Abstract

A compact external cavity tunable laser based on a silicon hybrid micro-ring resonator is demonstrated. A theoretical model is also employed for design and analysis of the wavelength tuning performance of the device. In this model, the gain section of the device is simulated by a conventional multimode rate equation model, whereas all rest passive sections are modeled by the frequency domain method. Experimental results have shown that the output power of this device can reach 29 mW, with a linewidth less than 150 kHz. The tuning range is more than 17 nm in C-band with 60 dB side-mode-suppression-ratio (SMSR). This device shows a comparable performance with the commercial narrow linewidth laser as the source in coherent transmission systems.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]
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2015 (1)

2014 (3)

2012 (2)

2011 (1)

2010 (1)

N. H. Zhu, J. W. Man, H. G. Zhang, J. H. Ke, W. Han, W. Chen, Y. Liu, X. Wang, H. Q. Yuan, and L. Xie, “Lineshape analysis of the beat signal between optical carrier and delayed sidebands,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(3), 347–353 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

2008 (1)

2006 (2)

A. W. Fang, H. Park, O. Cohen, R. Jones, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, “Electrically pumped hybrid AlGaInAs-silicon evanescent laser,” Opt. Express 14(20), 9203–9210 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. R. Hiremath, R. Stoffer, and M. Hammer, “Molding of circular integrated optical microresonators by 2-D frequency domain coupled mode theory,” Opt. Commun. 257(5), 277–297 (2006).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

A. Yariv, “Universal relations for coupling of optical power between microresonators and dielectric waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 36(4), 321–322 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

B.-S. Kim, Y. Chung, and S.-H. Kim, “Dynamics analysis of mode-locked sampled-grating distributed bragg reflector laser diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35(11), 1623–1629 (1999).
[Crossref]

1980 (1)

T. Okoshi, K. Kikuchi, and A. Nakayama, “Novel method for high resolution measurement of laser output spectrum,” Electron. Lett. 16(16), 630–631 (1980).
[Crossref]

Accard, A.

A. L. Liepvre, C. Jany, A. Accard, M. Lamponi, F. Poingt, D. Make, F. Lelarge, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Messaoudene, D. Bordel, and G.-H. Duan, “Widely wavelength tunable hybrid III–V/silicon laser with 45 nm tuning range fabricated using a wafer bonding technique,” in 9th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2012), pp. 29–31.
[Crossref]

Asghari, M.

Baehr-Jones, T.

Bickford, J.

Bijlani, B. J.

Bordel, D.

A. L. Liepvre, C. Jany, A. Accard, M. Lamponi, F. Poingt, D. Make, F. Lelarge, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Messaoudene, D. Bordel, and G.-H. Duan, “Widely wavelength tunable hybrid III–V/silicon laser with 45 nm tuning range fabricated using a wafer bonding technique,” in 9th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2012), pp. 29–31.
[Crossref]

Bowers, J. E.

Camatel, S.

Chen, W.

N. H. Zhu, J. W. Man, H. G. Zhang, J. H. Ke, W. Han, W. Chen, Y. Liu, X. Wang, H. Q. Yuan, and L. Xie, “Lineshape analysis of the beat signal between optical carrier and delayed sidebands,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(3), 347–353 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chu, T.

Chung, Y.

B.-S. Kim, Y. Chung, and S.-H. Kim, “Dynamics analysis of mode-locked sampled-grating distributed bragg reflector laser diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35(11), 1623–1629 (1999).
[Crossref]

Cohen, O.

Cunningham, J. E.

Djordjevic, S. S.

Duan, G.-H.

A. L. Liepvre, C. Jany, A. Accard, M. Lamponi, F. Poingt, D. Make, F. Lelarge, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Messaoudene, D. Bordel, and G.-H. Duan, “Widely wavelength tunable hybrid III–V/silicon laser with 45 nm tuning range fabricated using a wafer bonding technique,” in 9th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2012), pp. 29–31.
[Crossref]

Ejzak, G. A.

Fang, A. W.

Fang, Q.

Fathololoumi, S.

Fedeli, J.-M.

A. L. Liepvre, C. Jany, A. Accard, M. Lamponi, F. Poingt, D. Make, F. Lelarge, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Messaoudene, D. Bordel, and G.-H. Duan, “Widely wavelength tunable hybrid III–V/silicon laser with 45 nm tuning range fabricated using a wafer bonding technique,” in 9th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2012), pp. 29–31.
[Crossref]

Feng, D.

Ferrero, V.

Fong, J.

Fu, Y.

Fujioka, N.

Grund, D. W.

Hammer, M.

K. R. Hiremath, R. Stoffer, and M. Hammer, “Molding of circular integrated optical microresonators by 2-D frequency domain coupled mode theory,” Opt. Commun. 257(5), 277–297 (2006).
[Crossref]

Han, W.

N. H. Zhu, J. W. Man, H. G. Zhang, J. H. Ke, W. Han, W. Chen, Y. Liu, X. Wang, H. Q. Yuan, and L. Xie, “Lineshape analysis of the beat signal between optical carrier and delayed sidebands,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(3), 347–353 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hiremath, K. R.

K. R. Hiremath, R. Stoffer, and M. Hammer, “Molding of circular integrated optical microresonators by 2-D frequency domain coupled mode theory,” Opt. Commun. 257(5), 277–297 (2006).
[Crossref]

Hochberg, M.

Hu, Q.

Hu, S.

Ishizaka, M.

Jany, C.

A. L. Liepvre, C. Jany, A. Accard, M. Lamponi, F. Poingt, D. Make, F. Lelarge, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Messaoudene, D. Bordel, and G.-H. Duan, “Widely wavelength tunable hybrid III–V/silicon laser with 45 nm tuning range fabricated using a wafer bonding technique,” in 9th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2012), pp. 29–31.
[Crossref]

Jia, L.

Jones, R.

Ke, J. H.

N. H. Zhu, J. W. Man, H. G. Zhang, J. H. Ke, W. Han, W. Chen, Y. Liu, X. Wang, H. Q. Yuan, and L. Xie, “Lineshape analysis of the beat signal between optical carrier and delayed sidebands,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(3), 347–353 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kikuchi, K.

T. Okoshi, K. Kikuchi, and A. Nakayama, “Novel method for high resolution measurement of laser output spectrum,” Electron. Lett. 16(16), 630–631 (1980).
[Crossref]

Kim, B.-S.

B.-S. Kim, Y. Chung, and S.-H. Kim, “Dynamics analysis of mode-locked sampled-grating distributed bragg reflector laser diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35(11), 1623–1629 (1999).
[Crossref]

Kim, S.-H.

B.-S. Kim, Y. Chung, and S.-H. Kim, “Dynamics analysis of mode-locked sampled-grating distributed bragg reflector laser diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35(11), 1623–1629 (1999).
[Crossref]

Kita, T.

Kobayashi, N.

Koh, S.-C.

Krishnamoorthy, A. V.

Lamponi, M.

A. L. Liepvre, C. Jany, A. Accard, M. Lamponi, F. Poingt, D. Make, F. Lelarge, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Messaoudene, D. Bordel, and G.-H. Duan, “Widely wavelength tunable hybrid III–V/silicon laser with 45 nm tuning range fabricated using a wafer bonding technique,” in 9th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2012), pp. 29–31.
[Crossref]

Lee, D. C.

Lee, J. H.

Lelarge, F.

A. L. Liepvre, C. Jany, A. Accard, M. Lamponi, F. Poingt, D. Make, F. Lelarge, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Messaoudene, D. Bordel, and G.-H. Duan, “Widely wavelength tunable hybrid III–V/silicon laser with 45 nm tuning range fabricated using a wafer bonding technique,” in 9th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2012), pp. 29–31.
[Crossref]

Li, C.

Liepvre, A. L.

A. L. Liepvre, C. Jany, A. Accard, M. Lamponi, F. Poingt, D. Make, F. Lelarge, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Messaoudene, D. Bordel, and G.-H. Duan, “Widely wavelength tunable hybrid III–V/silicon laser with 45 nm tuning range fabricated using a wafer bonding technique,” in 9th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2012), pp. 29–31.
[Crossref]

Lim, A. E.-J.

Lin, S.

Liow, T.-Y.

Liu, W.

Liu, Y.

Lo, G.

Lo, G.-Q.

Luff, B. J.

Luo, M.

Luo, X.

Luo, Y.

Make, D.

A. L. Liepvre, C. Jany, A. Accard, M. Lamponi, F. Poingt, D. Make, F. Lelarge, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Messaoudene, D. Bordel, and G.-H. Duan, “Widely wavelength tunable hybrid III–V/silicon laser with 45 nm tuning range fabricated using a wafer bonding technique,” in 9th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2012), pp. 29–31.
[Crossref]

Man, J. W.

N. H. Zhu, J. W. Man, H. G. Zhang, J. H. Ke, W. Han, W. Chen, Y. Liu, X. Wang, H. Q. Yuan, and L. Xie, “Lineshape analysis of the beat signal between optical carrier and delayed sidebands,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(3), 347–353 (2010).
[Crossref]

Messaoudene, S.

A. L. Liepvre, C. Jany, A. Accard, M. Lamponi, F. Poingt, D. Make, F. Lelarge, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Messaoudene, D. Bordel, and G.-H. Duan, “Widely wavelength tunable hybrid III–V/silicon laser with 45 nm tuning range fabricated using a wafer bonding technique,” in 9th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2012), pp. 29–31.
[Crossref]

Nakayama, A.

T. Okoshi, K. Kikuchi, and A. Nakayama, “Novel method for high resolution measurement of laser output spectrum,” Electron. Lett. 16(16), 630–631 (1980).
[Crossref]

Namiwaka, M.

Novack, A.

Okoshi, T.

T. Okoshi, K. Kikuchi, and A. Nakayama, “Novel method for high resolution measurement of laser output spectrum,” Electron. Lett. 16(16), 630–631 (1980).
[Crossref]

Paniccia, M. J.

Park, H.

Poingt, F.

A. L. Liepvre, C. Jany, A. Accard, M. Lamponi, F. Poingt, D. Make, F. Lelarge, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Messaoudene, D. Bordel, and G.-H. Duan, “Widely wavelength tunable hybrid III–V/silicon laser with 45 nm tuning range fabricated using a wafer bonding technique,” in 9th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2012), pp. 29–31.
[Crossref]

Prather, D.

Qian, W.

Raj, K.

Sato, K.

Seddighian, P.

Shafiiha, R.

Shubin, I.

Song, J.

Stoffer, R.

K. R. Hiremath, R. Stoffer, and M. Hammer, “Molding of circular integrated optical microresonators by 2-D frequency domain coupled mode theory,” Opt. Commun. 257(5), 277–297 (2006).
[Crossref]

Thacker, H. D.

Tu, X.

Wang, L.

Wang, X.

N. H. Zhu, J. W. Man, H. G. Zhang, J. H. Ke, W. Han, W. Chen, Y. Liu, X. Wang, H. Q. Yuan, and L. Xie, “Lineshape analysis of the beat signal between optical carrier and delayed sidebands,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(3), 347–353 (2010).
[Crossref]

Watanabe, S.

Xie, L.

N. H. Zhu, J. W. Man, H. G. Zhang, J. H. Ke, W. Han, W. Chen, Y. Liu, X. Wang, H. Q. Yuan, and L. Xie, “Lineshape analysis of the beat signal between optical carrier and delayed sidebands,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(3), 347–353 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yamada, H.

Yamamoto, K.

Yamazaki, H.

Yang, Q.

Yang, S.

Yao, J.

Yariv, A.

A. Yariv, “Universal relations for coupling of optical power between microresonators and dielectric waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 36(4), 321–322 (2000).
[Crossref]

Yu, M.

Yuan, H. Q.

N. H. Zhu, J. W. Man, H. G. Zhang, J. H. Ke, W. Han, W. Chen, Y. Liu, X. Wang, H. Q. Yuan, and L. Xie, “Lineshape analysis of the beat signal between optical carrier and delayed sidebands,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(3), 347–353 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zhang, D.

Zhang, H. G.

N. H. Zhu, J. W. Man, H. G. Zhang, J. H. Ke, W. Han, W. Chen, Y. Liu, X. Wang, H. Q. Yuan, and L. Xie, “Lineshape analysis of the beat signal between optical carrier and delayed sidebands,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(3), 347–353 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y.

Zhao, J.

Zheng, X.

Zhu, N. H.

N. H. Zhu, J. W. Man, H. G. Zhang, J. H. Ke, W. Han, W. Chen, Y. Liu, X. Wang, H. Q. Yuan, and L. Xie, “Lineshape analysis of the beat signal between optical carrier and delayed sidebands,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(3), 347–353 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zilkie, A. J.

Electron. Lett. (2)

A. Yariv, “Universal relations for coupling of optical power between microresonators and dielectric waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 36(4), 321–322 (2000).
[Crossref]

T. Okoshi, K. Kikuchi, and A. Nakayama, “Novel method for high resolution measurement of laser output spectrum,” Electron. Lett. 16(16), 630–631 (1980).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

N. H. Zhu, J. W. Man, H. G. Zhang, J. H. Ke, W. Han, W. Chen, Y. Liu, X. Wang, H. Q. Yuan, and L. Xie, “Lineshape analysis of the beat signal between optical carrier and delayed sidebands,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(3), 347–353 (2010).
[Crossref]

B.-S. Kim, Y. Chung, and S.-H. Kim, “Dynamics analysis of mode-locked sampled-grating distributed bragg reflector laser diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35(11), 1623–1629 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

Opt. Commun. (1)

K. R. Hiremath, R. Stoffer, and M. Hammer, “Molding of circular integrated optical microresonators by 2-D frequency domain coupled mode theory,” Opt. Commun. 257(5), 277–297 (2006).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (8)

T. Chu, N. Fujioka, and M. Ishizaka, “Compact, lower-power-consumption wavelength tunable laser fabricated with silicon photonic-wire waveguide micro-ring resonators,” Opt. Express 17(16), 14063–14068 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Fang, J. Song, X. Luo, M. Yu, G. Lo, and Y. Liu, “Mode-size converter with high coupling efficiency and broad bandwidth,” Opt. Express 19(22), 21588–21594 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Zhang, J. Zhao, Q. Yang, W. Liu, Y. Fu, C. Li, M. Luo, S. Hu, Q. Hu, and L. Wang, “Compact MEMS external cavity tunable laser with ultra-narrow linewidth for coherent detection,” Opt. Express 20(18), 19670–19682 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. J. Zilkie, P. Seddighian, B. J. Bijlani, W. Qian, D. C. Lee, S. Fathololoumi, J. Fong, R. Shafiiha, D. Feng, B. J. Luff, X. Zheng, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “Power-efficient III-V/Silicon external cavity DBR lasers,” Opt. Express 20(21), 23456–23462 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Yang, Y. Zhang, D. W. Grund, G. A. Ejzak, Y. Liu, A. Novack, D. Prather, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “A single adiabatic microring-based laser in 220 nm silicon-on-insulator,” Opt. Express 22(1), 1172–1180 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. H. Lee, I. Shubin, J. Yao, J. Bickford, Y. Luo, S. Lin, S. S. Djordjevic, H. D. Thacker, J. E. Cunningham, K. Raj, X. Zheng, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “High power and widely tunable Si hybrid external-cavity laser for power efficient Si photonics WDM links,” Opt. Express 22(7), 7678–7685 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Jia, J. Song, T.-Y. Liow, X. Luo, X. Tu, Q. Fang, S.-C. Koh, M. Yu, and G. Lo, “Mode size converter between high-index-contrast waveguide and cleaved single mode fiber using SiON as intermediate material,” Opt. Express 22(19), 23652–23660 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. W. Fang, H. Park, O. Cohen, R. Jones, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, “Electrically pumped hybrid AlGaInAs-silicon evanescent laser,” Opt. Express 14(20), 9203–9210 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (8)

A. L. Liepvre, C. Jany, A. Accard, M. Lamponi, F. Poingt, D. Make, F. Lelarge, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Messaoudene, D. Bordel, and G.-H. Duan, “Widely wavelength tunable hybrid III–V/silicon laser with 45 nm tuning range fabricated using a wafer bonding technique,” in 9th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2012), pp. 29–31.
[Crossref]

M. Born, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, 1965), Ch. 7.

M. Seimetz, High-Order Modulation for Optical Fiber Transmission (Springer, 2009), Ch. 7.

Y. Sasahata, K. Matsumoto, T. Nagira, H. Sakuma, and K. Kishimoto, M. Suzuki1, D. Suzuki1, Y. Horiguchi, M. Takabayashi, K. Mochizuki, M. Gotoda, H. Aruga, and E. Ishimura1, “Tunable 16 DFB laser array with unequally spaced passive waveguides for backside wavelength monitor,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2014), paper Th3A.2.

A. Sivananthan, H. Park, M. Lu, J. S. Parker, E. Bloch, L. A. Johansson, M. J. Rodwell, and L. A. Coldren, “Monolithic linewidth narrowing of a tunable SG-DBR Laser,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper OTh3I.3.
[Crossref]

Y. Qiu, X. Xiao, M. Luo, C. Li, Q. Yang, and S. Yu, “Tunable, narrow linewidth silicon microring laser source for coherent optical communications,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper JTh2A.57.

T. Matsumoto, A. Suzuki, M. Takahashi, S. Watanabe, S. Ishii, K. Suzuki, T. Kaneko, H. Yamazaki, and N. Sakuma, “Narrow spectral linewidth fullband tunable laser based on waveguide ring resonators with low power consumption,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper OThQ5.
[Crossref]

L. A. Coldren, Diode Lasers and Photonic Integrated Circuits (John Wiley and Sons, 2012), Ch. 5.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic layout and photograph of the proposed laser.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Schematic layout of the silicon micro-ring chip, and (b)-(d) Photograph of the GC, MRR and SSC (the insert photograph is the SEM of the SSC).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Combination effect of etalon transmission and MRR to realize a tunable laser.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Simulated optical spectrum, (a) the extreme spectrum of the tuning range, and (b) the typical spectrum at the center of the range.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Simulated wavelength tuning behavior during the phase tuning, (b) Distinguish the two end wavelength peaks of one FSR by phase tuning, (c) Tuning characteristics with different ITU-T channels, and (d) Wavelength tuning accuracy.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) L-I curve of the proposed laser, (b) Self heterodyne linewidth spectrum, and (c) Tunning spectrum of the proposed laser.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 OSNR versus BER of the proposed laser compared with commercial tunable light source. (The insets are constellation diagrams of the OFDM 4-QAM and 16-QAM.)

Equations (9)

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dN dt = I eV N τ B N 2 C N 3 m g m v g S m
d S m dt =Γ v g g m S m + Γ v g g m V v g α m S m
g( ω 0 )= g N ( ω 0 )ln( N m / N 0 )/( 1+ε m S m )
H( ω )= 1 1+ (ω ω 0 ) 2 /Δ ω 2
α m = α a + α p l p l a + 1 l a log( 1 | r out r eff | )
r eff = T etalon R ring T etalon
R ring = k 2 exp(( α r +i β r )πr) t 2 exp[2( α r +i β r )πr]1
T etalon = t 1 t 2 exp(iδ/2) 1 r 1 r 2 exp(iδ)
δ= 4π n eff dcosθ λ

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