Abstract

Determination of the water-leaving radiance LW through above-water radiometry requires knowledge of accurate reflectance factors ρ of the sea surface. Publicly available ρ relevant to above-water radiometry include theoretical data sets generated: i. by assuming a sky radiance distribution accounting for aerosols and multiple scattering, but neglecting polarization, and quantifying sea surface effects through Cox-Munk wave slope statistics; or differently ii. accounting for polarization, but assuming an ideal Rayleigh sky radiance distribution, and quantifying sea surface effects through modeled wave elevation and slope variance spectra. The impact on above-water data products of differences between those factors ρ was quantified through comparison of LW from the Ocean Color component of the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET-OC) with collocated LW from in-water radiometry. Results from the analysis of radiance measurements from the sea performed with 40 degrees viewing angle and 90 degrees azimuth offset with respect to the sun plane, indicated a slightly better agreement between above- and in-water LW determined for wind speeds tentatively lower than 4 m s−1 with ρ computed accounting for aerosols, multiple scattering and Cox-Munk surfaces. Nevertheless, analyses performed by partitioning the investigated data set also indicated that actual ρ values would exhibit dependence on sun zenith comprised between those characterizing the two sets of reflectance factors.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
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References

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2015 (3)

T. S. Moore, J. W. Campbell, and H. Feng, “Characterizing the uncertainties in spectral remote sensing reflectance for SeaWiFS and MODIS-Aqua based on global in situ matchup data sets,” Remote Sens. Environ. 159, 14–27 (2015).
[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

C. D. Mobley, “Polarized reflectance and transmittance properties of windblown sea surfaces,” Appl. Opt. 54(15), 4828–4849 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (1)

M. Gergely and G. Zibordi, “Assessment of AERONET-OC LWN uncertainties,” Metrologia 51(1), 40–47 (2014).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

2011 (1)

2010 (1)

2009 (2)

G. Zibordi, J.-F. Berthon, F. Mélin, D. D’Alimonte, and S. Kaitala, “Validation of satellite ocean color primary products at optically complex coastal sites: Northern Adriatic Sea, Northern Baltic Proper and Gulf of Finland,” Remote Sens. Environ. 113(12), 2574–2591 (2009).
[Crossref]

G. Zibordi, B. N. Holben, I. Slutsker, D. Giles, D. D’Alimonte, F. Mélin, J.-F. Berthon, D. Vandemark, H. Feng, G. Schuster, B. E. Fabbri, S. Kaitala, and J. Seppälä, “AERONET-OC: a network for the validation of ocean color primary radiometric products,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 26(8), 1634–1651 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

D. D’Alimonte, G. Zibordi, and J.-F. Berthon, “A statistical index of bio-optical seawater types,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens. 45(8), 2644–2651 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

G. Zibordi, “Immersion factor of in-water radiance sensors: assessment for a class of radiometers,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 23(2), 302–313 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

P. J. Werdell and S. W. Bailey, “An improved in-situ bio-optical data set for ocean color algorithm development and satellite data product validation,” Remote Sens. Environ. 98(1), 122–140 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

J.-F. Berthon and G. Zibordi, “Bio-optical relationships for the northern Adriatic Sea,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 25(7–8), 1527–1532 (2004).
[Crossref]

G. Zibordi, D. D’Alimonte, and J.-F. Berthon, “An evaluation of depth resolution requirements for optical profiling in coastal waters,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 21(7), 1059–1073 (2004).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

2000 (1)

A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, O. Dubovik, and I. Slutsker, “Cloud screening and quality control algorithms for the AERONET database,” Remote Sens. Environ. 73(3), 337–349 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

1998 (1)

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET—A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66(1), 1–16 (1998).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

1992 (1)

H. R. Gordon and K. Ding, “Self-shading of in-water optical instruments,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 37(3), 491–500 (1992).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

W. W. Gregg and K. L. Carder, “A simple spectral solar irradiance model for cloudless maritime atmospheres,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 35(8), 1657–1675 (1990).
[Crossref]

1988 (1)

A. W. Harrison and C. A. Coombes, “Angular distribution of clear sky short wavelength radiance,” Sol. Energy 40(1), 57–63 (1988).
[Crossref]

1986 (1)

R. W. Preisendorfer and C. D. Mobley, “Albedos and glitter patterns of a wind-roughened sea surface,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 16(7), 1293–1316 (1986).
[Crossref]

1954 (1)

Ahmed, S.

Ahn, Y. H.

Antoine, D.

Arnone, R.

Bailey, S. W.

P. J. Werdell and S. W. Bailey, “An improved in-situ bio-optical data set for ocean color algorithm development and satellite data product validation,” Remote Sens. Environ. 98(1), 122–140 (2005).
[Crossref]

Barker, K.

R. Santer, F. Zagolski, K. Barker, and J. P. Huot, “Correction of the above water radiometric measurements for the sky dome reflection, accounting for polarization,” in Proceedings of MERIS/(A) ATSR & OLCI/SLSTR Preparatory Workshop (2012).

Berthon, J.-F.

G. Zibordi, J.-F. Berthon, F. Mélin, D. D’Alimonte, and S. Kaitala, “Validation of satellite ocean color primary products at optically complex coastal sites: Northern Adriatic Sea, Northern Baltic Proper and Gulf of Finland,” Remote Sens. Environ. 113(12), 2574–2591 (2009).
[Crossref]

G. Zibordi, B. N. Holben, I. Slutsker, D. Giles, D. D’Alimonte, F. Mélin, J.-F. Berthon, D. Vandemark, H. Feng, G. Schuster, B. E. Fabbri, S. Kaitala, and J. Seppälä, “AERONET-OC: a network for the validation of ocean color primary radiometric products,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 26(8), 1634–1651 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. D’Alimonte, G. Zibordi, and J.-F. Berthon, “A statistical index of bio-optical seawater types,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens. 45(8), 2644–2651 (2007).
[Crossref]

J.-F. Berthon and G. Zibordi, “Bio-optical relationships for the northern Adriatic Sea,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 25(7–8), 1527–1532 (2004).
[Crossref]

G. Zibordi, D. D’Alimonte, and J.-F. Berthon, “An evaluation of depth resolution requirements for optical profiling in coastal waters,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 21(7), 1059–1073 (2004).
[Crossref]

Buis, J. P.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET—A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66(1), 1–16 (1998).
[Crossref]

Campbell, J. W.

T. S. Moore, J. W. Campbell, and H. Feng, “Characterizing the uncertainties in spectral remote sensing reflectance for SeaWiFS and MODIS-Aqua based on global in situ matchup data sets,” Remote Sens. Environ. 159, 14–27 (2015).
[Crossref]

Carder, K. L.

W. W. Gregg and K. L. Carder, “A simple spectral solar irradiance model for cloudless maritime atmospheres,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 35(8), 1657–1675 (1990).
[Crossref]

Chowdhary, J.

Coombes, C. A.

A. W. Harrison and C. A. Coombes, “Angular distribution of clear sky short wavelength radiance,” Sol. Energy 40(1), 57–63 (1988).
[Crossref]

Cox, C.

D’Alimonte, D.

G. Zibordi, J.-F. Berthon, F. Mélin, D. D’Alimonte, and S. Kaitala, “Validation of satellite ocean color primary products at optically complex coastal sites: Northern Adriatic Sea, Northern Baltic Proper and Gulf of Finland,” Remote Sens. Environ. 113(12), 2574–2591 (2009).
[Crossref]

G. Zibordi, B. N. Holben, I. Slutsker, D. Giles, D. D’Alimonte, F. Mélin, J.-F. Berthon, D. Vandemark, H. Feng, G. Schuster, B. E. Fabbri, S. Kaitala, and J. Seppälä, “AERONET-OC: a network for the validation of ocean color primary radiometric products,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 26(8), 1634–1651 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. D’Alimonte, G. Zibordi, and J.-F. Berthon, “A statistical index of bio-optical seawater types,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens. 45(8), 2644–2651 (2007).
[Crossref]

G. Zibordi, D. D’Alimonte, and J.-F. Berthon, “An evaluation of depth resolution requirements for optical profiling in coastal waters,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 21(7), 1059–1073 (2004).
[Crossref]

Ding, K.

H. R. Gordon and K. Ding, “Self-shading of in-water optical instruments,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 37(3), 491–500 (1992).
[Crossref]

Doyle, J. P.

Dubovik, O.

A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, O. Dubovik, and I. Slutsker, “Cloud screening and quality control algorithms for the AERONET database,” Remote Sens. Environ. 73(3), 337–349 (2000).
[Crossref]

Eck, T. F.

A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, O. Dubovik, and I. Slutsker, “Cloud screening and quality control algorithms for the AERONET database,” Remote Sens. Environ. 73(3), 337–349 (2000).
[Crossref]

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET—A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66(1), 1–16 (1998).
[Crossref]

Fabbri, B. E.

G. Zibordi, B. N. Holben, I. Slutsker, D. Giles, D. D’Alimonte, F. Mélin, J.-F. Berthon, D. Vandemark, H. Feng, G. Schuster, B. E. Fabbri, S. Kaitala, and J. Seppälä, “AERONET-OC: a network for the validation of ocean color primary radiometric products,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 26(8), 1634–1651 (2009).
[Crossref]

Feng, H.

T. S. Moore, J. W. Campbell, and H. Feng, “Characterizing the uncertainties in spectral remote sensing reflectance for SeaWiFS and MODIS-Aqua based on global in situ matchup data sets,” Remote Sens. Environ. 159, 14–27 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Zibordi, B. N. Holben, I. Slutsker, D. Giles, D. D’Alimonte, F. Mélin, J.-F. Berthon, D. Vandemark, H. Feng, G. Schuster, B. E. Fabbri, S. Kaitala, and J. Seppälä, “AERONET-OC: a network for the validation of ocean color primary radiometric products,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 26(8), 1634–1651 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ferrari, G. M.

Frouin, R.

R. Frouin and B. Pelletier, “Bayesian methodology for inverting satellite ocean-color data,” Remote Sens. Environ. 159, 332–360 (2015).
[Crossref]

Gentili, B.

Gergely, M.

M. Gergely and G. Zibordi, “Assessment of AERONET-OC LWN uncertainties,” Metrologia 51(1), 40–47 (2014).
[Crossref]

Gilerson, A.

Giles, D.

G. Zibordi, B. N. Holben, I. Slutsker, D. Giles, D. D’Alimonte, F. Mélin, J.-F. Berthon, D. Vandemark, H. Feng, G. Schuster, B. E. Fabbri, S. Kaitala, and J. Seppälä, “AERONET-OC: a network for the validation of ocean color primary radiometric products,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 26(8), 1634–1651 (2009).
[Crossref]

Gordon, H. R.

H. R. Gordon and K. Ding, “Self-shading of in-water optical instruments,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 37(3), 491–500 (1992).
[Crossref]

Gregg, W. W.

W. W. Gregg and K. L. Carder, “A simple spectral solar irradiance model for cloudless maritime atmospheres,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 35(8), 1657–1675 (1990).
[Crossref]

Harmel, T.

Harrison, A. W.

A. W. Harrison and C. A. Coombes, “Angular distribution of clear sky short wavelength radiance,” Sol. Energy 40(1), 57–63 (1988).
[Crossref]

Hlaing, S.

Holben, B. N.

G. Zibordi, B. N. Holben, I. Slutsker, D. Giles, D. D’Alimonte, F. Mélin, J.-F. Berthon, D. Vandemark, H. Feng, G. Schuster, B. E. Fabbri, S. Kaitala, and J. Seppälä, “AERONET-OC: a network for the validation of ocean color primary radiometric products,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 26(8), 1634–1651 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, O. Dubovik, and I. Slutsker, “Cloud screening and quality control algorithms for the AERONET database,” Remote Sens. Environ. 73(3), 337–349 (2000).
[Crossref]

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET—A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66(1), 1–16 (1998).
[Crossref]

Huot, J. P.

R. Santer, F. Zagolski, K. Barker, and J. P. Huot, “Correction of the above water radiometric measurements for the sky dome reflection, accounting for polarization,” in Proceedings of MERIS/(A) ATSR & OLCI/SLSTR Preparatory Workshop (2012).

Jankowiak, I.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET—A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66(1), 1–16 (1998).
[Crossref]

Kaitala, S.

G. Zibordi, J.-F. Berthon, F. Mélin, D. D’Alimonte, and S. Kaitala, “Validation of satellite ocean color primary products at optically complex coastal sites: Northern Adriatic Sea, Northern Baltic Proper and Gulf of Finland,” Remote Sens. Environ. 113(12), 2574–2591 (2009).
[Crossref]

G. Zibordi, B. N. Holben, I. Slutsker, D. Giles, D. D’Alimonte, F. Mélin, J.-F. Berthon, D. Vandemark, H. Feng, G. Schuster, B. E. Fabbri, S. Kaitala, and J. Seppälä, “AERONET-OC: a network for the validation of ocean color primary radiometric products,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 26(8), 1634–1651 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kaufman, Y. J.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET—A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66(1), 1–16 (1998).
[Crossref]

Lavenu, F.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET—A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66(1), 1–16 (1998).
[Crossref]

Lee, Z.

Legbandt, T.

Mélin, F.

G. Zibordi, J.-F. Berthon, F. Mélin, D. D’Alimonte, and S. Kaitala, “Validation of satellite ocean color primary products at optically complex coastal sites: Northern Adriatic Sea, Northern Baltic Proper and Gulf of Finland,” Remote Sens. Environ. 113(12), 2574–2591 (2009).
[Crossref]

G. Zibordi, B. N. Holben, I. Slutsker, D. Giles, D. D’Alimonte, F. Mélin, J.-F. Berthon, D. Vandemark, H. Feng, G. Schuster, B. E. Fabbri, S. Kaitala, and J. Seppälä, “AERONET-OC: a network for the validation of ocean color primary radiometric products,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 26(8), 1634–1651 (2009).
[Crossref]

Mobley, C.

Mobley, C. D.

Moore, T. S.

T. S. Moore, J. W. Campbell, and H. Feng, “Characterizing the uncertainties in spectral remote sensing reflectance for SeaWiFS and MODIS-Aqua based on global in situ matchup data sets,” Remote Sens. Environ. 159, 14–27 (2015).
[Crossref]

Morel, A.

Munk, W.

Nakajima, T.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET—A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66(1), 1–16 (1998).
[Crossref]

Pelletier, B.

R. Frouin and B. Pelletier, “Bayesian methodology for inverting satellite ocean-color data,” Remote Sens. Environ. 159, 332–360 (2015).
[Crossref]

Preisendorfer, R. W.

R. W. Preisendorfer and C. D. Mobley, “Albedos and glitter patterns of a wind-roughened sea surface,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 16(7), 1293–1316 (1986).
[Crossref]

Reagan, J. A.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET—A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66(1), 1–16 (1998).
[Crossref]

Santer, R.

R. Santer, F. Zagolski, K. Barker, and J. P. Huot, “Correction of the above water radiometric measurements for the sky dome reflection, accounting for polarization,” in Proceedings of MERIS/(A) ATSR & OLCI/SLSTR Preparatory Workshop (2012).

Schuster, G.

G. Zibordi, B. N. Holben, I. Slutsker, D. Giles, D. D’Alimonte, F. Mélin, J.-F. Berthon, D. Vandemark, H. Feng, G. Schuster, B. E. Fabbri, S. Kaitala, and J. Seppälä, “AERONET-OC: a network for the validation of ocean color primary radiometric products,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 26(8), 1634–1651 (2009).
[Crossref]

Seppälä, J.

G. Zibordi, B. N. Holben, I. Slutsker, D. Giles, D. D’Alimonte, F. Mélin, J.-F. Berthon, D. Vandemark, H. Feng, G. Schuster, B. E. Fabbri, S. Kaitala, and J. Seppälä, “AERONET-OC: a network for the validation of ocean color primary radiometric products,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 26(8), 1634–1651 (2009).
[Crossref]

Setzer, A.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET—A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66(1), 1–16 (1998).
[Crossref]

Slutsker, I.

G. Zibordi, B. N. Holben, I. Slutsker, D. Giles, D. D’Alimonte, F. Mélin, J.-F. Berthon, D. Vandemark, H. Feng, G. Schuster, B. E. Fabbri, S. Kaitala, and J. Seppälä, “AERONET-OC: a network for the validation of ocean color primary radiometric products,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 26(8), 1634–1651 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, O. Dubovik, and I. Slutsker, “Cloud screening and quality control algorithms for the AERONET database,” Remote Sens. Environ. 73(3), 337–349 (2000).
[Crossref]

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET—A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66(1), 1–16 (1998).
[Crossref]

Smirnov, A.

A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, O. Dubovik, and I. Slutsker, “Cloud screening and quality control algorithms for the AERONET database,” Remote Sens. Environ. 73(3), 337–349 (2000).
[Crossref]

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET—A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66(1), 1–16 (1998).
[Crossref]

Tanré, D.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET—A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66(1), 1–16 (1998).
[Crossref]

Tonizzo, A.

Vandemark, D.

G. Zibordi, B. N. Holben, I. Slutsker, D. Giles, D. D’Alimonte, F. Mélin, J.-F. Berthon, D. Vandemark, H. Feng, G. Schuster, B. E. Fabbri, S. Kaitala, and J. Seppälä, “AERONET-OC: a network for the validation of ocean color primary radiometric products,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 26(8), 1634–1651 (2009).
[Crossref]

Vermote, E.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET—A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66(1), 1–16 (1998).
[Crossref]

Weidemann, A.

Werdell, P. J.

P. J. Werdell and S. W. Bailey, “An improved in-situ bio-optical data set for ocean color algorithm development and satellite data product validation,” Remote Sens. Environ. 98(1), 122–140 (2005).
[Crossref]

Zagolski, F.

R. Santer, F. Zagolski, K. Barker, and J. P. Huot, “Correction of the above water radiometric measurements for the sky dome reflection, accounting for polarization,” in Proceedings of MERIS/(A) ATSR & OLCI/SLSTR Preparatory Workshop (2012).

Zibordi, G.

M. Gergely and G. Zibordi, “Assessment of AERONET-OC LWN uncertainties,” Metrologia 51(1), 40–47 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Zibordi, “Comment on Long Island Sound Coastal Observatory: assessment of above-water radiometric measurement uncertainties using collocated multi and hyperspectral systems,” Appl. Opt. 51(17), 3888–3892 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Zibordi, J.-F. Berthon, F. Mélin, D. D’Alimonte, and S. Kaitala, “Validation of satellite ocean color primary products at optically complex coastal sites: Northern Adriatic Sea, Northern Baltic Proper and Gulf of Finland,” Remote Sens. Environ. 113(12), 2574–2591 (2009).
[Crossref]

G. Zibordi, B. N. Holben, I. Slutsker, D. Giles, D. D’Alimonte, F. Mélin, J.-F. Berthon, D. Vandemark, H. Feng, G. Schuster, B. E. Fabbri, S. Kaitala, and J. Seppälä, “AERONET-OC: a network for the validation of ocean color primary radiometric products,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 26(8), 1634–1651 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. D’Alimonte, G. Zibordi, and J.-F. Berthon, “A statistical index of bio-optical seawater types,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens. 45(8), 2644–2651 (2007).
[Crossref]

G. Zibordi, “Immersion factor of in-water radiance sensors: assessment for a class of radiometers,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 23(2), 302–313 (2006).
[Crossref]

G. Zibordi, D. D’Alimonte, and J.-F. Berthon, “An evaluation of depth resolution requirements for optical profiling in coastal waters,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 21(7), 1059–1073 (2004).
[Crossref]

J.-F. Berthon and G. Zibordi, “Bio-optical relationships for the northern Adriatic Sea,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 25(7–8), 1527–1532 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. P. Doyle and G. Zibordi, “Optical propagation within a three-dimensional shadowed atmosphere-ocean field: application to large deployment structures,” Appl. Opt. 41(21), 4283–4306 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Zibordi and G. M. Ferrari, “Instrument self-shading in underwater optical measurements: experimental data,” Appl. Opt. 34(15), 2750–2754 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (8)

C. D. Mobley, “Estimation of the remote-sensing reflectance from above-surface measurements,” Appl. Opt. 38(36), 7442–7455 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Harmel, A. Gilerson, S. Hlaing, A. Tonizzo, T. Legbandt, A. Weidemann, R. Arnone, and S. Ahmed, “Long Island Sound Coastal Observatory: assessment of above-water radiometric measurement uncertainties using collocated multi and hyperspectral systems,” Appl. Opt. 50(30), 5842–5860 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Harmel, A. Gilerson, A. Tonizzo, J. Chowdhary, A. Weidemann, R. Arnone, and S. Ahmed, “Polarization impacts on the water-leaving radiance retrieval from above-water radiometric measurements,” Appl. Opt. 51(35), 8324–8340 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. D. Mobley, “Polarized reflectance and transmittance properties of windblown sea surfaces,” Appl. Opt. 54(15), 4828–4849 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. P. Doyle and G. Zibordi, “Optical propagation within a three-dimensional shadowed atmosphere-ocean field: application to large deployment structures,” Appl. Opt. 41(21), 4283–4306 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Zibordi, “Comment on Long Island Sound Coastal Observatory: assessment of above-water radiometric measurement uncertainties using collocated multi and hyperspectral systems,” Appl. Opt. 51(17), 3888–3892 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Morel, D. Antoine, and B. Gentili, “Bidirectional reflectance of oceanic waters: accounting for Raman emission and varying particle scattering phase function,” Appl. Opt. 41(30), 6289–6306 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Zibordi and G. M. Ferrari, “Instrument self-shading in underwater optical measurements: experimental data,” Appl. Opt. 34(15), 2750–2754 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens. (1)

D. D’Alimonte, G. Zibordi, and J.-F. Berthon, “A statistical index of bio-optical seawater types,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens. 45(8), 2644–2651 (2007).
[Crossref]

Int. J. Remote Sens. (1)

J.-F. Berthon and G. Zibordi, “Bio-optical relationships for the northern Adriatic Sea,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 25(7–8), 1527–1532 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. (3)

G. Zibordi, B. N. Holben, I. Slutsker, D. Giles, D. D’Alimonte, F. Mélin, J.-F. Berthon, D. Vandemark, H. Feng, G. Schuster, B. E. Fabbri, S. Kaitala, and J. Seppälä, “AERONET-OC: a network for the validation of ocean color primary radiometric products,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 26(8), 1634–1651 (2009).
[Crossref]

G. Zibordi, “Immersion factor of in-water radiance sensors: assessment for a class of radiometers,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 23(2), 302–313 (2006).
[Crossref]

G. Zibordi, D. D’Alimonte, and J.-F. Berthon, “An evaluation of depth resolution requirements for optical profiling in coastal waters,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 21(7), 1059–1073 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Phys. Oceanogr. (1)

R. W. Preisendorfer and C. D. Mobley, “Albedos and glitter patterns of a wind-roughened sea surface,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 16(7), 1293–1316 (1986).
[Crossref]

Limnol. Oceanogr. (2)

W. W. Gregg and K. L. Carder, “A simple spectral solar irradiance model for cloudless maritime atmospheres,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 35(8), 1657–1675 (1990).
[Crossref]

H. R. Gordon and K. Ding, “Self-shading of in-water optical instruments,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 37(3), 491–500 (1992).
[Crossref]

Metrologia (1)

M. Gergely and G. Zibordi, “Assessment of AERONET-OC LWN uncertainties,” Metrologia 51(1), 40–47 (2014).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Remote Sens. Environ. (6)

P. J. Werdell and S. W. Bailey, “An improved in-situ bio-optical data set for ocean color algorithm development and satellite data product validation,” Remote Sens. Environ. 98(1), 122–140 (2005).
[Crossref]

G. Zibordi, J.-F. Berthon, F. Mélin, D. D’Alimonte, and S. Kaitala, “Validation of satellite ocean color primary products at optically complex coastal sites: Northern Adriatic Sea, Northern Baltic Proper and Gulf of Finland,” Remote Sens. Environ. 113(12), 2574–2591 (2009).
[Crossref]

T. S. Moore, J. W. Campbell, and H. Feng, “Characterizing the uncertainties in spectral remote sensing reflectance for SeaWiFS and MODIS-Aqua based on global in situ matchup data sets,” Remote Sens. Environ. 159, 14–27 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Frouin and B. Pelletier, “Bayesian methodology for inverting satellite ocean-color data,” Remote Sens. Environ. 159, 332–360 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET—A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66(1), 1–16 (1998).
[Crossref]

A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, O. Dubovik, and I. Slutsker, “Cloud screening and quality control algorithms for the AERONET database,” Remote Sens. Environ. 73(3), 337–349 (2000).
[Crossref]

Sol. Energy (1)

A. W. Harrison and C. A. Coombes, “Angular distribution of clear sky short wavelength radiance,” Sol. Energy 40(1), 57–63 (1988).
[Crossref]

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G. Zibordi and K. Voss, (2015), “In situ optical radiometry in the visible and near infrared,” in Optical Radiometry for Ocean Climate Measurements, G. Zibordi, C.J. Donlon and A.C. Parr eds., Academic Press (2014).

R. Santer, F. Zagolski, K. Barker, and J. P. Huot, “Correction of the above water radiometric measurements for the sky dome reflection, accounting for polarization,” in Proceedings of MERIS/(A) ATSR & OLCI/SLSTR Preparatory Workshop (2012).

C. D. Mobley, “Hydrolight,” SEQUOIA Scientific Inc, WA. http://www.sequoiasci.com/product/hydrolight/ (accessed November 25, 2015).

J. L. Mueller, C. Davis, R. Arnone, R. Frouin, K. L. Carder, Z. P. Lee, R. G. Steward, S. B. Hooker, C. D. Mobley, and S. McLean, “Above-Water Radiance and Remote Sensing Reflectance Measurement and Analysis Protocols,” in Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, J.L. Mueller, G.S. Fargion and C.R. McClain, NASAT/TM-2003–211621/Rev4-Vol.III, 21–31 (2003).

S. B. Hooker, S. McLean, J. Sherman, M. Small, G. Lazin, G. Zibordi, and J. W. Brown, “The Seventh SeaWiFS Intercalibration Round-Robin Experiment (SIRREX-7),” NASA Tech. Memo. 2002–206892, Vol. 17, S.B. Hooker and E.R. Firestone, eds., NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland, 69 pp (2002).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Frequency distribution of wind speed, sun zenith angle, diffuse attenuation coefficient at 490 nm (Kd), chlorophyll-a concentration and aerosol optical thickness at 547 nm (τa). N indicates the number of match-ups, m the median value and σ the standard deviation.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Spectra of L W WIS (λ) and L W PRS (λ) (computed using factors ρ U) applied for the construction of the N = 185 matchups. Gray lines indicate individual spectra, the continuous thick black line indicates the average of spectral values while the dashed lines indicate ± 1 standard deviation.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Scatter plot of above-water L W PRS (λ) versus in-water L W WIS (λ) spectral data at different center-wavelengths (i.e., 412, 443, 488, 547, and 667 nm) and for spectrally averaged values (right panel in the lower row), determined by applying the surface reflectance factors ρ U. Root mean square of differences, mean of absolute percent differences, mean of percent differences and determination coefficients, are indicated as rmsd, |ψ |, ψ, and r2. N is the number of matchups while M is the total number of points (i.e., N × 5) applied for the statistical analysis of spectral averages.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

As in Fig. 3, but for L W PRS (λ) determined by applying the surface reflectance factors ρ P.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Reflectance factors ρ U (a) and ρ P (b) as a function of sun zenith angle for different wind speeds (i.e., 0, 4, 8 and 12, m s−1 in blue, green, yellow and red, respectively) for the AERONET-OC measurement geometries defined by θ = 40 degrees and ϕ ± 90 degrees.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Distributions of the surface reflectance factors ρ U and ρ P for the considered matchups. N, m and σ indicate the number of matchups, the median value and the standard deviation, respectively.

Tables (6)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Uncertainty budget (in percent) for LW(λ) determined from AERONET-OC above-water measurements at relevant center-wavelengths

Tables Icon

Table 2 Uncertainty budget (in percent) for LW(λ) determined from in-water profile data at center-wavelengths matching those of AERONET-OC data (see section 2.3)

Tables Icon

Table 3 Combined relative (in percent) and combined absolute (in units of mW cm−2 µm−1 sr−1) uncertainties estimated for L W WIS (λ) and for L W PRS (λ) matchup data, with L W PRS (λ) determined using factors ρ U and alternatively ρ P (the latter are given in brackets).

Tables Icon

Table 4 Statistical results from the comparison of L W PRS (λ) with L W WIS (λ) at the center-wavelengths 412, 547 and 667 nm (assumed representative for the considered spectral interval) and the spectrally averaged values resulting from data at all center-wavelengths (i.e., 412, 443, 488, 547, 667 nm). The row “ρ U (all)” displays values of rmsd, |ψ |, ψ, and r2 determined for L W PRS (λ) computed with factors ρ U. The additional rows refer to statistical values obtained partitioning the data set into different ranges of sun zenith (in units of degrees) and wind speed (in units of ms−1).

Tables Icon

Table 5 As in Table 4, but for statistical values determined with the reflectance factors ρ P.

Tables Icon

Table 6 Statistical results from the comparison of L W PRS (λ) (determined using mean values of available LT measurements) versus L W WIS (λ) at the center-wavelengths 412, 547 and 667 nm and the spectrally averaged values resulting from data at all center-wavelengths. The row “ρ U (all)” and “ρ P (all)” display the values of rmsd, |ψ |, ψ, and r2 obtained from L W PRS (λ) computed with factors ρ U and ρ P, respectively.

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

L W (θ,ϕ,λ)= L T (θ,ϕ,λ)ρ(θ,ϕ, θ 0 ,W) L i (θ',ϕ,λ)
L w (λ)= L w (θ,ϕ,λ) (0,W) (θ,W) Q(θ,ϕ, θ 0 ,λ, τ a ,Chla) Q(0,0, θ 0 ,λ, τ a ,Chla)
L u (z,λ, t 0 )= L u (z,λ,t) E d ( 0 + ,λ,t) E d ( 0 + ,λ, t 0 )
L W (λ)=0.543 L u ( 0 ,λ)
ψ= 1 N i=1 N ψ i
ψ i =100 L W PRS [i] L W WIS [i] L W WIS [i]
|ψ|= 1 N i=1 N | ψ i |.

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