Abstract

Split ring resonators have been studied extensively in reconstituting the diminishing magnetism at high electromagnetic frequencies in nature. However, breakdown in the linear scaling of artificial magnetism is found to occur at the near-infrared frequency mainly due to the increasing contribution of self-inductance while reducing dimensions of the resonators. Although alternative designs have enabled artificial magnetism at optical frequencies, their sophisticated configurations and fabrication procedures do not lend themselves to easy implementation. Here, we report scalable nanofabrication of U-shaped nanowire resonators (UNWRs) using the high-throughput nanotransfer printing method. By providing ample area for conducting oscillating electric current, UNWRs overcome the saturation of the geometric scaling of the artificial magnetism. We experimentally demonstrated coarse and fine tuning of LC resonances over a wide wavelength range from 748 nm to 1600 nm. The added flexibility in transferring to other substrates makes UNWR a versatile building block for creating functional metamaterials in three dimensions.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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2015 (2)

A. Pors, S. K. H. Andersen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Unidirectional scattering by nanoparticles near substrates: generalized Kerker conditions,” Opt. Express 23(22), 28808–28828 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. C. Chen, A. Ishikawa, Y. H. Tang, M. H. Shiao, D. P. Tsai, and T. Tanaka, “Uniaxial-isotropic metamaterials by three-dimensional split-ring resonators,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(1), 44–48 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

A. I. Kuznetsov, A. E. Miroshnichenko, Y. H. Fu, V. Viswanathan, M. Rahmani, V. Valuckas, Z. Y. Pan, Y. Kivshar, D. S. Pickard, and B. Luk’yanchuk, “Split-ball resonator as a three-dimensional analogue of planar split-rings,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3104 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (4)

F. Shafiei, F. Monticone, K. Q. Le, X. X. Liu, T. Hartsfield, A. Alù, and X. Li, “A subwavelength plasmonic metamolecule exhibiting magnetic-based optical Fano resonance,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8(2), 95–99 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Shi, J. T. Harris, R. Fenollosa, I. Rodriguez, X. Lu, B. A. Korgel, and F. Meseguer, “Monodisperse silicon nanocavities and photonic crystals with magnetic response in the optical region,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1904 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zhou, X. Y. Chen, Y. H. Fu, G. Vienne, A. I. Kuznetsov, and B. Luk’yanchuk, “Fabrication of large-area 3D optical fishnet metamaterial by laser interference lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(12), 123116 (2013).
[Crossref]

I. Staude, M. Decker, M. J. Ventura, C. Jagadish, D. N. Neshev, M. Gu, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Hybrid high-Resolution Three-Dimensional Nanofabrication for Metamaterials and Nanoplasmonics,” Adv. Mater. 25(9), 1260–1264 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

A. B. Evlyukhin, S. M. Novikov, U. Zywietz, R. L. Eriksen, C. Reinhardt, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, and B. N. Chichkov, “Demonstration of magnetic dipole resonances of dielectric nanospheres in the visible region,” Nano Lett. 12(7), 3749–3755 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. I. Kuznetsov, A. E. Miroshnichenko, Y. H. Fu, J. Zhang, and B. Luk’yanchuk, “Magnetic light,” Sci. Rep. 2, 492 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (5)

D. Bhandari, I. I. Kravchenko, N. V. Lavrik, and M. J. Sepaniak, “Nanotransfer printing using plasma etched silicon stamps and mediated by in situ deposited fluoropolymer,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 133(20), 7722–7724 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Chanda, K. Shigeta, S. Gupta, T. Cain, A. Carlson, A. Mihi, A. J. Baca, G. R. Bogart, P. Braun, and J. A. Rogers, “Large-area flexible 3D optical negative index metamaterial formed by nanotransfer printing,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(7), 402–407 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. T. Chen, C. J. Chen, P. C. Wu, S. Sun, L. Zhou, G. Y. Guo, C. T. Hsiao, K. Y. Yang, N. I. Zheludev, and D. P. Tsai, “Optical magnetic response in three-dimensional metamaterial of upright plasmonic meta-molecules,” Opt. Express 19(13), 12837–12842 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Liu and X. Zhang, “Metamaterials: a new frontier of science and technology,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 40(5), 2494–2507 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Zhou, Y. Bao, W. Cao, C. T. Stuart, J. Gu, W. Zhang, and C. Sun, “Hiding a realistic object using a broadband terahertz invisibility cloak,” Sci. Rep. 1, 78 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (4)

J. A. Fan, C. Wu, K. Bao, J. Bao, R. Bardhan, N. J. Halas, V. N. Manoharan, P. Nordlander, G. Shvets, and F. Capasso, “Self-assembled plasmonic nanoparticle clusters,” Science 328(5982), 1135–1138 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. P. Burgos, R. de Waele, A. Polman, and H. A. Atwater, “A single-layer wide-angle negative-index metamaterial at visible frequencies,” Nat. Mater. 9(5), 407–412 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Y. Chiam, R. Singh, W. Zhang, and A. A. Bettiol, “Controlling metamaterial resonances via dielectric and aspect ratio effects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(19), 191906 (2010).
[Crossref]

C. Stuart, H. K. Park, and Y. Chen, “Fabrication of a 3D nanoscale crossbar circuit by nanotransfer-printing lithography,” Small 6(15), 1663–1668 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (4)

O. Sydoruk, E. Tatartschuk, E. Shamonina, and L. Solymar, “Analytical formulation for the resonant frequency of split rings,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(1), 014903 (2009).
[Crossref]

R. Liu, C. Ji, J. J. Mock, J. Y. Chin, T. J. Cui, and D. R. Smith, “Broadband ground-plane cloak,” Science 323(5912), 366–369 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Valentine, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “An optical cloak made of dielectrics,” Nat. Mater. 8(7), 568–571 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Y. Chiam, R. Singh, J. Gu, J. Han, W. Zhang, and A. A. Bettiol, “Increased frequency shifts in high aspect ratio terahertz split ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(6), 064102 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (3)

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207402 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. D. Corrigan, P. W. Kolb, A. B. Sushkov, H. D. Drew, D. C. Schmadel, and R. J. Phaneuf, “Optical plasmonic resonances in split-ring resonator structures: an improved LC model,” Opt. Express 16(24), 19850–19864 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Alù and N. Engheta, “Dynamical theory of artificial optical magnetism produced by rings of plasmonic nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. B 78(8), 085112 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (5)

H. K. Yuan, U. K. Chettiar, W. Cai, A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, “A negative permeability material at red light,” Opt. Express 15(3), 1076–1083 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Guo, N. Liu, L. Fu, H. Schweizer, S. Kaiser, and H. Giessen, “Thickness dependence of the optical properties of split-ring resonator metamaterials,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 244(4), 1256–1261 (2007).
[Crossref]

Z. Liu, H. Lee, Y. Xiong, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Far-field optical hyperlens magnifying sub-diffraction-limited objects,” Science 315(5819), 1686 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. M. Soukoulis, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Physics. Negative refractive index at optical wavelengths,” Science 315(5808), 47–49 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Schweizer, L. Fu, H. Gräbeldinger, H. Guo, N. Liu, S. Kaiser, and H. Giessen, “Negative permeability around 630 nm in nanofabricated vertical meander metamaterials,” Phys. Stat. Sol. a 204(11), 3886–3900 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

2005 (5)

V. M. Shalaev, W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, H. K. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, V. P. Drachev, and A. V. Kildishev, “Negative index of refraction in optical metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 30(24), 3356–3358 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(13), 137404 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. F. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic metamaterials at telecommunication and visible frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(20), 203901 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Zhou, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, J. B. Pendry, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Saturation of the magnetic response of split-ring resonators at optical frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(22), 223902 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens,” Science 308(5721), 534–537 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (3)

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science 303(5663), 1494–1496 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz,” Science 306(5700), 1351–1353 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. H. Hur, D. Y. Khang, C. Kocabas, and J. A. Rogers, “Nanotransfer printing by use of noncovalent surface forces: Applications to thin-film transistors that use single-walled carbon nanotube networks and semiconducting polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(23), 5730 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

J. Zaumseil, M. A. Meitl, J. W. P. Hsu, B. R. Acharya, K. W. Baldwin, Y. L. Loo, and J. A. Rogers, “Three-dimensional and multilayer nanostructures formed by nanotransfer printing,” Nano Lett. 3(9), 1223–1227 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

V. A. Podolskiy, A. K. Sarychev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Plasmon modes in metal nanowires and left-handed materials,” J. Nonlinear. Opt. Phys. 11(01), 65–74 (2002).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(18), 4184–4187 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, “Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena,” IEEE T. Microw. Theory 47(11), 2075–2084 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

Acharya, B. R.

J. Zaumseil, M. A. Meitl, J. W. P. Hsu, B. R. Acharya, K. W. Baldwin, Y. L. Loo, and J. A. Rogers, “Three-dimensional and multilayer nanostructures formed by nanotransfer printing,” Nano Lett. 3(9), 1223–1227 (2003).
[Crossref]

Alù, A.

F. Shafiei, F. Monticone, K. Q. Le, X. X. Liu, T. Hartsfield, A. Alù, and X. Li, “A subwavelength plasmonic metamolecule exhibiting magnetic-based optical Fano resonance,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8(2), 95–99 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Alù and N. Engheta, “Dynamical theory of artificial optical magnetism produced by rings of plasmonic nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. B 78(8), 085112 (2008).
[Crossref]

Andersen, S. K. H.

Atwater, H. A.

S. P. Burgos, R. de Waele, A. Polman, and H. A. Atwater, “A single-layer wide-angle negative-index metamaterial at visible frequencies,” Nat. Mater. 9(5), 407–412 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baca, A. J.

D. Chanda, K. Shigeta, S. Gupta, T. Cain, A. Carlson, A. Mihi, A. J. Baca, G. R. Bogart, P. Braun, and J. A. Rogers, “Large-area flexible 3D optical negative index metamaterial formed by nanotransfer printing,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(7), 402–407 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baldwin, K. W.

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J. A. Fan, C. Wu, K. Bao, J. Bao, R. Bardhan, N. J. Halas, V. N. Manoharan, P. Nordlander, G. Shvets, and F. Capasso, “Self-assembled plasmonic nanoparticle clusters,” Science 328(5982), 1135–1138 (2010).
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F. Zhou, Y. Bao, W. Cao, C. T. Stuart, J. Gu, W. Zhang, and C. Sun, “Hiding a realistic object using a broadband terahertz invisibility cloak,” Sci. Rep. 1, 78 (2011).
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S. Y. Chiam, R. Singh, W. Zhang, and A. A. Bettiol, “Controlling metamaterial resonances via dielectric and aspect ratio effects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(19), 191906 (2010).
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S. Y. Chiam, R. Singh, J. Gu, J. Han, W. Zhang, and A. A. Bettiol, “Increased frequency shifts in high aspect ratio terahertz split ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(6), 064102 (2009).
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D. Bhandari, I. I. Kravchenko, N. V. Lavrik, and M. J. Sepaniak, “Nanotransfer printing using plasma etched silicon stamps and mediated by in situ deposited fluoropolymer,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 133(20), 7722–7724 (2011).
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Bogart, G. R.

D. Chanda, K. Shigeta, S. Gupta, T. Cain, A. Carlson, A. Mihi, A. J. Baca, G. R. Bogart, P. Braun, and J. A. Rogers, “Large-area flexible 3D optical negative index metamaterial formed by nanotransfer printing,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(7), 402–407 (2011).
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Braun, P.

D. Chanda, K. Shigeta, S. Gupta, T. Cain, A. Carlson, A. Mihi, A. J. Baca, G. R. Bogart, P. Braun, and J. A. Rogers, “Large-area flexible 3D optical negative index metamaterial formed by nanotransfer printing,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(7), 402–407 (2011).
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S. Zhang, W. Fan, K. J. Malloy, S. R. J. Brueck, N. C. Panoiu, and R. M. Osgood, “Demonstration of metal-dielectric negative-index metamaterials with improved performance at optical frequencies,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23(3), 434–438 (2006).
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S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(13), 137404 (2005).
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S. P. Burgos, R. de Waele, A. Polman, and H. A. Atwater, “A single-layer wide-angle negative-index metamaterial at visible frequencies,” Nat. Mater. 9(5), 407–412 (2010).
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F. Zhou, Y. Bao, W. Cao, C. T. Stuart, J. Gu, W. Zhang, and C. Sun, “Hiding a realistic object using a broadband terahertz invisibility cloak,” Sci. Rep. 1, 78 (2011).
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J. A. Fan, C. Wu, K. Bao, J. Bao, R. Bardhan, N. J. Halas, V. N. Manoharan, P. Nordlander, G. Shvets, and F. Capasso, “Self-assembled plasmonic nanoparticle clusters,” Science 328(5982), 1135–1138 (2010).
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D. Chanda, K. Shigeta, S. Gupta, T. Cain, A. Carlson, A. Mihi, A. J. Baca, G. R. Bogart, P. Braun, and J. A. Rogers, “Large-area flexible 3D optical negative index metamaterial formed by nanotransfer printing,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(7), 402–407 (2011).
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Chen, W. T.

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Y. Zhou, X. Y. Chen, Y. H. Fu, G. Vienne, A. I. Kuznetsov, and B. Luk’yanchuk, “Fabrication of large-area 3D optical fishnet metamaterial by laser interference lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(12), 123116 (2013).
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Chiam, S. Y.

S. Y. Chiam, R. Singh, W. Zhang, and A. A. Bettiol, “Controlling metamaterial resonances via dielectric and aspect ratio effects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(19), 191906 (2010).
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S. Y. Chiam, R. Singh, J. Gu, J. Han, W. Zhang, and A. A. Bettiol, “Increased frequency shifts in high aspect ratio terahertz split ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(6), 064102 (2009).
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Chichkov, B. N.

A. B. Evlyukhin, S. M. Novikov, U. Zywietz, R. L. Eriksen, C. Reinhardt, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, and B. N. Chichkov, “Demonstration of magnetic dipole resonances of dielectric nanospheres in the visible region,” Nano Lett. 12(7), 3749–3755 (2012).
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Chin, J. Y.

R. Liu, C. Ji, J. J. Mock, J. Y. Chin, T. J. Cui, and D. R. Smith, “Broadband ground-plane cloak,” Science 323(5912), 366–369 (2009).
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Cui, T. J.

R. Liu, C. Ji, J. J. Mock, J. Y. Chin, T. J. Cui, and D. R. Smith, “Broadband ground-plane cloak,” Science 323(5912), 366–369 (2009).
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de Waele, R.

S. P. Burgos, R. de Waele, A. Polman, and H. A. Atwater, “A single-layer wide-angle negative-index metamaterial at visible frequencies,” Nat. Mater. 9(5), 407–412 (2010).
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I. Staude, M. Decker, M. J. Ventura, C. Jagadish, D. N. Neshev, M. Gu, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Hybrid high-Resolution Three-Dimensional Nanofabrication for Metamaterials and Nanoplasmonics,” Adv. Mater. 25(9), 1260–1264 (2013).
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Drew, H. D.

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S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz,” Science 306(5700), 1351–1353 (2004).
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A. B. Evlyukhin, S. M. Novikov, U. Zywietz, R. L. Eriksen, C. Reinhardt, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, and B. N. Chichkov, “Demonstration of magnetic dipole resonances of dielectric nanospheres in the visible region,” Nano Lett. 12(7), 3749–3755 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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A. B. Evlyukhin, S. M. Novikov, U. Zywietz, R. L. Eriksen, C. Reinhardt, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, and B. N. Chichkov, “Demonstration of magnetic dipole resonances of dielectric nanospheres in the visible region,” Nano Lett. 12(7), 3749–3755 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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J. A. Fan, C. Wu, K. Bao, J. Bao, R. Bardhan, N. J. Halas, V. N. Manoharan, P. Nordlander, G. Shvets, and F. Capasso, “Self-assembled plasmonic nanoparticle clusters,” Science 328(5982), 1135–1138 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fan, W.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, K. J. Malloy, S. R. J. Brueck, N. C. Panoiu, and R. M. Osgood, “Demonstration of metal-dielectric negative-index metamaterials with improved performance at optical frequencies,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23(3), 434–438 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(13), 137404 (2005).
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L. Shi, J. T. Harris, R. Fenollosa, I. Rodriguez, X. Lu, B. A. Korgel, and F. Meseguer, “Monodisperse silicon nanocavities and photonic crystals with magnetic response in the optical region,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1904 (2013).
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H. Schweizer, L. Fu, H. Gräbeldinger, H. Guo, N. Liu, S. Kaiser, and H. Giessen, “Negative permeability around 630 nm in nanofabricated vertical meander metamaterials,” Phys. Stat. Sol. a 204(11), 3886–3900 (2007).
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H. Guo, N. Liu, L. Fu, H. Schweizer, S. Kaiser, and H. Giessen, “Thickness dependence of the optical properties of split-ring resonator metamaterials,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 244(4), 1256–1261 (2007).
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A. I. Kuznetsov, A. E. Miroshnichenko, Y. H. Fu, V. Viswanathan, M. Rahmani, V. Valuckas, Z. Y. Pan, Y. Kivshar, D. S. Pickard, and B. Luk’yanchuk, “Split-ball resonator as a three-dimensional analogue of planar split-rings,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3104 (2014).
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Y. Zhou, X. Y. Chen, Y. H. Fu, G. Vienne, A. I. Kuznetsov, and B. Luk’yanchuk, “Fabrication of large-area 3D optical fishnet metamaterial by laser interference lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(12), 123116 (2013).
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A. I. Kuznetsov, A. E. Miroshnichenko, Y. H. Fu, J. Zhang, and B. Luk’yanchuk, “Magnetic light,” Sci. Rep. 2, 492 (2012).
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H. Schweizer, L. Fu, H. Gräbeldinger, H. Guo, N. Liu, S. Kaiser, and H. Giessen, “Negative permeability around 630 nm in nanofabricated vertical meander metamaterials,” Phys. Stat. Sol. a 204(11), 3886–3900 (2007).
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H. Guo, N. Liu, L. Fu, H. Schweizer, S. Kaiser, and H. Giessen, “Thickness dependence of the optical properties of split-ring resonator metamaterials,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 244(4), 1256–1261 (2007).
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H. Schweizer, L. Fu, H. Gräbeldinger, H. Guo, N. Liu, S. Kaiser, and H. Giessen, “Negative permeability around 630 nm in nanofabricated vertical meander metamaterials,” Phys. Stat. Sol. a 204(11), 3886–3900 (2007).
[Crossref]

Gu, J.

F. Zhou, Y. Bao, W. Cao, C. T. Stuart, J. Gu, W. Zhang, and C. Sun, “Hiding a realistic object using a broadband terahertz invisibility cloak,” Sci. Rep. 1, 78 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Y. Chiam, R. Singh, J. Gu, J. Han, W. Zhang, and A. A. Bettiol, “Increased frequency shifts in high aspect ratio terahertz split ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(6), 064102 (2009).
[Crossref]

Gu, M.

I. Staude, M. Decker, M. J. Ventura, C. Jagadish, D. N. Neshev, M. Gu, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Hybrid high-Resolution Three-Dimensional Nanofabrication for Metamaterials and Nanoplasmonics,” Adv. Mater. 25(9), 1260–1264 (2013).
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Guo, H.

H. Schweizer, L. Fu, H. Gräbeldinger, H. Guo, N. Liu, S. Kaiser, and H. Giessen, “Negative permeability around 630 nm in nanofabricated vertical meander metamaterials,” Phys. Stat. Sol. a 204(11), 3886–3900 (2007).
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H. Guo, N. Liu, L. Fu, H. Schweizer, S. Kaiser, and H. Giessen, “Thickness dependence of the optical properties of split-ring resonator metamaterials,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 244(4), 1256–1261 (2007).
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Gupta, S.

D. Chanda, K. Shigeta, S. Gupta, T. Cain, A. Carlson, A. Mihi, A. J. Baca, G. R. Bogart, P. Braun, and J. A. Rogers, “Large-area flexible 3D optical negative index metamaterial formed by nanotransfer printing,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(7), 402–407 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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J. A. Fan, C. Wu, K. Bao, J. Bao, R. Bardhan, N. J. Halas, V. N. Manoharan, P. Nordlander, G. Shvets, and F. Capasso, “Self-assembled plasmonic nanoparticle clusters,” Science 328(5982), 1135–1138 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Han, J.

S. Y. Chiam, R. Singh, J. Gu, J. Han, W. Zhang, and A. A. Bettiol, “Increased frequency shifts in high aspect ratio terahertz split ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(6), 064102 (2009).
[Crossref]

Harris, J. T.

L. Shi, J. T. Harris, R. Fenollosa, I. Rodriguez, X. Lu, B. A. Korgel, and F. Meseguer, “Monodisperse silicon nanocavities and photonic crystals with magnetic response in the optical region,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1904 (2013).
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F. Shafiei, F. Monticone, K. Q. Le, X. X. Liu, T. Hartsfield, A. Alù, and X. Li, “A subwavelength plasmonic metamolecule exhibiting magnetic-based optical Fano resonance,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8(2), 95–99 (2013).
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J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, “Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena,” IEEE T. Microw. Theory 47(11), 2075–2084 (1999).
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Hsu, J. W. P.

J. Zaumseil, M. A. Meitl, J. W. P. Hsu, B. R. Acharya, K. W. Baldwin, Y. L. Loo, and J. A. Rogers, “Three-dimensional and multilayer nanostructures formed by nanotransfer printing,” Nano Lett. 3(9), 1223–1227 (2003).
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S. H. Hur, D. Y. Khang, C. Kocabas, and J. A. Rogers, “Nanotransfer printing by use of noncovalent surface forces: Applications to thin-film transistors that use single-walled carbon nanotube networks and semiconducting polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(23), 5730 (2004).
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C. C. Chen, A. Ishikawa, Y. H. Tang, M. H. Shiao, D. P. Tsai, and T. Tanaka, “Uniaxial-isotropic metamaterials by three-dimensional split-ring resonators,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(1), 44–48 (2015).
[Crossref]

Jagadish, C.

I. Staude, M. Decker, M. J. Ventura, C. Jagadish, D. N. Neshev, M. Gu, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Hybrid high-Resolution Three-Dimensional Nanofabrication for Metamaterials and Nanoplasmonics,” Adv. Mater. 25(9), 1260–1264 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ji, C.

R. Liu, C. Ji, J. J. Mock, J. Y. Chin, T. J. Cui, and D. R. Smith, “Broadband ground-plane cloak,” Science 323(5912), 366–369 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kafesaki, M.

J. Zhou, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, J. B. Pendry, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Saturation of the magnetic response of split-ring resonators at optical frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(22), 223902 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kaiser, S.

H. Guo, N. Liu, L. Fu, H. Schweizer, S. Kaiser, and H. Giessen, “Thickness dependence of the optical properties of split-ring resonator metamaterials,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 244(4), 1256–1261 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. Schweizer, L. Fu, H. Gräbeldinger, H. Guo, N. Liu, S. Kaiser, and H. Giessen, “Negative permeability around 630 nm in nanofabricated vertical meander metamaterials,” Phys. Stat. Sol. a 204(11), 3886–3900 (2007).
[Crossref]

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S. H. Hur, D. Y. Khang, C. Kocabas, and J. A. Rogers, “Nanotransfer printing by use of noncovalent surface forces: Applications to thin-film transistors that use single-walled carbon nanotube networks and semiconducting polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(23), 5730 (2004).
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Kildishev, A. V.

Kivshar, Y.

A. I. Kuznetsov, A. E. Miroshnichenko, Y. H. Fu, V. Viswanathan, M. Rahmani, V. Valuckas, Z. Y. Pan, Y. Kivshar, D. S. Pickard, and B. Luk’yanchuk, “Split-ball resonator as a three-dimensional analogue of planar split-rings,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3104 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kivshar, Y. S.

I. Staude, M. Decker, M. J. Ventura, C. Jagadish, D. N. Neshev, M. Gu, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Hybrid high-Resolution Three-Dimensional Nanofabrication for Metamaterials and Nanoplasmonics,” Adv. Mater. 25(9), 1260–1264 (2013).
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Kocabas, C.

S. H. Hur, D. Y. Khang, C. Kocabas, and J. A. Rogers, “Nanotransfer printing by use of noncovalent surface forces: Applications to thin-film transistors that use single-walled carbon nanotube networks and semiconducting polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(23), 5730 (2004).
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Kolb, P. W.

Korgel, B. A.

L. Shi, J. T. Harris, R. Fenollosa, I. Rodriguez, X. Lu, B. A. Korgel, and F. Meseguer, “Monodisperse silicon nanocavities and photonic crystals with magnetic response in the optical region,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1904 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Koschny, T.

J. Zhou, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, J. B. Pendry, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Saturation of the magnetic response of split-ring resonators at optical frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(22), 223902 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. F. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic metamaterials at telecommunication and visible frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(20), 203901 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz,” Science 306(5700), 1351–1353 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kravchenko, I. I.

D. Bhandari, I. I. Kravchenko, N. V. Lavrik, and M. J. Sepaniak, “Nanotransfer printing using plasma etched silicon stamps and mediated by in situ deposited fluoropolymer,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 133(20), 7722–7724 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kuznetsov, A. I.

A. I. Kuznetsov, A. E. Miroshnichenko, Y. H. Fu, V. Viswanathan, M. Rahmani, V. Valuckas, Z. Y. Pan, Y. Kivshar, D. S. Pickard, and B. Luk’yanchuk, “Split-ball resonator as a three-dimensional analogue of planar split-rings,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3104 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zhou, X. Y. Chen, Y. H. Fu, G. Vienne, A. I. Kuznetsov, and B. Luk’yanchuk, “Fabrication of large-area 3D optical fishnet metamaterial by laser interference lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(12), 123116 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. I. Kuznetsov, A. E. Miroshnichenko, Y. H. Fu, J. Zhang, and B. Luk’yanchuk, “Magnetic light,” Sci. Rep. 2, 492 (2012).
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N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207402 (2008).
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D. Bhandari, I. I. Kravchenko, N. V. Lavrik, and M. J. Sepaniak, “Nanotransfer printing using plasma etched silicon stamps and mediated by in situ deposited fluoropolymer,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 133(20), 7722–7724 (2011).
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F. Shafiei, F. Monticone, K. Q. Le, X. X. Liu, T. Hartsfield, A. Alù, and X. Li, “A subwavelength plasmonic metamolecule exhibiting magnetic-based optical Fano resonance,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8(2), 95–99 (2013).
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Z. Liu, H. Lee, Y. Xiong, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Far-field optical hyperlens magnifying sub-diffraction-limited objects,” Science 315(5819), 1686 (2007).
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N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens,” Science 308(5721), 534–537 (2005).
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J. Valentine, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “An optical cloak made of dielectrics,” Nat. Mater. 8(7), 568–571 (2009).
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F. Shafiei, F. Monticone, K. Q. Le, X. X. Liu, T. Hartsfield, A. Alù, and X. Li, “A subwavelength plasmonic metamolecule exhibiting magnetic-based optical Fano resonance,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8(2), 95–99 (2013).
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C. M. Soukoulis, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Physics. Negative refractive index at optical wavelengths,” Science 315(5808), 47–49 (2007).
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M. W. Klein, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, “Single-slit split-ring resonators at optical frequencies: limits of size scaling,” Opt. Lett. 31(9), 1259–1261 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. F. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic metamaterials at telecommunication and visible frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(20), 203901 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz,” Science 306(5700), 1351–1353 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, N.

H. Guo, N. Liu, L. Fu, H. Schweizer, S. Kaiser, and H. Giessen, “Thickness dependence of the optical properties of split-ring resonator metamaterials,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 244(4), 1256–1261 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. Schweizer, L. Fu, H. Gräbeldinger, H. Guo, N. Liu, S. Kaiser, and H. Giessen, “Negative permeability around 630 nm in nanofabricated vertical meander metamaterials,” Phys. Stat. Sol. a 204(11), 3886–3900 (2007).
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Liu, R.

R. Liu, C. Ji, J. J. Mock, J. Y. Chin, T. J. Cui, and D. R. Smith, “Broadband ground-plane cloak,” Science 323(5912), 366–369 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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F. Shafiei, F. Monticone, K. Q. Le, X. X. Liu, T. Hartsfield, A. Alù, and X. Li, “A subwavelength plasmonic metamolecule exhibiting magnetic-based optical Fano resonance,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8(2), 95–99 (2013).
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Y. Liu and X. Zhang, “Metamaterials: a new frontier of science and technology,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 40(5), 2494–2507 (2011).
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Liu, Z.

Z. Liu, H. Lee, Y. Xiong, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Far-field optical hyperlens magnifying sub-diffraction-limited objects,” Science 315(5819), 1686 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Loo, Y. L.

J. Zaumseil, M. A. Meitl, J. W. P. Hsu, B. R. Acharya, K. W. Baldwin, Y. L. Loo, and J. A. Rogers, “Three-dimensional and multilayer nanostructures formed by nanotransfer printing,” Nano Lett. 3(9), 1223–1227 (2003).
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Lu, X.

L. Shi, J. T. Harris, R. Fenollosa, I. Rodriguez, X. Lu, B. A. Korgel, and F. Meseguer, “Monodisperse silicon nanocavities and photonic crystals with magnetic response in the optical region,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1904 (2013).
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Luk’yanchuk, B.

A. I. Kuznetsov, A. E. Miroshnichenko, Y. H. Fu, V. Viswanathan, M. Rahmani, V. Valuckas, Z. Y. Pan, Y. Kivshar, D. S. Pickard, and B. Luk’yanchuk, “Split-ball resonator as a three-dimensional analogue of planar split-rings,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3104 (2014).
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Y. Zhou, X. Y. Chen, Y. H. Fu, G. Vienne, A. I. Kuznetsov, and B. Luk’yanchuk, “Fabrication of large-area 3D optical fishnet metamaterial by laser interference lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(12), 123116 (2013).
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A. I. Kuznetsov, A. E. Miroshnichenko, Y. H. Fu, J. Zhang, and B. Luk’yanchuk, “Magnetic light,” Sci. Rep. 2, 492 (2012).
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Majewski, M. L.

Malloy, K. J.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, K. J. Malloy, S. R. J. Brueck, N. C. Panoiu, and R. M. Osgood, “Demonstration of metal-dielectric negative-index metamaterials with improved performance at optical frequencies,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23(3), 434–438 (2006).
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S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(13), 137404 (2005).
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J. A. Fan, C. Wu, K. Bao, J. Bao, R. Bardhan, N. J. Halas, V. N. Manoharan, P. Nordlander, G. Shvets, and F. Capasso, “Self-assembled plasmonic nanoparticle clusters,” Science 328(5982), 1135–1138 (2010).
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J. Zaumseil, M. A. Meitl, J. W. P. Hsu, B. R. Acharya, K. W. Baldwin, Y. L. Loo, and J. A. Rogers, “Three-dimensional and multilayer nanostructures formed by nanotransfer printing,” Nano Lett. 3(9), 1223–1227 (2003).
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L. Shi, J. T. Harris, R. Fenollosa, I. Rodriguez, X. Lu, B. A. Korgel, and F. Meseguer, “Monodisperse silicon nanocavities and photonic crystals with magnetic response in the optical region,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1904 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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D. Chanda, K. Shigeta, S. Gupta, T. Cain, A. Carlson, A. Mihi, A. J. Baca, G. R. Bogart, P. Braun, and J. A. Rogers, “Large-area flexible 3D optical negative index metamaterial formed by nanotransfer printing,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(7), 402–407 (2011).
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A. I. Kuznetsov, A. E. Miroshnichenko, Y. H. Fu, V. Viswanathan, M. Rahmani, V. Valuckas, Z. Y. Pan, Y. Kivshar, D. S. Pickard, and B. Luk’yanchuk, “Split-ball resonator as a three-dimensional analogue of planar split-rings,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3104 (2014).
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A. I. Kuznetsov, A. E. Miroshnichenko, Y. H. Fu, J. Zhang, and B. Luk’yanchuk, “Magnetic light,” Sci. Rep. 2, 492 (2012).
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Mock, J. J.

R. Liu, C. Ji, J. J. Mock, J. Y. Chin, T. J. Cui, and D. R. Smith, “Broadband ground-plane cloak,” Science 323(5912), 366–369 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207402 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Monticone, F.

F. Shafiei, F. Monticone, K. Q. Le, X. X. Liu, T. Hartsfield, A. Alù, and X. Li, “A subwavelength plasmonic metamolecule exhibiting magnetic-based optical Fano resonance,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8(2), 95–99 (2013).
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D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(18), 4184–4187 (2000).
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I. Staude, M. Decker, M. J. Ventura, C. Jagadish, D. N. Neshev, M. Gu, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Hybrid high-Resolution Three-Dimensional Nanofabrication for Metamaterials and Nanoplasmonics,” Adv. Mater. 25(9), 1260–1264 (2013).
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J. A. Fan, C. Wu, K. Bao, J. Bao, R. Bardhan, N. J. Halas, V. N. Manoharan, P. Nordlander, G. Shvets, and F. Capasso, “Self-assembled plasmonic nanoparticle clusters,” Science 328(5982), 1135–1138 (2010).
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A. B. Evlyukhin, S. M. Novikov, U. Zywietz, R. L. Eriksen, C. Reinhardt, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, and B. N. Chichkov, “Demonstration of magnetic dipole resonances of dielectric nanospheres in the visible region,” Nano Lett. 12(7), 3749–3755 (2012).
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S. Zhang, W. Fan, K. J. Malloy, S. R. J. Brueck, N. C. Panoiu, and R. M. Osgood, “Demonstration of metal-dielectric negative-index metamaterials with improved performance at optical frequencies,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23(3), 434–438 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(13), 137404 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207402 (2008).
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T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science 303(5663), 1494–1496 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(18), 4184–4187 (2000).
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Pan, Z. Y.

A. I. Kuznetsov, A. E. Miroshnichenko, Y. H. Fu, V. Viswanathan, M. Rahmani, V. Valuckas, Z. Y. Pan, Y. Kivshar, D. S. Pickard, and B. Luk’yanchuk, “Split-ball resonator as a three-dimensional analogue of planar split-rings,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3104 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Panoiu, N. C.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, K. J. Malloy, S. R. J. Brueck, N. C. Panoiu, and R. M. Osgood, “Demonstration of metal-dielectric negative-index metamaterials with improved performance at optical frequencies,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23(3), 434–438 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(13), 137404 (2005).
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Park, H. K.

C. Stuart, H. K. Park, and Y. Chen, “Fabrication of a 3D nanoscale crossbar circuit by nanotransfer-printing lithography,” Small 6(15), 1663–1668 (2010).
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J. Zhou, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, J. B. Pendry, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Saturation of the magnetic response of split-ring resonators at optical frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(22), 223902 (2005).
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T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science 303(5663), 1494–1496 (2004).
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J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, “Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena,” IEEE T. Microw. Theory 47(11), 2075–2084 (1999).
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Pickard, D. S.

A. I. Kuznetsov, A. E. Miroshnichenko, Y. H. Fu, V. Viswanathan, M. Rahmani, V. Valuckas, Z. Y. Pan, Y. Kivshar, D. S. Pickard, and B. Luk’yanchuk, “Split-ball resonator as a three-dimensional analogue of planar split-rings,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3104 (2014).
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V. A. Podolskiy, A. K. Sarychev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Plasmon modes in metal nanowires and left-handed materials,” J. Nonlinear. Opt. Phys. 11(01), 65–74 (2002).
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S. P. Burgos, R. de Waele, A. Polman, and H. A. Atwater, “A single-layer wide-angle negative-index metamaterial at visible frequencies,” Nat. Mater. 9(5), 407–412 (2010).
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Rahmani, M.

A. I. Kuznetsov, A. E. Miroshnichenko, Y. H. Fu, V. Viswanathan, M. Rahmani, V. Valuckas, Z. Y. Pan, Y. Kivshar, D. S. Pickard, and B. Luk’yanchuk, “Split-ball resonator as a three-dimensional analogue of planar split-rings,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3104 (2014).
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Reinhardt, C.

A. B. Evlyukhin, S. M. Novikov, U. Zywietz, R. L. Eriksen, C. Reinhardt, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, and B. N. Chichkov, “Demonstration of magnetic dipole resonances of dielectric nanospheres in the visible region,” Nano Lett. 12(7), 3749–3755 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, “Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena,” IEEE T. Microw. Theory 47(11), 2075–2084 (1999).
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Rodriguez, I.

L. Shi, J. T. Harris, R. Fenollosa, I. Rodriguez, X. Lu, B. A. Korgel, and F. Meseguer, “Monodisperse silicon nanocavities and photonic crystals with magnetic response in the optical region,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1904 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rogers, J. A.

D. Chanda, K. Shigeta, S. Gupta, T. Cain, A. Carlson, A. Mihi, A. J. Baca, G. R. Bogart, P. Braun, and J. A. Rogers, “Large-area flexible 3D optical negative index metamaterial formed by nanotransfer printing,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(7), 402–407 (2011).
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S. H. Hur, D. Y. Khang, C. Kocabas, and J. A. Rogers, “Nanotransfer printing by use of noncovalent surface forces: Applications to thin-film transistors that use single-walled carbon nanotube networks and semiconducting polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(23), 5730 (2004).
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J. Zaumseil, M. A. Meitl, J. W. P. Hsu, B. R. Acharya, K. W. Baldwin, Y. L. Loo, and J. A. Rogers, “Three-dimensional and multilayer nanostructures formed by nanotransfer printing,” Nano Lett. 3(9), 1223–1227 (2003).
[Crossref]

Sajuyigbe, S.

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207402 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sarychev, A. K.

V. M. Shalaev, W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, H. K. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, V. P. Drachev, and A. V. Kildishev, “Negative index of refraction in optical metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 30(24), 3356–3358 (2005).
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V. A. Podolskiy, A. K. Sarychev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Plasmon modes in metal nanowires and left-handed materials,” J. Nonlinear. Opt. Phys. 11(01), 65–74 (2002).
[Crossref]

Schmadel, D. C.

Schmidt, F.

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. F. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic metamaterials at telecommunication and visible frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(20), 203901 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schultz, S.

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(18), 4184–4187 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schweizer, H.

H. Guo, N. Liu, L. Fu, H. Schweizer, S. Kaiser, and H. Giessen, “Thickness dependence of the optical properties of split-ring resonator metamaterials,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 244(4), 1256–1261 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. Schweizer, L. Fu, H. Gräbeldinger, H. Guo, N. Liu, S. Kaiser, and H. Giessen, “Negative permeability around 630 nm in nanofabricated vertical meander metamaterials,” Phys. Stat. Sol. a 204(11), 3886–3900 (2007).
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D. Bhandari, I. I. Kravchenko, N. V. Lavrik, and M. J. Sepaniak, “Nanotransfer printing using plasma etched silicon stamps and mediated by in situ deposited fluoropolymer,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 133(20), 7722–7724 (2011).
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Shafiei, F.

F. Shafiei, F. Monticone, K. Q. Le, X. X. Liu, T. Hartsfield, A. Alù, and X. Li, “A subwavelength plasmonic metamolecule exhibiting magnetic-based optical Fano resonance,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8(2), 95–99 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shalaev, V. M.

Shamonina, E.

O. Sydoruk, E. Tatartschuk, E. Shamonina, and L. Solymar, “Analytical formulation for the resonant frequency of split rings,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(1), 014903 (2009).
[Crossref]

Shi, L.

L. Shi, J. T. Harris, R. Fenollosa, I. Rodriguez, X. Lu, B. A. Korgel, and F. Meseguer, “Monodisperse silicon nanocavities and photonic crystals with magnetic response in the optical region,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1904 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shiao, M. H.

C. C. Chen, A. Ishikawa, Y. H. Tang, M. H. Shiao, D. P. Tsai, and T. Tanaka, “Uniaxial-isotropic metamaterials by three-dimensional split-ring resonators,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(1), 44–48 (2015).
[Crossref]

Shigeta, K.

D. Chanda, K. Shigeta, S. Gupta, T. Cain, A. Carlson, A. Mihi, A. J. Baca, G. R. Bogart, P. Braun, and J. A. Rogers, “Large-area flexible 3D optical negative index metamaterial formed by nanotransfer printing,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(7), 402–407 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shvets, G.

J. A. Fan, C. Wu, K. Bao, J. Bao, R. Bardhan, N. J. Halas, V. N. Manoharan, P. Nordlander, G. Shvets, and F. Capasso, “Self-assembled plasmonic nanoparticle clusters,” Science 328(5982), 1135–1138 (2010).
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S. Y. Chiam, R. Singh, W. Zhang, and A. A. Bettiol, “Controlling metamaterial resonances via dielectric and aspect ratio effects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(19), 191906 (2010).
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S. Y. Chiam, R. Singh, J. Gu, J. Han, W. Zhang, and A. A. Bettiol, “Increased frequency shifts in high aspect ratio terahertz split ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(6), 064102 (2009).
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Smith, D. R.

R. Liu, C. Ji, J. J. Mock, J. Y. Chin, T. J. Cui, and D. R. Smith, “Broadband ground-plane cloak,” Science 323(5912), 366–369 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207402 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science 303(5663), 1494–1496 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(18), 4184–4187 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Solymar, L.

O. Sydoruk, E. Tatartschuk, E. Shamonina, and L. Solymar, “Analytical formulation for the resonant frequency of split rings,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(1), 014903 (2009).
[Crossref]

Soukoulis, C. M.

C. M. Soukoulis, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Physics. Negative refractive index at optical wavelengths,” Science 315(5808), 47–49 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. W. Klein, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, “Single-slit split-ring resonators at optical frequencies: limits of size scaling,” Opt. Lett. 31(9), 1259–1261 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Zhou, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, J. B. Pendry, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Saturation of the magnetic response of split-ring resonators at optical frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(22), 223902 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. F. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic metamaterials at telecommunication and visible frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(20), 203901 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz,” Science 306(5700), 1351–1353 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Staude, I.

I. Staude, M. Decker, M. J. Ventura, C. Jagadish, D. N. Neshev, M. Gu, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Hybrid high-Resolution Three-Dimensional Nanofabrication for Metamaterials and Nanoplasmonics,” Adv. Mater. 25(9), 1260–1264 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stewart, W. J.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, “Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena,” IEEE T. Microw. Theory 47(11), 2075–2084 (1999).
[Crossref]

Stuart, C.

C. Stuart, H. K. Park, and Y. Chen, “Fabrication of a 3D nanoscale crossbar circuit by nanotransfer-printing lithography,” Small 6(15), 1663–1668 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stuart, C. T.

F. Zhou, Y. Bao, W. Cao, C. T. Stuart, J. Gu, W. Zhang, and C. Sun, “Hiding a realistic object using a broadband terahertz invisibility cloak,” Sci. Rep. 1, 78 (2011).
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Sun, C.

F. Zhou, Y. Bao, W. Cao, C. T. Stuart, J. Gu, W. Zhang, and C. Sun, “Hiding a realistic object using a broadband terahertz invisibility cloak,” Sci. Rep. 1, 78 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Liu, H. Lee, Y. Xiong, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Far-field optical hyperlens magnifying sub-diffraction-limited objects,” Science 315(5819), 1686 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens,” Science 308(5721), 534–537 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sun, S.

Sushkov, A. B.

Sydoruk, O.

O. Sydoruk, E. Tatartschuk, E. Shamonina, and L. Solymar, “Analytical formulation for the resonant frequency of split rings,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(1), 014903 (2009).
[Crossref]

Tanaka, T.

C. C. Chen, A. Ishikawa, Y. H. Tang, M. H. Shiao, D. P. Tsai, and T. Tanaka, “Uniaxial-isotropic metamaterials by three-dimensional split-ring resonators,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(1), 44–48 (2015).
[Crossref]

Tang, Y. H.

C. C. Chen, A. Ishikawa, Y. H. Tang, M. H. Shiao, D. P. Tsai, and T. Tanaka, “Uniaxial-isotropic metamaterials by three-dimensional split-ring resonators,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(1), 44–48 (2015).
[Crossref]

Tatartschuk, E.

O. Sydoruk, E. Tatartschuk, E. Shamonina, and L. Solymar, “Analytical formulation for the resonant frequency of split rings,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(1), 014903 (2009).
[Crossref]

Tretyakov, S.

S. Tretyakov, “Limits of geometrical scaling of split rings and double-bar resonators in the visible,” in Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (2007), Vol.2, pp. 145–148.
[Crossref]

Tsai, D. P.

C. C. Chen, A. Ishikawa, Y. H. Tang, M. H. Shiao, D. P. Tsai, and T. Tanaka, “Uniaxial-isotropic metamaterials by three-dimensional split-ring resonators,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(1), 44–48 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. T. Chen, C. J. Chen, P. C. Wu, S. Sun, L. Zhou, G. Y. Guo, C. T. Hsiao, K. Y. Yang, N. I. Zheludev, and D. P. Tsai, “Optical magnetic response in three-dimensional metamaterial of upright plasmonic meta-molecules,” Opt. Express 19(13), 12837–12842 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Valentine, J.

J. Valentine, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “An optical cloak made of dielectrics,” Nat. Mater. 8(7), 568–571 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Valuckas, V.

A. I. Kuznetsov, A. E. Miroshnichenko, Y. H. Fu, V. Viswanathan, M. Rahmani, V. Valuckas, Z. Y. Pan, Y. Kivshar, D. S. Pickard, and B. Luk’yanchuk, “Split-ball resonator as a three-dimensional analogue of planar split-rings,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3104 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ventura, M. J.

I. Staude, M. Decker, M. J. Ventura, C. Jagadish, D. N. Neshev, M. Gu, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Hybrid high-Resolution Three-Dimensional Nanofabrication for Metamaterials and Nanoplasmonics,” Adv. Mater. 25(9), 1260–1264 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vienne, G.

Y. Zhou, X. Y. Chen, Y. H. Fu, G. Vienne, A. I. Kuznetsov, and B. Luk’yanchuk, “Fabrication of large-area 3D optical fishnet metamaterial by laser interference lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(12), 123116 (2013).
[Crossref]

Vier, D. C.

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science 303(5663), 1494–1496 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(18), 4184–4187 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Viswanathan, V.

A. I. Kuznetsov, A. E. Miroshnichenko, Y. H. Fu, V. Viswanathan, M. Rahmani, V. Valuckas, Z. Y. Pan, Y. Kivshar, D. S. Pickard, and B. Luk’yanchuk, “Split-ball resonator as a three-dimensional analogue of planar split-rings,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3104 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wegener, M.

C. M. Soukoulis, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Physics. Negative refractive index at optical wavelengths,” Science 315(5808), 47–49 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. W. Klein, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, “Single-slit split-ring resonators at optical frequencies: limits of size scaling,” Opt. Lett. 31(9), 1259–1261 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. F. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic metamaterials at telecommunication and visible frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(20), 203901 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz,” Science 306(5700), 1351–1353 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, C.

J. A. Fan, C. Wu, K. Bao, J. Bao, R. Bardhan, N. J. Halas, V. N. Manoharan, P. Nordlander, G. Shvets, and F. Capasso, “Self-assembled plasmonic nanoparticle clusters,” Science 328(5982), 1135–1138 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, P. C.

Xiong, Y.

Z. Liu, H. Lee, Y. Xiong, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Far-field optical hyperlens magnifying sub-diffraction-limited objects,” Science 315(5819), 1686 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, K. Y.

Yen, T. J.

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science 303(5663), 1494–1496 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yuan, H. K.

Zaumseil, J.

J. Zaumseil, M. A. Meitl, J. W. P. Hsu, B. R. Acharya, K. W. Baldwin, Y. L. Loo, and J. A. Rogers, “Three-dimensional and multilayer nanostructures formed by nanotransfer printing,” Nano Lett. 3(9), 1223–1227 (2003).
[Crossref]

Zentgraf, T.

J. Valentine, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “An optical cloak made of dielectrics,” Nat. Mater. 8(7), 568–571 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, J.

A. I. Kuznetsov, A. E. Miroshnichenko, Y. H. Fu, J. Zhang, and B. Luk’yanchuk, “Magnetic light,” Sci. Rep. 2, 492 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, S.

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S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(13), 137404 (2005).
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Zhang, W.

F. Zhou, Y. Bao, W. Cao, C. T. Stuart, J. Gu, W. Zhang, and C. Sun, “Hiding a realistic object using a broadband terahertz invisibility cloak,” Sci. Rep. 1, 78 (2011).
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S. Y. Chiam, R. Singh, W. Zhang, and A. A. Bettiol, “Controlling metamaterial resonances via dielectric and aspect ratio effects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(19), 191906 (2010).
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S. Y. Chiam, R. Singh, J. Gu, J. Han, W. Zhang, and A. A. Bettiol, “Increased frequency shifts in high aspect ratio terahertz split ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(6), 064102 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

Y. Liu and X. Zhang, “Metamaterials: a new frontier of science and technology,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 40(5), 2494–2507 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Valentine, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “An optical cloak made of dielectrics,” Nat. Mater. 8(7), 568–571 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Liu, H. Lee, Y. Xiong, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Far-field optical hyperlens magnifying sub-diffraction-limited objects,” Science 315(5819), 1686 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens,” Science 308(5721), 534–537 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science 303(5663), 1494–1496 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zheludev, N. I.

Zhou, F.

F. Zhou, Y. Bao, W. Cao, C. T. Stuart, J. Gu, W. Zhang, and C. Sun, “Hiding a realistic object using a broadband terahertz invisibility cloak,” Sci. Rep. 1, 78 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, J.

J. Zhou, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, J. B. Pendry, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Saturation of the magnetic response of split-ring resonators at optical frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(22), 223902 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz,” Science 306(5700), 1351–1353 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, J. F.

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. F. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic metamaterials at telecommunication and visible frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(20), 203901 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, L.

Zhou, Y.

Y. Zhou, X. Y. Chen, Y. H. Fu, G. Vienne, A. I. Kuznetsov, and B. Luk’yanchuk, “Fabrication of large-area 3D optical fishnet metamaterial by laser interference lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(12), 123116 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zschiedrich, L.

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. F. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic metamaterials at telecommunication and visible frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(20), 203901 (2005).
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A. B. Evlyukhin, S. M. Novikov, U. Zywietz, R. L. Eriksen, C. Reinhardt, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, and B. N. Chichkov, “Demonstration of magnetic dipole resonances of dielectric nanospheres in the visible region,” Nano Lett. 12(7), 3749–3755 (2012).
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Adv. Mater. (1)

I. Staude, M. Decker, M. J. Ventura, C. Jagadish, D. N. Neshev, M. Gu, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Hybrid high-Resolution Three-Dimensional Nanofabrication for Metamaterials and Nanoplasmonics,” Adv. Mater. 25(9), 1260–1264 (2013).
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Adv. Opt. Mater. (1)

C. C. Chen, A. Ishikawa, Y. H. Tang, M. H. Shiao, D. P. Tsai, and T. Tanaka, “Uniaxial-isotropic metamaterials by three-dimensional split-ring resonators,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(1), 44–48 (2015).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

Y. Zhou, X. Y. Chen, Y. H. Fu, G. Vienne, A. I. Kuznetsov, and B. Luk’yanchuk, “Fabrication of large-area 3D optical fishnet metamaterial by laser interference lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(12), 123116 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Y. Chiam, R. Singh, W. Zhang, and A. A. Bettiol, “Controlling metamaterial resonances via dielectric and aspect ratio effects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(19), 191906 (2010).
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S. H. Hur, D. Y. Khang, C. Kocabas, and J. A. Rogers, “Nanotransfer printing by use of noncovalent surface forces: Applications to thin-film transistors that use single-walled carbon nanotube networks and semiconducting polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(23), 5730 (2004).
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S. Y. Chiam, R. Singh, J. Gu, J. Han, W. Zhang, and A. A. Bettiol, “Increased frequency shifts in high aspect ratio terahertz split ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(6), 064102 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chem. Soc. Rev. (1)

Y. Liu and X. Zhang, “Metamaterials: a new frontier of science and technology,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 40(5), 2494–2507 (2011).
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IEEE T. Microw. Theory (1)

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J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

D. Bhandari, I. I. Kravchenko, N. V. Lavrik, and M. J. Sepaniak, “Nanotransfer printing using plasma etched silicon stamps and mediated by in situ deposited fluoropolymer,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 133(20), 7722–7724 (2011).
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J. Appl. Phys. (1)

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V. A. Podolskiy, A. K. Sarychev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Plasmon modes in metal nanowires and left-handed materials,” J. Nonlinear. Opt. Phys. 11(01), 65–74 (2002).
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J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Nano Lett. (2)

A. B. Evlyukhin, S. M. Novikov, U. Zywietz, R. L. Eriksen, C. Reinhardt, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, and B. N. Chichkov, “Demonstration of magnetic dipole resonances of dielectric nanospheres in the visible region,” Nano Lett. 12(7), 3749–3755 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Zaumseil, M. A. Meitl, J. W. P. Hsu, B. R. Acharya, K. W. Baldwin, Y. L. Loo, and J. A. Rogers, “Three-dimensional and multilayer nanostructures formed by nanotransfer printing,” Nano Lett. 3(9), 1223–1227 (2003).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (2)

L. Shi, J. T. Harris, R. Fenollosa, I. Rodriguez, X. Lu, B. A. Korgel, and F. Meseguer, “Monodisperse silicon nanocavities and photonic crystals with magnetic response in the optical region,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1904 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. I. Kuznetsov, A. E. Miroshnichenko, Y. H. Fu, V. Viswanathan, M. Rahmani, V. Valuckas, Z. Y. Pan, Y. Kivshar, D. S. Pickard, and B. Luk’yanchuk, “Split-ball resonator as a three-dimensional analogue of planar split-rings,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3104 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (2)

S. P. Burgos, R. de Waele, A. Polman, and H. A. Atwater, “A single-layer wide-angle negative-index metamaterial at visible frequencies,” Nat. Mater. 9(5), 407–412 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Valentine, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “An optical cloak made of dielectrics,” Nat. Mater. 8(7), 568–571 (2009).
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Nat. Nanotechnol. (2)

F. Shafiei, F. Monticone, K. Q. Le, X. X. Liu, T. Hartsfield, A. Alù, and X. Li, “A subwavelength plasmonic metamolecule exhibiting magnetic-based optical Fano resonance,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8(2), 95–99 (2013).
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D. Chanda, K. Shigeta, S. Gupta, T. Cain, A. Carlson, A. Mihi, A. J. Baca, G. R. Bogart, P. Braun, and J. A. Rogers, “Large-area flexible 3D optical negative index metamaterial formed by nanotransfer printing,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(7), 402–407 (2011).
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Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

A. Alù and N. Engheta, “Dynamical theory of artificial optical magnetism produced by rings of plasmonic nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. B 78(8), 085112 (2008).
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Phys. Rev. Lett. (5)

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(13), 137404 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. F. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic metamaterials at telecommunication and visible frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(20), 203901 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(18), 4184–4187 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Zhou, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, J. B. Pendry, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Saturation of the magnetic response of split-ring resonators at optical frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(22), 223902 (2005).
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N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207402 (2008).
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Phys. Stat. Sol. a (1)

H. Schweizer, L. Fu, H. Gräbeldinger, H. Guo, N. Liu, S. Kaiser, and H. Giessen, “Negative permeability around 630 nm in nanofabricated vertical meander metamaterials,” Phys. Stat. Sol. a 204(11), 3886–3900 (2007).
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Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. (1)

H. Guo, N. Liu, L. Fu, H. Schweizer, S. Kaiser, and H. Giessen, “Thickness dependence of the optical properties of split-ring resonator metamaterials,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 244(4), 1256–1261 (2007).
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Sci. Rep. (2)

F. Zhou, Y. Bao, W. Cao, C. T. Stuart, J. Gu, W. Zhang, and C. Sun, “Hiding a realistic object using a broadband terahertz invisibility cloak,” Sci. Rep. 1, 78 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. I. Kuznetsov, A. E. Miroshnichenko, Y. H. Fu, J. Zhang, and B. Luk’yanchuk, “Magnetic light,” Sci. Rep. 2, 492 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (7)

J. A. Fan, C. Wu, K. Bao, J. Bao, R. Bardhan, N. J. Halas, V. N. Manoharan, P. Nordlander, G. Shvets, and F. Capasso, “Self-assembled plasmonic nanoparticle clusters,” Science 328(5982), 1135–1138 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science 303(5663), 1494–1496 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz,” Science 306(5700), 1351–1353 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. M. Soukoulis, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Physics. Negative refractive index at optical wavelengths,” Science 315(5808), 47–49 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens,” Science 308(5721), 534–537 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Liu, H. Lee, Y. Xiong, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Far-field optical hyperlens magnifying sub-diffraction-limited objects,” Science 315(5819), 1686 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Liu, C. Ji, J. J. Mock, J. Y. Chin, T. J. Cui, and D. R. Smith, “Broadband ground-plane cloak,” Science 323(5912), 366–369 (2009).
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Small (1)

C. Stuart, H. K. Park, and Y. Chen, “Fabrication of a 3D nanoscale crossbar circuit by nanotransfer-printing lithography,” Small 6(15), 1663–1668 (2010).
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Other (1)

S. Tretyakov, “Limits of geometrical scaling of split rings and double-bar resonators in the visible,” in Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (2007), Vol.2, pp. 145–148.
[Crossref]

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the U-shaped nanowire resonators (UNWRs) array. The UNWRs located on the epoxy surface consist of 1D array of metallic nanowires with U-shaped cross section. The inset illustrates the cross section dimensions of the UNWR. The unique structure can exhibit the evident LC resonance under excitation with TM polarization incidence and extend the scaling of artificial magnetism to the higher frequency spectrum.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Fabrication process flow and scanning electron microscopy images of the UNWRs. (a) To fabricate the UNWRs, the soft stamp is made by curing the liquid PMMS resin on the silicon mold. Then gold thin film is deposited at ~45 degree by thermal evaporation from two opposite directions, covering all surfaces of the soft stamp except trench bottoms due to the shadowing effect. Next, the Au-coated stamp is pressed onto a glass substrate coated with a thin layer of epoxy on the top. Following the curing, the gold structures remain on the substrate after carefully peeling off the stamp. (b) Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of UNWRs printed on the epoxy layer on a glass substrate and the close-up view shown in (c). The period of the UNWRs is 500 nm. The height and the width of the gap of each UNWR is 280 nm and 200 nm, respectively. The thickness of the arm and the base is 35 nm and 50 nm, respectively. Scale bar in both (b) and (c): 500 nm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental measurement and numerical simulation for the UNWRs at the near-infrared frequencies. (a) The measured transmission spectra of the UNWRs under the TE and the TM polarization, respectively. (b) The simulated transmission spectra under the TE and the TM polarization, respectively. (c) The electric field distribution at λ = 1600 nm. (d) The electric field distribution at λ = 830 nm. (e) The magnetic field at λ = 1600 nm. (f) The magnetic field at λ = 830 nm. (g) The x component of current density at λ = 1600 nm. (h) The x component of current density at λ = 830nm. (i) The y component of current density at λ = 1600 nm. (j) The y component of current density at λ = 830 nm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental measurements and numerical simulations for the UNWRs at optical frequencies. (a) The measured transmission spectra of the UNWRs under TE and TM polarization, respectively. For TM polarization, the LC resonance corresponds to the dip centered at 800 nm and the electric resonance is centered at 550 nm. For TE polarization, no resonance is observed. (b) The simulated transmission spectra under TE and TM polarization, respectively, which match with the measured spectra in (a). (c) Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) top view (scale bar: 300 nm) image of UNWRs that exhibit magnetism at optical frequencies. The inset shows the side view of UNWRs (scale bar: 500 nm). The height and width of the gap of each UNWR is 115 nm and 90 nm, respectively. The thickness of the arm and base is 35 nm and 40 nm, respectively. (d) The measured transmission spectra of the control sample that consists of gold grating on a glass substrate with the periodicity of 300 nm and thickness of 40 nm. The control sample only exhibits a single broadened dip under TM polarization rather than the two resonant dips as the UNWRs do.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The influence of the metal deposition time on the resonant frequency of the UNWRs. The longer deposition time leads to thicker metal of the UNWRS. (a) The simulated transmission spectra of UNWRs with increasing gold thickness from sample 1 to sample 4. The LC resonance exhibits a blue shift with respect to the thicker gold while the electric resonance experiences a red shift. (b) Experimental transmission spectra of sample 1 and 4, which agree well with the simulation results.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Numerical and analytical analysis of the dependence of the resonant frequency on the thickness of the SRR under the modified model. Both numerical and analytical results clearly show the same trend of the rising resonant frequency with the increasing thickness.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

The electric field distribution under TM polarization (a) The x component of electric field at 1600 nm. (a) The x component of electric field at 830 nm. (a) The y component of electric field at 1600 nm. (a) The y component of electric field at 830 nm.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

The electric and magnetic field distribution under TE polarization. (a) The electric field at 1600 nm. (b) The electric field at 830 nm. (c) The magnetic field at 1600 nm. (d) The magnetic field at 830 nm.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

The control sample with flat gold grating array is fabricated using nTP. The thickness of gold stripes and the grating pitch is 40 nm and 300 nm, respectively. Scale bar: 500 nm.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

The changes of the resonant frequency of the LC resonance and electric resonance with respect to different base thicknesses of the UNWRs. A blue shift of the LC resonance and red shift of the electric resonance are observed with increasing the thickness of the metal deposition for the UNWRs.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Dimensions of the four UNWR samples with different arm and base thicknesses.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

C total = ε 0 ε r (h t a ) t U g + C f + C s C f = ε 0 ε r ( t U + t a +g) C s =2 ε 0 ( t U + t a ) π log( 4h g )
ω LC = 1 ( L+ L e ) C total

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