z.

H.-Z. Geng, K. K. Kim, K. P. So, Y. S. Lee, Y. Chang, and Y. H. Lee, “Effect of acid treatment on carbon nanotube-based flexible transparent conducting films,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129(25), 7758–7759 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Goldthorpe, I. A.

L. Zhou, H.-Y. Xiang, S. Shen, Y.-Q. Li, J.-D. Chen, H.-J. Xie, I. A. Goldthorpe, L.-S. Chen, S.-T. Lee, and J.-X. Tang, “High-performance flexible organic light-emitting diodes using embedded silver network transparent electrodes,” ACS Nano 8(12), 12796–12805 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Greiner, M. T.

Z. B. Wang, M. G. Helander, J. Qiu, D. P. Puzzo, M. T. Greiner, Z. M. Hudson, S. Wang, Z. W. Liu, and Z. H. Lu, “Unlocking the full potential of organic light-emitting diodes on flexible plastic,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 753–757 (2011).
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Han, S. J.

N. Li, S. Oida, G. S. Tulevski, S. J. Han, J. B. Hannon, D. K. Sadana, and T. C. Chen, “Efficient and bright organic light-emitting diodes on single-layer graphene electrodes,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2294 (2013).
[PubMed]

Han, T.-H.

T.-H. Han, Y. Lee, M.-R. Choi, S.-H. Woo, S.-H. Bae, B. H. Hong, J.-H. Ahn, and T.-W. Lee, “Extremely efficient flexible organic light-emitting diodes with modified graphene anode,” Nat. Photonics 6(2), 105–110 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hannon, J. B.

N. Li, S. Oida, G. S. Tulevski, S. J. Han, J. B. Hannon, D. K. Sadana, and T. C. Chen, “Efficient and bright organic light-emitting diodes on single-layer graphene electrodes,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2294 (2013).
[PubMed]

Hatton, R. A.

H. M. Stec, R. J. Williams, T. S. Jones, and R. A. Hatton, “Ultrathin transparent Au electrodes for organic photovoltaics fabricated using a mixed mono-molecular nucleation layer,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(9), 1709–1716 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. M. Stec, R. J. Williams, T. S. Jones, and R. A. Hatton, “Ultrathin transparent Au electrodes for organic photovoltaics fabricated using a mixed mono-molecular nucleation layer,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(9), 1709–1716 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hecht, D. S.

D. S. Hecht, L. Hu, and G. Irvin, “Emerging transparent electrodes based on thin films of carbon nanotubes, graphene, and metallic nanostructures,” Adv. Mater. 23(13), 1482–1513 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Helander, M. G.

Z. B. Wang, M. G. Helander, J. Qiu, D. P. Puzzo, M. T. Greiner, Z. M. Hudson, S. Wang, Z. W. Liu, and Z. H. Lu, “Unlocking the full potential of organic light-emitting diodes on flexible plastic,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 753–757 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ho, K. M.

M. Cai, Z. Ye, T. Xiao, R. Liu, Y. Chen, R. W. Mayer, R. Biswas, K. M. Ho, R. Shinar, and J. Shinar, “Extremely efficient indium-tin-oxide-free green phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 24(31), 4337–4342 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hofmann, S.

W. Gaynor, S. Hofmann, M. G. Christoforo, C. Sachse, S. Mehra, A. Salleo, M. D. McGehee, M. C. Gather, B. Lüssem, L. Müller-Meskamp, P. Peumans, and K. Leo, “Color in the corners: ITO-free white OLEDs with angular color stability,” Adv. Mater. 25(29), 4006–4013 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Schwab, S. Schubert, S. Hofmann, M. Fröbel, C. Fuchs, M. Thomschke, L. Müller-Meskamp, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Highly efficient color stable inverted white top-emitting OLEDs with ultra-thin wetting layer top electrodes,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1(10), 707–713 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hong, B. H.

T.-H. Han, Y. Lee, M.-R. Choi, S.-H. Woo, S.-H. Bae, B. H. Hong, J.-H. Ahn, and T.-W. Lee, “Extremely efficient flexible organic light-emitting diodes with modified graphene anode,” Nat. Photonics 6(2), 105–110 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hu, L.

D. S. Hecht, L. Hu, and G. Irvin, “Emerging transparent electrodes based on thin films of carbon nanotubes, graphene, and metallic nanostructures,” Adv. Mater. 23(13), 1482–1513 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, J.

J. Huang, C.-Z. Li, C.-C. Chueh, S.-Q. Liu, J.-S. Yu, and A. K. Y. Jen, “10.4% power conversion efficiency of ITO-Free organic photovoltaics through enhanced light trapping configuration,” Adv. Energy Mater. 5(15), 1500406 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hudson, Z. M.

Z. B. Wang, M. G. Helander, J. Qiu, D. P. Puzzo, M. T. Greiner, Z. M. Hudson, S. Wang, Z. W. Liu, and Z. H. Lu, “Unlocking the full potential of organic light-emitting diodes on flexible plastic,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 753–757 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hyun, B. G.

B. W. An, B. G. Hyun, S.-Y. Kim, M. Kim, M.-S. Lee, K. Lee, J. B. Koo, H. Y. Chu, B.-S. Bae, and J.-U. Park, “Stretchable and transparent electrodes using hybrid structures of graphene-metal nanotrough networks with high performances and ultimate uniformity,” Nano Lett. 14(11), 6322–6328 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ideta, K.

N. Aizawa, Y. J. Pu, M. Watanabe, T. Chiba, K. Ideta, N. Toyota, M. Igarashi, Y. Suzuri, H. Sasabe, and J. Kido, “Solution-processed multilayer small-molecule light-emitting devices with high-efficiency white-light emission,” Nat. Commun. 5, 5756 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Igarashi, M.

N. Aizawa, Y. J. Pu, M. Watanabe, T. Chiba, K. Ideta, N. Toyota, M. Igarashi, Y. Suzuri, H. Sasabe, and J. Kido, “Solution-processed multilayer small-molecule light-emitting devices with high-efficiency white-light emission,” Nat. Commun. 5, 5756 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Irvin, G.

D. S. Hecht, L. Hu, and G. Irvin, “Emerging transparent electrodes based on thin films of carbon nanotubes, graphene, and metallic nanostructures,” Adv. Mater. 23(13), 1482–1513 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jen, A. K.

J. Zou, C. Z. Li, C. Y. Chang, H. L. Yip, and A. K. Jen, “Interfacial engineering of ultrathin metal film transparent electrode for flexible organic photovoltaic cells,” Adv. Mater. 26(22), 3618–3623 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jen, A. K. Y.

J. Huang, C.-Z. Li, C.-C. Chueh, S.-Q. Liu, J.-S. Yu, and A. K. Y. Jen, “10.4% power conversion efficiency of ITO-Free organic photovoltaics through enhanced light trapping configuration,” Adv. Energy Mater. 5(15), 1500406 (2015).
[Crossref]

Jeong, S.

H. Kang, S. Jung, S. Jeong, G. Kim, and K. Lee, “Polymer-metal hybrid transparent electrodes for flexible electronics,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6503 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jones, T. S.

H. M. Stec, R. J. Williams, T. S. Jones, and R. A. Hatton, “Ultrathin transparent Au electrodes for organic photovoltaics fabricated using a mixed mono-molecular nucleation layer,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(9), 1709–1716 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. M. Stec, R. J. Williams, T. S. Jones, and R. A. Hatton, “Ultrathin transparent Au electrodes for organic photovoltaics fabricated using a mixed mono-molecular nucleation layer,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(9), 1709–1716 (2011).
[Crossref]

Jung, S.

H. Kang, S. Jung, S. Jeong, G. Kim, and K. Lee, “Polymer-metal hybrid transparent electrodes for flexible electronics,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6503 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Jung, S. Lee, M. Song, D.-G. Kim, D. S. You, J.-K. Kim, C. S. Kim, T.-M. Kim, K.-H. Kim, J.-J. Kim, and J.-W. Kang, “Extremely flexible transparent conducting electrodes for organic devices,” Adv. Energy Mater. 4, 1300474 (2014).

Kang, H.

H. Kang, S. Jung, S. Jeong, G. Kim, and K. Lee, “Polymer-metal hybrid transparent electrodes for flexible electronics,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6503 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kang, J.-W.

S. Jung, S. Lee, M. Song, D.-G. Kim, D. S. You, J.-K. Kim, C. S. Kim, T.-M. Kim, K.-H. Kim, J.-J. Kim, and J.-W. Kang, “Extremely flexible transparent conducting electrodes for organic devices,” Adv. Energy Mater. 4, 1300474 (2014).

Kholmanov, I. N.

I. N. Kholmanov, S. H. Domingues, H. Chou, X. Wang, C. Tan, J.-Y. Kim, H. Li, R. Piner, A. J. Zarbin, and R. S. Ruoff, “Reduced graphene oxide/copper nanowire hybrid films as high-performance transparent electrodes,” ACS Nano 7(2), 1811–1816 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kido, J.

N. Aizawa, Y. J. Pu, M. Watanabe, T. Chiba, K. Ideta, N. Toyota, M. Igarashi, Y. Suzuri, H. Sasabe, and J. Kido, “Solution-processed multilayer small-molecule light-emitting devices with high-efficiency white-light emission,” Nat. Commun. 5, 5756 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, C. S.

S. Jung, S. Lee, M. Song, D.-G. Kim, D. S. You, J.-K. Kim, C. S. Kim, T.-M. Kim, K.-H. Kim, J.-J. Kim, and J.-W. Kang, “Extremely flexible transparent conducting electrodes for organic devices,” Adv. Energy Mater. 4, 1300474 (2014).

Kim, D.-G.

S. Jung, S. Lee, M. Song, D.-G. Kim, D. S. You, J.-K. Kim, C. S. Kim, T.-M. Kim, K.-H. Kim, J.-J. Kim, and J.-W. Kang, “Extremely flexible transparent conducting electrodes for organic devices,” Adv. Energy Mater. 4, 1300474 (2014).

Kim, G.

H. Kang, S. Jung, S. Jeong, G. Kim, and K. Lee, “Polymer-metal hybrid transparent electrodes for flexible electronics,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6503 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, J.-J.

S. Jung, S. Lee, M. Song, D.-G. Kim, D. S. You, J.-K. Kim, C. S. Kim, T.-M. Kim, K.-H. Kim, J.-J. Kim, and J.-W. Kang, “Extremely flexible transparent conducting electrodes for organic devices,” Adv. Energy Mater. 4, 1300474 (2014).

Kim, J.-K.

S. Jung, S. Lee, M. Song, D.-G. Kim, D. S. You, J.-K. Kim, C. S. Kim, T.-M. Kim, K.-H. Kim, J.-J. Kim, and J.-W. Kang, “Extremely flexible transparent conducting electrodes for organic devices,” Adv. Energy Mater. 4, 1300474 (2014).

Kim, J.-Y.

I. N. Kholmanov, S. H. Domingues, H. Chou, X. Wang, C. Tan, J.-Y. Kim, H. Li, R. Piner, A. J. Zarbin, and R. S. Ruoff, “Reduced graphene oxide/copper nanowire hybrid films as high-performance transparent electrodes,” ACS Nano 7(2), 1811–1816 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, K. K.

H.-Z. Geng, K. K. Kim, K. P. So, Y. S. Lee, Y. Chang, and Y. H. Lee, “Effect of acid treatment on carbon nanotube-based flexible transparent conducting films,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129(25), 7758–7759 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, K.-H.

S. Jung, S. Lee, M. Song, D.-G. Kim, D. S. You, J.-K. Kim, C. S. Kim, T.-M. Kim, K.-H. Kim, J.-J. Kim, and J.-W. Kang, “Extremely flexible transparent conducting electrodes for organic devices,” Adv. Energy Mater. 4, 1300474 (2014).

Kim, M.

B. W. An, B. G. Hyun, S.-Y. Kim, M. Kim, M.-S. Lee, K. Lee, J. B. Koo, H. Y. Chu, B.-S. Bae, and J.-U. Park, “Stretchable and transparent electrodes using hybrid structures of graphene-metal nanotrough networks with high performances and ultimate uniformity,” Nano Lett. 14(11), 6322–6328 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, S.-Y.

B. W. An, B. G. Hyun, S.-Y. Kim, M. Kim, M.-S. Lee, K. Lee, J. B. Koo, H. Y. Chu, B.-S. Bae, and J.-U. Park, “Stretchable and transparent electrodes using hybrid structures of graphene-metal nanotrough networks with high performances and ultimate uniformity,” Nano Lett. 14(11), 6322–6328 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, T.-M.

S. Jung, S. Lee, M. Song, D.-G. Kim, D. S. You, J.-K. Kim, C. S. Kim, T.-M. Kim, K.-H. Kim, J.-J. Kim, and J.-W. Kang, “Extremely flexible transparent conducting electrodes for organic devices,” Adv. Energy Mater. 4, 1300474 (2014).

Koo, J. B.

B. W. An, B. G. Hyun, S.-Y. Kim, M. Kim, M.-S. Lee, K. Lee, J. B. Koo, H. Y. Chu, B.-S. Bae, and J.-U. Park, “Stretchable and transparent electrodes using hybrid structures of graphene-metal nanotrough networks with high performances and ultimate uniformity,” Nano Lett. 14(11), 6322–6328 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Krebs, F. C.

A. Sandström, H. F. Dam, F. C. Krebs, and L. Edman, “Ambient fabrication of flexible and large-area organic light-emitting devices using slot-die coating,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1002 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, C. S.

H. Y. Xiang, Y. Q. Li, L. Zhou, H. J. Xie, C. Li, Q. D. Ou, L. S. Chen, C. S. Lee, S. T. Lee, and J. X. Tang, “Outcoupling-enhanced flexible organic light-emitting diodes on ameliorated plastic substrate with built-in indium-tin-oxide-free transparent electrode,” ACS Nano 9(7), 7553–7562 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, K.

H. Kang, S. Jung, S. Jeong, G. Kim, and K. Lee, “Polymer-metal hybrid transparent electrodes for flexible electronics,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6503 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. W. An, B. G. Hyun, S.-Y. Kim, M. Kim, M.-S. Lee, K. Lee, J. B. Koo, H. Y. Chu, B.-S. Bae, and J.-U. Park, “Stretchable and transparent electrodes using hybrid structures of graphene-metal nanotrough networks with high performances and ultimate uniformity,” Nano Lett. 14(11), 6322–6328 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, M.-S.

B. W. An, B. G. Hyun, S.-Y. Kim, M. Kim, M.-S. Lee, K. Lee, J. B. Koo, H. Y. Chu, B.-S. Bae, and J.-U. Park, “Stretchable and transparent electrodes using hybrid structures of graphene-metal nanotrough networks with high performances and ultimate uniformity,” Nano Lett. 14(11), 6322–6328 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, S.

S. Jung, S. Lee, M. Song, D.-G. Kim, D. S. You, J.-K. Kim, C. S. Kim, T.-M. Kim, K.-H. Kim, J.-J. Kim, and J.-W. Kang, “Extremely flexible transparent conducting electrodes for organic devices,” Adv. Energy Mater. 4, 1300474 (2014).

Lee, S. T.

H. Y. Xiang, Y. Q. Li, L. Zhou, H. J. Xie, C. Li, Q. D. Ou, L. S. Chen, C. S. Lee, S. T. Lee, and J. X. Tang, “Outcoupling-enhanced flexible organic light-emitting diodes on ameliorated plastic substrate with built-in indium-tin-oxide-free transparent electrode,” ACS Nano 9(7), 7553–7562 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, S.-T.

L.-H. Xu, Q.-D. Ou, Y.-Q. Li, Y.-B. Zhang, X.-D. Zhao, H.-Y. Xiang, J.-D. Chen, L. Zhou, S.-T. Lee, and J.-X. Tang, “Microcavity-free broadband light outcoupling enhancement in flexible organic light-emitting diodes with nanostructured transparent metal-dielectric composite electrodes,” ACS Nano 10(1), 1625–1632 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Zhou, H.-Y. Xiang, S. Shen, Y.-Q. Li, J.-D. Chen, H.-J. Xie, I. A. Goldthorpe, L.-S. Chen, S.-T. Lee, and J.-X. Tang, “High-performance flexible organic light-emitting diodes using embedded silver network transparent electrodes,” ACS Nano 8(12), 12796–12805 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q.-D. Ou, L. Zhou, Y.-Q. Li, S. Shen, J.-D. Chen, C. Li, Q.-K. Wang, S.-T. Lee, and J.-X. Tang, “Extremely efficient white organic light-emitting diodes for general lighting,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 24(46), 7249–7256 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lee, T.-W.

T.-H. Han, Y. Lee, M.-R. Choi, S.-H. Woo, S.-H. Bae, B. H. Hong, J.-H. Ahn, and T.-W. Lee, “Extremely efficient flexible organic light-emitting diodes with modified graphene anode,” Nat. Photonics 6(2), 105–110 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lee, Y.

T.-H. Han, Y. Lee, M.-R. Choi, S.-H. Woo, S.-H. Bae, B. H. Hong, J.-H. Ahn, and T.-W. Lee, “Extremely efficient flexible organic light-emitting diodes with modified graphene anode,” Nat. Photonics 6(2), 105–110 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lee, Y. H.

H.-Z. Geng, K. K. Kim, K. P. So, Y. S. Lee, Y. Chang, and Y. H. Lee, “Effect of acid treatment on carbon nanotube-based flexible transparent conducting films,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129(25), 7758–7759 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, Y. S.

H.-Z. Geng, K. K. Kim, K. P. So, Y. S. Lee, Y. Chang, and Y. H. Lee, “Effect of acid treatment on carbon nanotube-based flexible transparent conducting films,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129(25), 7758–7759 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leo, K.

S. Schubert, L. Müller-Meskamp, and K. Leo, “Unusually high optical transmission in Ca:Ag blend films: high-performance top electrodes for efficient organic solar cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 24(42), 6668–6676 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Schwab, S. Schubert, S. Hofmann, M. Fröbel, C. Fuchs, M. Thomschke, L. Müller-Meskamp, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Highly efficient color stable inverted white top-emitting OLEDs with ultra-thin wetting layer top electrodes,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1(10), 707–713 (2013).
[Crossref]

W. Gaynor, S. Hofmann, M. G. Christoforo, C. Sachse, S. Mehra, A. Salleo, M. D. McGehee, M. C. Gather, B. Lüssem, L. Müller-Meskamp, P. Peumans, and K. Leo, “Color in the corners: ITO-free white OLEDs with angular color stability,” Adv. Mater. 25(29), 4006–4013 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, C.

R. Wang, L.-H. Xu, Y.-Q. Li, L. Zhou, C. Li, Q.-D. Ou, J.-D. Chen, S. Shen, and J.-X. Tang, “Broadband light out-coupling enhancement of flexible organic light-emitting diodes using biomimetic quasi-random nanostructures,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(2), 203–210 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Y. Xiang, Y. Q. Li, L. Zhou, H. J. Xie, C. Li, Q. D. Ou, L. S. Chen, C. S. Lee, S. T. Lee, and J. X. Tang, “Outcoupling-enhanced flexible organic light-emitting diodes on ameliorated plastic substrate with built-in indium-tin-oxide-free transparent electrode,” ACS Nano 9(7), 7553–7562 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q.-D. Ou, L. Zhou, Y.-Q. Li, S. Shen, J.-D. Chen, C. Li, Q.-K. Wang, S.-T. Lee, and J.-X. Tang, “Extremely efficient white organic light-emitting diodes for general lighting,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 24(46), 7249–7256 (2014).
[Crossref]

Li, C. Z.

J. Zou, C. Z. Li, C. Y. Chang, H. L. Yip, and A. K. Jen, “Interfacial engineering of ultrathin metal film transparent electrode for flexible organic photovoltaic cells,” Adv. Mater. 26(22), 3618–3623 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, C.-Z.

J. Huang, C.-Z. Li, C.-C. Chueh, S.-Q. Liu, J.-S. Yu, and A. K. Y. Jen, “10.4% power conversion efficiency of ITO-Free organic photovoltaics through enhanced light trapping configuration,” Adv. Energy Mater. 5(15), 1500406 (2015).
[Crossref]

Li, H.

I. N. Kholmanov, S. H. Domingues, H. Chou, X. Wang, C. Tan, J.-Y. Kim, H. Li, R. Piner, A. J. Zarbin, and R. S. Ruoff, “Reduced graphene oxide/copper nanowire hybrid films as high-performance transparent electrodes,” ACS Nano 7(2), 1811–1816 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, L.

L. Li, J. Liang, S.-Y. Chou, X. Zhu, X. Niu, ZhibinYu, and Q. Pei, “A solution processed flexible nanocomposite electrode with efficient light extraction for organic light emitting diodes,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4307 (2014).
[PubMed]

Li, N.

N. Li, S. Oida, G. S. Tulevski, S. J. Han, J. B. Hannon, D. K. Sadana, and T. C. Chen, “Efficient and bright organic light-emitting diodes on single-layer graphene electrodes,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2294 (2013).
[PubMed]

Li, Y. Q.

H. Y. Xiang, Y. Q. Li, L. Zhou, H. J. Xie, C. Li, Q. D. Ou, L. S. Chen, C. S. Lee, S. T. Lee, and J. X. Tang, “Outcoupling-enhanced flexible organic light-emitting diodes on ameliorated plastic substrate with built-in indium-tin-oxide-free transparent electrode,” ACS Nano 9(7), 7553–7562 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, Y.-Q.

L.-H. Xu, Q.-D. Ou, Y.-Q. Li, Y.-B. Zhang, X.-D. Zhao, H.-Y. Xiang, J.-D. Chen, L. Zhou, S.-T. Lee, and J.-X. Tang, “Microcavity-free broadband light outcoupling enhancement in flexible organic light-emitting diodes with nanostructured transparent metal-dielectric composite electrodes,” ACS Nano 10(1), 1625–1632 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Wang, L.-H. Xu, Y.-Q. Li, L. Zhou, C. Li, Q.-D. Ou, J.-D. Chen, S. Shen, and J.-X. Tang, “Broadband light out-coupling enhancement of flexible organic light-emitting diodes using biomimetic quasi-random nanostructures,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(2), 203–210 (2015).
[Crossref]

Q.-D. Ou, L. Zhou, Y.-Q. Li, S. Shen, J.-D. Chen, C. Li, Q.-K. Wang, S.-T. Lee, and J.-X. Tang, “Extremely efficient white organic light-emitting diodes for general lighting,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 24(46), 7249–7256 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Zhou, H.-Y. Xiang, S. Shen, Y.-Q. Li, J.-D. Chen, H.-J. Xie, I. A. Goldthorpe, L.-S. Chen, S.-T. Lee, and J.-X. Tang, “High-performance flexible organic light-emitting diodes using embedded silver network transparent electrodes,” ACS Nano 8(12), 12796–12805 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liang, J.

L. Li, J. Liang, S.-Y. Chou, X. Zhu, X. Niu, ZhibinYu, and Q. Pei, “A solution processed flexible nanocomposite electrode with efficient light extraction for organic light emitting diodes,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4307 (2014).
[PubMed]

Liu, R.

M. Cai, Z. Ye, T. Xiao, R. Liu, Y. Chen, R. W. Mayer, R. Biswas, K. M. Ho, R. Shinar, and J. Shinar, “Extremely efficient indium-tin-oxide-free green phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 24(31), 4337–4342 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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J. Huang, C.-Z. Li, C.-C. Chueh, S.-Q. Liu, J.-S. Yu, and A. K. Y. Jen, “10.4% power conversion efficiency of ITO-Free organic photovoltaics through enhanced light trapping configuration,” Adv. Energy Mater. 5(15), 1500406 (2015).
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Liu, Z. W.

Z. B. Wang, M. G. Helander, J. Qiu, D. P. Puzzo, M. T. Greiner, Z. M. Hudson, S. Wang, Z. W. Liu, and Z. H. Lu, “Unlocking the full potential of organic light-emitting diodes on flexible plastic,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 753–757 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lu, Z. H.

Z. B. Wang, M. G. Helander, J. Qiu, D. P. Puzzo, M. T. Greiner, Z. M. Hudson, S. Wang, Z. W. Liu, and Z. H. Lu, “Unlocking the full potential of organic light-emitting diodes on flexible plastic,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 753–757 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lüssem, B.

W. Gaynor, S. Hofmann, M. G. Christoforo, C. Sachse, S. Mehra, A. Salleo, M. D. McGehee, M. C. Gather, B. Lüssem, L. Müller-Meskamp, P. Peumans, and K. Leo, “Color in the corners: ITO-free white OLEDs with angular color stability,” Adv. Mater. 25(29), 4006–4013 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Martinez-Otero, A.

R. Betancur, P. Romero-Gomez, A. Martinez-Otero, X. Elias, M. Maymó, and J. Martorell, “Transparent polymer solar cells employing a layered light-trapping architecture,” Nat. Photonics 7(12), 995–1000 (2013).
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Martorell, J.

R. Betancur, P. Romero-Gomez, A. Martinez-Otero, X. Elias, M. Maymó, and J. Martorell, “Transparent polymer solar cells employing a layered light-trapping architecture,” Nat. Photonics 7(12), 995–1000 (2013).
[Crossref]

Mayer, R. W.

M. Cai, Z. Ye, T. Xiao, R. Liu, Y. Chen, R. W. Mayer, R. Biswas, K. M. Ho, R. Shinar, and J. Shinar, “Extremely efficient indium-tin-oxide-free green phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 24(31), 4337–4342 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maymó, M.

R. Betancur, P. Romero-Gomez, A. Martinez-Otero, X. Elias, M. Maymó, and J. Martorell, “Transparent polymer solar cells employing a layered light-trapping architecture,” Nat. Photonics 7(12), 995–1000 (2013).
[Crossref]

McGehee, M. D.

W. Gaynor, S. Hofmann, M. G. Christoforo, C. Sachse, S. Mehra, A. Salleo, M. D. McGehee, M. C. Gather, B. Lüssem, L. Müller-Meskamp, P. Peumans, and K. Leo, “Color in the corners: ITO-free white OLEDs with angular color stability,” Adv. Mater. 25(29), 4006–4013 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mehra, S.

W. Gaynor, S. Hofmann, M. G. Christoforo, C. Sachse, S. Mehra, A. Salleo, M. D. McGehee, M. C. Gather, B. Lüssem, L. Müller-Meskamp, P. Peumans, and K. Leo, “Color in the corners: ITO-free white OLEDs with angular color stability,” Adv. Mater. 25(29), 4006–4013 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Müller-Meskamp, L.

S. Schubert, L. Müller-Meskamp, and K. Leo, “Unusually high optical transmission in Ca:Ag blend films: high-performance top electrodes for efficient organic solar cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 24(42), 6668–6676 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Schwab, S. Schubert, S. Hofmann, M. Fröbel, C. Fuchs, M. Thomschke, L. Müller-Meskamp, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Highly efficient color stable inverted white top-emitting OLEDs with ultra-thin wetting layer top electrodes,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1(10), 707–713 (2013).
[Crossref]

W. Gaynor, S. Hofmann, M. G. Christoforo, C. Sachse, S. Mehra, A. Salleo, M. D. McGehee, M. C. Gather, B. Lüssem, L. Müller-Meskamp, P. Peumans, and K. Leo, “Color in the corners: ITO-free white OLEDs with angular color stability,” Adv. Mater. 25(29), 4006–4013 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Niu, X.

L. Li, J. Liang, S.-Y. Chou, X. Zhu, X. Niu, ZhibinYu, and Q. Pei, “A solution processed flexible nanocomposite electrode with efficient light extraction for organic light emitting diodes,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4307 (2014).
[PubMed]

Oida, S.

N. Li, S. Oida, G. S. Tulevski, S. J. Han, J. B. Hannon, D. K. Sadana, and T. C. Chen, “Efficient and bright organic light-emitting diodes on single-layer graphene electrodes,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2294 (2013).
[PubMed]

Ou, Q. D.

H. Y. Xiang, Y. Q. Li, L. Zhou, H. J. Xie, C. Li, Q. D. Ou, L. S. Chen, C. S. Lee, S. T. Lee, and J. X. Tang, “Outcoupling-enhanced flexible organic light-emitting diodes on ameliorated plastic substrate with built-in indium-tin-oxide-free transparent electrode,” ACS Nano 9(7), 7553–7562 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ou, Q.-D.

L.-H. Xu, Q.-D. Ou, Y.-Q. Li, Y.-B. Zhang, X.-D. Zhao, H.-Y. Xiang, J.-D. Chen, L. Zhou, S.-T. Lee, and J.-X. Tang, “Microcavity-free broadband light outcoupling enhancement in flexible organic light-emitting diodes with nanostructured transparent metal-dielectric composite electrodes,” ACS Nano 10(1), 1625–1632 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Wang, L.-H. Xu, Y.-Q. Li, L. Zhou, C. Li, Q.-D. Ou, J.-D. Chen, S. Shen, and J.-X. Tang, “Broadband light out-coupling enhancement of flexible organic light-emitting diodes using biomimetic quasi-random nanostructures,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(2), 203–210 (2015).
[Crossref]

Q.-D. Ou, L. Zhou, Y.-Q. Li, S. Shen, J.-D. Chen, C. Li, Q.-K. Wang, S.-T. Lee, and J.-X. Tang, “Extremely efficient white organic light-emitting diodes for general lighting,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 24(46), 7249–7256 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ouyang, J.

Y. Xia, K. Sun, and J. Ouyang, “Solution-processed metallic conducting polymer films as transparent electrode of optoelectronic devices,” Adv. Mater. 24(18), 2436–2440 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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B. W. An, B. G. Hyun, S.-Y. Kim, M. Kim, M.-S. Lee, K. Lee, J. B. Koo, H. Y. Chu, B.-S. Bae, and J.-U. Park, “Stretchable and transparent electrodes using hybrid structures of graphene-metal nanotrough networks with high performances and ultimate uniformity,” Nano Lett. 14(11), 6322–6328 (2014).
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L. Li, J. Liang, S.-Y. Chou, X. Zhu, X. Niu, ZhibinYu, and Q. Pei, “A solution processed flexible nanocomposite electrode with efficient light extraction for organic light emitting diodes,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4307 (2014).
[PubMed]

Peumans, P.

W. Gaynor, S. Hofmann, M. G. Christoforo, C. Sachse, S. Mehra, A. Salleo, M. D. McGehee, M. C. Gather, B. Lüssem, L. Müller-Meskamp, P. Peumans, and K. Leo, “Color in the corners: ITO-free white OLEDs with angular color stability,” Adv. Mater. 25(29), 4006–4013 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Piner, R.

I. N. Kholmanov, S. H. Domingues, H. Chou, X. Wang, C. Tan, J.-Y. Kim, H. Li, R. Piner, A. J. Zarbin, and R. S. Ruoff, “Reduced graphene oxide/copper nanowire hybrid films as high-performance transparent electrodes,” ACS Nano 7(2), 1811–1816 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pu, Y. J.

N. Aizawa, Y. J. Pu, M. Watanabe, T. Chiba, K. Ideta, N. Toyota, M. Igarashi, Y. Suzuri, H. Sasabe, and J. Kido, “Solution-processed multilayer small-molecule light-emitting devices with high-efficiency white-light emission,” Nat. Commun. 5, 5756 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Puzzo, D. P.

Z. B. Wang, M. G. Helander, J. Qiu, D. P. Puzzo, M. T. Greiner, Z. M. Hudson, S. Wang, Z. W. Liu, and Z. H. Lu, “Unlocking the full potential of organic light-emitting diodes on flexible plastic,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 753–757 (2011).
[Crossref]

Qiu, J.

Z. B. Wang, M. G. Helander, J. Qiu, D. P. Puzzo, M. T. Greiner, Z. M. Hudson, S. Wang, Z. W. Liu, and Z. H. Lu, “Unlocking the full potential of organic light-emitting diodes on flexible plastic,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 753–757 (2011).
[Crossref]

Romero-Gomez, P.

R. Betancur, P. Romero-Gomez, A. Martinez-Otero, X. Elias, M. Maymó, and J. Martorell, “Transparent polymer solar cells employing a layered light-trapping architecture,” Nat. Photonics 7(12), 995–1000 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ruoff, R. S.

I. N. Kholmanov, S. H. Domingues, H. Chou, X. Wang, C. Tan, J.-Y. Kim, H. Li, R. Piner, A. J. Zarbin, and R. S. Ruoff, “Reduced graphene oxide/copper nanowire hybrid films as high-performance transparent electrodes,” ACS Nano 7(2), 1811–1816 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sachse, C.

W. Gaynor, S. Hofmann, M. G. Christoforo, C. Sachse, S. Mehra, A. Salleo, M. D. McGehee, M. C. Gather, B. Lüssem, L. Müller-Meskamp, P. Peumans, and K. Leo, “Color in the corners: ITO-free white OLEDs with angular color stability,” Adv. Mater. 25(29), 4006–4013 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sadana, D. K.

N. Li, S. Oida, G. S. Tulevski, S. J. Han, J. B. Hannon, D. K. Sadana, and T. C. Chen, “Efficient and bright organic light-emitting diodes on single-layer graphene electrodes,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2294 (2013).
[PubMed]

Salleo, A.

W. Gaynor, S. Hofmann, M. G. Christoforo, C. Sachse, S. Mehra, A. Salleo, M. D. McGehee, M. C. Gather, B. Lüssem, L. Müller-Meskamp, P. Peumans, and K. Leo, “Color in the corners: ITO-free white OLEDs with angular color stability,” Adv. Mater. 25(29), 4006–4013 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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A. Sandström, H. F. Dam, F. C. Krebs, and L. Edman, “Ambient fabrication of flexible and large-area organic light-emitting devices using slot-die coating,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1002 (2012).
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N. Aizawa, Y. J. Pu, M. Watanabe, T. Chiba, K. Ideta, N. Toyota, M. Igarashi, Y. Suzuri, H. Sasabe, and J. Kido, “Solution-processed multilayer small-molecule light-emitting devices with high-efficiency white-light emission,” Nat. Commun. 5, 5756 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schubert, S.

S. Schubert, L. Müller-Meskamp, and K. Leo, “Unusually high optical transmission in Ca:Ag blend films: high-performance top electrodes for efficient organic solar cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 24(42), 6668–6676 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Schwab, S. Schubert, S. Hofmann, M. Fröbel, C. Fuchs, M. Thomschke, L. Müller-Meskamp, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Highly efficient color stable inverted white top-emitting OLEDs with ultra-thin wetting layer top electrodes,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1(10), 707–713 (2013).
[Crossref]

Schwab, T.

T. Schwab, S. Schubert, S. Hofmann, M. Fröbel, C. Fuchs, M. Thomschke, L. Müller-Meskamp, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Highly efficient color stable inverted white top-emitting OLEDs with ultra-thin wetting layer top electrodes,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1(10), 707–713 (2013).
[Crossref]

Shen, S.

R. Wang, L.-H. Xu, Y.-Q. Li, L. Zhou, C. Li, Q.-D. Ou, J.-D. Chen, S. Shen, and J.-X. Tang, “Broadband light out-coupling enhancement of flexible organic light-emitting diodes using biomimetic quasi-random nanostructures,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(2), 203–210 (2015).
[Crossref]

Q.-D. Ou, L. Zhou, Y.-Q. Li, S. Shen, J.-D. Chen, C. Li, Q.-K. Wang, S.-T. Lee, and J.-X. Tang, “Extremely efficient white organic light-emitting diodes for general lighting,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 24(46), 7249–7256 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Zhou, H.-Y. Xiang, S. Shen, Y.-Q. Li, J.-D. Chen, H.-J. Xie, I. A. Goldthorpe, L.-S. Chen, S.-T. Lee, and J.-X. Tang, “High-performance flexible organic light-emitting diodes using embedded silver network transparent electrodes,” ACS Nano 8(12), 12796–12805 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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M. Cai, Z. Ye, T. Xiao, R. Liu, Y. Chen, R. W. Mayer, R. Biswas, K. M. Ho, R. Shinar, and J. Shinar, “Extremely efficient indium-tin-oxide-free green phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 24(31), 4337–4342 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shinar, R.

M. Cai, Z. Ye, T. Xiao, R. Liu, Y. Chen, R. W. Mayer, R. Biswas, K. M. Ho, R. Shinar, and J. Shinar, “Extremely efficient indium-tin-oxide-free green phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 24(31), 4337–4342 (2012).
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Stec, H. M.

H. M. Stec, R. J. Williams, T. S. Jones, and R. A. Hatton, “Ultrathin transparent Au electrodes for organic photovoltaics fabricated using a mixed mono-molecular nucleation layer,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(9), 1709–1716 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. M. Stec, R. J. Williams, T. S. Jones, and R. A. Hatton, “Ultrathin transparent Au electrodes for organic photovoltaics fabricated using a mixed mono-molecular nucleation layer,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(9), 1709–1716 (2011).
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Y. Xia, K. Sun, and J. Ouyang, “Solution-processed metallic conducting polymer films as transparent electrode of optoelectronic devices,” Adv. Mater. 24(18), 2436–2440 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Suzuri, Y.

N. Aizawa, Y. J. Pu, M. Watanabe, T. Chiba, K. Ideta, N. Toyota, M. Igarashi, Y. Suzuri, H. Sasabe, and J. Kido, “Solution-processed multilayer small-molecule light-emitting devices with high-efficiency white-light emission,” Nat. Commun. 5, 5756 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tan, C.

I. N. Kholmanov, S. H. Domingues, H. Chou, X. Wang, C. Tan, J.-Y. Kim, H. Li, R. Piner, A. J. Zarbin, and R. S. Ruoff, “Reduced graphene oxide/copper nanowire hybrid films as high-performance transparent electrodes,” ACS Nano 7(2), 1811–1816 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tang, J. X.

H. Y. Xiang, Y. Q. Li, L. Zhou, H. J. Xie, C. Li, Q. D. Ou, L. S. Chen, C. S. Lee, S. T. Lee, and J. X. Tang, “Outcoupling-enhanced flexible organic light-emitting diodes on ameliorated plastic substrate with built-in indium-tin-oxide-free transparent electrode,” ACS Nano 9(7), 7553–7562 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tang, J.-X.

L.-H. Xu, Q.-D. Ou, Y.-Q. Li, Y.-B. Zhang, X.-D. Zhao, H.-Y. Xiang, J.-D. Chen, L. Zhou, S.-T. Lee, and J.-X. Tang, “Microcavity-free broadband light outcoupling enhancement in flexible organic light-emitting diodes with nanostructured transparent metal-dielectric composite electrodes,” ACS Nano 10(1), 1625–1632 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Wang, L.-H. Xu, Y.-Q. Li, L. Zhou, C. Li, Q.-D. Ou, J.-D. Chen, S. Shen, and J.-X. Tang, “Broadband light out-coupling enhancement of flexible organic light-emitting diodes using biomimetic quasi-random nanostructures,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(2), 203–210 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Zhou, H.-Y. Xiang, S. Shen, Y.-Q. Li, J.-D. Chen, H.-J. Xie, I. A. Goldthorpe, L.-S. Chen, S.-T. Lee, and J.-X. Tang, “High-performance flexible organic light-emitting diodes using embedded silver network transparent electrodes,” ACS Nano 8(12), 12796–12805 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q.-D. Ou, L. Zhou, Y.-Q. Li, S. Shen, J.-D. Chen, C. Li, Q.-K. Wang, S.-T. Lee, and J.-X. Tang, “Extremely efficient white organic light-emitting diodes for general lighting,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 24(46), 7249–7256 (2014).
[Crossref]

Thomschke, M.

T. Schwab, S. Schubert, S. Hofmann, M. Fröbel, C. Fuchs, M. Thomschke, L. Müller-Meskamp, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Highly efficient color stable inverted white top-emitting OLEDs with ultra-thin wetting layer top electrodes,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1(10), 707–713 (2013).
[Crossref]

Toyota, N.

N. Aizawa, Y. J. Pu, M. Watanabe, T. Chiba, K. Ideta, N. Toyota, M. Igarashi, Y. Suzuri, H. Sasabe, and J. Kido, “Solution-processed multilayer small-molecule light-emitting devices with high-efficiency white-light emission,” Nat. Commun. 5, 5756 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tulevski, G. S.

N. Li, S. Oida, G. S. Tulevski, S. J. Han, J. B. Hannon, D. K. Sadana, and T. C. Chen, “Efficient and bright organic light-emitting diodes on single-layer graphene electrodes,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2294 (2013).
[PubMed]

Wang, Q.-K.

Q.-D. Ou, L. Zhou, Y.-Q. Li, S. Shen, J.-D. Chen, C. Li, Q.-K. Wang, S.-T. Lee, and J.-X. Tang, “Extremely efficient white organic light-emitting diodes for general lighting,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 24(46), 7249–7256 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, R.

R. Wang, L.-H. Xu, Y.-Q. Li, L. Zhou, C. Li, Q.-D. Ou, J.-D. Chen, S. Shen, and J.-X. Tang, “Broadband light out-coupling enhancement of flexible organic light-emitting diodes using biomimetic quasi-random nanostructures,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(2), 203–210 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wang, S.

Z. B. Wang, M. G. Helander, J. Qiu, D. P. Puzzo, M. T. Greiner, Z. M. Hudson, S. Wang, Z. W. Liu, and Z. H. Lu, “Unlocking the full potential of organic light-emitting diodes on flexible plastic,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 753–757 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wang, X.

I. N. Kholmanov, S. H. Domingues, H. Chou, X. Wang, C. Tan, J.-Y. Kim, H. Li, R. Piner, A. J. Zarbin, and R. S. Ruoff, “Reduced graphene oxide/copper nanowire hybrid films as high-performance transparent electrodes,” ACS Nano 7(2), 1811–1816 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Z. B.

Z. B. Wang, M. G. Helander, J. Qiu, D. P. Puzzo, M. T. Greiner, Z. M. Hudson, S. Wang, Z. W. Liu, and Z. H. Lu, “Unlocking the full potential of organic light-emitting diodes on flexible plastic,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 753–757 (2011).
[Crossref]

Watanabe, M.

N. Aizawa, Y. J. Pu, M. Watanabe, T. Chiba, K. Ideta, N. Toyota, M. Igarashi, Y. Suzuri, H. Sasabe, and J. Kido, “Solution-processed multilayer small-molecule light-emitting devices with high-efficiency white-light emission,” Nat. Commun. 5, 5756 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Williams, R. J.

H. M. Stec, R. J. Williams, T. S. Jones, and R. A. Hatton, “Ultrathin transparent Au electrodes for organic photovoltaics fabricated using a mixed mono-molecular nucleation layer,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(9), 1709–1716 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. M. Stec, R. J. Williams, T. S. Jones, and R. A. Hatton, “Ultrathin transparent Au electrodes for organic photovoltaics fabricated using a mixed mono-molecular nucleation layer,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(9), 1709–1716 (2011).
[Crossref]

Woo, S.-H.

T.-H. Han, Y. Lee, M.-R. Choi, S.-H. Woo, S.-H. Bae, B. H. Hong, J.-H. Ahn, and T.-W. Lee, “Extremely efficient flexible organic light-emitting diodes with modified graphene anode,” Nat. Photonics 6(2), 105–110 (2012).
[Crossref]

Xia, Y.

Y. Xia, K. Sun, and J. Ouyang, “Solution-processed metallic conducting polymer films as transparent electrode of optoelectronic devices,” Adv. Mater. 24(18), 2436–2440 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xiang, H. Y.

H. Y. Xiang, Y. Q. Li, L. Zhou, H. J. Xie, C. Li, Q. D. Ou, L. S. Chen, C. S. Lee, S. T. Lee, and J. X. Tang, “Outcoupling-enhanced flexible organic light-emitting diodes on ameliorated plastic substrate with built-in indium-tin-oxide-free transparent electrode,” ACS Nano 9(7), 7553–7562 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xiang, H.-Y.

L.-H. Xu, Q.-D. Ou, Y.-Q. Li, Y.-B. Zhang, X.-D. Zhao, H.-Y. Xiang, J.-D. Chen, L. Zhou, S.-T. Lee, and J.-X. Tang, “Microcavity-free broadband light outcoupling enhancement in flexible organic light-emitting diodes with nanostructured transparent metal-dielectric composite electrodes,” ACS Nano 10(1), 1625–1632 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Zhou, H.-Y. Xiang, S. Shen, Y.-Q. Li, J.-D. Chen, H.-J. Xie, I. A. Goldthorpe, L.-S. Chen, S.-T. Lee, and J.-X. Tang, “High-performance flexible organic light-emitting diodes using embedded silver network transparent electrodes,” ACS Nano 8(12), 12796–12805 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xiao, T.

M. Cai, Z. Ye, T. Xiao, R. Liu, Y. Chen, R. W. Mayer, R. Biswas, K. M. Ho, R. Shinar, and J. Shinar, “Extremely efficient indium-tin-oxide-free green phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 24(31), 4337–4342 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xie, H. J.

H. Y. Xiang, Y. Q. Li, L. Zhou, H. J. Xie, C. Li, Q. D. Ou, L. S. Chen, C. S. Lee, S. T. Lee, and J. X. Tang, “Outcoupling-enhanced flexible organic light-emitting diodes on ameliorated plastic substrate with built-in indium-tin-oxide-free transparent electrode,” ACS Nano 9(7), 7553–7562 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xie, H.-J.

L. Zhou, H.-Y. Xiang, S. Shen, Y.-Q. Li, J.-D. Chen, H.-J. Xie, I. A. Goldthorpe, L.-S. Chen, S.-T. Lee, and J.-X. Tang, “High-performance flexible organic light-emitting diodes using embedded silver network transparent electrodes,” ACS Nano 8(12), 12796–12805 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, L.-H.

L.-H. Xu, Q.-D. Ou, Y.-Q. Li, Y.-B. Zhang, X.-D. Zhao, H.-Y. Xiang, J.-D. Chen, L. Zhou, S.-T. Lee, and J.-X. Tang, “Microcavity-free broadband light outcoupling enhancement in flexible organic light-emitting diodes with nanostructured transparent metal-dielectric composite electrodes,” ACS Nano 10(1), 1625–1632 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Wang, L.-H. Xu, Y.-Q. Li, L. Zhou, C. Li, Q.-D. Ou, J.-D. Chen, S. Shen, and J.-X. Tang, “Broadband light out-coupling enhancement of flexible organic light-emitting diodes using biomimetic quasi-random nanostructures,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(2), 203–210 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ye, Z.

M. Cai, Z. Ye, T. Xiao, R. Liu, Y. Chen, R. W. Mayer, R. Biswas, K. M. Ho, R. Shinar, and J. Shinar, “Extremely efficient indium-tin-oxide-free green phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 24(31), 4337–4342 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yip, H. L.

J. Zou, C. Z. Li, C. Y. Chang, H. L. Yip, and A. K. Jen, “Interfacial engineering of ultrathin metal film transparent electrode for flexible organic photovoltaic cells,” Adv. Mater. 26(22), 3618–3623 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

You, D. S.

S. Jung, S. Lee, M. Song, D.-G. Kim, D. S. You, J.-K. Kim, C. S. Kim, T.-M. Kim, K.-H. Kim, J.-J. Kim, and J.-W. Kang, “Extremely flexible transparent conducting electrodes for organic devices,” Adv. Energy Mater. 4, 1300474 (2014).

Yu, J.-S.

J. Huang, C.-Z. Li, C.-C. Chueh, S.-Q. Liu, J.-S. Yu, and A. K. Y. Jen, “10.4% power conversion efficiency of ITO-Free organic photovoltaics through enhanced light trapping configuration,” Adv. Energy Mater. 5(15), 1500406 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zarbin, A. J.

I. N. Kholmanov, S. H. Domingues, H. Chou, X. Wang, C. Tan, J.-Y. Kim, H. Li, R. Piner, A. J. Zarbin, and R. S. Ruoff, “Reduced graphene oxide/copper nanowire hybrid films as high-performance transparent electrodes,” ACS Nano 7(2), 1811–1816 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y.-B.

L.-H. Xu, Q.-D. Ou, Y.-Q. Li, Y.-B. Zhang, X.-D. Zhao, H.-Y. Xiang, J.-D. Chen, L. Zhou, S.-T. Lee, and J.-X. Tang, “Microcavity-free broadband light outcoupling enhancement in flexible organic light-emitting diodes with nanostructured transparent metal-dielectric composite electrodes,” ACS Nano 10(1), 1625–1632 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, X.-D.

L.-H. Xu, Q.-D. Ou, Y.-Q. Li, Y.-B. Zhang, X.-D. Zhao, H.-Y. Xiang, J.-D. Chen, L. Zhou, S.-T. Lee, and J.-X. Tang, “Microcavity-free broadband light outcoupling enhancement in flexible organic light-emitting diodes with nanostructured transparent metal-dielectric composite electrodes,” ACS Nano 10(1), 1625–1632 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

ZhibinYu,

L. Li, J. Liang, S.-Y. Chou, X. Zhu, X. Niu, ZhibinYu, and Q. Pei, “A solution processed flexible nanocomposite electrode with efficient light extraction for organic light emitting diodes,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4307 (2014).
[PubMed]

Zhou, L.

L.-H. Xu, Q.-D. Ou, Y.-Q. Li, Y.-B. Zhang, X.-D. Zhao, H.-Y. Xiang, J.-D. Chen, L. Zhou, S.-T. Lee, and J.-X. Tang, “Microcavity-free broadband light outcoupling enhancement in flexible organic light-emitting diodes with nanostructured transparent metal-dielectric composite electrodes,” ACS Nano 10(1), 1625–1632 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Y. Xiang, Y. Q. Li, L. Zhou, H. J. Xie, C. Li, Q. D. Ou, L. S. Chen, C. S. Lee, S. T. Lee, and J. X. Tang, “Outcoupling-enhanced flexible organic light-emitting diodes on ameliorated plastic substrate with built-in indium-tin-oxide-free transparent electrode,” ACS Nano 9(7), 7553–7562 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Wang, L.-H. Xu, Y.-Q. Li, L. Zhou, C. Li, Q.-D. Ou, J.-D. Chen, S. Shen, and J.-X. Tang, “Broadband light out-coupling enhancement of flexible organic light-emitting diodes using biomimetic quasi-random nanostructures,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(2), 203–210 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Zhou, H.-Y. Xiang, S. Shen, Y.-Q. Li, J.-D. Chen, H.-J. Xie, I. A. Goldthorpe, L.-S. Chen, S.-T. Lee, and J.-X. Tang, “High-performance flexible organic light-emitting diodes using embedded silver network transparent electrodes,” ACS Nano 8(12), 12796–12805 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q.-D. Ou, L. Zhou, Y.-Q. Li, S. Shen, J.-D. Chen, C. Li, Q.-K. Wang, S.-T. Lee, and J.-X. Tang, “Extremely efficient white organic light-emitting diodes for general lighting,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 24(46), 7249–7256 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhu, X.

L. Li, J. Liang, S.-Y. Chou, X. Zhu, X. Niu, ZhibinYu, and Q. Pei, “A solution processed flexible nanocomposite electrode with efficient light extraction for organic light emitting diodes,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4307 (2014).
[PubMed]

Zou, J.

J. Zou, C. Z. Li, C. Y. Chang, H. L. Yip, and A. K. Jen, “Interfacial engineering of ultrathin metal film transparent electrode for flexible organic photovoltaic cells,” Adv. Mater. 26(22), 3618–3623 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

ACS Nano (4)

L. Zhou, H.-Y. Xiang, S. Shen, Y.-Q. Li, J.-D. Chen, H.-J. Xie, I. A. Goldthorpe, L.-S. Chen, S.-T. Lee, and J.-X. Tang, “High-performance flexible organic light-emitting diodes using embedded silver network transparent electrodes,” ACS Nano 8(12), 12796–12805 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. N. Kholmanov, S. H. Domingues, H. Chou, X. Wang, C. Tan, J.-Y. Kim, H. Li, R. Piner, A. J. Zarbin, and R. S. Ruoff, “Reduced graphene oxide/copper nanowire hybrid films as high-performance transparent electrodes,” ACS Nano 7(2), 1811–1816 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Y. Xiang, Y. Q. Li, L. Zhou, H. J. Xie, C. Li, Q. D. Ou, L. S. Chen, C. S. Lee, S. T. Lee, and J. X. Tang, “Outcoupling-enhanced flexible organic light-emitting diodes on ameliorated plastic substrate with built-in indium-tin-oxide-free transparent electrode,” ACS Nano 9(7), 7553–7562 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L.-H. Xu, Q.-D. Ou, Y.-Q. Li, Y.-B. Zhang, X.-D. Zhao, H.-Y. Xiang, J.-D. Chen, L. Zhou, S.-T. Lee, and J.-X. Tang, “Microcavity-free broadband light outcoupling enhancement in flexible organic light-emitting diodes with nanostructured transparent metal-dielectric composite electrodes,” ACS Nano 10(1), 1625–1632 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adv. Energy Mater. (2)

J. Huang, C.-Z. Li, C.-C. Chueh, S.-Q. Liu, J.-S. Yu, and A. K. Y. Jen, “10.4% power conversion efficiency of ITO-Free organic photovoltaics through enhanced light trapping configuration,” Adv. Energy Mater. 5(15), 1500406 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Jung, S. Lee, M. Song, D.-G. Kim, D. S. You, J.-K. Kim, C. S. Kim, T.-M. Kim, K.-H. Kim, J.-J. Kim, and J.-W. Kang, “Extremely flexible transparent conducting electrodes for organic devices,” Adv. Energy Mater. 4, 1300474 (2014).

Adv. Funct. Mater. (4)

Q.-D. Ou, L. Zhou, Y.-Q. Li, S. Shen, J.-D. Chen, C. Li, Q.-K. Wang, S.-T. Lee, and J.-X. Tang, “Extremely efficient white organic light-emitting diodes for general lighting,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 24(46), 7249–7256 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. M. Stec, R. J. Williams, T. S. Jones, and R. A. Hatton, “Ultrathin transparent Au electrodes for organic photovoltaics fabricated using a mixed mono-molecular nucleation layer,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(9), 1709–1716 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Schubert, L. Müller-Meskamp, and K. Leo, “Unusually high optical transmission in Ca:Ag blend films: high-performance top electrodes for efficient organic solar cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 24(42), 6668–6676 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. M. Stec, R. J. Williams, T. S. Jones, and R. A. Hatton, “Ultrathin transparent Au electrodes for organic photovoltaics fabricated using a mixed mono-molecular nucleation layer,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(9), 1709–1716 (2011).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (5)

M. Cai, Z. Ye, T. Xiao, R. Liu, Y. Chen, R. W. Mayer, R. Biswas, K. M. Ho, R. Shinar, and J. Shinar, “Extremely efficient indium-tin-oxide-free green phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 24(31), 4337–4342 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Zou, C. Z. Li, C. Y. Chang, H. L. Yip, and A. K. Jen, “Interfacial engineering of ultrathin metal film transparent electrode for flexible organic photovoltaic cells,” Adv. Mater. 26(22), 3618–3623 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. S. Hecht, L. Hu, and G. Irvin, “Emerging transparent electrodes based on thin films of carbon nanotubes, graphene, and metallic nanostructures,” Adv. Mater. 23(13), 1482–1513 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Xia, K. Sun, and J. Ouyang, “Solution-processed metallic conducting polymer films as transparent electrode of optoelectronic devices,” Adv. Mater. 24(18), 2436–2440 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Gaynor, S. Hofmann, M. G. Christoforo, C. Sachse, S. Mehra, A. Salleo, M. D. McGehee, M. C. Gather, B. Lüssem, L. Müller-Meskamp, P. Peumans, and K. Leo, “Color in the corners: ITO-free white OLEDs with angular color stability,” Adv. Mater. 25(29), 4006–4013 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adv. Opt. Mater. (2)

R. Wang, L.-H. Xu, Y.-Q. Li, L. Zhou, C. Li, Q.-D. Ou, J.-D. Chen, S. Shen, and J.-X. Tang, “Broadband light out-coupling enhancement of flexible organic light-emitting diodes using biomimetic quasi-random nanostructures,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(2), 203–210 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Schwab, S. Schubert, S. Hofmann, M. Fröbel, C. Fuchs, M. Thomschke, L. Müller-Meskamp, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Highly efficient color stable inverted white top-emitting OLEDs with ultra-thin wetting layer top electrodes,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1(10), 707–713 (2013).
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J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

H.-Z. Geng, K. K. Kim, K. P. So, Y. S. Lee, Y. Chang, and Y. H. Lee, “Effect of acid treatment on carbon nanotube-based flexible transparent conducting films,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129(25), 7758–7759 (2007).
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Nano Lett. (1)

B. W. An, B. G. Hyun, S.-Y. Kim, M. Kim, M.-S. Lee, K. Lee, J. B. Koo, H. Y. Chu, B.-S. Bae, and J.-U. Park, “Stretchable and transparent electrodes using hybrid structures of graphene-metal nanotrough networks with high performances and ultimate uniformity,” Nano Lett. 14(11), 6322–6328 (2014).
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Nat. Commun. (4)

N. Li, S. Oida, G. S. Tulevski, S. J. Han, J. B. Hannon, D. K. Sadana, and T. C. Chen, “Efficient and bright organic light-emitting diodes on single-layer graphene electrodes,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2294 (2013).
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H. Kang, S. Jung, S. Jeong, G. Kim, and K. Lee, “Polymer-metal hybrid transparent electrodes for flexible electronics,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6503 (2015).
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Nat. Photonics (4)

Z. B. Wang, M. G. Helander, J. Qiu, D. P. Puzzo, M. T. Greiner, Z. M. Hudson, S. Wang, Z. W. Liu, and Z. H. Lu, “Unlocking the full potential of organic light-emitting diodes on flexible plastic,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 753–757 (2011).
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T.-H. Han, Y. Lee, M.-R. Choi, S.-H. Woo, S.-H. Bae, B. H. Hong, J.-H. Ahn, and T.-W. Lee, “Extremely efficient flexible organic light-emitting diodes with modified graphene anode,” Nat. Photonics 6(2), 105–110 (2012).
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Sci. Rep. (1)

L. Li, J. Liang, S.-Y. Chou, X. Zhu, X. Niu, ZhibinYu, and Q. Pei, “A solution processed flexible nanocomposite electrode with efficient light extraction for organic light emitting diodes,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4307 (2014).
[PubMed]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Device Structure and Morphology. (a) Schematic illustration of flexible OLED using a NCE anode on plastic substrate. (b) AFM image and surface profile of imprinted UV-resin layer with quasi-random nanostructures with a pseudo period of ~250 nm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Film deposition and surface morphology. (a) Schematic of a Ca:Ag alloy deposited onto a MoO3 wetting layer cover with a metal seed layer, and the SEM image of 8 nm-thick Ca:Ag alloy film. (b) Schematic of pure Ag deposited onto a MoO3 wetting layer without the seed layer, and the SEM image of pure Ag film.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Optical properties of various transparent electrodes. (a) Two dimensional contour plots of simulated transmittance of a MoO3/Ca:Ag/MoO3 stack as a function of the thickness of both the MoO3 hole injection and wetting layers. (b) Measured optical transmittance of PET substrates with various electrodes. (c) Schematic of light transmission through CE and NCE stacks. (d) Reflectance spectra of PET substrates with various electrodes.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Performance characteristics of flexible OLEDs with green emission. (a) Current density and luminance as a function of driving voltage. (b) Normalized EL spectra. Inset: photograph of light emission from flexible OLED on NCE anode. (c) External quantum efficiency and (d) current efficiency as a function of luminance for flexible OLEDs with different electrodes.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Comparison of ηEQE and ηLE for flexible OLEDs with different electrodes at the maximum values and at the luminance of 1,000 cd/m2 and 10,000 cd/m2. The values in parentheses represent the decreasing ratios when the luminance is increased from 1,000 cd/m2 to 10,000 cd/m2.

Metrics