Abstract

The present work reports on the first application of a ring-cavity-surface-emitting quantum-cascade laser (RCSE-QCL) for sensitive gas measurements. RCSE-QCLs are promising candidates for optical gas-sensing due to their single-mode, mode-hop-free and narrow-band emission characteristics along with their broad spectral coverage. The time resolved down-chirp of the RCSE-QCL in the 1227-1236 cm−1 (8.15-8.09 µm) spectral range was investigated using a step-scan FT-IR spectrometer (Bruker Vertex 80v) with 2 ns time and 0.1 cm−1 spectral resolution. The pulse repetition rate was set between 20 and 200 kHz and the laser device was cooled to 15-17°C. Employing 300 ns pulses a spectrum of ~1.5 cm−1 could be recorded. Under these laser operation conditions and a gas pressure of 1000 mbar a limit of detection (3σ) of 1.5 ppmv for hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in nitrogen was achieved using a 100 m Herriott cell and a thermoelectric cooled MCT detector for absorption measurements. Using 3 µs long pulses enabled to further extend the spectral bandwidth to 8.5 cm−1. Based on this increased spectral coverage and employing reduced pressure conditions (50 mbar) multiple peaks of the target analyte H2S as well as methane (CH4) could be examined within one single pulse.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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2016 (1)

A. Harrer, R. Szedlak, B. Schwarz, H. Moser, T. Zederbauer, D. MacFarland, H. Detz, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, B. Lendl, and G. Strasser, “Mid-infrared surface transmitting and detecting quantum cascade device for gas-sensing,” Sci. Rep. 6, 21795 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (4)

A. Bismuto, Y. Bidaux, C. Tardy, R. Terazzi, T. Gresch, J. Wolf, S. Blaser, A. Muller, and J. Faist, “Extended tuning of mid-ir quantum cascade lasers using integrated resistive heaters,” Opt. Express 23(23), 29715–29722 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Bidaux, A. Bismuto, C. Tardy, R. Terazzi, T. Gresch, S. Blaser, A. Muller, and J. Faist, “Extended and quasi-continuous tuning of quantum cascade lasers using superstructure gratings and integrated heaters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(22), 29715–29722 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Slivken, S. Sengupta, and M. Razeghi, “High power continuous operation of a widely tunable quantum cascade laser with an integrated amplifier,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(25), 251101 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Reidl-Leuthner, J. Ofner, W. Tomischko, H. Lohninger, and B. Lendl, “Simultaneous open-path determination of road side mono-nitrogen oxides employing mid-IR laser spectroscopy,” Atmos. Environ. 112(2), 189–195 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (5)

C. Reidl-Leuthner, A. Viernstein, K. Wieland, W. Tomischko, L. Sass, G. Kinger, J. Ofner, and B. Lendl, “Quasi-simultaneous in-line flue gas monitoring of NO and NO₂ emissions at a caloric power plant employing mid-IR laser spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 86(18), 9058–9064 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. P. Waclawek, R. Lewicki, H. Moser, M. Brandstetter, F. K. Tittel, and B. Lendl, “Quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy-based sensor system for sulfur dioxide detection using a CW DFB-QCL,” Appl. Phys. B 117(1), 113–120 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Brandstetter, A. Genner, C. Schwarzer, E. Mujagic, G. Strasser, and B. Lendl, “Time-resolved spectral characterization of ring cavity surface emitting and ridge-type distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers by step-scan FT-IR spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 22(3), 2656–2664 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, M. G. Soskind, W. Wang, and G. Wysocki, “High-resolution multi-heterodyne spectroscopy based on Fabry-Perot quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(3), 031114 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Szedlak, C. Schwarzer, T. Zederbauer, H. Detz, A. Maxwell Andrews, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “On-chip focusing in the mid-infrared: Demonstrated with ring quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(15), 151105 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (8)

C. Schwarzer, R. Szedlak, S. Il Ahn, T. Zederbauer, H. Detz, A. Maxwell Andrews, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Linearly polarized light from substrate emitting ring cavity quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(8), 081101 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. Tuzson, M. Mangold, H. Looser, A. Manninen, and L. Emmenegger, “Compact multipass optical cell for laser spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 38(3), 257–259 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Carras, G. Maisons, B. Simozrag, V. Trinite, M. Brun, G. Grand, P. Labeye, and S. Nicoletti, “Monolithic tunable single source in the mid-IR for spectroscopy,” Proc. SPIE 8631, 863113 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Hodgkinson and R. P. Tatam, “Optical gas sensing: a review,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 24(1), 012004 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. H. van Helden, N. Lang, U. Macherius, H. Zimmermann, and J. Röpcke, “Sensitive trace gas detection with cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy using a continuous wave external-cavity quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(13), 131114 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Reidl-Leuthner and B. Lendl, “Toward stand-off open-path measurements of NO and NO(2) in the sub-parts per million meter range using quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) in the intra-pulse absorption mode,” Appl. Spectrosc. 67(12), 1368–1375 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Slivken, N. Bandyopadhyay, Y. Bai, Q. Y. Lu, and M. Razeghi, “Extended electrical tuning of quantum cascade lasers with digital concatenated gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(23), 231110 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

C. Schwarzer, E. Mujagić, S. Il Ahn, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, W. Charles, C. Gmachl, and G. Strasser, “Grating duty-cycle induced enhancement of substrate emission from ring cavity quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(19), 191103 (2012).
[Crossref]

B. Schwarz, P. Reininger, H. Detz, T. Zederbauer, A. Maxwell Andrews, S. Kalchmair, W. Schrenk, O. Baumgartner, H. Kosina, and G. Strasser, “A bi-functional quantum cascade device for same-frequency lasing and detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(19), 191109 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

E. Mujagić, C. Schwarzer, Y. Yao, J. Chen, C. Gmachl, and G. Strasser, “Two-dimensional broadband distributed-feedback quantum cascade laser arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(14), 141101 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, and D. D. Nelson, “Dual quantum cascade laser trace gas instrument with astigmatic Herriott cell at high pass number,” Appl. Opt. 50(4), A74–A85 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

B. H. Lee, E. C. Wood, M. S. Zahniser, J. B. McManus, D. D. Nelson, S. C. Herndon, G. W. Santoni, S. C. Wofsy, and J. W. Munger, “Simultaneous measurements of atmospheric HONO and NO2 via absorption spectroscopy using tunable mid-infrared continuous-wave quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. (Berl.) 2, 417-423 (2010).

E. Mujagić, M. Nobile, H. Detz, W. Schrenk, J. Chen, C. Gmachl, and G. Strasser, “Ring cavity induced threshold reduction in single-mode surface emitting quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(3), 031111 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Kuligowski, G. Quintás, and B. Lendl, “High performance liquid chromatography with on-line dual quantum cascade laser detection for the determination of carbohydrates, alcohols and organic acids in wine and grape juice,” Appl. Phys. B 99(4), 833–840 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

B. G. Lee, M. Belkin, C. Pflugl, L. Diehl, H. Zhang, R. M. Audet, J. MacArthur, D. P. Bour, S. W. Corzine, G. E. Hufler, and F. Capasso, “DFB Quantum Cascade Laser Arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(5), 554–565 (2009).
[Crossref]

B. G. Lee, H. Zhang, C. Pflugl, L. Diehl, M. Belkin, M. Fischer, A. Wittmann, J. Faist, and F. Capasso, “Broadband Distributed-Feedback Quantum Cascade Laser Array Operating From 8.0 to 9.8 μm,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(13), 914–916 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (4)

E. Mujagić, S. Schartner, L. K. Hoffmann, W. Schrenk, M. P. Semtsiv, M. Wienold, W. T. Masselink, and G. Strasser, “Grating-coupled surface emitting quantum cascade ring lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(1), 011108 (2008).
[Crossref]

E. Mujagić, L. K. Hoffmann, S. Schartner, M. Nobile, W. Schrenk, M. P. Semtsiv, M. Wienold, W. T. Masselink, and G. Strasser, “Low divergence single-mode surface emitting quantum cascade ring lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(16), 161101 (2008).
[Crossref]

W. Chen, A. A. Kosterev, F. K. Tittel, X. Gao, and W. Zhao, “H2S trace concentration measurements using off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy in the near-infrared,” Appl. Phys. B 90(2), 311–315 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Foltynowicz, F. M. Schmidt, W. Ma, and O. Axner, “Noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectroscopy: Current status and future potential,” Appl. Phys. B 92(3), 313–326 (2008).
[Crossref]

2006 (3)

A. Varga, Z. Bozóki, M. Szakáll, and G. Szabó, “Photoacoustic system for on-line process monitoring of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) concentration in natural gas streams,” Appl. Phys. B 85(2), 315–321 (2006).
[Crossref]

Z. Liu and D. Wasserman, “Room-temperature continuous-wave quantum cascade lasers grown by MOCVD without lateral regrowth,” Photonics 18(12), 1347–1349 (2006).

J. B. McManus, D. D. Nelson, S. C. Herndon, J. H. Shorter, M. S. Zahniser, S. Blaser, L. Hvozdara, A. Muller, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, “Comparison of cw and pulsed operation with a TE-cooled quantum cascade infrared laser for detection of nitric oxide at 1900 cm-1,” Appl. Phys. (Berl.) 85(2), 235–241 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

G. Wysocki, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, R. Maulini, J. M. Bulliard, and J. Faist, “Widely tunable mode-hop free external cavity quantum cascade laser for high resolution spectroscopic applications,” Appl. Phys. B 81(6), 769–777 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. N. Mikhailenko, Y. L. Babikov, and V. F. Golovko, “Information-calculating system Spectroscopy of Atmospheric Gases. The structure and main functions,” Atmos. Oceanic Opt. 18(9), 685–695 (2005).

2004 (1)

D. Weidmann, F. K. Tittel, T. Aellen, M. Beck, D. Hofstetter, J. Faist, and S. Blaser, “Mid-infrared trace-gas sensing with a quasi- continuous-wave Peltier-cooled distributed feedback quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. B 79(7), 907–913 (2004).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

G. P. Luo, C. Peng, H. Q. Le, S. S. Pei, W.-Y. Hwang, B. Ishaug, J. Um, J. N. Baillargeon, and C.-H. Lin, “Grating-tuned external-cavity quantum-cascade semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(19), 2834 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

B. Lendl, J. Frank, R. Schindler, A. Müller, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers for flow injection analysis,” Anal. Chem. 72(7), 1645–1648 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

J. Faist, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, C. Sirtori, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, and A. Y. Cho, “Distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(20), 2670 (1997).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

1993 (1)

1991 (1)

1973 (1)

R. A. McClatchey, W. S. Benedict, S. A. Clough, D. E. Burch, R. F. Calfee, K. Fox, L. S. Rothman, and J. S. Garing, “AFCRL atmospheric absorption line parameters compilation,” Environ. Res. Pap. 434, 1–86 (1973).

1964 (1)

Aellen, T.

D. Weidmann, F. K. Tittel, T. Aellen, M. Beck, D. Hofstetter, J. Faist, and S. Blaser, “Mid-infrared trace-gas sensing with a quasi- continuous-wave Peltier-cooled distributed feedback quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. B 79(7), 907–913 (2004).
[Crossref]

Andrews, A. M.

A. Harrer, R. Szedlak, B. Schwarz, H. Moser, T. Zederbauer, D. MacFarland, H. Detz, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, B. Lendl, and G. Strasser, “Mid-infrared surface transmitting and detecting quantum cascade device for gas-sensing,” Sci. Rep. 6, 21795 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Schwarzer, E. Mujagić, S. Il Ahn, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, W. Charles, C. Gmachl, and G. Strasser, “Grating duty-cycle induced enhancement of substrate emission from ring cavity quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(19), 191103 (2012).
[Crossref]

Audet, R. M.

B. G. Lee, M. Belkin, C. Pflugl, L. Diehl, H. Zhang, R. M. Audet, J. MacArthur, D. P. Bour, S. W. Corzine, G. E. Hufler, and F. Capasso, “DFB Quantum Cascade Laser Arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(5), 554–565 (2009).
[Crossref]

Axner, O.

A. Foltynowicz, F. M. Schmidt, W. Ma, and O. Axner, “Noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectroscopy: Current status and future potential,” Appl. Phys. B 92(3), 313–326 (2008).
[Crossref]

Babikov, Y.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Babikov, Y. L.

S. N. Mikhailenko, Y. L. Babikov, and V. F. Golovko, “Information-calculating system Spectroscopy of Atmospheric Gases. The structure and main functions,” Atmos. Oceanic Opt. 18(9), 685–695 (2005).

Bai, Y.

S. Slivken, N. Bandyopadhyay, Y. Bai, Q. Y. Lu, and M. Razeghi, “Extended electrical tuning of quantum cascade lasers with digital concatenated gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(23), 231110 (2013).
[Crossref]

Baillargeon, J. N.

G. P. Luo, C. Peng, H. Q. Le, S. S. Pei, W.-Y. Hwang, B. Ishaug, J. Um, J. N. Baillargeon, and C.-H. Lin, “Grating-tuned external-cavity quantum-cascade semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(19), 2834 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. Faist, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, C. Sirtori, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, and A. Y. Cho, “Distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(20), 2670 (1997).
[Crossref]

Bandyopadhyay, N.

S. Slivken, N. Bandyopadhyay, Y. Bai, Q. Y. Lu, and M. Razeghi, “Extended electrical tuning of quantum cascade lasers with digital concatenated gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(23), 231110 (2013).
[Crossref]

Barbe, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Baumgartner, O.

B. Schwarz, P. Reininger, H. Detz, T. Zederbauer, A. Maxwell Andrews, S. Kalchmair, W. Schrenk, O. Baumgartner, H. Kosina, and G. Strasser, “A bi-functional quantum cascade device for same-frequency lasing and detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(19), 191109 (2012).
[Crossref]

Beck, M.

D. Weidmann, F. K. Tittel, T. Aellen, M. Beck, D. Hofstetter, J. Faist, and S. Blaser, “Mid-infrared trace-gas sensing with a quasi- continuous-wave Peltier-cooled distributed feedback quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. B 79(7), 907–913 (2004).
[Crossref]

B. Lendl, J. Frank, R. Schindler, A. Müller, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers for flow injection analysis,” Anal. Chem. 72(7), 1645–1648 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Becker, A.

Belkin, M.

B. G. Lee, M. Belkin, C. Pflugl, L. Diehl, H. Zhang, R. M. Audet, J. MacArthur, D. P. Bour, S. W. Corzine, G. E. Hufler, and F. Capasso, “DFB Quantum Cascade Laser Arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(5), 554–565 (2009).
[Crossref]

B. G. Lee, H. Zhang, C. Pflugl, L. Diehl, M. Belkin, M. Fischer, A. Wittmann, J. Faist, and F. Capasso, “Broadband Distributed-Feedback Quantum Cascade Laser Array Operating From 8.0 to 9.8 μm,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(13), 914–916 (2009).
[Crossref]

Benedict, W. S.

R. A. McClatchey, W. S. Benedict, S. A. Clough, D. E. Burch, R. F. Calfee, K. Fox, L. S. Rothman, and J. S. Garing, “AFCRL atmospheric absorption line parameters compilation,” Environ. Res. Pap. 434, 1–86 (1973).

Bernath, P. F.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bidaux, Y.

Y. Bidaux, A. Bismuto, C. Tardy, R. Terazzi, T. Gresch, S. Blaser, A. Muller, and J. Faist, “Extended and quasi-continuous tuning of quantum cascade lasers using superstructure gratings and integrated heaters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(22), 29715–29722 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Bismuto, Y. Bidaux, C. Tardy, R. Terazzi, T. Gresch, J. Wolf, S. Blaser, A. Muller, and J. Faist, “Extended tuning of mid-ir quantum cascade lasers using integrated resistive heaters,” Opt. Express 23(23), 29715–29722 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Birk, M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bismuto, A.

Y. Bidaux, A. Bismuto, C. Tardy, R. Terazzi, T. Gresch, S. Blaser, A. Muller, and J. Faist, “Extended and quasi-continuous tuning of quantum cascade lasers using superstructure gratings and integrated heaters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(22), 29715–29722 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Bismuto, Y. Bidaux, C. Tardy, R. Terazzi, T. Gresch, J. Wolf, S. Blaser, A. Muller, and J. Faist, “Extended tuning of mid-ir quantum cascade lasers using integrated resistive heaters,” Opt. Express 23(23), 29715–29722 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bizzocchi, L.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Blaser, S.

Y. Bidaux, A. Bismuto, C. Tardy, R. Terazzi, T. Gresch, S. Blaser, A. Muller, and J. Faist, “Extended and quasi-continuous tuning of quantum cascade lasers using superstructure gratings and integrated heaters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(22), 29715–29722 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Bismuto, Y. Bidaux, C. Tardy, R. Terazzi, T. Gresch, J. Wolf, S. Blaser, A. Muller, and J. Faist, “Extended tuning of mid-ir quantum cascade lasers using integrated resistive heaters,” Opt. Express 23(23), 29715–29722 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. B. McManus, D. D. Nelson, S. C. Herndon, J. H. Shorter, M. S. Zahniser, S. Blaser, L. Hvozdara, A. Muller, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, “Comparison of cw and pulsed operation with a TE-cooled quantum cascade infrared laser for detection of nitric oxide at 1900 cm-1,” Appl. Phys. (Berl.) 85(2), 235–241 (2006).
[Crossref]

D. Weidmann, F. K. Tittel, T. Aellen, M. Beck, D. Hofstetter, J. Faist, and S. Blaser, “Mid-infrared trace-gas sensing with a quasi- continuous-wave Peltier-cooled distributed feedback quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. B 79(7), 907–913 (2004).
[Crossref]

Boudon, V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bour, D. P.

B. G. Lee, M. Belkin, C. Pflugl, L. Diehl, H. Zhang, R. M. Audet, J. MacArthur, D. P. Bour, S. W. Corzine, G. E. Hufler, and F. Capasso, “DFB Quantum Cascade Laser Arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(5), 554–565 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bozóki, Z.

A. Varga, Z. Bozóki, M. Szakáll, and G. Szabó, “Photoacoustic system for on-line process monitoring of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) concentration in natural gas streams,” Appl. Phys. B 85(2), 315–321 (2006).
[Crossref]

Brandstetter, M.

J. P. Waclawek, R. Lewicki, H. Moser, M. Brandstetter, F. K. Tittel, and B. Lendl, “Quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy-based sensor system for sulfur dioxide detection using a CW DFB-QCL,” Appl. Phys. B 117(1), 113–120 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Brandstetter, A. Genner, C. Schwarzer, E. Mujagic, G. Strasser, and B. Lendl, “Time-resolved spectral characterization of ring cavity surface emitting and ridge-type distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers by step-scan FT-IR spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 22(3), 2656–2664 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brown, L. R.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Brun, M.

M. Carras, G. Maisons, B. Simozrag, V. Trinite, M. Brun, G. Grand, P. Labeye, and S. Nicoletti, “Monolithic tunable single source in the mid-IR for spectroscopy,” Proc. SPIE 8631, 863113 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bulliard, J. M.

G. Wysocki, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, R. Maulini, J. M. Bulliard, and J. Faist, “Widely tunable mode-hop free external cavity quantum cascade laser for high resolution spectroscopic applications,” Appl. Phys. B 81(6), 769–777 (2005).
[Crossref]

Burch, D. E.

R. A. McClatchey, W. S. Benedict, S. A. Clough, D. E. Burch, R. F. Calfee, K. Fox, L. S. Rothman, and J. S. Garing, “AFCRL atmospheric absorption line parameters compilation,” Environ. Res. Pap. 434, 1–86 (1973).

Calfee, R. F.

R. A. McClatchey, W. S. Benedict, S. A. Clough, D. E. Burch, R. F. Calfee, K. Fox, L. S. Rothman, and J. S. Garing, “AFCRL atmospheric absorption line parameters compilation,” Environ. Res. Pap. 434, 1–86 (1973).

Campargue, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Capasso, F.

B. G. Lee, H. Zhang, C. Pflugl, L. Diehl, M. Belkin, M. Fischer, A. Wittmann, J. Faist, and F. Capasso, “Broadband Distributed-Feedback Quantum Cascade Laser Array Operating From 8.0 to 9.8 μm,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(13), 914–916 (2009).
[Crossref]

B. G. Lee, M. Belkin, C. Pflugl, L. Diehl, H. Zhang, R. M. Audet, J. MacArthur, D. P. Bour, S. W. Corzine, G. E. Hufler, and F. Capasso, “DFB Quantum Cascade Laser Arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(5), 554–565 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Faist, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, C. Sirtori, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, and A. Y. Cho, “Distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(20), 2670 (1997).
[Crossref]

Carras, M.

M. Carras, G. Maisons, B. Simozrag, V. Trinite, M. Brun, G. Grand, P. Labeye, and S. Nicoletti, “Monolithic tunable single source in the mid-IR for spectroscopy,” Proc. SPIE 8631, 863113 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chance, K.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Charles, W.

C. Schwarzer, E. Mujagić, S. Il Ahn, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, W. Charles, C. Gmachl, and G. Strasser, “Grating duty-cycle induced enhancement of substrate emission from ring cavity quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(19), 191103 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chen, J.

E. Mujagić, C. Schwarzer, Y. Yao, J. Chen, C. Gmachl, and G. Strasser, “Two-dimensional broadband distributed-feedback quantum cascade laser arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(14), 141101 (2011).
[Crossref]

E. Mujagić, M. Nobile, H. Detz, W. Schrenk, J. Chen, C. Gmachl, and G. Strasser, “Ring cavity induced threshold reduction in single-mode surface emitting quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(3), 031111 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chen, W.

W. Chen, A. A. Kosterev, F. K. Tittel, X. Gao, and W. Zhao, “H2S trace concentration measurements using off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy in the near-infrared,” Appl. Phys. B 90(2), 311–315 (2008).
[Crossref]

Cho, A. Y.

J. Faist, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, C. Sirtori, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, and A. Y. Cho, “Distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(20), 2670 (1997).
[Crossref]

Chris Benner, D.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Clough, S. A.

R. A. McClatchey, W. S. Benedict, S. A. Clough, D. E. Burch, R. F. Calfee, K. Fox, L. S. Rothman, and J. S. Garing, “AFCRL atmospheric absorption line parameters compilation,” Environ. Res. Pap. 434, 1–86 (1973).

Cohen, E. A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Corzine, S. W.

B. G. Lee, M. Belkin, C. Pflugl, L. Diehl, H. Zhang, R. M. Audet, J. MacArthur, D. P. Bour, S. W. Corzine, G. E. Hufler, and F. Capasso, “DFB Quantum Cascade Laser Arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(5), 554–565 (2009).
[Crossref]

Coudert, L. H.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Curl, R. F.

G. Wysocki, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, R. Maulini, J. M. Bulliard, and J. Faist, “Widely tunable mode-hop free external cavity quantum cascade laser for high resolution spectroscopic applications,” Appl. Phys. B 81(6), 769–777 (2005).
[Crossref]

Detz, H.

A. Harrer, R. Szedlak, B. Schwarz, H. Moser, T. Zederbauer, D. MacFarland, H. Detz, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, B. Lendl, and G. Strasser, “Mid-infrared surface transmitting and detecting quantum cascade device for gas-sensing,” Sci. Rep. 6, 21795 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Szedlak, C. Schwarzer, T. Zederbauer, H. Detz, A. Maxwell Andrews, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “On-chip focusing in the mid-infrared: Demonstrated with ring quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(15), 151105 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Schwarzer, R. Szedlak, S. Il Ahn, T. Zederbauer, H. Detz, A. Maxwell Andrews, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Linearly polarized light from substrate emitting ring cavity quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(8), 081101 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. Schwarz, P. Reininger, H. Detz, T. Zederbauer, A. Maxwell Andrews, S. Kalchmair, W. Schrenk, O. Baumgartner, H. Kosina, and G. Strasser, “A bi-functional quantum cascade device for same-frequency lasing and detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(19), 191109 (2012).
[Crossref]

E. Mujagić, M. Nobile, H. Detz, W. Schrenk, J. Chen, C. Gmachl, and G. Strasser, “Ring cavity induced threshold reduction in single-mode surface emitting quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(3), 031111 (2010).
[Crossref]

Devi, V. M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Diehl, L.

B. G. Lee, H. Zhang, C. Pflugl, L. Diehl, M. Belkin, M. Fischer, A. Wittmann, J. Faist, and F. Capasso, “Broadband Distributed-Feedback Quantum Cascade Laser Array Operating From 8.0 to 9.8 μm,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(13), 914–916 (2009).
[Crossref]

B. G. Lee, M. Belkin, C. Pflugl, L. Diehl, H. Zhang, R. M. Audet, J. MacArthur, D. P. Bour, S. W. Corzine, G. E. Hufler, and F. Capasso, “DFB Quantum Cascade Laser Arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(5), 554–565 (2009).
[Crossref]

Drouin, B. J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Emmenegger, L.

Faist, J.

A. Bismuto, Y. Bidaux, C. Tardy, R. Terazzi, T. Gresch, J. Wolf, S. Blaser, A. Muller, and J. Faist, “Extended tuning of mid-ir quantum cascade lasers using integrated resistive heaters,” Opt. Express 23(23), 29715–29722 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Bidaux, A. Bismuto, C. Tardy, R. Terazzi, T. Gresch, S. Blaser, A. Muller, and J. Faist, “Extended and quasi-continuous tuning of quantum cascade lasers using superstructure gratings and integrated heaters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(22), 29715–29722 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. G. Lee, H. Zhang, C. Pflugl, L. Diehl, M. Belkin, M. Fischer, A. Wittmann, J. Faist, and F. Capasso, “Broadband Distributed-Feedback Quantum Cascade Laser Array Operating From 8.0 to 9.8 μm,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(13), 914–916 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. B. McManus, D. D. Nelson, S. C. Herndon, J. H. Shorter, M. S. Zahniser, S. Blaser, L. Hvozdara, A. Muller, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, “Comparison of cw and pulsed operation with a TE-cooled quantum cascade infrared laser for detection of nitric oxide at 1900 cm-1,” Appl. Phys. (Berl.) 85(2), 235–241 (2006).
[Crossref]

G. Wysocki, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, R. Maulini, J. M. Bulliard, and J. Faist, “Widely tunable mode-hop free external cavity quantum cascade laser for high resolution spectroscopic applications,” Appl. Phys. B 81(6), 769–777 (2005).
[Crossref]

D. Weidmann, F. K. Tittel, T. Aellen, M. Beck, D. Hofstetter, J. Faist, and S. Blaser, “Mid-infrared trace-gas sensing with a quasi- continuous-wave Peltier-cooled distributed feedback quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. B 79(7), 907–913 (2004).
[Crossref]

B. Lendl, J. Frank, R. Schindler, A. Müller, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers for flow injection analysis,” Anal. Chem. 72(7), 1645–1648 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Faist, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, C. Sirtori, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, and A. Y. Cho, “Distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(20), 2670 (1997).
[Crossref]

Fayt, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fischer, M.

B. G. Lee, H. Zhang, C. Pflugl, L. Diehl, M. Belkin, M. Fischer, A. Wittmann, J. Faist, and F. Capasso, “Broadband Distributed-Feedback Quantum Cascade Laser Array Operating From 8.0 to 9.8 μm,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(13), 914–916 (2009).
[Crossref]

Flaud, J.-M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Foltynowicz, A.

A. Foltynowicz, F. M. Schmidt, W. Ma, and O. Axner, “Noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectroscopy: Current status and future potential,” Appl. Phys. B 92(3), 313–326 (2008).
[Crossref]

Fox, K.

R. A. McClatchey, W. S. Benedict, S. A. Clough, D. E. Burch, R. F. Calfee, K. Fox, L. S. Rothman, and J. S. Garing, “AFCRL atmospheric absorption line parameters compilation,” Environ. Res. Pap. 434, 1–86 (1973).

Frank, J.

B. Lendl, J. Frank, R. Schindler, A. Müller, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers for flow injection analysis,” Anal. Chem. 72(7), 1645–1648 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gamache, R. R.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gao, X.

W. Chen, A. A. Kosterev, F. K. Tittel, X. Gao, and W. Zhao, “H2S trace concentration measurements using off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy in the near-infrared,” Appl. Phys. B 90(2), 311–315 (2008).
[Crossref]

Garing, J. S.

R. A. McClatchey, W. S. Benedict, S. A. Clough, D. E. Burch, R. F. Calfee, K. Fox, L. S. Rothman, and J. S. Garing, “AFCRL atmospheric absorption line parameters compilation,” Environ. Res. Pap. 434, 1–86 (1973).

Genner, A.

Giovannini, M.

J. B. McManus, D. D. Nelson, S. C. Herndon, J. H. Shorter, M. S. Zahniser, S. Blaser, L. Hvozdara, A. Muller, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, “Comparison of cw and pulsed operation with a TE-cooled quantum cascade infrared laser for detection of nitric oxide at 1900 cm-1,” Appl. Phys. (Berl.) 85(2), 235–241 (2006).
[Crossref]

Gmachl, C.

C. Schwarzer, E. Mujagić, S. Il Ahn, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, W. Charles, C. Gmachl, and G. Strasser, “Grating duty-cycle induced enhancement of substrate emission from ring cavity quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(19), 191103 (2012).
[Crossref]

E. Mujagić, C. Schwarzer, Y. Yao, J. Chen, C. Gmachl, and G. Strasser, “Two-dimensional broadband distributed-feedback quantum cascade laser arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(14), 141101 (2011).
[Crossref]

E. Mujagić, M. Nobile, H. Detz, W. Schrenk, J. Chen, C. Gmachl, and G. Strasser, “Ring cavity induced threshold reduction in single-mode surface emitting quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(3), 031111 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Faist, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, C. Sirtori, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, and A. Y. Cho, “Distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(20), 2670 (1997).
[Crossref]

Golovko, V. F.

S. N. Mikhailenko, Y. L. Babikov, and V. F. Golovko, “Information-calculating system Spectroscopy of Atmospheric Gases. The structure and main functions,” Atmos. Oceanic Opt. 18(9), 685–695 (2005).

Gordon, I. E.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Grand, G.

M. Carras, G. Maisons, B. Simozrag, V. Trinite, M. Brun, G. Grand, P. Labeye, and S. Nicoletti, “Monolithic tunable single source in the mid-IR for spectroscopy,” Proc. SPIE 8631, 863113 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gresch, T.

Y. Bidaux, A. Bismuto, C. Tardy, R. Terazzi, T. Gresch, S. Blaser, A. Muller, and J. Faist, “Extended and quasi-continuous tuning of quantum cascade lasers using superstructure gratings and integrated heaters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(22), 29715–29722 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Bismuto, Y. Bidaux, C. Tardy, R. Terazzi, T. Gresch, J. Wolf, S. Blaser, A. Muller, and J. Faist, “Extended tuning of mid-ir quantum cascade lasers using integrated resistive heaters,” Opt. Express 23(23), 29715–29722 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Harrer, A.

A. Harrer, R. Szedlak, B. Schwarz, H. Moser, T. Zederbauer, D. MacFarland, H. Detz, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, B. Lendl, and G. Strasser, “Mid-infrared surface transmitting and detecting quantum cascade device for gas-sensing,” Sci. Rep. 6, 21795 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Harris, G. W.

Harrison, J. J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hartmann, J.-M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Herndon, S. C.

B. H. Lee, E. C. Wood, M. S. Zahniser, J. B. McManus, D. D. Nelson, S. C. Herndon, G. W. Santoni, S. C. Wofsy, and J. W. Munger, “Simultaneous measurements of atmospheric HONO and NO2 via absorption spectroscopy using tunable mid-infrared continuous-wave quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. (Berl.) 2, 417-423 (2010).

J. B. McManus, D. D. Nelson, S. C. Herndon, J. H. Shorter, M. S. Zahniser, S. Blaser, L. Hvozdara, A. Muller, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, “Comparison of cw and pulsed operation with a TE-cooled quantum cascade infrared laser for detection of nitric oxide at 1900 cm-1,” Appl. Phys. (Berl.) 85(2), 235–241 (2006).
[Crossref]

Herriott, D.

Hill, C.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hodges, J. T.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hodgkinson, J.

J. Hodgkinson and R. P. Tatam, “Optical gas sensing: a review,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 24(1), 012004 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hoffmann, L. K.

E. Mujagić, L. K. Hoffmann, S. Schartner, M. Nobile, W. Schrenk, M. P. Semtsiv, M. Wienold, W. T. Masselink, and G. Strasser, “Low divergence single-mode surface emitting quantum cascade ring lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(16), 161101 (2008).
[Crossref]

E. Mujagić, S. Schartner, L. K. Hoffmann, W. Schrenk, M. P. Semtsiv, M. Wienold, W. T. Masselink, and G. Strasser, “Grating-coupled surface emitting quantum cascade ring lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(1), 011108 (2008).
[Crossref]

Hofstetter, D.

D. Weidmann, F. K. Tittel, T. Aellen, M. Beck, D. Hofstetter, J. Faist, and S. Blaser, “Mid-infrared trace-gas sensing with a quasi- continuous-wave Peltier-cooled distributed feedback quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. B 79(7), 907–913 (2004).
[Crossref]

Hufler, G. E.

B. G. Lee, M. Belkin, C. Pflugl, L. Diehl, H. Zhang, R. M. Audet, J. MacArthur, D. P. Bour, S. W. Corzine, G. E. Hufler, and F. Capasso, “DFB Quantum Cascade Laser Arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(5), 554–565 (2009).
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J. B. McManus, D. D. Nelson, S. C. Herndon, J. H. Shorter, M. S. Zahniser, S. Blaser, L. Hvozdara, A. Muller, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, “Comparison of cw and pulsed operation with a TE-cooled quantum cascade infrared laser for detection of nitric oxide at 1900 cm-1,” Appl. Phys. (Berl.) 85(2), 235–241 (2006).
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Hwang, W.-Y.

G. P. Luo, C. Peng, H. Q. Le, S. S. Pei, W.-Y. Hwang, B. Ishaug, J. Um, J. N. Baillargeon, and C.-H. Lin, “Grating-tuned external-cavity quantum-cascade semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(19), 2834 (2001).
[Crossref]

Il Ahn, S.

C. Schwarzer, R. Szedlak, S. Il Ahn, T. Zederbauer, H. Detz, A. Maxwell Andrews, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Linearly polarized light from substrate emitting ring cavity quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(8), 081101 (2013).
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C. Schwarzer, E. Mujagić, S. Il Ahn, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, W. Charles, C. Gmachl, and G. Strasser, “Grating duty-cycle induced enhancement of substrate emission from ring cavity quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(19), 191103 (2012).
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Ishaug, B.

G. P. Luo, C. Peng, H. Q. Le, S. S. Pei, W.-Y. Hwang, B. Ishaug, J. Um, J. N. Baillargeon, and C.-H. Lin, “Grating-tuned external-cavity quantum-cascade semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(19), 2834 (2001).
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Jacquemart, D.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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B. Schwarz, P. Reininger, H. Detz, T. Zederbauer, A. Maxwell Andrews, S. Kalchmair, W. Schrenk, O. Baumgartner, H. Kosina, and G. Strasser, “A bi-functional quantum cascade device for same-frequency lasing and detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(19), 191109 (2012).
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Kebabian, P. L. P.

Kinger, G.

C. Reidl-Leuthner, A. Viernstein, K. Wieland, W. Tomischko, L. Sass, G. Kinger, J. Ofner, and B. Lendl, “Quasi-simultaneous in-line flue gas monitoring of NO and NO₂ emissions at a caloric power plant employing mid-IR laser spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 86(18), 9058–9064 (2014).
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Kogelnik, H.

Kompfner, R.

Kosina, H.

B. Schwarz, P. Reininger, H. Detz, T. Zederbauer, A. Maxwell Andrews, S. Kalchmair, W. Schrenk, O. Baumgartner, H. Kosina, and G. Strasser, “A bi-functional quantum cascade device for same-frequency lasing and detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(19), 191109 (2012).
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W. Chen, A. A. Kosterev, F. K. Tittel, X. Gao, and W. Zhao, “H2S trace concentration measurements using off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy in the near-infrared,” Appl. Phys. B 90(2), 311–315 (2008).
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Kuligowski, J.

J. Kuligowski, G. Quintás, and B. Lendl, “High performance liquid chromatography with on-line dual quantum cascade laser detection for the determination of carbohydrates, alcohols and organic acids in wine and grape juice,” Appl. Phys. B 99(4), 833–840 (2010).
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Labeye, P.

M. Carras, G. Maisons, B. Simozrag, V. Trinite, M. Brun, G. Grand, P. Labeye, and S. Nicoletti, “Monolithic tunable single source in the mid-IR for spectroscopy,” Proc. SPIE 8631, 863113 (2013).
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Lamouroux, J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Lang, N.

J. H. van Helden, N. Lang, U. Macherius, H. Zimmermann, and J. Röpcke, “Sensitive trace gas detection with cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy using a continuous wave external-cavity quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(13), 131114 (2013).
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G. P. Luo, C. Peng, H. Q. Le, S. S. Pei, W.-Y. Hwang, B. Ishaug, J. Um, J. N. Baillargeon, and C.-H. Lin, “Grating-tuned external-cavity quantum-cascade semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(19), 2834 (2001).
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Le Roy, R. J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Lee, B. G.

B. G. Lee, H. Zhang, C. Pflugl, L. Diehl, M. Belkin, M. Fischer, A. Wittmann, J. Faist, and F. Capasso, “Broadband Distributed-Feedback Quantum Cascade Laser Array Operating From 8.0 to 9.8 μm,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(13), 914–916 (2009).
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B. G. Lee, M. Belkin, C. Pflugl, L. Diehl, H. Zhang, R. M. Audet, J. MacArthur, D. P. Bour, S. W. Corzine, G. E. Hufler, and F. Capasso, “DFB Quantum Cascade Laser Arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(5), 554–565 (2009).
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Lee, B. H.

B. H. Lee, E. C. Wood, M. S. Zahniser, J. B. McManus, D. D. Nelson, S. C. Herndon, G. W. Santoni, S. C. Wofsy, and J. W. Munger, “Simultaneous measurements of atmospheric HONO and NO2 via absorption spectroscopy using tunable mid-infrared continuous-wave quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. (Berl.) 2, 417-423 (2010).

Lendl, B.

A. Harrer, R. Szedlak, B. Schwarz, H. Moser, T. Zederbauer, D. MacFarland, H. Detz, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, B. Lendl, and G. Strasser, “Mid-infrared surface transmitting and detecting quantum cascade device for gas-sensing,” Sci. Rep. 6, 21795 (2016).
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C. Reidl-Leuthner, J. Ofner, W. Tomischko, H. Lohninger, and B. Lendl, “Simultaneous open-path determination of road side mono-nitrogen oxides employing mid-IR laser spectroscopy,” Atmos. Environ. 112(2), 189–195 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Reidl-Leuthner, A. Viernstein, K. Wieland, W. Tomischko, L. Sass, G. Kinger, J. Ofner, and B. Lendl, “Quasi-simultaneous in-line flue gas monitoring of NO and NO₂ emissions at a caloric power plant employing mid-IR laser spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 86(18), 9058–9064 (2014).
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J. P. Waclawek, R. Lewicki, H. Moser, M. Brandstetter, F. K. Tittel, and B. Lendl, “Quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy-based sensor system for sulfur dioxide detection using a CW DFB-QCL,” Appl. Phys. B 117(1), 113–120 (2014).
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M. Brandstetter, A. Genner, C. Schwarzer, E. Mujagic, G. Strasser, and B. Lendl, “Time-resolved spectral characterization of ring cavity surface emitting and ridge-type distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers by step-scan FT-IR spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 22(3), 2656–2664 (2014).
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C. Reidl-Leuthner and B. Lendl, “Toward stand-off open-path measurements of NO and NO(2) in the sub-parts per million meter range using quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) in the intra-pulse absorption mode,” Appl. Spectrosc. 67(12), 1368–1375 (2013).
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J. Kuligowski, G. Quintás, and B. Lendl, “High performance liquid chromatography with on-line dual quantum cascade laser detection for the determination of carbohydrates, alcohols and organic acids in wine and grape juice,” Appl. Phys. B 99(4), 833–840 (2010).
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B. Lendl, J. Frank, R. Schindler, A. Müller, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers for flow injection analysis,” Anal. Chem. 72(7), 1645–1648 (2000).
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J. P. Waclawek, R. Lewicki, H. Moser, M. Brandstetter, F. K. Tittel, and B. Lendl, “Quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy-based sensor system for sulfur dioxide detection using a CW DFB-QCL,” Appl. Phys. B 117(1), 113–120 (2014).
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Li, G.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Lin, C.-H.

G. P. Luo, C. Peng, H. Q. Le, S. S. Pei, W.-Y. Hwang, B. Ishaug, J. Um, J. N. Baillargeon, and C.-H. Lin, “Grating-tuned external-cavity quantum-cascade semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(19), 2834 (2001).
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Z. Liu and D. Wasserman, “Room-temperature continuous-wave quantum cascade lasers grown by MOCVD without lateral regrowth,” Photonics 18(12), 1347–1349 (2006).

Lohninger, H.

C. Reidl-Leuthner, J. Ofner, W. Tomischko, H. Lohninger, and B. Lendl, “Simultaneous open-path determination of road side mono-nitrogen oxides employing mid-IR laser spectroscopy,” Atmos. Environ. 112(2), 189–195 (2015).
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Long, D. A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Lu, Q. Y.

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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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MacFarland, D.

A. Harrer, R. Szedlak, B. Schwarz, H. Moser, T. Zederbauer, D. MacFarland, H. Detz, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, B. Lendl, and G. Strasser, “Mid-infrared surface transmitting and detecting quantum cascade device for gas-sensing,” Sci. Rep. 6, 21795 (2016).
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Macherius, U.

J. H. van Helden, N. Lang, U. Macherius, H. Zimmermann, and J. Röpcke, “Sensitive trace gas detection with cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy using a continuous wave external-cavity quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(13), 131114 (2013).
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Mackie, C. J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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M. Carras, G. Maisons, B. Simozrag, V. Trinite, M. Brun, G. Grand, P. Labeye, and S. Nicoletti, “Monolithic tunable single source in the mid-IR for spectroscopy,” Proc. SPIE 8631, 863113 (2013).
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Mangold, M.

Manninen, A.

Masselink, W. T.

E. Mujagić, S. Schartner, L. K. Hoffmann, W. Schrenk, M. P. Semtsiv, M. Wienold, W. T. Masselink, and G. Strasser, “Grating-coupled surface emitting quantum cascade ring lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(1), 011108 (2008).
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E. Mujagić, L. K. Hoffmann, S. Schartner, M. Nobile, W. Schrenk, M. P. Semtsiv, M. Wienold, W. T. Masselink, and G. Strasser, “Low divergence single-mode surface emitting quantum cascade ring lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(16), 161101 (2008).
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Massie, S. T.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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B. Schwarz, P. Reininger, H. Detz, T. Zederbauer, A. Maxwell Andrews, S. Kalchmair, W. Schrenk, O. Baumgartner, H. Kosina, and G. Strasser, “A bi-functional quantum cascade device for same-frequency lasing and detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(19), 191109 (2012).
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McManus, J. B.

J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, and D. D. Nelson, “Dual quantum cascade laser trace gas instrument with astigmatic Herriott cell at high pass number,” Appl. Opt. 50(4), A74–A85 (2011).
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J. B. McManus, D. D. Nelson, S. C. Herndon, J. H. Shorter, M. S. Zahniser, S. Blaser, L. Hvozdara, A. Muller, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, “Comparison of cw and pulsed operation with a TE-cooled quantum cascade infrared laser for detection of nitric oxide at 1900 cm-1,” Appl. Phys. (Berl.) 85(2), 235–241 (2006).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Mikhailenko, S. N.

S. N. Mikhailenko, Y. L. Babikov, and V. F. Golovko, “Information-calculating system Spectroscopy of Atmospheric Gases. The structure and main functions,” Atmos. Oceanic Opt. 18(9), 685–695 (2005).

Moser, H.

A. Harrer, R. Szedlak, B. Schwarz, H. Moser, T. Zederbauer, D. MacFarland, H. Detz, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, B. Lendl, and G. Strasser, “Mid-infrared surface transmitting and detecting quantum cascade device for gas-sensing,” Sci. Rep. 6, 21795 (2016).
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J. P. Waclawek, R. Lewicki, H. Moser, M. Brandstetter, F. K. Tittel, and B. Lendl, “Quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy-based sensor system for sulfur dioxide detection using a CW DFB-QCL,” Appl. Phys. B 117(1), 113–120 (2014).
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Mujagic, E.

M. Brandstetter, A. Genner, C. Schwarzer, E. Mujagic, G. Strasser, and B. Lendl, “Time-resolved spectral characterization of ring cavity surface emitting and ridge-type distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers by step-scan FT-IR spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 22(3), 2656–2664 (2014).
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C. Schwarzer, E. Mujagić, S. Il Ahn, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, W. Charles, C. Gmachl, and G. Strasser, “Grating duty-cycle induced enhancement of substrate emission from ring cavity quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(19), 191103 (2012).
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E. Mujagić, C. Schwarzer, Y. Yao, J. Chen, C. Gmachl, and G. Strasser, “Two-dimensional broadband distributed-feedback quantum cascade laser arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(14), 141101 (2011).
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E. Mujagić, M. Nobile, H. Detz, W. Schrenk, J. Chen, C. Gmachl, and G. Strasser, “Ring cavity induced threshold reduction in single-mode surface emitting quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(3), 031111 (2010).
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E. Mujagić, S. Schartner, L. K. Hoffmann, W. Schrenk, M. P. Semtsiv, M. Wienold, W. T. Masselink, and G. Strasser, “Grating-coupled surface emitting quantum cascade ring lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(1), 011108 (2008).
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E. Mujagić, L. K. Hoffmann, S. Schartner, M. Nobile, W. Schrenk, M. P. Semtsiv, M. Wienold, W. T. Masselink, and G. Strasser, “Low divergence single-mode surface emitting quantum cascade ring lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(16), 161101 (2008).
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Muller, A.

Y. Bidaux, A. Bismuto, C. Tardy, R. Terazzi, T. Gresch, S. Blaser, A. Muller, and J. Faist, “Extended and quasi-continuous tuning of quantum cascade lasers using superstructure gratings and integrated heaters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(22), 29715–29722 (2015).
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Müller, A.

B. Lendl, J. Frank, R. Schindler, A. Müller, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers for flow injection analysis,” Anal. Chem. 72(7), 1645–1648 (2000).
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Müller, H. S. P.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Munger, J. W.

B. H. Lee, E. C. Wood, M. S. Zahniser, J. B. McManus, D. D. Nelson, S. C. Herndon, G. W. Santoni, S. C. Wofsy, and J. W. Munger, “Simultaneous measurements of atmospheric HONO and NO2 via absorption spectroscopy using tunable mid-infrared continuous-wave quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. (Berl.) 2, 417-423 (2010).

Naumenko, O. V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Nelson, D. D.

J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, and D. D. Nelson, “Dual quantum cascade laser trace gas instrument with astigmatic Herriott cell at high pass number,” Appl. Opt. 50(4), A74–A85 (2011).
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J. B. McManus, D. D. Nelson, S. C. Herndon, J. H. Shorter, M. S. Zahniser, S. Blaser, L. Hvozdara, A. Muller, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, “Comparison of cw and pulsed operation with a TE-cooled quantum cascade infrared laser for detection of nitric oxide at 1900 cm-1,” Appl. Phys. (Berl.) 85(2), 235–241 (2006).
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Nicoletti, S.

M. Carras, G. Maisons, B. Simozrag, V. Trinite, M. Brun, G. Grand, P. Labeye, and S. Nicoletti, “Monolithic tunable single source in the mid-IR for spectroscopy,” Proc. SPIE 8631, 863113 (2013).
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Nikitin, A. V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Nobile, M.

E. Mujagić, M. Nobile, H. Detz, W. Schrenk, J. Chen, C. Gmachl, and G. Strasser, “Ring cavity induced threshold reduction in single-mode surface emitting quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(3), 031111 (2010).
[Crossref]

E. Mujagić, L. K. Hoffmann, S. Schartner, M. Nobile, W. Schrenk, M. P. Semtsiv, M. Wienold, W. T. Masselink, and G. Strasser, “Low divergence single-mode surface emitting quantum cascade ring lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(16), 161101 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ofner, J.

C. Reidl-Leuthner, J. Ofner, W. Tomischko, H. Lohninger, and B. Lendl, “Simultaneous open-path determination of road side mono-nitrogen oxides employing mid-IR laser spectroscopy,” Atmos. Environ. 112(2), 189–195 (2015).
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C. Reidl-Leuthner, A. Viernstein, K. Wieland, W. Tomischko, L. Sass, G. Kinger, J. Ofner, and B. Lendl, “Quasi-simultaneous in-line flue gas monitoring of NO and NO₂ emissions at a caloric power plant employing mid-IR laser spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 86(18), 9058–9064 (2014).
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Orphal, J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Perevalov, V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Perrin, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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B. G. Lee, H. Zhang, C. Pflugl, L. Diehl, M. Belkin, M. Fischer, A. Wittmann, J. Faist, and F. Capasso, “Broadband Distributed-Feedback Quantum Cascade Laser Array Operating From 8.0 to 9.8 μm,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(13), 914–916 (2009).
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Polovtseva, E. R.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Quintás, G.

J. Kuligowski, G. Quintás, and B. Lendl, “High performance liquid chromatography with on-line dual quantum cascade laser detection for the determination of carbohydrates, alcohols and organic acids in wine and grape juice,” Appl. Phys. B 99(4), 833–840 (2010).
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Razeghi, M.

S. Slivken, S. Sengupta, and M. Razeghi, “High power continuous operation of a widely tunable quantum cascade laser with an integrated amplifier,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(25), 251101 (2015).
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S. Slivken, N. Bandyopadhyay, Y. Bai, Q. Y. Lu, and M. Razeghi, “Extended electrical tuning of quantum cascade lasers with digital concatenated gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(23), 231110 (2013).
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Reidl-Leuthner, C.

C. Reidl-Leuthner, J. Ofner, W. Tomischko, H. Lohninger, and B. Lendl, “Simultaneous open-path determination of road side mono-nitrogen oxides employing mid-IR laser spectroscopy,” Atmos. Environ. 112(2), 189–195 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Reidl-Leuthner, A. Viernstein, K. Wieland, W. Tomischko, L. Sass, G. Kinger, J. Ofner, and B. Lendl, “Quasi-simultaneous in-line flue gas monitoring of NO and NO₂ emissions at a caloric power plant employing mid-IR laser spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 86(18), 9058–9064 (2014).
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C. Reidl-Leuthner and B. Lendl, “Toward stand-off open-path measurements of NO and NO(2) in the sub-parts per million meter range using quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) in the intra-pulse absorption mode,” Appl. Spectrosc. 67(12), 1368–1375 (2013).
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Reininger, P.

B. Schwarz, P. Reininger, H. Detz, T. Zederbauer, A. Maxwell Andrews, S. Kalchmair, W. Schrenk, O. Baumgartner, H. Kosina, and G. Strasser, “A bi-functional quantum cascade device for same-frequency lasing and detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(19), 191109 (2012).
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Richard, C.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Röpcke, J.

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Santoni, G. W.

B. H. Lee, E. C. Wood, M. S. Zahniser, J. B. McManus, D. D. Nelson, S. C. Herndon, G. W. Santoni, S. C. Wofsy, and J. W. Munger, “Simultaneous measurements of atmospheric HONO and NO2 via absorption spectroscopy using tunable mid-infrared continuous-wave quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. (Berl.) 2, 417-423 (2010).

Sass, L.

C. Reidl-Leuthner, A. Viernstein, K. Wieland, W. Tomischko, L. Sass, G. Kinger, J. Ofner, and B. Lendl, “Quasi-simultaneous in-line flue gas monitoring of NO and NO₂ emissions at a caloric power plant employing mid-IR laser spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 86(18), 9058–9064 (2014).
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Schartner, S.

E. Mujagić, L. K. Hoffmann, S. Schartner, M. Nobile, W. Schrenk, M. P. Semtsiv, M. Wienold, W. T. Masselink, and G. Strasser, “Low divergence single-mode surface emitting quantum cascade ring lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(16), 161101 (2008).
[Crossref]

E. Mujagić, S. Schartner, L. K. Hoffmann, W. Schrenk, M. P. Semtsiv, M. Wienold, W. T. Masselink, and G. Strasser, “Grating-coupled surface emitting quantum cascade ring lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(1), 011108 (2008).
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Schindler, R.

B. Lendl, J. Frank, R. Schindler, A. Müller, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers for flow injection analysis,” Anal. Chem. 72(7), 1645–1648 (2000).
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Schmidt, F. M.

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Schrenk, W.

A. Harrer, R. Szedlak, B. Schwarz, H. Moser, T. Zederbauer, D. MacFarland, H. Detz, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, B. Lendl, and G. Strasser, “Mid-infrared surface transmitting and detecting quantum cascade device for gas-sensing,” Sci. Rep. 6, 21795 (2016).
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R. Szedlak, C. Schwarzer, T. Zederbauer, H. Detz, A. Maxwell Andrews, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “On-chip focusing in the mid-infrared: Demonstrated with ring quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(15), 151105 (2014).
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C. Schwarzer, R. Szedlak, S. Il Ahn, T. Zederbauer, H. Detz, A. Maxwell Andrews, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Linearly polarized light from substrate emitting ring cavity quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(8), 081101 (2013).
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B. Schwarz, P. Reininger, H. Detz, T. Zederbauer, A. Maxwell Andrews, S. Kalchmair, W. Schrenk, O. Baumgartner, H. Kosina, and G. Strasser, “A bi-functional quantum cascade device for same-frequency lasing and detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(19), 191109 (2012).
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C. Schwarzer, E. Mujagić, S. Il Ahn, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, W. Charles, C. Gmachl, and G. Strasser, “Grating duty-cycle induced enhancement of substrate emission from ring cavity quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(19), 191103 (2012).
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E. Mujagić, M. Nobile, H. Detz, W. Schrenk, J. Chen, C. Gmachl, and G. Strasser, “Ring cavity induced threshold reduction in single-mode surface emitting quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(3), 031111 (2010).
[Crossref]

E. Mujagić, S. Schartner, L. K. Hoffmann, W. Schrenk, M. P. Semtsiv, M. Wienold, W. T. Masselink, and G. Strasser, “Grating-coupled surface emitting quantum cascade ring lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(1), 011108 (2008).
[Crossref]

E. Mujagić, L. K. Hoffmann, S. Schartner, M. Nobile, W. Schrenk, M. P. Semtsiv, M. Wienold, W. T. Masselink, and G. Strasser, “Low divergence single-mode surface emitting quantum cascade ring lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(16), 161101 (2008).
[Crossref]

Schwarz, B.

A. Harrer, R. Szedlak, B. Schwarz, H. Moser, T. Zederbauer, D. MacFarland, H. Detz, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, B. Lendl, and G. Strasser, “Mid-infrared surface transmitting and detecting quantum cascade device for gas-sensing,” Sci. Rep. 6, 21795 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Schwarz, P. Reininger, H. Detz, T. Zederbauer, A. Maxwell Andrews, S. Kalchmair, W. Schrenk, O. Baumgartner, H. Kosina, and G. Strasser, “A bi-functional quantum cascade device for same-frequency lasing and detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(19), 191109 (2012).
[Crossref]

Schwarzer, C.

R. Szedlak, C. Schwarzer, T. Zederbauer, H. Detz, A. Maxwell Andrews, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “On-chip focusing in the mid-infrared: Demonstrated with ring quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(15), 151105 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Brandstetter, A. Genner, C. Schwarzer, E. Mujagic, G. Strasser, and B. Lendl, “Time-resolved spectral characterization of ring cavity surface emitting and ridge-type distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers by step-scan FT-IR spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 22(3), 2656–2664 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Schwarzer, R. Szedlak, S. Il Ahn, T. Zederbauer, H. Detz, A. Maxwell Andrews, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Linearly polarized light from substrate emitting ring cavity quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(8), 081101 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Schwarzer, E. Mujagić, S. Il Ahn, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, W. Charles, C. Gmachl, and G. Strasser, “Grating duty-cycle induced enhancement of substrate emission from ring cavity quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(19), 191103 (2012).
[Crossref]

E. Mujagić, C. Schwarzer, Y. Yao, J. Chen, C. Gmachl, and G. Strasser, “Two-dimensional broadband distributed-feedback quantum cascade laser arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(14), 141101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Semtsiv, M. P.

E. Mujagić, L. K. Hoffmann, S. Schartner, M. Nobile, W. Schrenk, M. P. Semtsiv, M. Wienold, W. T. Masselink, and G. Strasser, “Low divergence single-mode surface emitting quantum cascade ring lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(16), 161101 (2008).
[Crossref]

E. Mujagić, S. Schartner, L. K. Hoffmann, W. Schrenk, M. P. Semtsiv, M. Wienold, W. T. Masselink, and G. Strasser, “Grating-coupled surface emitting quantum cascade ring lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(1), 011108 (2008).
[Crossref]

Sengupta, S.

S. Slivken, S. Sengupta, and M. Razeghi, “High power continuous operation of a widely tunable quantum cascade laser with an integrated amplifier,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(25), 251101 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shorter, J. H.

J. B. McManus, D. D. Nelson, S. C. Herndon, J. H. Shorter, M. S. Zahniser, S. Blaser, L. Hvozdara, A. Muller, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, “Comparison of cw and pulsed operation with a TE-cooled quantum cascade infrared laser for detection of nitric oxide at 1900 cm-1,” Appl. Phys. (Berl.) 85(2), 235–241 (2006).
[Crossref]

Siebert, F.

Simon, A.

Simozrag, B.

M. Carras, G. Maisons, B. Simozrag, V. Trinite, M. Brun, G. Grand, P. Labeye, and S. Nicoletti, “Monolithic tunable single source in the mid-IR for spectroscopy,” Proc. SPIE 8631, 863113 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sirtori, C.

J. Faist, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, C. Sirtori, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, and A. Y. Cho, “Distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(20), 2670 (1997).
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Sivco, D. L.

J. Faist, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, C. Sirtori, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, and A. Y. Cho, “Distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(20), 2670 (1997).
[Crossref]

Slivken, S.

S. Slivken, S. Sengupta, and M. Razeghi, “High power continuous operation of a widely tunable quantum cascade laser with an integrated amplifier,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(25), 251101 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Slivken, N. Bandyopadhyay, Y. Bai, Q. Y. Lu, and M. Razeghi, “Extended electrical tuning of quantum cascade lasers with digital concatenated gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(23), 231110 (2013).
[Crossref]

Smith, M. A. H.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Soskind, M. G.

Y. Wang, M. G. Soskind, W. Wang, and G. Wysocki, “High-resolution multi-heterodyne spectroscopy based on Fabry-Perot quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(3), 031114 (2014).
[Crossref]

Starikova, E.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Strasser, G.

A. Harrer, R. Szedlak, B. Schwarz, H. Moser, T. Zederbauer, D. MacFarland, H. Detz, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, B. Lendl, and G. Strasser, “Mid-infrared surface transmitting and detecting quantum cascade device for gas-sensing,” Sci. Rep. 6, 21795 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Szedlak, C. Schwarzer, T. Zederbauer, H. Detz, A. Maxwell Andrews, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “On-chip focusing in the mid-infrared: Demonstrated with ring quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(15), 151105 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Brandstetter, A. Genner, C. Schwarzer, E. Mujagic, G. Strasser, and B. Lendl, “Time-resolved spectral characterization of ring cavity surface emitting and ridge-type distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers by step-scan FT-IR spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 22(3), 2656–2664 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Schwarzer, R. Szedlak, S. Il Ahn, T. Zederbauer, H. Detz, A. Maxwell Andrews, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Linearly polarized light from substrate emitting ring cavity quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(8), 081101 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Schwarzer, E. Mujagić, S. Il Ahn, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, W. Charles, C. Gmachl, and G. Strasser, “Grating duty-cycle induced enhancement of substrate emission from ring cavity quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(19), 191103 (2012).
[Crossref]

B. Schwarz, P. Reininger, H. Detz, T. Zederbauer, A. Maxwell Andrews, S. Kalchmair, W. Schrenk, O. Baumgartner, H. Kosina, and G. Strasser, “A bi-functional quantum cascade device for same-frequency lasing and detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(19), 191109 (2012).
[Crossref]

E. Mujagić, C. Schwarzer, Y. Yao, J. Chen, C. Gmachl, and G. Strasser, “Two-dimensional broadband distributed-feedback quantum cascade laser arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(14), 141101 (2011).
[Crossref]

E. Mujagić, M. Nobile, H. Detz, W. Schrenk, J. Chen, C. Gmachl, and G. Strasser, “Ring cavity induced threshold reduction in single-mode surface emitting quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(3), 031111 (2010).
[Crossref]

E. Mujagić, L. K. Hoffmann, S. Schartner, M. Nobile, W. Schrenk, M. P. Semtsiv, M. Wienold, W. T. Masselink, and G. Strasser, “Low divergence single-mode surface emitting quantum cascade ring lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(16), 161101 (2008).
[Crossref]

E. Mujagić, S. Schartner, L. K. Hoffmann, W. Schrenk, M. P. Semtsiv, M. Wienold, W. T. Masselink, and G. Strasser, “Grating-coupled surface emitting quantum cascade ring lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(1), 011108 (2008).
[Crossref]

Sung, K.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Szabó, G.

A. Varga, Z. Bozóki, M. Szakáll, and G. Szabó, “Photoacoustic system for on-line process monitoring of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) concentration in natural gas streams,” Appl. Phys. B 85(2), 315–321 (2006).
[Crossref]

Szakáll, M.

A. Varga, Z. Bozóki, M. Szakáll, and G. Szabó, “Photoacoustic system for on-line process monitoring of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) concentration in natural gas streams,” Appl. Phys. B 85(2), 315–321 (2006).
[Crossref]

Szedlak, R.

A. Harrer, R. Szedlak, B. Schwarz, H. Moser, T. Zederbauer, D. MacFarland, H. Detz, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, B. Lendl, and G. Strasser, “Mid-infrared surface transmitting and detecting quantum cascade device for gas-sensing,” Sci. Rep. 6, 21795 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Szedlak, C. Schwarzer, T. Zederbauer, H. Detz, A. Maxwell Andrews, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “On-chip focusing in the mid-infrared: Demonstrated with ring quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(15), 151105 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Schwarzer, R. Szedlak, S. Il Ahn, T. Zederbauer, H. Detz, A. Maxwell Andrews, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Linearly polarized light from substrate emitting ring cavity quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(8), 081101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Taran, C.

Tardy, C.

Y. Bidaux, A. Bismuto, C. Tardy, R. Terazzi, T. Gresch, S. Blaser, A. Muller, and J. Faist, “Extended and quasi-continuous tuning of quantum cascade lasers using superstructure gratings and integrated heaters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(22), 29715–29722 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Bismuto, Y. Bidaux, C. Tardy, R. Terazzi, T. Gresch, J. Wolf, S. Blaser, A. Muller, and J. Faist, “Extended tuning of mid-ir quantum cascade lasers using integrated resistive heaters,” Opt. Express 23(23), 29715–29722 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tashkun, S.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Tatam, R. P.

J. Hodgkinson and R. P. Tatam, “Optical gas sensing: a review,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 24(1), 012004 (2013).
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Tennyson, J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Terazzi, R.

Y. Bidaux, A. Bismuto, C. Tardy, R. Terazzi, T. Gresch, S. Blaser, A. Muller, and J. Faist, “Extended and quasi-continuous tuning of quantum cascade lasers using superstructure gratings and integrated heaters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(22), 29715–29722 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Bismuto, Y. Bidaux, C. Tardy, R. Terazzi, T. Gresch, J. Wolf, S. Blaser, A. Muller, and J. Faist, “Extended tuning of mid-ir quantum cascade lasers using integrated resistive heaters,” Opt. Express 23(23), 29715–29722 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tittel, F. K.

J. P. Waclawek, R. Lewicki, H. Moser, M. Brandstetter, F. K. Tittel, and B. Lendl, “Quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy-based sensor system for sulfur dioxide detection using a CW DFB-QCL,” Appl. Phys. B 117(1), 113–120 (2014).
[Crossref]

W. Chen, A. A. Kosterev, F. K. Tittel, X. Gao, and W. Zhao, “H2S trace concentration measurements using off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy in the near-infrared,” Appl. Phys. B 90(2), 311–315 (2008).
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G. Wysocki, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, R. Maulini, J. M. Bulliard, and J. Faist, “Widely tunable mode-hop free external cavity quantum cascade laser for high resolution spectroscopic applications,” Appl. Phys. B 81(6), 769–777 (2005).
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D. Weidmann, F. K. Tittel, T. Aellen, M. Beck, D. Hofstetter, J. Faist, and S. Blaser, “Mid-infrared trace-gas sensing with a quasi- continuous-wave Peltier-cooled distributed feedback quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. B 79(7), 907–913 (2004).
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Tomischko, W.

C. Reidl-Leuthner, J. Ofner, W. Tomischko, H. Lohninger, and B. Lendl, “Simultaneous open-path determination of road side mono-nitrogen oxides employing mid-IR laser spectroscopy,” Atmos. Environ. 112(2), 189–195 (2015).
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C. Reidl-Leuthner, A. Viernstein, K. Wieland, W. Tomischko, L. Sass, G. Kinger, J. Ofner, and B. Lendl, “Quasi-simultaneous in-line flue gas monitoring of NO and NO₂ emissions at a caloric power plant employing mid-IR laser spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 86(18), 9058–9064 (2014).
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Toon, G. C.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Trinite, V.

M. Carras, G. Maisons, B. Simozrag, V. Trinite, M. Brun, G. Grand, P. Labeye, and S. Nicoletti, “Monolithic tunable single source in the mid-IR for spectroscopy,” Proc. SPIE 8631, 863113 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tuzson, B.

Tyuterev, V. G.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Uhmann, W.

Um, J.

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van Helden, J. H.

J. H. van Helden, N. Lang, U. Macherius, H. Zimmermann, and J. Röpcke, “Sensitive trace gas detection with cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy using a continuous wave external-cavity quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(13), 131114 (2013).
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Varga, A.

A. Varga, Z. Bozóki, M. Szakáll, and G. Szabó, “Photoacoustic system for on-line process monitoring of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) concentration in natural gas streams,” Appl. Phys. B 85(2), 315–321 (2006).
[Crossref]

Viernstein, A.

C. Reidl-Leuthner, A. Viernstein, K. Wieland, W. Tomischko, L. Sass, G. Kinger, J. Ofner, and B. Lendl, “Quasi-simultaneous in-line flue gas monitoring of NO and NO₂ emissions at a caloric power plant employing mid-IR laser spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 86(18), 9058–9064 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Waclawek, J. P.

J. P. Waclawek, R. Lewicki, H. Moser, M. Brandstetter, F. K. Tittel, and B. Lendl, “Quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy-based sensor system for sulfur dioxide detection using a CW DFB-QCL,” Appl. Phys. B 117(1), 113–120 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wagner, G.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Wang, W.

Y. Wang, M. G. Soskind, W. Wang, and G. Wysocki, “High-resolution multi-heterodyne spectroscopy based on Fabry-Perot quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(3), 031114 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.

Y. Wang, M. G. Soskind, W. Wang, and G. Wysocki, “High-resolution multi-heterodyne spectroscopy based on Fabry-Perot quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(3), 031114 (2014).
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Z. Liu and D. Wasserman, “Room-temperature continuous-wave quantum cascade lasers grown by MOCVD without lateral regrowth,” Photonics 18(12), 1347–1349 (2006).

Weidmann, D.

D. Weidmann, F. K. Tittel, T. Aellen, M. Beck, D. Hofstetter, J. Faist, and S. Blaser, “Mid-infrared trace-gas sensing with a quasi- continuous-wave Peltier-cooled distributed feedback quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. B 79(7), 907–913 (2004).
[Crossref]

Weil, J. M.

Wieland, K.

C. Reidl-Leuthner, A. Viernstein, K. Wieland, W. Tomischko, L. Sass, G. Kinger, J. Ofner, and B. Lendl, “Quasi-simultaneous in-line flue gas monitoring of NO and NO₂ emissions at a caloric power plant employing mid-IR laser spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 86(18), 9058–9064 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wienold, M.

E. Mujagić, S. Schartner, L. K. Hoffmann, W. Schrenk, M. P. Semtsiv, M. Wienold, W. T. Masselink, and G. Strasser, “Grating-coupled surface emitting quantum cascade ring lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(1), 011108 (2008).
[Crossref]

E. Mujagić, L. K. Hoffmann, S. Schartner, M. Nobile, W. Schrenk, M. P. Semtsiv, M. Wienold, W. T. Masselink, and G. Strasser, “Low divergence single-mode surface emitting quantum cascade ring lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(16), 161101 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wittmann, A.

B. G. Lee, H. Zhang, C. Pflugl, L. Diehl, M. Belkin, M. Fischer, A. Wittmann, J. Faist, and F. Capasso, “Broadband Distributed-Feedback Quantum Cascade Laser Array Operating From 8.0 to 9.8 μm,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(13), 914–916 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wofsy, S. C.

B. H. Lee, E. C. Wood, M. S. Zahniser, J. B. McManus, D. D. Nelson, S. C. Herndon, G. W. Santoni, S. C. Wofsy, and J. W. Munger, “Simultaneous measurements of atmospheric HONO and NO2 via absorption spectroscopy using tunable mid-infrared continuous-wave quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. (Berl.) 2, 417-423 (2010).

Wolf, J.

Wood, E. C.

B. H. Lee, E. C. Wood, M. S. Zahniser, J. B. McManus, D. D. Nelson, S. C. Herndon, G. W. Santoni, S. C. Wofsy, and J. W. Munger, “Simultaneous measurements of atmospheric HONO and NO2 via absorption spectroscopy using tunable mid-infrared continuous-wave quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. (Berl.) 2, 417-423 (2010).

Wysocki, G.

Y. Wang, M. G. Soskind, W. Wang, and G. Wysocki, “High-resolution multi-heterodyne spectroscopy based on Fabry-Perot quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(3), 031114 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Wysocki, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, R. Maulini, J. M. Bulliard, and J. Faist, “Widely tunable mode-hop free external cavity quantum cascade laser for high resolution spectroscopic applications,” Appl. Phys. B 81(6), 769–777 (2005).
[Crossref]

Yao, Y.

E. Mujagić, C. Schwarzer, Y. Yao, J. Chen, C. Gmachl, and G. Strasser, “Two-dimensional broadband distributed-feedback quantum cascade laser arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(14), 141101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zahniser, M. S.

J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, and D. D. Nelson, “Dual quantum cascade laser trace gas instrument with astigmatic Herriott cell at high pass number,” Appl. Opt. 50(4), A74–A85 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. H. Lee, E. C. Wood, M. S. Zahniser, J. B. McManus, D. D. Nelson, S. C. Herndon, G. W. Santoni, S. C. Wofsy, and J. W. Munger, “Simultaneous measurements of atmospheric HONO and NO2 via absorption spectroscopy using tunable mid-infrared continuous-wave quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. (Berl.) 2, 417-423 (2010).

J. B. McManus, D. D. Nelson, S. C. Herndon, J. H. Shorter, M. S. Zahniser, S. Blaser, L. Hvozdara, A. Muller, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, “Comparison of cw and pulsed operation with a TE-cooled quantum cascade infrared laser for detection of nitric oxide at 1900 cm-1,” Appl. Phys. (Berl.) 85(2), 235–241 (2006).
[Crossref]

Zahniser, M. S. M.

Zederbauer, T.

A. Harrer, R. Szedlak, B. Schwarz, H. Moser, T. Zederbauer, D. MacFarland, H. Detz, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, B. Lendl, and G. Strasser, “Mid-infrared surface transmitting and detecting quantum cascade device for gas-sensing,” Sci. Rep. 6, 21795 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Szedlak, C. Schwarzer, T. Zederbauer, H. Detz, A. Maxwell Andrews, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “On-chip focusing in the mid-infrared: Demonstrated with ring quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(15), 151105 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Schwarzer, R. Szedlak, S. Il Ahn, T. Zederbauer, H. Detz, A. Maxwell Andrews, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Linearly polarized light from substrate emitting ring cavity quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(8), 081101 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. Schwarz, P. Reininger, H. Detz, T. Zederbauer, A. Maxwell Andrews, S. Kalchmair, W. Schrenk, O. Baumgartner, H. Kosina, and G. Strasser, “A bi-functional quantum cascade device for same-frequency lasing and detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(19), 191109 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhang, H.

B. G. Lee, M. Belkin, C. Pflugl, L. Diehl, H. Zhang, R. M. Audet, J. MacArthur, D. P. Bour, S. W. Corzine, G. E. Hufler, and F. Capasso, “DFB Quantum Cascade Laser Arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(5), 554–565 (2009).
[Crossref]

B. G. Lee, H. Zhang, C. Pflugl, L. Diehl, M. Belkin, M. Fischer, A. Wittmann, J. Faist, and F. Capasso, “Broadband Distributed-Feedback Quantum Cascade Laser Array Operating From 8.0 to 9.8 μm,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(13), 914–916 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhao, W.

W. Chen, A. A. Kosterev, F. K. Tittel, X. Gao, and W. Zhao, “H2S trace concentration measurements using off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy in the near-infrared,” Appl. Phys. B 90(2), 311–315 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zimmermann, H.

J. H. van Helden, N. Lang, U. Macherius, H. Zimmermann, and J. Röpcke, “Sensitive trace gas detection with cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy using a continuous wave external-cavity quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(13), 131114 (2013).
[Crossref]

Anal. Chem. (2)

B. Lendl, J. Frank, R. Schindler, A. Müller, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers for flow injection analysis,” Anal. Chem. 72(7), 1645–1648 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Reidl-Leuthner, A. Viernstein, K. Wieland, W. Tomischko, L. Sass, G. Kinger, J. Ofner, and B. Lendl, “Quasi-simultaneous in-line flue gas monitoring of NO and NO₂ emissions at a caloric power plant employing mid-IR laser spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 86(18), 9058–9064 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys. (Berl.) (2)

B. H. Lee, E. C. Wood, M. S. Zahniser, J. B. McManus, D. D. Nelson, S. C. Herndon, G. W. Santoni, S. C. Wofsy, and J. W. Munger, “Simultaneous measurements of atmospheric HONO and NO2 via absorption spectroscopy using tunable mid-infrared continuous-wave quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. (Berl.) 2, 417-423 (2010).

J. B. McManus, D. D. Nelson, S. C. Herndon, J. H. Shorter, M. S. Zahniser, S. Blaser, L. Hvozdara, A. Muller, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, “Comparison of cw and pulsed operation with a TE-cooled quantum cascade infrared laser for detection of nitric oxide at 1900 cm-1,” Appl. Phys. (Berl.) 85(2), 235–241 (2006).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. B (7)

J. P. Waclawek, R. Lewicki, H. Moser, M. Brandstetter, F. K. Tittel, and B. Lendl, “Quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy-based sensor system for sulfur dioxide detection using a CW DFB-QCL,” Appl. Phys. B 117(1), 113–120 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Kuligowski, G. Quintás, and B. Lendl, “High performance liquid chromatography with on-line dual quantum cascade laser detection for the determination of carbohydrates, alcohols and organic acids in wine and grape juice,” Appl. Phys. B 99(4), 833–840 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. Wysocki, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, R. Maulini, J. M. Bulliard, and J. Faist, “Widely tunable mode-hop free external cavity quantum cascade laser for high resolution spectroscopic applications,” Appl. Phys. B 81(6), 769–777 (2005).
[Crossref]

D. Weidmann, F. K. Tittel, T. Aellen, M. Beck, D. Hofstetter, J. Faist, and S. Blaser, “Mid-infrared trace-gas sensing with a quasi- continuous-wave Peltier-cooled distributed feedback quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. B 79(7), 907–913 (2004).
[Crossref]

W. Chen, A. A. Kosterev, F. K. Tittel, X. Gao, and W. Zhao, “H2S trace concentration measurements using off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy in the near-infrared,” Appl. Phys. B 90(2), 311–315 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Foltynowicz, F. M. Schmidt, W. Ma, and O. Axner, “Noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectroscopy: Current status and future potential,” Appl. Phys. B 92(3), 313–326 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Varga, Z. Bozóki, M. Szakáll, and G. Szabó, “Photoacoustic system for on-line process monitoring of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) concentration in natural gas streams,” Appl. Phys. B 85(2), 315–321 (2006).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (15)

S. Slivken, N. Bandyopadhyay, Y. Bai, Q. Y. Lu, and M. Razeghi, “Extended electrical tuning of quantum cascade lasers with digital concatenated gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(23), 231110 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Bidaux, A. Bismuto, C. Tardy, R. Terazzi, T. Gresch, S. Blaser, A. Muller, and J. Faist, “Extended and quasi-continuous tuning of quantum cascade lasers using superstructure gratings and integrated heaters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(22), 29715–29722 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Slivken, S. Sengupta, and M. Razeghi, “High power continuous operation of a widely tunable quantum cascade laser with an integrated amplifier,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(25), 251101 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, M. G. Soskind, W. Wang, and G. Wysocki, “High-resolution multi-heterodyne spectroscopy based on Fabry-Perot quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(3), 031114 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Faist, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, C. Sirtori, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, and A. Y. Cho, “Distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(20), 2670 (1997).
[Crossref]

G. P. Luo, C. Peng, H. Q. Le, S. S. Pei, W.-Y. Hwang, B. Ishaug, J. Um, J. N. Baillargeon, and C.-H. Lin, “Grating-tuned external-cavity quantum-cascade semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(19), 2834 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. H. van Helden, N. Lang, U. Macherius, H. Zimmermann, and J. Röpcke, “Sensitive trace gas detection with cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy using a continuous wave external-cavity quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(13), 131114 (2013).
[Crossref]

E. Mujagić, S. Schartner, L. K. Hoffmann, W. Schrenk, M. P. Semtsiv, M. Wienold, W. T. Masselink, and G. Strasser, “Grating-coupled surface emitting quantum cascade ring lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(1), 011108 (2008).
[Crossref]

E. Mujagić, L. K. Hoffmann, S. Schartner, M. Nobile, W. Schrenk, M. P. Semtsiv, M. Wienold, W. T. Masselink, and G. Strasser, “Low divergence single-mode surface emitting quantum cascade ring lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(16), 161101 (2008).
[Crossref]

E. Mujagić, M. Nobile, H. Detz, W. Schrenk, J. Chen, C. Gmachl, and G. Strasser, “Ring cavity induced threshold reduction in single-mode surface emitting quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(3), 031111 (2010).
[Crossref]

E. Mujagić, C. Schwarzer, Y. Yao, J. Chen, C. Gmachl, and G. Strasser, “Two-dimensional broadband distributed-feedback quantum cascade laser arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(14), 141101 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. Schwarzer, E. Mujagić, S. Il Ahn, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, W. Charles, C. Gmachl, and G. Strasser, “Grating duty-cycle induced enhancement of substrate emission from ring cavity quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(19), 191103 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Schwarzer, R. Szedlak, S. Il Ahn, T. Zederbauer, H. Detz, A. Maxwell Andrews, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Linearly polarized light from substrate emitting ring cavity quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(8), 081101 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Szedlak, C. Schwarzer, T. Zederbauer, H. Detz, A. Maxwell Andrews, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “On-chip focusing in the mid-infrared: Demonstrated with ring quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(15), 151105 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. Schwarz, P. Reininger, H. Detz, T. Zederbauer, A. Maxwell Andrews, S. Kalchmair, W. Schrenk, O. Baumgartner, H. Kosina, and G. Strasser, “A bi-functional quantum cascade device for same-frequency lasing and detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(19), 191109 (2012).
[Crossref]

Appl. Spectrosc. (3)

Atmos. Environ. (1)

C. Reidl-Leuthner, J. Ofner, W. Tomischko, H. Lohninger, and B. Lendl, “Simultaneous open-path determination of road side mono-nitrogen oxides employing mid-IR laser spectroscopy,” Atmos. Environ. 112(2), 189–195 (2015).
[Crossref]

Atmos. Oceanic Opt. (1)

S. N. Mikhailenko, Y. L. Babikov, and V. F. Golovko, “Information-calculating system Spectroscopy of Atmospheric Gases. The structure and main functions,” Atmos. Oceanic Opt. 18(9), 685–695 (2005).

Environ. Res. Pap. (1)

R. A. McClatchey, W. S. Benedict, S. A. Clough, D. E. Burch, R. F. Calfee, K. Fox, L. S. Rothman, and J. S. Garing, “AFCRL atmospheric absorption line parameters compilation,” Environ. Res. Pap. 434, 1–86 (1973).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

B. G. Lee, M. Belkin, C. Pflugl, L. Diehl, H. Zhang, R. M. Audet, J. MacArthur, D. P. Bour, S. W. Corzine, G. E. Hufler, and F. Capasso, “DFB Quantum Cascade Laser Arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(5), 554–565 (2009).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

B. G. Lee, H. Zhang, C. Pflugl, L. Diehl, M. Belkin, M. Fischer, A. Wittmann, J. Faist, and F. Capasso, “Broadband Distributed-Feedback Quantum Cascade Laser Array Operating From 8.0 to 9.8 μm,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(13), 914–916 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. (1)

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

J. Hodgkinson and R. P. Tatam, “Optical gas sensing: a review,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 24(1), 012004 (2013).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Photonics (1)

Z. Liu and D. Wasserman, “Room-temperature continuous-wave quantum cascade lasers grown by MOCVD without lateral regrowth,” Photonics 18(12), 1347–1349 (2006).

Proc. SPIE (1)

M. Carras, G. Maisons, B. Simozrag, V. Trinite, M. Brun, G. Grand, P. Labeye, and S. Nicoletti, “Monolithic tunable single source in the mid-IR for spectroscopy,” Proc. SPIE 8631, 863113 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (1)

A. Harrer, R. Szedlak, B. Schwarz, H. Moser, T. Zederbauer, D. MacFarland, H. Detz, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, B. Lendl, and G. Strasser, “Mid-infrared surface transmitting and detecting quantum cascade device for gas-sensing,” Sci. Rep. 6, 21795 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (5)

J. Buus, M.-C. Amann, and D. J. Blumenthal, Tunable Laser Diodes and Related Optical Sources (Wiley-Interscience, 2005).

H. Siebert, Anwendungen der Schwingungsspektroskopie in der Anorganischen Chemie (Springer Verlag, 1966).

H. a. Jahn, “A New Coriolis Perturbation in the Methane Spectrum. I. Vibrational-Rotational Hamiltonian and Wave Functions,” Proc. R. Soc. A Math. Phys. Eng. Sci. 168(935), 469–495 (1938).
[Crossref]

F. Schmidt, Laser-based Absorption Spectrometry - Development of NICE-OHMS Towards Ultra-sensitive Trace Species Detection (2007).

B. Neidhart and W. Wegscheider, Quality in chemical measurements (Springer Science and Business Media, 2001).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic (a) and actual picture (b) of the optical setup. M…mirrors, L…lenses and, OAP M…off axis parabolic mirrors.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Accesible linestrenghts of H2S and CH4 in the 1236-1227 cm−1 spectral region. For 300 ns pulses, the accessible spectral range was limited to 1235.4-1233.8 cm−1
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Different achievable tuning ranges and intra-pulse characteristics for low current 300 ns (a), medium current 300 ns (b), high current 300 ns (c), low current 3 µs (d), medium current 3 µs (e) and high current 3 µs RCSE-QCL pulses (f).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 A 3 µs long pulse with 98%v H2S and 5%v CH4 in the 5 cm reference cells at 50 mbar along with the tuning logarithmic fit.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Resulting absorption spectrum with the different analyte contributions of H2S and CH4 (top and middle) and the according linestrengths of the contributing analytes (bottom).
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) Short 200 ns pulses with 500 ppmv H2S at different cell pressures and the resulting absorption spectra (inset); (b) Experimental data and HITRAN simulation of a short 200 ns pulse with 500 ppmv H2S at 200 mbar cell pressure demonstrating low pressure resolution of the ro-vibrational features.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 3 µs pulses with different CH4 concentrations (a) and 3 µs pulse with constant 500 ppmv CH4 and different H2S concentrations (b). The cell pressure was held constant at 500 mbar.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Experimental data and HITRAN simulation of the intrapulse tuning of a 3 µs pulse with contributions of 500ppmv CH4 and 1000ppmv H2S at 500 mbar.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 (a) Short 300ns pulses with different H2S concentrations; (b) Resulting absorption spectra from intra-pulse transmission signals.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Calibration curve of 0-25 ppmv H2S. The calculated LOD was ~1.5 ppmv.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Main ro-vibrational transitions of the ν2 bending-mode of H2S in the spectral region 1236-1227 cm−1.

Equations (1)

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v(t)= v 0 αln(t+β),

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