Abstract

In order to mitigate the signal spectrum narrowing caused by optical filtering at nodes, an adequate guard band is needed between optical channels, which degrades the frequency utilization of optical fibers. In this study, we propose a grouped routing based network architecture that minimizes spectrum narrowing while greatly improving spectral efficiency. Coarse granular routing at GRE (grouped routing entity) level is employed at each ROADM node, but fine granular add/drop is adopted to retain high frequency utilization. Optical channels are packed densely in each GRE, and sufficient guard bands are inserted between GREs. As a result, signal spectrum narrowing is minimized and efficient spectrum utilization is achieved. Network design/control algorithms that support both static and dynamic traffic growth are developed. Extensive simulations demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed architecture. To implement the scheme, current LCOS-based ROADMs are applied without any hardware changes; only the control schema are modified.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. Strategic White Paper by Bell Labs, “Metro Network Traffic Growth: An Architecture Impact Study,” http://resources.alcatel-lucent.com/asset/171568 .
  2. M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, Y. Sone, and S. Matuoka, “Spectrum-efficient and scalable elastic optical path network: architecture, benefits, and enabling technologies,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 47(11), 66–73 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  3. R. Younce, J. Larikova, and Y. Wang, “Engineering 400G for colorless – directionless - contentionless architecture in metro/regional networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 5(10), A267–A273 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  4. M. Filer and S. Tibuleac, “N-degree ROADM Architecture Comparison: Broadcast-and-Select versus Route-and-Select in 120 Gb/s DP-QPSK Transmission Systems,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2014), paper Th1I.2.
    [Crossref]
  5. Y. Sakamaki, T. Kawai, T. Komukai, M. Fukutoku, and T. Kataoka, “Evaluation of optical filtering penalty in digital coherent detection system,” IEICE Commun. Express 1(2), 54–59 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  6. K. Harada, K. Shimizu, T. Kudou, and T. Ozeki, “Hierarchical Optical Path Cross-Connect Systems for Large Scale WDM Networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 1999), paper WM55.
    [Crossref]
  7. C. Blaizot, E. Dotaro, L. Noirie and A. Jourdan, “Multi-Granularity Optical Networks,” in Optical Network Design and Modeling, IEEE Technical Digest (CD) (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 2000), invited paper page 1.
  8. L. Noirie, C. Blaizot, and E. Dotaro, “Multi-Granularity Optical Cross-Connect,” in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America 2000), paper 9.2.4.
  9. A. Ghazisaeidi, P. Tran, P. Brindel, O. Bertran-pardo, J. Renaudier, G. Charlet, and S. Bigo, “Impact of Tight Optical Filtering on the Performance of 28 Gbaud Nyquist-WDM PDM-8QAM over 37.5 GHzGrid,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper OTu3B.6.
  10. F. Paolucci, F. Fresi, A. Castro, L. Velasco, F. Cugini, N. Sambo, A. Giorgetti, L. Potí, and P. Castoldi, “Filter Optimization in SDN-based Flexgrid Networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2014), paper Th3l.4.
    [Crossref]
  11. A. Castro, F. Cugini, L. Velasco, and P. Castoldi, “On the benefits of differentiating the filter configurations in flexigrid optical networks,” in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America 2014), paper P.6.16.
  12. F. Paolucci, F. Cugini, F. Fresi, G. Meloni, A. Giorgetti, N. Sambo, L. Potí, A. Castro, L. Velasco, and P. Castoldi, “Superfilter Technique in SDN-Controlled Elastic Optical Networks [Invited],” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 7(2), A285–A292 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  13. P. S. Khodashenas, J. M. Rivas-Moscoso, D. Klonidis, D. M. Marom, and I. Tomkos, “Evaluating the Optimum Filter Resolution and Sub-Channel Spectrum Granularity for Flexible Super-Channels”, in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America 2014), paper W1I.5.
  14. A. Morea, J. Renaudier, A. Ghazisaeidi, O. Bertran-Pardo, and T. Zami, “Impact of reducing channel spacing from 50 GHz to 37.5 GHz in fully transparent meshed networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2014), paper Th1E.4.
    [Crossref]
  15. X. Gu, K. Seno, H. Tanobe, and F. Koyama, “60-channel Wavelength Selective Switch on Bragg Reflector Waveguides Array with 125 Outputports,” in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America 2014), paper We.3.5.3.
  16. K. Suzuki, Y. Ikuma, E. Hashimoto, K. Yamaguchi, M. Itoh, and T. Takahashi, “Ultra-High Port Count Wavelength Selective Switch Employing Waveguide-Based I/O Frontend”, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper Tu3A.7.
    [Crossref]
  17. M. Iwama, M. Takahashi, Y. Uchida, M. Kimura, R. Kawahara, S. Matsushita, and T. Mukaihara, “Low Loss 1x93 Wavelength Selective Switch Using PLC-based Spot Size Converter,” in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America 2015), paper Mo.4.2.2.
  18. Y. Taniguti, Y. Yamada, H. Hasegawa, and K. Sato, “A novel optical networking scheme utilizing coarse granular optical routing and fine granular add/drop,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper JW2A.2.
  19. Y. Taniguti, Y. Yamada, H. Hasegawa, and K. Sato, “Coarse granular optical routing networks utilizing fine granular add/drop,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 5(7), 774–783 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  20. R. Hirako, K. Ishii, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, H. Takahashi, and M. Okuno, “Development of Single PLC-Chip Waveband Selective Switch that Has Extra Ports for Grooming and Termination”, in Proceedings of the 16th Opto-Electronics and Communications Conference (2011), pp. 483–484.
  21. Y. Terada, Y. Mori, H. Hasegawa, and K. Sato, “Enhancement of Fiber Frequency Utilization by Employing Grouped Optical Path Routing,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2014), paper W1C.6.
    [Crossref]
  22. Y. Terada, Y. Mori, H. Hasegawa, and K. Sato, “Verification of High Frequency Spectrum Utilization in Grouped Optical Path Routing Networks under Traffic Growth Scenario,” in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America 2014), paper Mo.3.1.4.
    [Crossref]
  23. Y. Terada, Y. Mori, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, and T. Tanaka, “Evaluation of Frequency Utilization Enhancement with Transmission-Characteristics-Aware Grouped Optical Path Routing,” in Photonics in Switching, IEEE Technical Digest (CD) (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 2015), paper Poster.14.
  24. ITU-T Recommendation G.783, Digital transmission systems.
  25. A. Dwivedi and R. Wagner, “Traffic model for USA long-distance optimal network,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2000), paper TuK1.
  26. T. Sakano, Y. Tsukishima, H. Hasegawa, T. Tsuritani, Y. Hirota, S. Arakawa, and H. Tode, “A study on a Photonic Network Model based on the regional characteristics of Japan,” in Proceeding of Technical Report of IEICE, PN2013–01 (2013), pp. 1–6 (in Japanese)
  27. V. B. Allasia and M. Potenza, “Characteristics and trends of telecom italia transport networks,” Fiber Integr. Opt. 27(4), 183–193 (2008).
    [Crossref]

2015 (1)

2013 (2)

2012 (1)

Y. Sakamaki, T. Kawai, T. Komukai, M. Fukutoku, and T. Kataoka, “Evaluation of optical filtering penalty in digital coherent detection system,” IEICE Commun. Express 1(2), 54–59 (2012).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, Y. Sone, and S. Matuoka, “Spectrum-efficient and scalable elastic optical path network: architecture, benefits, and enabling technologies,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 47(11), 66–73 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

V. B. Allasia and M. Potenza, “Characteristics and trends of telecom italia transport networks,” Fiber Integr. Opt. 27(4), 183–193 (2008).
[Crossref]

Allasia, V. B.

V. B. Allasia and M. Potenza, “Characteristics and trends of telecom italia transport networks,” Fiber Integr. Opt. 27(4), 183–193 (2008).
[Crossref]

Castoldi, P.

Castro, A.

Cugini, F.

Fresi, F.

Fukutoku, M.

Y. Sakamaki, T. Kawai, T. Komukai, M. Fukutoku, and T. Kataoka, “Evaluation of optical filtering penalty in digital coherent detection system,” IEICE Commun. Express 1(2), 54–59 (2012).
[Crossref]

Giorgetti, A.

Hasegawa, H.

Y. Taniguti, Y. Yamada, H. Hasegawa, and K. Sato, “Coarse granular optical routing networks utilizing fine granular add/drop,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 5(7), 774–783 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Hirako, K. Ishii, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, H. Takahashi, and M. Okuno, “Development of Single PLC-Chip Waveband Selective Switch that Has Extra Ports for Grooming and Termination”, in Proceedings of the 16th Opto-Electronics and Communications Conference (2011), pp. 483–484.

Hirako, R.

R. Hirako, K. Ishii, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, H. Takahashi, and M. Okuno, “Development of Single PLC-Chip Waveband Selective Switch that Has Extra Ports for Grooming and Termination”, in Proceedings of the 16th Opto-Electronics and Communications Conference (2011), pp. 483–484.

Ishii, K.

R. Hirako, K. Ishii, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, H. Takahashi, and M. Okuno, “Development of Single PLC-Chip Waveband Selective Switch that Has Extra Ports for Grooming and Termination”, in Proceedings of the 16th Opto-Electronics and Communications Conference (2011), pp. 483–484.

Jinno, M.

M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, Y. Sone, and S. Matuoka, “Spectrum-efficient and scalable elastic optical path network: architecture, benefits, and enabling technologies,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 47(11), 66–73 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kataoka, T.

Y. Sakamaki, T. Kawai, T. Komukai, M. Fukutoku, and T. Kataoka, “Evaluation of optical filtering penalty in digital coherent detection system,” IEICE Commun. Express 1(2), 54–59 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kawai, T.

Y. Sakamaki, T. Kawai, T. Komukai, M. Fukutoku, and T. Kataoka, “Evaluation of optical filtering penalty in digital coherent detection system,” IEICE Commun. Express 1(2), 54–59 (2012).
[Crossref]

Komukai, T.

Y. Sakamaki, T. Kawai, T. Komukai, M. Fukutoku, and T. Kataoka, “Evaluation of optical filtering penalty in digital coherent detection system,” IEICE Commun. Express 1(2), 54–59 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kozicki, B.

M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, Y. Sone, and S. Matuoka, “Spectrum-efficient and scalable elastic optical path network: architecture, benefits, and enabling technologies,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 47(11), 66–73 (2009).
[Crossref]

Larikova, J.

Matuoka, S.

M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, Y. Sone, and S. Matuoka, “Spectrum-efficient and scalable elastic optical path network: architecture, benefits, and enabling technologies,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 47(11), 66–73 (2009).
[Crossref]

Meloni, G.

Okuno, M.

R. Hirako, K. Ishii, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, H. Takahashi, and M. Okuno, “Development of Single PLC-Chip Waveband Selective Switch that Has Extra Ports for Grooming and Termination”, in Proceedings of the 16th Opto-Electronics and Communications Conference (2011), pp. 483–484.

Paolucci, F.

Potenza, M.

V. B. Allasia and M. Potenza, “Characteristics and trends of telecom italia transport networks,” Fiber Integr. Opt. 27(4), 183–193 (2008).
[Crossref]

Potí, L.

Sakamaki, Y.

Y. Sakamaki, T. Kawai, T. Komukai, M. Fukutoku, and T. Kataoka, “Evaluation of optical filtering penalty in digital coherent detection system,” IEICE Commun. Express 1(2), 54–59 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sambo, N.

Sato, K.

Y. Taniguti, Y. Yamada, H. Hasegawa, and K. Sato, “Coarse granular optical routing networks utilizing fine granular add/drop,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 5(7), 774–783 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Hirako, K. Ishii, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, H. Takahashi, and M. Okuno, “Development of Single PLC-Chip Waveband Selective Switch that Has Extra Ports for Grooming and Termination”, in Proceedings of the 16th Opto-Electronics and Communications Conference (2011), pp. 483–484.

Sone, Y.

M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, Y. Sone, and S. Matuoka, “Spectrum-efficient and scalable elastic optical path network: architecture, benefits, and enabling technologies,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 47(11), 66–73 (2009).
[Crossref]

Takahashi, H.

R. Hirako, K. Ishii, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, H. Takahashi, and M. Okuno, “Development of Single PLC-Chip Waveband Selective Switch that Has Extra Ports for Grooming and Termination”, in Proceedings of the 16th Opto-Electronics and Communications Conference (2011), pp. 483–484.

Takara, H.

M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, Y. Sone, and S. Matuoka, “Spectrum-efficient and scalable elastic optical path network: architecture, benefits, and enabling technologies,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 47(11), 66–73 (2009).
[Crossref]

Taniguti, Y.

Tsukishima, Y.

M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, Y. Sone, and S. Matuoka, “Spectrum-efficient and scalable elastic optical path network: architecture, benefits, and enabling technologies,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 47(11), 66–73 (2009).
[Crossref]

Velasco, L.

Wang, Y.

Yamada, Y.

Younce, R.

Fiber Integr. Opt. (1)

V. B. Allasia and M. Potenza, “Characteristics and trends of telecom italia transport networks,” Fiber Integr. Opt. 27(4), 183–193 (2008).
[Crossref]

IEEE Commun. Mag. (1)

M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, Y. Sone, and S. Matuoka, “Spectrum-efficient and scalable elastic optical path network: architecture, benefits, and enabling technologies,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 47(11), 66–73 (2009).
[Crossref]

IEICE Commun. Express (1)

Y. Sakamaki, T. Kawai, T. Komukai, M. Fukutoku, and T. Kataoka, “Evaluation of optical filtering penalty in digital coherent detection system,” IEICE Commun. Express 1(2), 54–59 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Commun. Netw. (3)

Other (21)

M. Filer and S. Tibuleac, “N-degree ROADM Architecture Comparison: Broadcast-and-Select versus Route-and-Select in 120 Gb/s DP-QPSK Transmission Systems,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2014), paper Th1I.2.
[Crossref]

Strategic White Paper by Bell Labs, “Metro Network Traffic Growth: An Architecture Impact Study,” http://resources.alcatel-lucent.com/asset/171568 .

R. Hirako, K. Ishii, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, H. Takahashi, and M. Okuno, “Development of Single PLC-Chip Waveband Selective Switch that Has Extra Ports for Grooming and Termination”, in Proceedings of the 16th Opto-Electronics and Communications Conference (2011), pp. 483–484.

Y. Terada, Y. Mori, H. Hasegawa, and K. Sato, “Enhancement of Fiber Frequency Utilization by Employing Grouped Optical Path Routing,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2014), paper W1C.6.
[Crossref]

Y. Terada, Y. Mori, H. Hasegawa, and K. Sato, “Verification of High Frequency Spectrum Utilization in Grouped Optical Path Routing Networks under Traffic Growth Scenario,” in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America 2014), paper Mo.3.1.4.
[Crossref]

Y. Terada, Y. Mori, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, and T. Tanaka, “Evaluation of Frequency Utilization Enhancement with Transmission-Characteristics-Aware Grouped Optical Path Routing,” in Photonics in Switching, IEEE Technical Digest (CD) (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 2015), paper Poster.14.

ITU-T Recommendation G.783, Digital transmission systems.

A. Dwivedi and R. Wagner, “Traffic model for USA long-distance optimal network,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2000), paper TuK1.

T. Sakano, Y. Tsukishima, H. Hasegawa, T. Tsuritani, Y. Hirota, S. Arakawa, and H. Tode, “A study on a Photonic Network Model based on the regional characteristics of Japan,” in Proceeding of Technical Report of IEICE, PN2013–01 (2013), pp. 1–6 (in Japanese)

P. S. Khodashenas, J. M. Rivas-Moscoso, D. Klonidis, D. M. Marom, and I. Tomkos, “Evaluating the Optimum Filter Resolution and Sub-Channel Spectrum Granularity for Flexible Super-Channels”, in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America 2014), paper W1I.5.

A. Morea, J. Renaudier, A. Ghazisaeidi, O. Bertran-Pardo, and T. Zami, “Impact of reducing channel spacing from 50 GHz to 37.5 GHz in fully transparent meshed networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2014), paper Th1E.4.
[Crossref]

X. Gu, K. Seno, H. Tanobe, and F. Koyama, “60-channel Wavelength Selective Switch on Bragg Reflector Waveguides Array with 125 Outputports,” in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America 2014), paper We.3.5.3.

K. Suzuki, Y. Ikuma, E. Hashimoto, K. Yamaguchi, M. Itoh, and T. Takahashi, “Ultra-High Port Count Wavelength Selective Switch Employing Waveguide-Based I/O Frontend”, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper Tu3A.7.
[Crossref]

M. Iwama, M. Takahashi, Y. Uchida, M. Kimura, R. Kawahara, S. Matsushita, and T. Mukaihara, “Low Loss 1x93 Wavelength Selective Switch Using PLC-based Spot Size Converter,” in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America 2015), paper Mo.4.2.2.

Y. Taniguti, Y. Yamada, H. Hasegawa, and K. Sato, “A novel optical networking scheme utilizing coarse granular optical routing and fine granular add/drop,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper JW2A.2.

K. Harada, K. Shimizu, T. Kudou, and T. Ozeki, “Hierarchical Optical Path Cross-Connect Systems for Large Scale WDM Networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 1999), paper WM55.
[Crossref]

C. Blaizot, E. Dotaro, L. Noirie and A. Jourdan, “Multi-Granularity Optical Networks,” in Optical Network Design and Modeling, IEEE Technical Digest (CD) (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 2000), invited paper page 1.

L. Noirie, C. Blaizot, and E. Dotaro, “Multi-Granularity Optical Cross-Connect,” in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America 2000), paper 9.2.4.

A. Ghazisaeidi, P. Tran, P. Brindel, O. Bertran-pardo, J. Renaudier, G. Charlet, and S. Bigo, “Impact of Tight Optical Filtering on the Performance of 28 Gbaud Nyquist-WDM PDM-8QAM over 37.5 GHzGrid,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper OTu3B.6.

F. Paolucci, F. Fresi, A. Castro, L. Velasco, F. Cugini, N. Sambo, A. Giorgetti, L. Potí, and P. Castoldi, “Filter Optimization in SDN-based Flexgrid Networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2014), paper Th3l.4.
[Crossref]

A. Castro, F. Cugini, L. Velasco, and P. Castoldi, “On the benefits of differentiating the filter configurations in flexigrid optical networks,” in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America 2014), paper P.6.16.

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Figures (18)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 GRE Routing operation.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 GRE pipe network.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Different architectures compared.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Filter narrowing effect.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Dense channel packing in GREs and guard band between GREs.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 ROADM architecture and filtering effect caused by adjacent channel drop.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Filtering in drop process and impact of spectrum allocation optimization.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Network topologies.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Distribution of filtering number.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Filtering penalty subject to number of filtering operations applied.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 Spectrum usage of conventional and proposed network.
Fig. 12
Fig. 12 Fiber capacity (number of channels accommodated) versus GRE capacity.
Fig. 13
Fig. 13 Necessary fiber numbers of Grouped Routing network normalized by those of conventional network.
Fig. 14
Fig. 14 Necessary fiber number with various traffic distributions.
Fig. 15
Fig. 15 Necessary fiber number versus GRE capacity.
Fig. 16
Fig. 16 Accommodated traffic volume versus filtering limitation.
Fig. 17
Fig. 17 Accommodated traffic volume with various traffic patterns.
Fig. 18
Fig. 18 Accommodated traffic volume versus GRE capacity.

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