Abstract

A dual-wavelength erbium-doped fiber (EDF) ring laser was developed and its application to step-height measurement using two-wavelength self-mixing interferometry (SMI) was demonstrated. The fiber laser can emit two different wavelengths without any laser mode competition. It is composed of two EDF laser cavities and employs fiber Bragg gratings to determine which wavelengths are emitted. The step heights can be measured using SMI of the two wavelengths, and the maximum height that can be measured is half the synthetic wavelength of the two wavelengths. A step height of 1mm was constructed using two gauge blocks and then measured using the laser. The measurement was repeated ten times, and the standard deviation of the measurements was 2.4nm.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. T. Taimre, M. Nikolic, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, T. Bosch, and A. Rakic, “Laser feedback interferometry: a tutorial on the self-mixing effect for coherent sensing,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(3), 570–631 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  2. G. Mourat, N. Servagent, and T. Bosch, “Distance measurement using the self-mixing effect in a three-electrode distributed Bragg reflector laser diode,” Opt. Eng. 39(3), 738–743 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  3. L. Fei and S. Zhang, “The discovery of nanometer fringes in laser self-mixing interference,” Opt. Commun. 273(1), 226–230 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  4. X. Cheng and S. Zhang, “Multiple self-mixing effect in VCSELs with asymmetric external cavity,” Opt. Commun. 260(1), 50–56 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  5. J. Li, Y. Tan, and S. Zhang, “Generation of phase difference between self-mixing signals in a-cut Nd:YVO₄ laser with a waveplate in the external cavity,” Opt. Lett. 40(15), 3615–3618 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. W. Mao, S. Zhang, L. Cui, and Y. Tan, “Self-mixing interference effects with a folding feedback cavity in Zeeman-birefringence dual frequency laser,” Opt. Express 14(1), 182–189 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. Y. Tan, S. Zhang, and Y. Zhang, “Laser feedback interferometry based on phase difference of orthogonally polarized lights in external birefringence cavity,” Opt. Express 17(16), 13939–13945 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. S. Zhang, Y. Tan, and Y. Li, “Orthogonally polarized dual frequency lasers and applications in self-sensing metrology,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 21(5), 054016 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  9. G. Liu, S. Zhang, J. Zhu, and Y. Li, “Theoretical and experimental study of intensity branch phenomena in self-mixing interference in a He-Ne laser,” Opt. Commun. 221(4–6), 387–393 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  10. X. Dai, M. Wang, Y. Zhao, and J. Zhou, “Self-mixing interference in fiber ring laser and its application for vibration measurement,” Opt. Express 17(19), 16543–16548 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (2)

T. Taimre, M. Nikolic, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, T. Bosch, and A. Rakic, “Laser feedback interferometry: a tutorial on the self-mixing effect for coherent sensing,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(3), 570–631 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Li, Y. Tan, and S. Zhang, “Generation of phase difference between self-mixing signals in a-cut Nd:YVO₄ laser with a waveplate in the external cavity,” Opt. Lett. 40(15), 3615–3618 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

S. Zhang, Y. Tan, and Y. Li, “Orthogonally polarized dual frequency lasers and applications in self-sensing metrology,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 21(5), 054016 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

2007 (1)

L. Fei and S. Zhang, “The discovery of nanometer fringes in laser self-mixing interference,” Opt. Commun. 273(1), 226–230 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

2003 (1)

G. Liu, S. Zhang, J. Zhu, and Y. Li, “Theoretical and experimental study of intensity branch phenomena in self-mixing interference in a He-Ne laser,” Opt. Commun. 221(4–6), 387–393 (2003).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

G. Mourat, N. Servagent, and T. Bosch, “Distance measurement using the self-mixing effect in a three-electrode distributed Bragg reflector laser diode,” Opt. Eng. 39(3), 738–743 (2000).
[Crossref]

Bertling, K.

T. Taimre, M. Nikolic, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, T. Bosch, and A. Rakic, “Laser feedback interferometry: a tutorial on the self-mixing effect for coherent sensing,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(3), 570–631 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bosch, T.

T. Taimre, M. Nikolic, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, T. Bosch, and A. Rakic, “Laser feedback interferometry: a tutorial on the self-mixing effect for coherent sensing,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(3), 570–631 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Mourat, N. Servagent, and T. Bosch, “Distance measurement using the self-mixing effect in a three-electrode distributed Bragg reflector laser diode,” Opt. Eng. 39(3), 738–743 (2000).
[Crossref]

Cheng, X.

X. Cheng and S. Zhang, “Multiple self-mixing effect in VCSELs with asymmetric external cavity,” Opt. Commun. 260(1), 50–56 (2006).
[Crossref]

Cui, L.

Dai, X.

Fei, L.

L. Fei and S. Zhang, “The discovery of nanometer fringes in laser self-mixing interference,” Opt. Commun. 273(1), 226–230 (2007).
[Crossref]

Li, J.

Li, Y.

S. Zhang, Y. Tan, and Y. Li, “Orthogonally polarized dual frequency lasers and applications in self-sensing metrology,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 21(5), 054016 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. Liu, S. Zhang, J. Zhu, and Y. Li, “Theoretical and experimental study of intensity branch phenomena in self-mixing interference in a He-Ne laser,” Opt. Commun. 221(4–6), 387–393 (2003).
[Crossref]

Lim, Y. L.

T. Taimre, M. Nikolic, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, T. Bosch, and A. Rakic, “Laser feedback interferometry: a tutorial on the self-mixing effect for coherent sensing,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(3), 570–631 (2015).
[Crossref]

Liu, G.

G. Liu, S. Zhang, J. Zhu, and Y. Li, “Theoretical and experimental study of intensity branch phenomena in self-mixing interference in a He-Ne laser,” Opt. Commun. 221(4–6), 387–393 (2003).
[Crossref]

Mao, W.

Mourat, G.

G. Mourat, N. Servagent, and T. Bosch, “Distance measurement using the self-mixing effect in a three-electrode distributed Bragg reflector laser diode,” Opt. Eng. 39(3), 738–743 (2000).
[Crossref]

Nikolic, M.

T. Taimre, M. Nikolic, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, T. Bosch, and A. Rakic, “Laser feedback interferometry: a tutorial on the self-mixing effect for coherent sensing,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(3), 570–631 (2015).
[Crossref]

Rakic, A.

T. Taimre, M. Nikolic, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, T. Bosch, and A. Rakic, “Laser feedback interferometry: a tutorial on the self-mixing effect for coherent sensing,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(3), 570–631 (2015).
[Crossref]

Servagent, N.

G. Mourat, N. Servagent, and T. Bosch, “Distance measurement using the self-mixing effect in a three-electrode distributed Bragg reflector laser diode,” Opt. Eng. 39(3), 738–743 (2000).
[Crossref]

Taimre, T.

T. Taimre, M. Nikolic, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, T. Bosch, and A. Rakic, “Laser feedback interferometry: a tutorial on the self-mixing effect for coherent sensing,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(3), 570–631 (2015).
[Crossref]

Tan, Y.

Wang, M.

Zhang, S.

J. Li, Y. Tan, and S. Zhang, “Generation of phase difference between self-mixing signals in a-cut Nd:YVO₄ laser with a waveplate in the external cavity,” Opt. Lett. 40(15), 3615–3618 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Zhang, Y. Tan, and Y. Li, “Orthogonally polarized dual frequency lasers and applications in self-sensing metrology,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 21(5), 054016 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. Tan, S. Zhang, and Y. Zhang, “Laser feedback interferometry based on phase difference of orthogonally polarized lights in external birefringence cavity,” Opt. Express 17(16), 13939–13945 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Fei and S. Zhang, “The discovery of nanometer fringes in laser self-mixing interference,” Opt. Commun. 273(1), 226–230 (2007).
[Crossref]

X. Cheng and S. Zhang, “Multiple self-mixing effect in VCSELs with asymmetric external cavity,” Opt. Commun. 260(1), 50–56 (2006).
[Crossref]

W. Mao, S. Zhang, L. Cui, and Y. Tan, “Self-mixing interference effects with a folding feedback cavity in Zeeman-birefringence dual frequency laser,” Opt. Express 14(1), 182–189 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Liu, S. Zhang, J. Zhu, and Y. Li, “Theoretical and experimental study of intensity branch phenomena in self-mixing interference in a He-Ne laser,” Opt. Commun. 221(4–6), 387–393 (2003).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y.

Zhao, Y.

Zhou, J.

Zhu, J.

G. Liu, S. Zhang, J. Zhu, and Y. Li, “Theoretical and experimental study of intensity branch phenomena in self-mixing interference in a He-Ne laser,” Opt. Commun. 221(4–6), 387–393 (2003).
[Crossref]

Adv. Opt. Photonics (1)

T. Taimre, M. Nikolic, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, T. Bosch, and A. Rakic, “Laser feedback interferometry: a tutorial on the self-mixing effect for coherent sensing,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(3), 570–631 (2015).
[Crossref]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

S. Zhang, Y. Tan, and Y. Li, “Orthogonally polarized dual frequency lasers and applications in self-sensing metrology,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 21(5), 054016 (2010).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (3)

G. Liu, S. Zhang, J. Zhu, and Y. Li, “Theoretical and experimental study of intensity branch phenomena in self-mixing interference in a He-Ne laser,” Opt. Commun. 221(4–6), 387–393 (2003).
[Crossref]

L. Fei and S. Zhang, “The discovery of nanometer fringes in laser self-mixing interference,” Opt. Commun. 273(1), 226–230 (2007).
[Crossref]

X. Cheng and S. Zhang, “Multiple self-mixing effect in VCSELs with asymmetric external cavity,” Opt. Commun. 260(1), 50–56 (2006).
[Crossref]

Opt. Eng. (1)

G. Mourat, N. Servagent, and T. Bosch, “Distance measurement using the self-mixing effect in a three-electrode distributed Bragg reflector laser diode,” Opt. Eng. 39(3), 738–743 (2000).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (1)

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic diagram of the dual-wavelength fiber ring laser
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Principle of step-height measurement based on SMI of the dual-wavelength fiber ring laser
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Procedure for step-height measurement
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Spectrum of the light emitted from the dual-wavelength fiber ring laser
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Fluctuations in the wavelengths emitted from the dual-wavelength fiber ring laser
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Step height constructed using two gauge blocks
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a) SMI signals and (b) ten step height measurement results

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

P 1 = P 10 + k 1 cos( 2 ω 1 L ext c )= P 10 + k 1 cos( 4π L ext λ 1 )
P 2 = P 20 + k 2 cos( 2 ω 2 L ext c )= P 20 + k 2 cos( 4π L ext λ 2 )
φ 1 a = φ 10 a +2 m 1 a π=4π L ext1 λ 1
φ 2 a = φ 20 a +2 m 2 a π=4π L ext1 λ 2
Δh= L ext1 L ext2 = λ 1 λ 2 4π( λ 1 λ 2 ) [ ( φ 10 b φ 10 a )( φ 20 b φ 20 a ) ]

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