Abstract

We propose, fabricate and demonstrate on-chip photonic integration of suspended InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells (MQWs) devices on the GaN-on-silicon platform. Both silicon removal and back wafer etching are conducted to obtain membrane-type devices, and suspended waveguides are used for the connection between p-n junction InGaN/GaN MQWs devices. As an in-plane data transmission system, the middle p-n junction InGaN/GaN MQWs device is used as a light emitting diode (LED) to deliver signals by modulating the intensity of the emitted light, and the other two devices act as photodetectors (PDs) to sense the light guided by the suspended waveguide and convert the photons into electrons, achieving 1 × 2 in-plane information transmission via visible light. Correspondingly, the three devices can function as independent PDs to realize multiple receivers for free space visible light communication. Further, the on-chip photonic platform can be used as an active electro-optical sensing system when the middle device acts as a PD and the other two devices serve as LEDs. The experimental results show that the auxiliary LED sources can enhance the amplitude of the induced photocurrent.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  25. W. L. Yeh, C. M. Fang, and Y. P. Chiou, “Enhancing LED light extraction by optimizing cavity and waveguide modes in grating structures,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(5), 359–364 (2013).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]

2015 (2)

X. Li, D. Bai, Z. Shi, G. Y. Zhu, M. Zhang, Z. P. Cao, H. B. Zhu, P. Grünberg, and Y. J. Wang, “Thickness-Dependent Performance of a Free-Standing Membrane LED,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(3), 1600607 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Li, G. Y. Zhu, X. M. Gao, D. Bai, X. M. Huang, X. Cao, H. B. Zhu, H. Kazuhiro, and Y. J. Wang, “Suspended p–n Junction InGaN/GaN Multiple-Quantum-Well Device With Selectable Functionality,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(6), 1–7 (2015).

2014 (9)

C. L. Liao, C. L. Ho, Y. F. Chang, C. H. Wu, and M. C. Wu, “High-speed light-emitting diodes emitting at 500 nm with 463-MHz modulation bandwidth,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 35(5), 563–565 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. L. Liao, C. L. Ho, Y. F. Chang, C. H. Wu, and M. C. Wu, “High-Speed Light-Emitting Diodes Emitting at 500 nm With 463-MHz Modulation Bandwidth,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 35(5), 563–565 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. Shi, X. Li, G. Zhu, Z. Wang, P. Grünberg, H. Zhu, and Y. Wang, “Characteristics of GaN-based LED fabricated on a GaN-on-silicon platform,” Appl. Phys. Express 7(8), 082102 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Li, Z. Shi, G. Zhu, M. Zhang, H. Zhu, and Y. Wang, “High efficiency membrane light emitting diode fabricated by back wafer thinning technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(3), 031109 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. Liu, J. Ma, T. Huang, C. Liu, and K. M. Lau, “Selective epitaxial growth of monolithically integrated GaN-based light emitting diodes with AlGaN/GaN driving transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091103 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. J. Lee, Z. P. Yang, P. G. Chen, Y. A. Hsieh, Y. C. Yao, M. H. Liao, M. H. Lee, M. T. Wang, and J. M. Hwang, “Monolithic integration of GaN-based light-emitting diodes and metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors,” Opt. Express 22(S6), A1589–A1595 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. J. Liu, T. Huang, J. Ma, C. Liu, and K. M. Lau, “Monolithic Integration of AlGaN/GaN HEMT on LED by MOCVD,” IEEE Electron. Device Lett. 35(3), 330–332 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Tchernycheva, A. Messanvi, A. de Luna Bugallo, G. Jacopin, P. Lavenus, L. Rigutti, H. Zhang, Y. Halioua, F. H. Julien, J. Eymery, and C. Durand, “Integrated Photonic Platform Based on InGaN/GaN Nanowire Emitters and Detectors,” Nano Lett. 14(6), 3515–3520 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. F. Tian, J. J. D. McKendry, Z. Gong, S. L. Zhang, S. Watson, D. D. Zhu, I. M. Watson, E. D. Gu, A. E. Kelly, C. J. Humphreys, and M. D. Dawson, “Characteristics and applications of micro-pixelated GaN-based light emitting diodes on Si substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(3), 033112 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

M. D. Brubaker, P. T. Blanchard, J. B. Schlager, A. W. Sanders, A. Roshko, S. M. Duff, J. M. Gray, V. M. Bright, N. A. Sanford, and K. A. Bertness, “On-Chip Optical Interconnects Made with Gallium Nitride Nanowires,” Nano Lett. 13(2), 374–377 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. W. Feng, W. Zhao, J. Li, J. Lin, H. Jiang, and J. Zavada, “Correlation between the optical loss and crystalline quality in erbium-doped GaN optical waveguides,” Appl. Opt. 52(22), 5426–5429 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. L. Yeh, C. M. Fang, and Y. P. Chiou, “Enhancing LED light extraction by optimizing cavity and waveguide modes in grating structures,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(5), 359–364 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

2010 (3)

Y. Wang, F. Hu, Y. Kanamori, T. Wu, and K. Hane, “Enhancement of light extraction from freestanding GaN nanocolumn slab with bottom subwavelength nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. B 101(3), 575–581 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. S. Islam and V. J. Logeeswaran, “Nanoscale Materials and Devices for Future Communication Networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48(6), 112–120 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Elgala, R. Mesleh, and H. Haas, “An LED model for intensity-modulated optical communication systems,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(11), 835–837 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (4)

S. Noda and M. Fujita, “Light-emitting diodes: Photonic crystal efficiency boost,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 129–130 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. L. Minh, D. O’Brien, G. Faulkner, L. Zeng, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. J. Oh, and E. T. Won, “100-Mb/s NRZ Visible Light Communications Using a Postequalized White LED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(15), 1063–1065 (2009).
[Crossref]

R. Yan, D. Gargas, and P. Yang, “Nanowire photonics,” Nat. Photonics 3(10), 569–576 (2009).
[Crossref]

F. Reiher, A. Dadgar, J. Bläsing, M. Wieneke, M. Müller, A. Franke, L. Reißmann, J. Christen, and A. Krost, “InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes on Si (1 1 0) substrates grown by metal–organic vapour phase epitaxy,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(5), 055107 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

E. Muñoz, “(Al,In,Ga)N-based photodetectors: some materials issues,” Phys. Status Solidi 244(8), 2859–2877 (2007).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

Y. D. Jhou, C. H. Chen, R. W. Chuang, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, P. C. Chang, P. C. Chen, H. Hung, S. M. Wang, and C. L. Yu, “Nitride-based light emitting diode and photodetector dual function devices with InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well structures,” Solid-State Electron. 49(8), 1347–1351 (2005).
[Crossref]

A. Naeemi, R. Sarvari, and J. D. Meindl, “Performance Comparison between Carbon Nanotube and Copper Interconnects For Gigascale Integration (GSI),” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 26(2), 84–86 (2005).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

B. S. Kang, S. Kim, J. Kim, F. Ren, K. Baik, S. J. Pearton, B. P. Gila, C. R. Abernathy, C.-C. Pan, G.-T. Chen, J.-I. Chyi, V. Chandrasekaran, M. Sheplak, T. Nishida, and S. N. G. Chu, “Effect of external strain on the conductivity of AlGaN/GaN high-electron-mobility transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(23), 4845–4847 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

T. Egawa, T. Moku, H. Ishikawa, K. Ohtsuka, and T. Jimbo, “Improved characteristics of blue and green InGaN-based light-enfitting diodes on Si grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(6B), L663–L664 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (2)

A. Dadgar, J. Christen, T. Riemann, S. Richter, J. Blasing, A. Diez, A. Krost, A. Alam, and M. Heuken, “Bright blue electroluminescence from an InGaN/GaN multiquantum-well diode on Si(111): Impact of an AlGaN/GaN multilayer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(15), 2211–2213 (2001).
[Crossref]

H. C. Yang, T. Y. Lin, and Y. F. Chen, “Persistent photoconductivity in InGaN/GaN multiquantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(3), 338–340 (2001).
[Crossref]

Abernathy, C. R.

B. S. Kang, S. Kim, J. Kim, F. Ren, K. Baik, S. J. Pearton, B. P. Gila, C. R. Abernathy, C.-C. Pan, G.-T. Chen, J.-I. Chyi, V. Chandrasekaran, M. Sheplak, T. Nishida, and S. N. G. Chu, “Effect of external strain on the conductivity of AlGaN/GaN high-electron-mobility transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(23), 4845–4847 (2003).
[Crossref]

Alam, A.

A. Dadgar, J. Christen, T. Riemann, S. Richter, J. Blasing, A. Diez, A. Krost, A. Alam, and M. Heuken, “Bright blue electroluminescence from an InGaN/GaN multiquantum-well diode on Si(111): Impact of an AlGaN/GaN multilayer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(15), 2211–2213 (2001).
[Crossref]

Bai, D.

X. Li, G. Y. Zhu, X. M. Gao, D. Bai, X. M. Huang, X. Cao, H. B. Zhu, H. Kazuhiro, and Y. J. Wang, “Suspended p–n Junction InGaN/GaN Multiple-Quantum-Well Device With Selectable Functionality,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(6), 1–7 (2015).

X. Li, D. Bai, Z. Shi, G. Y. Zhu, M. Zhang, Z. P. Cao, H. B. Zhu, P. Grünberg, and Y. J. Wang, “Thickness-Dependent Performance of a Free-Standing Membrane LED,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(3), 1600607 (2015).
[Crossref]

Baik, K.

B. S. Kang, S. Kim, J. Kim, F. Ren, K. Baik, S. J. Pearton, B. P. Gila, C. R. Abernathy, C.-C. Pan, G.-T. Chen, J.-I. Chyi, V. Chandrasekaran, M. Sheplak, T. Nishida, and S. N. G. Chu, “Effect of external strain on the conductivity of AlGaN/GaN high-electron-mobility transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(23), 4845–4847 (2003).
[Crossref]

Bertness, K. A.

M. D. Brubaker, P. T. Blanchard, J. B. Schlager, A. W. Sanders, A. Roshko, S. M. Duff, J. M. Gray, V. M. Bright, N. A. Sanford, and K. A. Bertness, “On-Chip Optical Interconnects Made with Gallium Nitride Nanowires,” Nano Lett. 13(2), 374–377 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Blanchard, P. T.

M. D. Brubaker, P. T. Blanchard, J. B. Schlager, A. W. Sanders, A. Roshko, S. M. Duff, J. M. Gray, V. M. Bright, N. A. Sanford, and K. A. Bertness, “On-Chip Optical Interconnects Made with Gallium Nitride Nanowires,” Nano Lett. 13(2), 374–377 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Blasing, J.

A. Dadgar, J. Christen, T. Riemann, S. Richter, J. Blasing, A. Diez, A. Krost, A. Alam, and M. Heuken, “Bright blue electroluminescence from an InGaN/GaN multiquantum-well diode on Si(111): Impact of an AlGaN/GaN multilayer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(15), 2211–2213 (2001).
[Crossref]

Bläsing, J.

F. Reiher, A. Dadgar, J. Bläsing, M. Wieneke, M. Müller, A. Franke, L. Reißmann, J. Christen, and A. Krost, “InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes on Si (1 1 0) substrates grown by metal–organic vapour phase epitaxy,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(5), 055107 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bright, V. M.

M. D. Brubaker, P. T. Blanchard, J. B. Schlager, A. W. Sanders, A. Roshko, S. M. Duff, J. M. Gray, V. M. Bright, N. A. Sanford, and K. A. Bertness, “On-Chip Optical Interconnects Made with Gallium Nitride Nanowires,” Nano Lett. 13(2), 374–377 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brubaker, M. D.

M. D. Brubaker, P. T. Blanchard, J. B. Schlager, A. W. Sanders, A. Roshko, S. M. Duff, J. M. Gray, V. M. Bright, N. A. Sanford, and K. A. Bertness, “On-Chip Optical Interconnects Made with Gallium Nitride Nanowires,” Nano Lett. 13(2), 374–377 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cao, X.

X. Li, G. Y. Zhu, X. M. Gao, D. Bai, X. M. Huang, X. Cao, H. B. Zhu, H. Kazuhiro, and Y. J. Wang, “Suspended p–n Junction InGaN/GaN Multiple-Quantum-Well Device With Selectable Functionality,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(6), 1–7 (2015).

Cao, Z. P.

X. Li, D. Bai, Z. Shi, G. Y. Zhu, M. Zhang, Z. P. Cao, H. B. Zhu, P. Grünberg, and Y. J. Wang, “Thickness-Dependent Performance of a Free-Standing Membrane LED,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(3), 1600607 (2015).
[Crossref]

Carlin, J.-F.

Chandrasekaran, V.

B. S. Kang, S. Kim, J. Kim, F. Ren, K. Baik, S. J. Pearton, B. P. Gila, C. R. Abernathy, C.-C. Pan, G.-T. Chen, J.-I. Chyi, V. Chandrasekaran, M. Sheplak, T. Nishida, and S. N. G. Chu, “Effect of external strain on the conductivity of AlGaN/GaN high-electron-mobility transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(23), 4845–4847 (2003).
[Crossref]

Chang, P. C.

Y. D. Jhou, C. H. Chen, R. W. Chuang, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, P. C. Chang, P. C. Chen, H. Hung, S. M. Wang, and C. L. Yu, “Nitride-based light emitting diode and photodetector dual function devices with InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well structures,” Solid-State Electron. 49(8), 1347–1351 (2005).
[Crossref]

Chang, S. J.

Y. D. Jhou, C. H. Chen, R. W. Chuang, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, P. C. Chang, P. C. Chen, H. Hung, S. M. Wang, and C. L. Yu, “Nitride-based light emitting diode and photodetector dual function devices with InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well structures,” Solid-State Electron. 49(8), 1347–1351 (2005).
[Crossref]

Chang, Y. F.

C. L. Liao, C. L. Ho, Y. F. Chang, C. H. Wu, and M. C. Wu, “High-speed light-emitting diodes emitting at 500 nm with 463-MHz modulation bandwidth,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 35(5), 563–565 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. L. Liao, C. L. Ho, Y. F. Chang, C. H. Wu, and M. C. Wu, “High-Speed Light-Emitting Diodes Emitting at 500 nm With 463-MHz Modulation Bandwidth,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 35(5), 563–565 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, C. H.

Y. D. Jhou, C. H. Chen, R. W. Chuang, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, P. C. Chang, P. C. Chen, H. Hung, S. M. Wang, and C. L. Yu, “Nitride-based light emitting diode and photodetector dual function devices with InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well structures,” Solid-State Electron. 49(8), 1347–1351 (2005).
[Crossref]

Chen, G.-T.

B. S. Kang, S. Kim, J. Kim, F. Ren, K. Baik, S. J. Pearton, B. P. Gila, C. R. Abernathy, C.-C. Pan, G.-T. Chen, J.-I. Chyi, V. Chandrasekaran, M. Sheplak, T. Nishida, and S. N. G. Chu, “Effect of external strain on the conductivity of AlGaN/GaN high-electron-mobility transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(23), 4845–4847 (2003).
[Crossref]

Chen, P. C.

Y. D. Jhou, C. H. Chen, R. W. Chuang, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, P. C. Chang, P. C. Chen, H. Hung, S. M. Wang, and C. L. Yu, “Nitride-based light emitting diode and photodetector dual function devices with InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well structures,” Solid-State Electron. 49(8), 1347–1351 (2005).
[Crossref]

Chen, P. G.

Chen, Y. F.

H. C. Yang, T. Y. Lin, and Y. F. Chen, “Persistent photoconductivity in InGaN/GaN multiquantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(3), 338–340 (2001).
[Crossref]

Chiou, Y. P.

W. L. Yeh, C. M. Fang, and Y. P. Chiou, “Enhancing LED light extraction by optimizing cavity and waveguide modes in grating structures,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(5), 359–364 (2013).
[Crossref]

Christen, J.

F. Reiher, A. Dadgar, J. Bläsing, M. Wieneke, M. Müller, A. Franke, L. Reißmann, J. Christen, and A. Krost, “InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes on Si (1 1 0) substrates grown by metal–organic vapour phase epitaxy,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(5), 055107 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. Dadgar, J. Christen, T. Riemann, S. Richter, J. Blasing, A. Diez, A. Krost, A. Alam, and M. Heuken, “Bright blue electroluminescence from an InGaN/GaN multiquantum-well diode on Si(111): Impact of an AlGaN/GaN multilayer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(15), 2211–2213 (2001).
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Chu, S. N. G.

B. S. Kang, S. Kim, J. Kim, F. Ren, K. Baik, S. J. Pearton, B. P. Gila, C. R. Abernathy, C.-C. Pan, G.-T. Chen, J.-I. Chyi, V. Chandrasekaran, M. Sheplak, T. Nishida, and S. N. G. Chu, “Effect of external strain on the conductivity of AlGaN/GaN high-electron-mobility transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(23), 4845–4847 (2003).
[Crossref]

Chuang, R. W.

Y. D. Jhou, C. H. Chen, R. W. Chuang, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, P. C. Chang, P. C. Chen, H. Hung, S. M. Wang, and C. L. Yu, “Nitride-based light emitting diode and photodetector dual function devices with InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well structures,” Solid-State Electron. 49(8), 1347–1351 (2005).
[Crossref]

Chyi, J.-I.

B. S. Kang, S. Kim, J. Kim, F. Ren, K. Baik, S. J. Pearton, B. P. Gila, C. R. Abernathy, C.-C. Pan, G.-T. Chen, J.-I. Chyi, V. Chandrasekaran, M. Sheplak, T. Nishida, and S. N. G. Chu, “Effect of external strain on the conductivity of AlGaN/GaN high-electron-mobility transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(23), 4845–4847 (2003).
[Crossref]

Dadgar, A.

F. Reiher, A. Dadgar, J. Bläsing, M. Wieneke, M. Müller, A. Franke, L. Reißmann, J. Christen, and A. Krost, “InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes on Si (1 1 0) substrates grown by metal–organic vapour phase epitaxy,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(5), 055107 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. Dadgar, J. Christen, T. Riemann, S. Richter, J. Blasing, A. Diez, A. Krost, A. Alam, and M. Heuken, “Bright blue electroluminescence from an InGaN/GaN multiquantum-well diode on Si(111): Impact of an AlGaN/GaN multilayer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(15), 2211–2213 (2001).
[Crossref]

Dawson, M. D.

P. F. Tian, J. J. D. McKendry, Z. Gong, S. L. Zhang, S. Watson, D. D. Zhu, I. M. Watson, E. D. Gu, A. E. Kelly, C. J. Humphreys, and M. D. Dawson, “Characteristics and applications of micro-pixelated GaN-based light emitting diodes on Si substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(3), 033112 (2014).
[Crossref]

de Luna Bugallo, A.

M. Tchernycheva, A. Messanvi, A. de Luna Bugallo, G. Jacopin, P. Lavenus, L. Rigutti, H. Zhang, Y. Halioua, F. H. Julien, J. Eymery, and C. Durand, “Integrated Photonic Platform Based on InGaN/GaN Nanowire Emitters and Detectors,” Nano Lett. 14(6), 3515–3520 (2014).
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Dharanipathy, U.

Diao, Z.

Diez, A.

A. Dadgar, J. Christen, T. Riemann, S. Richter, J. Blasing, A. Diez, A. Krost, A. Alam, and M. Heuken, “Bright blue electroluminescence from an InGaN/GaN multiquantum-well diode on Si(111): Impact of an AlGaN/GaN multilayer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(15), 2211–2213 (2001).
[Crossref]

Duff, S. M.

M. D. Brubaker, P. T. Blanchard, J. B. Schlager, A. W. Sanders, A. Roshko, S. M. Duff, J. M. Gray, V. M. Bright, N. A. Sanford, and K. A. Bertness, “On-Chip Optical Interconnects Made with Gallium Nitride Nanowires,” Nano Lett. 13(2), 374–377 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Durand, C.

M. Tchernycheva, A. Messanvi, A. de Luna Bugallo, G. Jacopin, P. Lavenus, L. Rigutti, H. Zhang, Y. Halioua, F. H. Julien, J. Eymery, and C. Durand, “Integrated Photonic Platform Based on InGaN/GaN Nanowire Emitters and Detectors,” Nano Lett. 14(6), 3515–3520 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Egawa, T.

T. Egawa, T. Moku, H. Ishikawa, K. Ohtsuka, and T. Jimbo, “Improved characteristics of blue and green InGaN-based light-enfitting diodes on Si grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(6B), L663–L664 (2002).
[Crossref]

Elgala, H.

H. Elgala, R. Mesleh, and H. Haas, “An LED model for intensity-modulated optical communication systems,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(11), 835–837 (2010).
[Crossref]

Eymery, J.

M. Tchernycheva, A. Messanvi, A. de Luna Bugallo, G. Jacopin, P. Lavenus, L. Rigutti, H. Zhang, Y. Halioua, F. H. Julien, J. Eymery, and C. Durand, “Integrated Photonic Platform Based on InGaN/GaN Nanowire Emitters and Detectors,” Nano Lett. 14(6), 3515–3520 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fang, C. M.

W. L. Yeh, C. M. Fang, and Y. P. Chiou, “Enhancing LED light extraction by optimizing cavity and waveguide modes in grating structures,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(5), 359–364 (2013).
[Crossref]

Faulkner, G.

H. L. Minh, D. O’Brien, G. Faulkner, L. Zeng, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. J. Oh, and E. T. Won, “100-Mb/s NRZ Visible Light Communications Using a Postequalized White LED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(15), 1063–1065 (2009).
[Crossref]

Feng, I. W.

Franke, A.

F. Reiher, A. Dadgar, J. Bläsing, M. Wieneke, M. Müller, A. Franke, L. Reißmann, J. Christen, and A. Krost, “InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes on Si (1 1 0) substrates grown by metal–organic vapour phase epitaxy,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(5), 055107 (2009).
[Crossref]

Fujita, M.

S. Noda and M. Fujita, “Light-emitting diodes: Photonic crystal efficiency boost,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 129–130 (2009).
[Crossref]

Gao, X. M.

X. Li, G. Y. Zhu, X. M. Gao, D. Bai, X. M. Huang, X. Cao, H. B. Zhu, H. Kazuhiro, and Y. J. Wang, “Suspended p–n Junction InGaN/GaN Multiple-Quantum-Well Device With Selectable Functionality,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(6), 1–7 (2015).

Gargas, D.

R. Yan, D. Gargas, and P. Yang, “Nanowire photonics,” Nat. Photonics 3(10), 569–576 (2009).
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Gila, B. P.

B. S. Kang, S. Kim, J. Kim, F. Ren, K. Baik, S. J. Pearton, B. P. Gila, C. R. Abernathy, C.-C. Pan, G.-T. Chen, J.-I. Chyi, V. Chandrasekaran, M. Sheplak, T. Nishida, and S. N. G. Chu, “Effect of external strain on the conductivity of AlGaN/GaN high-electron-mobility transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(23), 4845–4847 (2003).
[Crossref]

Gong, Z.

P. F. Tian, J. J. D. McKendry, Z. Gong, S. L. Zhang, S. Watson, D. D. Zhu, I. M. Watson, E. D. Gu, A. E. Kelly, C. J. Humphreys, and M. D. Dawson, “Characteristics and applications of micro-pixelated GaN-based light emitting diodes on Si substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(3), 033112 (2014).
[Crossref]

Grandjean, N.

Gray, J. M.

M. D. Brubaker, P. T. Blanchard, J. B. Schlager, A. W. Sanders, A. Roshko, S. M. Duff, J. M. Gray, V. M. Bright, N. A. Sanford, and K. A. Bertness, “On-Chip Optical Interconnects Made with Gallium Nitride Nanowires,” Nano Lett. 13(2), 374–377 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grünberg, P.

X. Li, D. Bai, Z. Shi, G. Y. Zhu, M. Zhang, Z. P. Cao, H. B. Zhu, P. Grünberg, and Y. J. Wang, “Thickness-Dependent Performance of a Free-Standing Membrane LED,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(3), 1600607 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Shi, X. Li, G. Zhu, Z. Wang, P. Grünberg, H. Zhu, and Y. Wang, “Characteristics of GaN-based LED fabricated on a GaN-on-silicon platform,” Appl. Phys. Express 7(8), 082102 (2014).
[Crossref]

Gu, E. D.

P. F. Tian, J. J. D. McKendry, Z. Gong, S. L. Zhang, S. Watson, D. D. Zhu, I. M. Watson, E. D. Gu, A. E. Kelly, C. J. Humphreys, and M. D. Dawson, “Characteristics and applications of micro-pixelated GaN-based light emitting diodes on Si substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(3), 033112 (2014).
[Crossref]

Haas, H.

H. Elgala, R. Mesleh, and H. Haas, “An LED model for intensity-modulated optical communication systems,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(11), 835–837 (2010).
[Crossref]

Halioua, Y.

M. Tchernycheva, A. Messanvi, A. de Luna Bugallo, G. Jacopin, P. Lavenus, L. Rigutti, H. Zhang, Y. Halioua, F. H. Julien, J. Eymery, and C. Durand, “Integrated Photonic Platform Based on InGaN/GaN Nanowire Emitters and Detectors,” Nano Lett. 14(6), 3515–3520 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hane, K.

Y. Wang, F. Hu, Y. Kanamori, T. Wu, and K. Hane, “Enhancement of light extraction from freestanding GaN nanocolumn slab with bottom subwavelength nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. B 101(3), 575–581 (2010).
[Crossref]

Heuken, M.

A. Dadgar, J. Christen, T. Riemann, S. Richter, J. Blasing, A. Diez, A. Krost, A. Alam, and M. Heuken, “Bright blue electroluminescence from an InGaN/GaN multiquantum-well diode on Si(111): Impact of an AlGaN/GaN multilayer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(15), 2211–2213 (2001).
[Crossref]

Ho, C. L.

C. L. Liao, C. L. Ho, Y. F. Chang, C. H. Wu, and M. C. Wu, “High-speed light-emitting diodes emitting at 500 nm with 463-MHz modulation bandwidth,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 35(5), 563–565 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. L. Liao, C. L. Ho, Y. F. Chang, C. H. Wu, and M. C. Wu, “High-Speed Light-Emitting Diodes Emitting at 500 nm With 463-MHz Modulation Bandwidth,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 35(5), 563–565 (2014).
[Crossref]

Houdré, R.

Hsieh, Y. A.

Hu, F.

Y. Wang, F. Hu, Y. Kanamori, T. Wu, and K. Hane, “Enhancement of light extraction from freestanding GaN nanocolumn slab with bottom subwavelength nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. B 101(3), 575–581 (2010).
[Crossref]

Huang, T.

Z. Liu, J. Ma, T. Huang, C. Liu, and K. M. Lau, “Selective epitaxial growth of monolithically integrated GaN-based light emitting diodes with AlGaN/GaN driving transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091103 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. J. Liu, T. Huang, J. Ma, C. Liu, and K. M. Lau, “Monolithic Integration of AlGaN/GaN HEMT on LED by MOCVD,” IEEE Electron. Device Lett. 35(3), 330–332 (2014).
[Crossref]

Huang, X. M.

X. Li, G. Y. Zhu, X. M. Gao, D. Bai, X. M. Huang, X. Cao, H. B. Zhu, H. Kazuhiro, and Y. J. Wang, “Suspended p–n Junction InGaN/GaN Multiple-Quantum-Well Device With Selectable Functionality,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(6), 1–7 (2015).

Humphreys, C. J.

P. F. Tian, J. J. D. McKendry, Z. Gong, S. L. Zhang, S. Watson, D. D. Zhu, I. M. Watson, E. D. Gu, A. E. Kelly, C. J. Humphreys, and M. D. Dawson, “Characteristics and applications of micro-pixelated GaN-based light emitting diodes on Si substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(3), 033112 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hung, H.

Y. D. Jhou, C. H. Chen, R. W. Chuang, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, P. C. Chang, P. C. Chen, H. Hung, S. M. Wang, and C. L. Yu, “Nitride-based light emitting diode and photodetector dual function devices with InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well structures,” Solid-State Electron. 49(8), 1347–1351 (2005).
[Crossref]

Hwang, J. M.

Ishikawa, H.

T. Egawa, T. Moku, H. Ishikawa, K. Ohtsuka, and T. Jimbo, “Improved characteristics of blue and green InGaN-based light-enfitting diodes on Si grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(6B), L663–L664 (2002).
[Crossref]

Islam, M. S.

M. S. Islam and V. J. Logeeswaran, “Nanoscale Materials and Devices for Future Communication Networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48(6), 112–120 (2010).
[Crossref]

Jacopin, G.

M. Tchernycheva, A. Messanvi, A. de Luna Bugallo, G. Jacopin, P. Lavenus, L. Rigutti, H. Zhang, Y. Halioua, F. H. Julien, J. Eymery, and C. Durand, “Integrated Photonic Platform Based on InGaN/GaN Nanowire Emitters and Detectors,” Nano Lett. 14(6), 3515–3520 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jhou, Y. D.

Y. D. Jhou, C. H. Chen, R. W. Chuang, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, P. C. Chang, P. C. Chen, H. Hung, S. M. Wang, and C. L. Yu, “Nitride-based light emitting diode and photodetector dual function devices with InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well structures,” Solid-State Electron. 49(8), 1347–1351 (2005).
[Crossref]

Jiang, H.

Jimbo, T.

T. Egawa, T. Moku, H. Ishikawa, K. Ohtsuka, and T. Jimbo, “Improved characteristics of blue and green InGaN-based light-enfitting diodes on Si grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(6B), L663–L664 (2002).
[Crossref]

Julien, F. H.

M. Tchernycheva, A. Messanvi, A. de Luna Bugallo, G. Jacopin, P. Lavenus, L. Rigutti, H. Zhang, Y. Halioua, F. H. Julien, J. Eymery, and C. Durand, “Integrated Photonic Platform Based on InGaN/GaN Nanowire Emitters and Detectors,” Nano Lett. 14(6), 3515–3520 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jung, D.

H. L. Minh, D. O’Brien, G. Faulkner, L. Zeng, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. J. Oh, and E. T. Won, “100-Mb/s NRZ Visible Light Communications Using a Postequalized White LED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(15), 1063–1065 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kanamori, Y.

Y. Wang, F. Hu, Y. Kanamori, T. Wu, and K. Hane, “Enhancement of light extraction from freestanding GaN nanocolumn slab with bottom subwavelength nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. B 101(3), 575–581 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kang, B. S.

B. S. Kang, S. Kim, J. Kim, F. Ren, K. Baik, S. J. Pearton, B. P. Gila, C. R. Abernathy, C.-C. Pan, G.-T. Chen, J.-I. Chyi, V. Chandrasekaran, M. Sheplak, T. Nishida, and S. N. G. Chu, “Effect of external strain on the conductivity of AlGaN/GaN high-electron-mobility transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(23), 4845–4847 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kazuhiro, H.

X. Li, G. Y. Zhu, X. M. Gao, D. Bai, X. M. Huang, X. Cao, H. B. Zhu, H. Kazuhiro, and Y. J. Wang, “Suspended p–n Junction InGaN/GaN Multiple-Quantum-Well Device With Selectable Functionality,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(6), 1–7 (2015).

Kelly, A. E.

P. F. Tian, J. J. D. McKendry, Z. Gong, S. L. Zhang, S. Watson, D. D. Zhu, I. M. Watson, E. D. Gu, A. E. Kelly, C. J. Humphreys, and M. D. Dawson, “Characteristics and applications of micro-pixelated GaN-based light emitting diodes on Si substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(3), 033112 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kim, J.

B. S. Kang, S. Kim, J. Kim, F. Ren, K. Baik, S. J. Pearton, B. P. Gila, C. R. Abernathy, C.-C. Pan, G.-T. Chen, J.-I. Chyi, V. Chandrasekaran, M. Sheplak, T. Nishida, and S. N. G. Chu, “Effect of external strain on the conductivity of AlGaN/GaN high-electron-mobility transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(23), 4845–4847 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kim, S.

B. S. Kang, S. Kim, J. Kim, F. Ren, K. Baik, S. J. Pearton, B. P. Gila, C. R. Abernathy, C.-C. Pan, G.-T. Chen, J.-I. Chyi, V. Chandrasekaran, M. Sheplak, T. Nishida, and S. N. G. Chu, “Effect of external strain on the conductivity of AlGaN/GaN high-electron-mobility transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(23), 4845–4847 (2003).
[Crossref]

Krost, A.

F. Reiher, A. Dadgar, J. Bläsing, M. Wieneke, M. Müller, A. Franke, L. Reißmann, J. Christen, and A. Krost, “InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes on Si (1 1 0) substrates grown by metal–organic vapour phase epitaxy,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(5), 055107 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. Dadgar, J. Christen, T. Riemann, S. Richter, J. Blasing, A. Diez, A. Krost, A. Alam, and M. Heuken, “Bright blue electroluminescence from an InGaN/GaN multiquantum-well diode on Si(111): Impact of an AlGaN/GaN multilayer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(15), 2211–2213 (2001).
[Crossref]

Lau, K. M.

Z. Liu, J. Ma, T. Huang, C. Liu, and K. M. Lau, “Selective epitaxial growth of monolithically integrated GaN-based light emitting diodes with AlGaN/GaN driving transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091103 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. J. Liu, T. Huang, J. Ma, C. Liu, and K. M. Lau, “Monolithic Integration of AlGaN/GaN HEMT on LED by MOCVD,” IEEE Electron. Device Lett. 35(3), 330–332 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lavenus, P.

M. Tchernycheva, A. Messanvi, A. de Luna Bugallo, G. Jacopin, P. Lavenus, L. Rigutti, H. Zhang, Y. Halioua, F. H. Julien, J. Eymery, and C. Durand, “Integrated Photonic Platform Based on InGaN/GaN Nanowire Emitters and Detectors,” Nano Lett. 14(6), 3515–3520 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, K.

H. L. Minh, D. O’Brien, G. Faulkner, L. Zeng, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. J. Oh, and E. T. Won, “100-Mb/s NRZ Visible Light Communications Using a Postequalized White LED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(15), 1063–1065 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lee, M. H.

Lee, Y. J.

Li, J.

Li, X.

X. Li, D. Bai, Z. Shi, G. Y. Zhu, M. Zhang, Z. P. Cao, H. B. Zhu, P. Grünberg, and Y. J. Wang, “Thickness-Dependent Performance of a Free-Standing Membrane LED,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(3), 1600607 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Li, G. Y. Zhu, X. M. Gao, D. Bai, X. M. Huang, X. Cao, H. B. Zhu, H. Kazuhiro, and Y. J. Wang, “Suspended p–n Junction InGaN/GaN Multiple-Quantum-Well Device With Selectable Functionality,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(6), 1–7 (2015).

X. Li, Z. Shi, G. Zhu, M. Zhang, H. Zhu, and Y. Wang, “High efficiency membrane light emitting diode fabricated by back wafer thinning technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(3), 031109 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. Shi, X. Li, G. Zhu, Z. Wang, P. Grünberg, H. Zhu, and Y. Wang, “Characteristics of GaN-based LED fabricated on a GaN-on-silicon platform,” Appl. Phys. Express 7(8), 082102 (2014).
[Crossref]

Liao, C. L.

C. L. Liao, C. L. Ho, Y. F. Chang, C. H. Wu, and M. C. Wu, “High-Speed Light-Emitting Diodes Emitting at 500 nm With 463-MHz Modulation Bandwidth,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 35(5), 563–565 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. L. Liao, C. L. Ho, Y. F. Chang, C. H. Wu, and M. C. Wu, “High-speed light-emitting diodes emitting at 500 nm with 463-MHz modulation bandwidth,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 35(5), 563–565 (2014).
[Crossref]

Liao, M. H.

Lin, J.

Lin, T. Y.

H. C. Yang, T. Y. Lin, and Y. F. Chen, “Persistent photoconductivity in InGaN/GaN multiquantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(3), 338–340 (2001).
[Crossref]

Liu, C.

Z. J. Liu, T. Huang, J. Ma, C. Liu, and K. M. Lau, “Monolithic Integration of AlGaN/GaN HEMT on LED by MOCVD,” IEEE Electron. Device Lett. 35(3), 330–332 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. Liu, J. Ma, T. Huang, C. Liu, and K. M. Lau, “Selective epitaxial growth of monolithically integrated GaN-based light emitting diodes with AlGaN/GaN driving transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091103 (2014).
[Crossref]

Liu, Z.

Z. Liu, J. Ma, T. Huang, C. Liu, and K. M. Lau, “Selective epitaxial growth of monolithically integrated GaN-based light emitting diodes with AlGaN/GaN driving transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091103 (2014).
[Crossref]

Liu, Z. J.

Z. J. Liu, T. Huang, J. Ma, C. Liu, and K. M. Lau, “Monolithic Integration of AlGaN/GaN HEMT on LED by MOCVD,” IEEE Electron. Device Lett. 35(3), 330–332 (2014).
[Crossref]

Logeeswaran, V. J.

M. S. Islam and V. J. Logeeswaran, “Nanoscale Materials and Devices for Future Communication Networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48(6), 112–120 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ma, J.

Z. Liu, J. Ma, T. Huang, C. Liu, and K. M. Lau, “Selective epitaxial growth of monolithically integrated GaN-based light emitting diodes with AlGaN/GaN driving transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091103 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. J. Liu, T. Huang, J. Ma, C. Liu, and K. M. Lau, “Monolithic Integration of AlGaN/GaN HEMT on LED by MOCVD,” IEEE Electron. Device Lett. 35(3), 330–332 (2014).
[Crossref]

McKendry, J. J. D.

P. F. Tian, J. J. D. McKendry, Z. Gong, S. L. Zhang, S. Watson, D. D. Zhu, I. M. Watson, E. D. Gu, A. E. Kelly, C. J. Humphreys, and M. D. Dawson, “Characteristics and applications of micro-pixelated GaN-based light emitting diodes on Si substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(3), 033112 (2014).
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Meindl, J. D.

A. Naeemi, R. Sarvari, and J. D. Meindl, “Performance Comparison between Carbon Nanotube and Copper Interconnects For Gigascale Integration (GSI),” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 26(2), 84–86 (2005).
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Mesleh, R.

H. Elgala, R. Mesleh, and H. Haas, “An LED model for intensity-modulated optical communication systems,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(11), 835–837 (2010).
[Crossref]

Messanvi, A.

M. Tchernycheva, A. Messanvi, A. de Luna Bugallo, G. Jacopin, P. Lavenus, L. Rigutti, H. Zhang, Y. Halioua, F. H. Julien, J. Eymery, and C. Durand, “Integrated Photonic Platform Based on InGaN/GaN Nanowire Emitters and Detectors,” Nano Lett. 14(6), 3515–3520 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Minh, H. L.

H. L. Minh, D. O’Brien, G. Faulkner, L. Zeng, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. J. Oh, and E. T. Won, “100-Mb/s NRZ Visible Light Communications Using a Postequalized White LED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(15), 1063–1065 (2009).
[Crossref]

Moku, T.

T. Egawa, T. Moku, H. Ishikawa, K. Ohtsuka, and T. Jimbo, “Improved characteristics of blue and green InGaN-based light-enfitting diodes on Si grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(6B), L663–L664 (2002).
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Müller, M.

F. Reiher, A. Dadgar, J. Bläsing, M. Wieneke, M. Müller, A. Franke, L. Reißmann, J. Christen, and A. Krost, “InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes on Si (1 1 0) substrates grown by metal–organic vapour phase epitaxy,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(5), 055107 (2009).
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A. Naeemi, R. Sarvari, and J. D. Meindl, “Performance Comparison between Carbon Nanotube and Copper Interconnects For Gigascale Integration (GSI),” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 26(2), 84–86 (2005).
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Nishida, T.

B. S. Kang, S. Kim, J. Kim, F. Ren, K. Baik, S. J. Pearton, B. P. Gila, C. R. Abernathy, C.-C. Pan, G.-T. Chen, J.-I. Chyi, V. Chandrasekaran, M. Sheplak, T. Nishida, and S. N. G. Chu, “Effect of external strain on the conductivity of AlGaN/GaN high-electron-mobility transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(23), 4845–4847 (2003).
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S. Noda and M. Fujita, “Light-emitting diodes: Photonic crystal efficiency boost,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 129–130 (2009).
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H. L. Minh, D. O’Brien, G. Faulkner, L. Zeng, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. J. Oh, and E. T. Won, “100-Mb/s NRZ Visible Light Communications Using a Postequalized White LED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(15), 1063–1065 (2009).
[Crossref]

Oh, Y. J.

H. L. Minh, D. O’Brien, G. Faulkner, L. Zeng, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. J. Oh, and E. T. Won, “100-Mb/s NRZ Visible Light Communications Using a Postequalized White LED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(15), 1063–1065 (2009).
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T. Egawa, T. Moku, H. Ishikawa, K. Ohtsuka, and T. Jimbo, “Improved characteristics of blue and green InGaN-based light-enfitting diodes on Si grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(6B), L663–L664 (2002).
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B. S. Kang, S. Kim, J. Kim, F. Ren, K. Baik, S. J. Pearton, B. P. Gila, C. R. Abernathy, C.-C. Pan, G.-T. Chen, J.-I. Chyi, V. Chandrasekaran, M. Sheplak, T. Nishida, and S. N. G. Chu, “Effect of external strain on the conductivity of AlGaN/GaN high-electron-mobility transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(23), 4845–4847 (2003).
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Pearton, S. J.

B. S. Kang, S. Kim, J. Kim, F. Ren, K. Baik, S. J. Pearton, B. P. Gila, C. R. Abernathy, C.-C. Pan, G.-T. Chen, J.-I. Chyi, V. Chandrasekaran, M. Sheplak, T. Nishida, and S. N. G. Chu, “Effect of external strain on the conductivity of AlGaN/GaN high-electron-mobility transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(23), 4845–4847 (2003).
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F. Reiher, A. Dadgar, J. Bläsing, M. Wieneke, M. Müller, A. Franke, L. Reißmann, J. Christen, and A. Krost, “InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes on Si (1 1 0) substrates grown by metal–organic vapour phase epitaxy,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(5), 055107 (2009).
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Reißmann, L.

F. Reiher, A. Dadgar, J. Bläsing, M. Wieneke, M. Müller, A. Franke, L. Reißmann, J. Christen, and A. Krost, “InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes on Si (1 1 0) substrates grown by metal–organic vapour phase epitaxy,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(5), 055107 (2009).
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B. S. Kang, S. Kim, J. Kim, F. Ren, K. Baik, S. J. Pearton, B. P. Gila, C. R. Abernathy, C.-C. Pan, G.-T. Chen, J.-I. Chyi, V. Chandrasekaran, M. Sheplak, T. Nishida, and S. N. G. Chu, “Effect of external strain on the conductivity of AlGaN/GaN high-electron-mobility transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(23), 4845–4847 (2003).
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A. Dadgar, J. Christen, T. Riemann, S. Richter, J. Blasing, A. Diez, A. Krost, A. Alam, and M. Heuken, “Bright blue electroluminescence from an InGaN/GaN multiquantum-well diode on Si(111): Impact of an AlGaN/GaN multilayer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(15), 2211–2213 (2001).
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Riemann, T.

A. Dadgar, J. Christen, T. Riemann, S. Richter, J. Blasing, A. Diez, A. Krost, A. Alam, and M. Heuken, “Bright blue electroluminescence from an InGaN/GaN multiquantum-well diode on Si(111): Impact of an AlGaN/GaN multilayer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(15), 2211–2213 (2001).
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M. Tchernycheva, A. Messanvi, A. de Luna Bugallo, G. Jacopin, P. Lavenus, L. Rigutti, H. Zhang, Y. Halioua, F. H. Julien, J. Eymery, and C. Durand, “Integrated Photonic Platform Based on InGaN/GaN Nanowire Emitters and Detectors,” Nano Lett. 14(6), 3515–3520 (2014).
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M. D. Brubaker, P. T. Blanchard, J. B. Schlager, A. W. Sanders, A. Roshko, S. M. Duff, J. M. Gray, V. M. Bright, N. A. Sanford, and K. A. Bertness, “On-Chip Optical Interconnects Made with Gallium Nitride Nanowires,” Nano Lett. 13(2), 374–377 (2013).
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Sanford, N. A.

M. D. Brubaker, P. T. Blanchard, J. B. Schlager, A. W. Sanders, A. Roshko, S. M. Duff, J. M. Gray, V. M. Bright, N. A. Sanford, and K. A. Bertness, “On-Chip Optical Interconnects Made with Gallium Nitride Nanowires,” Nano Lett. 13(2), 374–377 (2013).
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Sarvari, R.

A. Naeemi, R. Sarvari, and J. D. Meindl, “Performance Comparison between Carbon Nanotube and Copper Interconnects For Gigascale Integration (GSI),” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 26(2), 84–86 (2005).
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Schlager, J. B.

M. D. Brubaker, P. T. Blanchard, J. B. Schlager, A. W. Sanders, A. Roshko, S. M. Duff, J. M. Gray, V. M. Bright, N. A. Sanford, and K. A. Bertness, “On-Chip Optical Interconnects Made with Gallium Nitride Nanowires,” Nano Lett. 13(2), 374–377 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sheplak, M.

B. S. Kang, S. Kim, J. Kim, F. Ren, K. Baik, S. J. Pearton, B. P. Gila, C. R. Abernathy, C.-C. Pan, G.-T. Chen, J.-I. Chyi, V. Chandrasekaran, M. Sheplak, T. Nishida, and S. N. G. Chu, “Effect of external strain on the conductivity of AlGaN/GaN high-electron-mobility transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(23), 4845–4847 (2003).
[Crossref]

Shi, Z.

X. Li, D. Bai, Z. Shi, G. Y. Zhu, M. Zhang, Z. P. Cao, H. B. Zhu, P. Grünberg, and Y. J. Wang, “Thickness-Dependent Performance of a Free-Standing Membrane LED,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(3), 1600607 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Shi, X. Li, G. Zhu, Z. Wang, P. Grünberg, H. Zhu, and Y. Wang, “Characteristics of GaN-based LED fabricated on a GaN-on-silicon platform,” Appl. Phys. Express 7(8), 082102 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Li, Z. Shi, G. Zhu, M. Zhang, H. Zhu, and Y. Wang, “High efficiency membrane light emitting diode fabricated by back wafer thinning technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(3), 031109 (2014).
[Crossref]

Su, Y. K.

Y. D. Jhou, C. H. Chen, R. W. Chuang, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, P. C. Chang, P. C. Chen, H. Hung, S. M. Wang, and C. L. Yu, “Nitride-based light emitting diode and photodetector dual function devices with InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well structures,” Solid-State Electron. 49(8), 1347–1351 (2005).
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M. Tchernycheva, A. Messanvi, A. de Luna Bugallo, G. Jacopin, P. Lavenus, L. Rigutti, H. Zhang, Y. Halioua, F. H. Julien, J. Eymery, and C. Durand, “Integrated Photonic Platform Based on InGaN/GaN Nanowire Emitters and Detectors,” Nano Lett. 14(6), 3515–3520 (2014).
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P. F. Tian, J. J. D. McKendry, Z. Gong, S. L. Zhang, S. Watson, D. D. Zhu, I. M. Watson, E. D. Gu, A. E. Kelly, C. J. Humphreys, and M. D. Dawson, “Characteristics and applications of micro-pixelated GaN-based light emitting diodes on Si substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(3), 033112 (2014).
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Vico Triviño, N.

Wang, M. T.

Wang, S. M.

Y. D. Jhou, C. H. Chen, R. W. Chuang, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, P. C. Chang, P. C. Chen, H. Hung, S. M. Wang, and C. L. Yu, “Nitride-based light emitting diode and photodetector dual function devices with InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well structures,” Solid-State Electron. 49(8), 1347–1351 (2005).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.

X. Li, Z. Shi, G. Zhu, M. Zhang, H. Zhu, and Y. Wang, “High efficiency membrane light emitting diode fabricated by back wafer thinning technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(3), 031109 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. Shi, X. Li, G. Zhu, Z. Wang, P. Grünberg, H. Zhu, and Y. Wang, “Characteristics of GaN-based LED fabricated on a GaN-on-silicon platform,” Appl. Phys. Express 7(8), 082102 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, F. Hu, Y. Kanamori, T. Wu, and K. Hane, “Enhancement of light extraction from freestanding GaN nanocolumn slab with bottom subwavelength nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. B 101(3), 575–581 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y. J.

X. Li, D. Bai, Z. Shi, G. Y. Zhu, M. Zhang, Z. P. Cao, H. B. Zhu, P. Grünberg, and Y. J. Wang, “Thickness-Dependent Performance of a Free-Standing Membrane LED,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(3), 1600607 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Li, G. Y. Zhu, X. M. Gao, D. Bai, X. M. Huang, X. Cao, H. B. Zhu, H. Kazuhiro, and Y. J. Wang, “Suspended p–n Junction InGaN/GaN Multiple-Quantum-Well Device With Selectable Functionality,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(6), 1–7 (2015).

Wang, Z.

Z. Shi, X. Li, G. Zhu, Z. Wang, P. Grünberg, H. Zhu, and Y. Wang, “Characteristics of GaN-based LED fabricated on a GaN-on-silicon platform,” Appl. Phys. Express 7(8), 082102 (2014).
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Watson, I. M.

P. F. Tian, J. J. D. McKendry, Z. Gong, S. L. Zhang, S. Watson, D. D. Zhu, I. M. Watson, E. D. Gu, A. E. Kelly, C. J. Humphreys, and M. D. Dawson, “Characteristics and applications of micro-pixelated GaN-based light emitting diodes on Si substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(3), 033112 (2014).
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Watson, S.

P. F. Tian, J. J. D. McKendry, Z. Gong, S. L. Zhang, S. Watson, D. D. Zhu, I. M. Watson, E. D. Gu, A. E. Kelly, C. J. Humphreys, and M. D. Dawson, “Characteristics and applications of micro-pixelated GaN-based light emitting diodes on Si substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(3), 033112 (2014).
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Wieneke, M.

F. Reiher, A. Dadgar, J. Bläsing, M. Wieneke, M. Müller, A. Franke, L. Reißmann, J. Christen, and A. Krost, “InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes on Si (1 1 0) substrates grown by metal–organic vapour phase epitaxy,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(5), 055107 (2009).
[Crossref]

Won, E. T.

H. L. Minh, D. O’Brien, G. Faulkner, L. Zeng, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. J. Oh, and E. T. Won, “100-Mb/s NRZ Visible Light Communications Using a Postequalized White LED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(15), 1063–1065 (2009).
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Wu, C. H.

C. L. Liao, C. L. Ho, Y. F. Chang, C. H. Wu, and M. C. Wu, “High-Speed Light-Emitting Diodes Emitting at 500 nm With 463-MHz Modulation Bandwidth,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 35(5), 563–565 (2014).
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C. L. Liao, C. L. Ho, Y. F. Chang, C. H. Wu, and M. C. Wu, “High-speed light-emitting diodes emitting at 500 nm with 463-MHz modulation bandwidth,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 35(5), 563–565 (2014).
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Wu, M. C.

C. L. Liao, C. L. Ho, Y. F. Chang, C. H. Wu, and M. C. Wu, “High-speed light-emitting diodes emitting at 500 nm with 463-MHz modulation bandwidth,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 35(5), 563–565 (2014).
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C. L. Liao, C. L. Ho, Y. F. Chang, C. H. Wu, and M. C. Wu, “High-Speed Light-Emitting Diodes Emitting at 500 nm With 463-MHz Modulation Bandwidth,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 35(5), 563–565 (2014).
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Wu, T.

Y. Wang, F. Hu, Y. Kanamori, T. Wu, and K. Hane, “Enhancement of light extraction from freestanding GaN nanocolumn slab with bottom subwavelength nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. B 101(3), 575–581 (2010).
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Yan, R.

R. Yan, D. Gargas, and P. Yang, “Nanowire photonics,” Nat. Photonics 3(10), 569–576 (2009).
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H. C. Yang, T. Y. Lin, and Y. F. Chen, “Persistent photoconductivity in InGaN/GaN multiquantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(3), 338–340 (2001).
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R. Yan, D. Gargas, and P. Yang, “Nanowire photonics,” Nat. Photonics 3(10), 569–576 (2009).
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Yang, Z. P.

Yao, Y. C.

Yeh, W. L.

W. L. Yeh, C. M. Fang, and Y. P. Chiou, “Enhancing LED light extraction by optimizing cavity and waveguide modes in grating structures,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(5), 359–364 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yu, C. L.

Y. D. Jhou, C. H. Chen, R. W. Chuang, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, P. C. Chang, P. C. Chen, H. Hung, S. M. Wang, and C. L. Yu, “Nitride-based light emitting diode and photodetector dual function devices with InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well structures,” Solid-State Electron. 49(8), 1347–1351 (2005).
[Crossref]

Zavada, J.

Zeng, L.

H. L. Minh, D. O’Brien, G. Faulkner, L. Zeng, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. J. Oh, and E. T. Won, “100-Mb/s NRZ Visible Light Communications Using a Postequalized White LED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(15), 1063–1065 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhang, H.

M. Tchernycheva, A. Messanvi, A. de Luna Bugallo, G. Jacopin, P. Lavenus, L. Rigutti, H. Zhang, Y. Halioua, F. H. Julien, J. Eymery, and C. Durand, “Integrated Photonic Platform Based on InGaN/GaN Nanowire Emitters and Detectors,” Nano Lett. 14(6), 3515–3520 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, M.

X. Li, D. Bai, Z. Shi, G. Y. Zhu, M. Zhang, Z. P. Cao, H. B. Zhu, P. Grünberg, and Y. J. Wang, “Thickness-Dependent Performance of a Free-Standing Membrane LED,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(3), 1600607 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Li, Z. Shi, G. Zhu, M. Zhang, H. Zhu, and Y. Wang, “High efficiency membrane light emitting diode fabricated by back wafer thinning technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(3), 031109 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhang, S. L.

P. F. Tian, J. J. D. McKendry, Z. Gong, S. L. Zhang, S. Watson, D. D. Zhu, I. M. Watson, E. D. Gu, A. E. Kelly, C. J. Humphreys, and M. D. Dawson, “Characteristics and applications of micro-pixelated GaN-based light emitting diodes on Si substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(3), 033112 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhao, W.

Zhu, D. D.

P. F. Tian, J. J. D. McKendry, Z. Gong, S. L. Zhang, S. Watson, D. D. Zhu, I. M. Watson, E. D. Gu, A. E. Kelly, C. J. Humphreys, and M. D. Dawson, “Characteristics and applications of micro-pixelated GaN-based light emitting diodes on Si substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(3), 033112 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhu, G.

X. Li, Z. Shi, G. Zhu, M. Zhang, H. Zhu, and Y. Wang, “High efficiency membrane light emitting diode fabricated by back wafer thinning technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(3), 031109 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. Shi, X. Li, G. Zhu, Z. Wang, P. Grünberg, H. Zhu, and Y. Wang, “Characteristics of GaN-based LED fabricated on a GaN-on-silicon platform,” Appl. Phys. Express 7(8), 082102 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhu, G. Y.

X. Li, D. Bai, Z. Shi, G. Y. Zhu, M. Zhang, Z. P. Cao, H. B. Zhu, P. Grünberg, and Y. J. Wang, “Thickness-Dependent Performance of a Free-Standing Membrane LED,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(3), 1600607 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Li, G. Y. Zhu, X. M. Gao, D. Bai, X. M. Huang, X. Cao, H. B. Zhu, H. Kazuhiro, and Y. J. Wang, “Suspended p–n Junction InGaN/GaN Multiple-Quantum-Well Device With Selectable Functionality,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(6), 1–7 (2015).

Zhu, H.

X. Li, Z. Shi, G. Zhu, M. Zhang, H. Zhu, and Y. Wang, “High efficiency membrane light emitting diode fabricated by back wafer thinning technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(3), 031109 (2014).
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Z. Shi, X. Li, G. Zhu, Z. Wang, P. Grünberg, H. Zhu, and Y. Wang, “Characteristics of GaN-based LED fabricated on a GaN-on-silicon platform,” Appl. Phys. Express 7(8), 082102 (2014).
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Zhu, H. B.

X. Li, D. Bai, Z. Shi, G. Y. Zhu, M. Zhang, Z. P. Cao, H. B. Zhu, P. Grünberg, and Y. J. Wang, “Thickness-Dependent Performance of a Free-Standing Membrane LED,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(3), 1600607 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Li, G. Y. Zhu, X. M. Gao, D. Bai, X. M. Huang, X. Cao, H. B. Zhu, H. Kazuhiro, and Y. J. Wang, “Suspended p–n Junction InGaN/GaN Multiple-Quantum-Well Device With Selectable Functionality,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(6), 1–7 (2015).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

Y. Wang, F. Hu, Y. Kanamori, T. Wu, and K. Hane, “Enhancement of light extraction from freestanding GaN nanocolumn slab with bottom subwavelength nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. B 101(3), 575–581 (2010).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Express (1)

Z. Shi, X. Li, G. Zhu, Z. Wang, P. Grünberg, H. Zhu, and Y. Wang, “Characteristics of GaN-based LED fabricated on a GaN-on-silicon platform,” Appl. Phys. Express 7(8), 082102 (2014).
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Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

X. Li, Z. Shi, G. Zhu, M. Zhang, H. Zhu, and Y. Wang, “High efficiency membrane light emitting diode fabricated by back wafer thinning technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(3), 031109 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. S. Kang, S. Kim, J. Kim, F. Ren, K. Baik, S. J. Pearton, B. P. Gila, C. R. Abernathy, C.-C. Pan, G.-T. Chen, J.-I. Chyi, V. Chandrasekaran, M. Sheplak, T. Nishida, and S. N. G. Chu, “Effect of external strain on the conductivity of AlGaN/GaN high-electron-mobility transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(23), 4845–4847 (2003).
[Crossref]

H. C. Yang, T. Y. Lin, and Y. F. Chen, “Persistent photoconductivity in InGaN/GaN multiquantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(3), 338–340 (2001).
[Crossref]

A. Dadgar, J. Christen, T. Riemann, S. Richter, J. Blasing, A. Diez, A. Krost, A. Alam, and M. Heuken, “Bright blue electroluminescence from an InGaN/GaN multiquantum-well diode on Si(111): Impact of an AlGaN/GaN multilayer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(15), 2211–2213 (2001).
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Z. Liu, J. Ma, T. Huang, C. Liu, and K. M. Lau, “Selective epitaxial growth of monolithically integrated GaN-based light emitting diodes with AlGaN/GaN driving transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091103 (2014).
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IEEE Commun. Mag. (1)

M. S. Islam and V. J. Logeeswaran, “Nanoscale Materials and Devices for Future Communication Networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48(6), 112–120 (2010).
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IEEE Electron Device Lett. (3)

A. Naeemi, R. Sarvari, and J. D. Meindl, “Performance Comparison between Carbon Nanotube and Copper Interconnects For Gigascale Integration (GSI),” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 26(2), 84–86 (2005).
[Crossref]

C. L. Liao, C. L. Ho, Y. F. Chang, C. H. Wu, and M. C. Wu, “High-speed light-emitting diodes emitting at 500 nm with 463-MHz modulation bandwidth,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 35(5), 563–565 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. L. Liao, C. L. Ho, Y. F. Chang, C. H. Wu, and M. C. Wu, “High-Speed Light-Emitting Diodes Emitting at 500 nm With 463-MHz Modulation Bandwidth,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 35(5), 563–565 (2014).
[Crossref]

IEEE Electron. Device Lett. (1)

Z. J. Liu, T. Huang, J. Ma, C. Liu, and K. M. Lau, “Monolithic Integration of AlGaN/GaN HEMT on LED by MOCVD,” IEEE Electron. Device Lett. 35(3), 330–332 (2014).
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IEEE Photonics J. (2)

X. Li, D. Bai, Z. Shi, G. Y. Zhu, M. Zhang, Z. P. Cao, H. B. Zhu, P. Grünberg, and Y. J. Wang, “Thickness-Dependent Performance of a Free-Standing Membrane LED,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(3), 1600607 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Li, G. Y. Zhu, X. M. Gao, D. Bai, X. M. Huang, X. Cao, H. B. Zhu, H. Kazuhiro, and Y. J. Wang, “Suspended p–n Junction InGaN/GaN Multiple-Quantum-Well Device With Selectable Functionality,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(6), 1–7 (2015).

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (2)

H. Elgala, R. Mesleh, and H. Haas, “An LED model for intensity-modulated optical communication systems,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(11), 835–837 (2010).
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H. L. Minh, D. O’Brien, G. Faulkner, L. Zeng, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. J. Oh, and E. T. Won, “100-Mb/s NRZ Visible Light Communications Using a Postequalized White LED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(15), 1063–1065 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

P. F. Tian, J. J. D. McKendry, Z. Gong, S. L. Zhang, S. Watson, D. D. Zhu, I. M. Watson, E. D. Gu, A. E. Kelly, C. J. Humphreys, and M. D. Dawson, “Characteristics and applications of micro-pixelated GaN-based light emitting diodes on Si substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(3), 033112 (2014).
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J. Disp. Technol. (1)

W. L. Yeh, C. M. Fang, and Y. P. Chiou, “Enhancing LED light extraction by optimizing cavity and waveguide modes in grating structures,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(5), 359–364 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. (1)

F. Reiher, A. Dadgar, J. Bläsing, M. Wieneke, M. Müller, A. Franke, L. Reißmann, J. Christen, and A. Krost, “InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes on Si (1 1 0) substrates grown by metal–organic vapour phase epitaxy,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(5), 055107 (2009).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Optical micrograph of the fabricated integrated devices obtained from the top. (b) Schematic of the side view of the fabricated integrated devices.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Measured I-V characteristics of the middle LED. (b) Measured EL spectra of the middle LED.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) The induced photocurrent of the left PD versus the forward voltage levels of the middle LED. (b) Waveform of the left PD. (c) Eye diagrams of the left PD. (d) Schematic of the real time data transmission.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a)(b)(c) I-V characteristics of the three PDs versus the illumination power. (d)(e)(f) Induced photocurrent temporal traces of the three PDs.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) I-V characteristics of the middle PD versus the illumination power and one auxiliary light source. (b) I-V characteristics of the middle PD versus the illumination power and two auxiliary light sources.

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