Abstract

An investigation into a novel in-vivo PMMA (polymethyl methacrylate) plastic fiber-optic dosimeter for monitoring low doses of ionizing radiotherapy radiation in real time and for integrating measurements is presented. The fabricated optical fiber tip possessed an embedded structure. A scintillation material, terbium-doped gadolinium oxysulfide (Gd2O2S:Tb), capable of emitting visible light at around 545 nm which is ideal for transmission through the PMMA when exposed to ionizing radiation was embedded in the PMMA plastic fiber. The dose rate of incident ionizing radiation is measured by analyzing the signal intensity emitted from the scintillation material which propagates through the fiber to a distal MPPC (multi-pixel photon counter). The dosimeter exhibits good repeatability with an excellent linear relationship between the fiber-optic dosimeter output and the absorbed radiation dose with an outstanding isotropic response in its radial angular dependence.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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  1. S. O’Keeffe, M. Grattan, A. Hounsell, D. McCarthy, P. Woulfe, J. Cronin, and E. Lewis, “Radiotherapy dosimetry based on plastic optical fibre sensors,” Proc. SPIE 8794, 879418 (2013).
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. D. Manigandan, G. Bharanidharan, P. Aruna, K. Devan, D. Elangovan, V. Patil, R. Tamilarasan, S. Vasanthan, and S. Ganesan, “Dosimetric characteristics of a MOSFET dosimeter for clinical electron beams,” Phys. Med. 25(3), 141–147 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. D. E. Hyer, R. F. Fisher, and D. E. Hintenlang, “Characterization of a water-equivalent fiber-optic coupled dosimeter for use in diagnostic radiology,” Med. Phys. 36(5), 1711–1716 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. A. K. Jones and D. Hintenlang, “Potential clinical utility of a fibre optic-coupled dosemeter for dose measurements in diagnostic radiology,” Radiat. Prot. Dosimetry 132(1), 80–87 (2008).
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  6. L. A. Benevides, A. L. Huston, B. L. Justus, P. Falkenstein, L. F. Brateman, and D. E. Hintenlang, “Characterization of a fiber-optic-coupled radioluminescent detector for application in the mammography energy range,” Med. Phys. 34(6), 2220–2227 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. T. Aoyama, S. Koyama, and C. Kawaura, “An in-phantom dosimetry system using pin silicon photodiode radiation sensors for measuring organ doses in x-ray CT and other diagnostic radiology,” Med. Phys. 29(7), 1504–1510 (2002).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. A. S. Beddar, T. R. Mackie, and F. H. Attix, “Water-equivalent plastic scintillation detectors for high-energy beam dosimetry: I. physical characteristics and theoretical consideration,” Phys. Med. Biol. 37(10), 1883–1900 (1992).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. A. S. Beddar, T. R. Mackie, and F. H. Attix, “Water-equivalent plastic scintillation detectors for high-energy beam dosimetry: II. properties and measurements,” Phys. Med. Biol. 37(10), 1901–1913 (1992).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. M. A. Clift, R. A. Sutton, and D. V. Webb, “Dealing with Cerenkov radiation generated in organic scintillator dosimeters by bremsstrahlung beams,” Phys. Med. Biol. 45(5), 1165–1182 (2000).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. M. A. Cliftt, R. A. Sutton, and D. V. Webb, “Water equivalence of plastic organic scintillators in megavoltage radiotherapy bremsstrahlung beams,” Phys. Med. Biol. 45(7), 1885–1895 (2000).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. M. A. Clift, P. N. Johnston, and D. V. Webb, “A temporal method of avoiding the Cerenkov radiation generated in organic scintillator dosimeters by pulsed mega-voltage electron and photon beams,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(8), 1421–1433 (2002).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. H. Perera, J. F. Williamson, S. P. Monthofer, W. R. Binns, J. Klarmann, G. L. Fuller, and J. W. Wong, “Rapid two-dimensional dose measurement in brachytherapy using plastic scintillator sheet: linearity, signal-to-noise ratio, and energy response characteristics,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 23(5), 1059–1069 (1992).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. C. M. M. Wells, T. R. Mackie, M. B. Podgorsak, M. A. Holmes, N. Papanikolaou, P. J. Reckwerdt, J. Cygler, D. W. Rogers, A. F. Bielajew, D. G. Schmidt, and J. K. Muehlenkamp, “Measurements of the electron dose distribution near inhomogeneities using a plastic scintillation detector,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 29(5), 1157–1165 (1994).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. D. Flühs, M. Heintz, F. Indenkampen, H. Kolanoski, and U. Quast, “Plastic scintilator dosimetry in regions with restricted secondary electron equilibrium,” Radiother. Oncol. 37, S31 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  16. K. J. Jordan, “Evaluation of ruby as a fluorescent sensor for optical ficber-based radiation dosimetry,” Proc. SPIE 2079, 170–178 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  17. A. S. Beddar, T. J. Kinsella, A. Ikhlef, and C. H. Sibata, “A miniature ‘scintillator-fiberoptic-PMT’ detector system for the dosimetry of small fields in stereotactic radiosurgery,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 48(3), 924–928 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  18. D. McCarthy, S. O’Keeffe, E. Lewis, D. G. Sporea, A. Sporea, I. Tiseanu, P. Woulfe, and J. Cronin, “Radiation dosimeter using an extrinsic fiber optic sensor,” IEEE Sens. J. 14(3), 673–685 (2014).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  22. L. Hernández-Adame, F. Medellín-Rodríguez, A. Méndez-Blas, R. Vega-Acosta, and G. Palestino, “Synthesis of Gd2O2S:Tb nanoparticles and optical characterization,” Proc. SPIE 8626, 86261P (2013).
    [Crossref]

2014 (1)

D. McCarthy, S. O’Keeffe, E. Lewis, D. G. Sporea, A. Sporea, I. Tiseanu, P. Woulfe, and J. Cronin, “Radiation dosimeter using an extrinsic fiber optic sensor,” IEEE Sens. J. 14(3), 673–685 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

L. Hernández-Adame, F. Medellín-Rodríguez, A. Méndez-Blas, R. Vega-Acosta, and G. Palestino, “Synthesis of Gd2O2S:Tb nanoparticles and optical characterization,” Proc. SPIE 8626, 86261P (2013).
[Crossref]

S. O’Keeffe, M. Grattan, A. Hounsell, D. McCarthy, P. Woulfe, J. Cronin, and E. Lewis, “Radiotherapy dosimetry based on plastic optical fibre sensors,” Proc. SPIE 8794, 879418 (2013).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

D. Manigandan, G. Bharanidharan, P. Aruna, K. Devan, D. Elangovan, V. Patil, R. Tamilarasan, S. Vasanthan, and S. Ganesan, “Dosimetric characteristics of a MOSFET dosimeter for clinical electron beams,” Phys. Med. 25(3), 141–147 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. E. Hyer, R. F. Fisher, and D. E. Hintenlang, “Characterization of a water-equivalent fiber-optic coupled dosimeter for use in diagnostic radiology,” Med. Phys. 36(5), 1711–1716 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

A. K. Jones and D. Hintenlang, “Potential clinical utility of a fibre optic-coupled dosemeter for dose measurements in diagnostic radiology,” Radiat. Prot. Dosimetry 132(1), 80–87 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

L. A. Benevides, A. L. Huston, B. L. Justus, P. Falkenstein, L. F. Brateman, and D. E. Hintenlang, “Characterization of a fiber-optic-coupled radioluminescent detector for application in the mammography energy range,” Med. Phys. 34(6), 2220–2227 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Lambert, T. Nakano, S. Law, J. Elsey, D. R. McKenzie, and N. Suchowerska, “In vivo dosimeters for HDR brachytherapy: a comparison of a diamond detector, MOSFET, TLD, and scintillation detector,” Med. Phys. 34(5), 1759–1765 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

T. Aoyama, S. Koyama, and C. Kawaura, “An in-phantom dosimetry system using pin silicon photodiode radiation sensors for measuring organ doses in x-ray CT and other diagnostic radiology,” Med. Phys. 29(7), 1504–1510 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Clift, P. N. Johnston, and D. V. Webb, “A temporal method of avoiding the Cerenkov radiation generated in organic scintillator dosimeters by pulsed mega-voltage electron and photon beams,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(8), 1421–1433 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

A. S. Beddar, T. J. Kinsella, A. Ikhlef, and C. H. Sibata, “A miniature ‘scintillator-fiberoptic-PMT’ detector system for the dosimetry of small fields in stereotactic radiosurgery,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 48(3), 924–928 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (2)

M. A. Clift, R. A. Sutton, and D. V. Webb, “Dealing with Cerenkov radiation generated in organic scintillator dosimeters by bremsstrahlung beams,” Phys. Med. Biol. 45(5), 1165–1182 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Cliftt, R. A. Sutton, and D. V. Webb, “Water equivalence of plastic organic scintillators in megavoltage radiotherapy bremsstrahlung beams,” Phys. Med. Biol. 45(7), 1885–1895 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

K. J. Jordan, “Evaluation of ruby as a fluorescent sensor for optical ficber-based radiation dosimetry,” Proc. SPIE 2079, 170–178 (1996).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

D. Flühs, M. Heintz, F. Indenkampen, H. Kolanoski, and U. Quast, “Plastic scintilator dosimetry in regions with restricted secondary electron equilibrium,” Radiother. Oncol. 37, S31 (1995).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

C. M. M. Wells, T. R. Mackie, M. B. Podgorsak, M. A. Holmes, N. Papanikolaou, P. J. Reckwerdt, J. Cygler, D. W. Rogers, A. F. Bielajew, D. G. Schmidt, and J. K. Muehlenkamp, “Measurements of the electron dose distribution near inhomogeneities using a plastic scintillation detector,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 29(5), 1157–1165 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1992 (3)

H. Perera, J. F. Williamson, S. P. Monthofer, W. R. Binns, J. Klarmann, G. L. Fuller, and J. W. Wong, “Rapid two-dimensional dose measurement in brachytherapy using plastic scintillator sheet: linearity, signal-to-noise ratio, and energy response characteristics,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 23(5), 1059–1069 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. S. Beddar, T. R. Mackie, and F. H. Attix, “Water-equivalent plastic scintillation detectors for high-energy beam dosimetry: I. physical characteristics and theoretical consideration,” Phys. Med. Biol. 37(10), 1883–1900 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. S. Beddar, T. R. Mackie, and F. H. Attix, “Water-equivalent plastic scintillation detectors for high-energy beam dosimetry: II. properties and measurements,” Phys. Med. Biol. 37(10), 1901–1913 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aoyama, T.

T. Aoyama, S. Koyama, and C. Kawaura, “An in-phantom dosimetry system using pin silicon photodiode radiation sensors for measuring organ doses in x-ray CT and other diagnostic radiology,” Med. Phys. 29(7), 1504–1510 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aruna, P.

D. Manigandan, G. Bharanidharan, P. Aruna, K. Devan, D. Elangovan, V. Patil, R. Tamilarasan, S. Vasanthan, and S. Ganesan, “Dosimetric characteristics of a MOSFET dosimeter for clinical electron beams,” Phys. Med. 25(3), 141–147 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Attix, F. H.

A. S. Beddar, T. R. Mackie, and F. H. Attix, “Water-equivalent plastic scintillation detectors for high-energy beam dosimetry: II. properties and measurements,” Phys. Med. Biol. 37(10), 1901–1913 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. S. Beddar, T. R. Mackie, and F. H. Attix, “Water-equivalent plastic scintillation detectors for high-energy beam dosimetry: I. physical characteristics and theoretical consideration,” Phys. Med. Biol. 37(10), 1883–1900 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beddar, A. S.

A. S. Beddar, T. J. Kinsella, A. Ikhlef, and C. H. Sibata, “A miniature ‘scintillator-fiberoptic-PMT’ detector system for the dosimetry of small fields in stereotactic radiosurgery,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 48(3), 924–928 (2001).
[Crossref]

A. S. Beddar, T. R. Mackie, and F. H. Attix, “Water-equivalent plastic scintillation detectors for high-energy beam dosimetry: II. properties and measurements,” Phys. Med. Biol. 37(10), 1901–1913 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. S. Beddar, T. R. Mackie, and F. H. Attix, “Water-equivalent plastic scintillation detectors for high-energy beam dosimetry: I. physical characteristics and theoretical consideration,” Phys. Med. Biol. 37(10), 1883–1900 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Benevides, L. A.

L. A. Benevides, A. L. Huston, B. L. Justus, P. Falkenstein, L. F. Brateman, and D. E. Hintenlang, “Characterization of a fiber-optic-coupled radioluminescent detector for application in the mammography energy range,” Med. Phys. 34(6), 2220–2227 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bharanidharan, G.

D. Manigandan, G. Bharanidharan, P. Aruna, K. Devan, D. Elangovan, V. Patil, R. Tamilarasan, S. Vasanthan, and S. Ganesan, “Dosimetric characteristics of a MOSFET dosimeter for clinical electron beams,” Phys. Med. 25(3), 141–147 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bielajew, A. F.

C. M. M. Wells, T. R. Mackie, M. B. Podgorsak, M. A. Holmes, N. Papanikolaou, P. J. Reckwerdt, J. Cygler, D. W. Rogers, A. F. Bielajew, D. G. Schmidt, and J. K. Muehlenkamp, “Measurements of the electron dose distribution near inhomogeneities using a plastic scintillation detector,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 29(5), 1157–1165 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Binns, W. R.

H. Perera, J. F. Williamson, S. P. Monthofer, W. R. Binns, J. Klarmann, G. L. Fuller, and J. W. Wong, “Rapid two-dimensional dose measurement in brachytherapy using plastic scintillator sheet: linearity, signal-to-noise ratio, and energy response characteristics,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 23(5), 1059–1069 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brateman, L. F.

L. A. Benevides, A. L. Huston, B. L. Justus, P. Falkenstein, L. F. Brateman, and D. E. Hintenlang, “Characterization of a fiber-optic-coupled radioluminescent detector for application in the mammography energy range,” Med. Phys. 34(6), 2220–2227 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Clift, M. A.

M. A. Clift, P. N. Johnston, and D. V. Webb, “A temporal method of avoiding the Cerenkov radiation generated in organic scintillator dosimeters by pulsed mega-voltage electron and photon beams,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(8), 1421–1433 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Clift, R. A. Sutton, and D. V. Webb, “Dealing with Cerenkov radiation generated in organic scintillator dosimeters by bremsstrahlung beams,” Phys. Med. Biol. 45(5), 1165–1182 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cliftt, M. A.

M. A. Cliftt, R. A. Sutton, and D. V. Webb, “Water equivalence of plastic organic scintillators in megavoltage radiotherapy bremsstrahlung beams,” Phys. Med. Biol. 45(7), 1885–1895 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cronin, J.

D. McCarthy, S. O’Keeffe, E. Lewis, D. G. Sporea, A. Sporea, I. Tiseanu, P. Woulfe, and J. Cronin, “Radiation dosimeter using an extrinsic fiber optic sensor,” IEEE Sens. J. 14(3), 673–685 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. O’Keeffe, M. Grattan, A. Hounsell, D. McCarthy, P. Woulfe, J. Cronin, and E. Lewis, “Radiotherapy dosimetry based on plastic optical fibre sensors,” Proc. SPIE 8794, 879418 (2013).
[Crossref]

Cygler, J.

C. M. M. Wells, T. R. Mackie, M. B. Podgorsak, M. A. Holmes, N. Papanikolaou, P. J. Reckwerdt, J. Cygler, D. W. Rogers, A. F. Bielajew, D. G. Schmidt, and J. K. Muehlenkamp, “Measurements of the electron dose distribution near inhomogeneities using a plastic scintillation detector,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 29(5), 1157–1165 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Devan, K.

D. Manigandan, G. Bharanidharan, P. Aruna, K. Devan, D. Elangovan, V. Patil, R. Tamilarasan, S. Vasanthan, and S. Ganesan, “Dosimetric characteristics of a MOSFET dosimeter for clinical electron beams,” Phys. Med. 25(3), 141–147 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Elangovan, D.

D. Manigandan, G. Bharanidharan, P. Aruna, K. Devan, D. Elangovan, V. Patil, R. Tamilarasan, S. Vasanthan, and S. Ganesan, “Dosimetric characteristics of a MOSFET dosimeter for clinical electron beams,” Phys. Med. 25(3), 141–147 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Elsey, J.

J. Lambert, T. Nakano, S. Law, J. Elsey, D. R. McKenzie, and N. Suchowerska, “In vivo dosimeters for HDR brachytherapy: a comparison of a diamond detector, MOSFET, TLD, and scintillation detector,” Med. Phys. 34(5), 1759–1765 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Falkenstein, P.

L. A. Benevides, A. L. Huston, B. L. Justus, P. Falkenstein, L. F. Brateman, and D. E. Hintenlang, “Characterization of a fiber-optic-coupled radioluminescent detector for application in the mammography energy range,” Med. Phys. 34(6), 2220–2227 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fisher, R. F.

D. E. Hyer, R. F. Fisher, and D. E. Hintenlang, “Characterization of a water-equivalent fiber-optic coupled dosimeter for use in diagnostic radiology,” Med. Phys. 36(5), 1711–1716 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Flühs, D.

D. Flühs, M. Heintz, F. Indenkampen, H. Kolanoski, and U. Quast, “Plastic scintilator dosimetry in regions with restricted secondary electron equilibrium,” Radiother. Oncol. 37, S31 (1995).
[Crossref]

Fuller, G. L.

H. Perera, J. F. Williamson, S. P. Monthofer, W. R. Binns, J. Klarmann, G. L. Fuller, and J. W. Wong, “Rapid two-dimensional dose measurement in brachytherapy using plastic scintillator sheet: linearity, signal-to-noise ratio, and energy response characteristics,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 23(5), 1059–1069 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ganesan, S.

D. Manigandan, G. Bharanidharan, P. Aruna, K. Devan, D. Elangovan, V. Patil, R. Tamilarasan, S. Vasanthan, and S. Ganesan, “Dosimetric characteristics of a MOSFET dosimeter for clinical electron beams,” Phys. Med. 25(3), 141–147 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grattan, M.

S. O’Keeffe, M. Grattan, A. Hounsell, D. McCarthy, P. Woulfe, J. Cronin, and E. Lewis, “Radiotherapy dosimetry based on plastic optical fibre sensors,” Proc. SPIE 8794, 879418 (2013).
[Crossref]

Heintz, M.

D. Flühs, M. Heintz, F. Indenkampen, H. Kolanoski, and U. Quast, “Plastic scintilator dosimetry in regions with restricted secondary electron equilibrium,” Radiother. Oncol. 37, S31 (1995).
[Crossref]

Hernández-Adame, L.

L. Hernández-Adame, F. Medellín-Rodríguez, A. Méndez-Blas, R. Vega-Acosta, and G. Palestino, “Synthesis of Gd2O2S:Tb nanoparticles and optical characterization,” Proc. SPIE 8626, 86261P (2013).
[Crossref]

Hintenlang, D.

A. K. Jones and D. Hintenlang, “Potential clinical utility of a fibre optic-coupled dosemeter for dose measurements in diagnostic radiology,” Radiat. Prot. Dosimetry 132(1), 80–87 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hintenlang, D. E.

D. E. Hyer, R. F. Fisher, and D. E. Hintenlang, “Characterization of a water-equivalent fiber-optic coupled dosimeter for use in diagnostic radiology,” Med. Phys. 36(5), 1711–1716 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. A. Benevides, A. L. Huston, B. L. Justus, P. Falkenstein, L. F. Brateman, and D. E. Hintenlang, “Characterization of a fiber-optic-coupled radioluminescent detector for application in the mammography energy range,” Med. Phys. 34(6), 2220–2227 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Holmes, M. A.

C. M. M. Wells, T. R. Mackie, M. B. Podgorsak, M. A. Holmes, N. Papanikolaou, P. J. Reckwerdt, J. Cygler, D. W. Rogers, A. F. Bielajew, D. G. Schmidt, and J. K. Muehlenkamp, “Measurements of the electron dose distribution near inhomogeneities using a plastic scintillation detector,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 29(5), 1157–1165 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hounsell, A.

S. O’Keeffe, M. Grattan, A. Hounsell, D. McCarthy, P. Woulfe, J. Cronin, and E. Lewis, “Radiotherapy dosimetry based on plastic optical fibre sensors,” Proc. SPIE 8794, 879418 (2013).
[Crossref]

Huston, A. L.

L. A. Benevides, A. L. Huston, B. L. Justus, P. Falkenstein, L. F. Brateman, and D. E. Hintenlang, “Characterization of a fiber-optic-coupled radioluminescent detector for application in the mammography energy range,” Med. Phys. 34(6), 2220–2227 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hyer, D. E.

D. E. Hyer, R. F. Fisher, and D. E. Hintenlang, “Characterization of a water-equivalent fiber-optic coupled dosimeter for use in diagnostic radiology,” Med. Phys. 36(5), 1711–1716 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ikhlef, A.

A. S. Beddar, T. J. Kinsella, A. Ikhlef, and C. H. Sibata, “A miniature ‘scintillator-fiberoptic-PMT’ detector system for the dosimetry of small fields in stereotactic radiosurgery,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 48(3), 924–928 (2001).
[Crossref]

Indenkampen, F.

D. Flühs, M. Heintz, F. Indenkampen, H. Kolanoski, and U. Quast, “Plastic scintilator dosimetry in regions with restricted secondary electron equilibrium,” Radiother. Oncol. 37, S31 (1995).
[Crossref]

Johnston, P. N.

M. A. Clift, P. N. Johnston, and D. V. Webb, “A temporal method of avoiding the Cerenkov radiation generated in organic scintillator dosimeters by pulsed mega-voltage electron and photon beams,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(8), 1421–1433 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jones, A. K.

A. K. Jones and D. Hintenlang, “Potential clinical utility of a fibre optic-coupled dosemeter for dose measurements in diagnostic radiology,” Radiat. Prot. Dosimetry 132(1), 80–87 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jordan, K. J.

K. J. Jordan, “Evaluation of ruby as a fluorescent sensor for optical ficber-based radiation dosimetry,” Proc. SPIE 2079, 170–178 (1996).
[Crossref]

Justus, B. L.

L. A. Benevides, A. L. Huston, B. L. Justus, P. Falkenstein, L. F. Brateman, and D. E. Hintenlang, “Characterization of a fiber-optic-coupled radioluminescent detector for application in the mammography energy range,” Med. Phys. 34(6), 2220–2227 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kawaura, C.

T. Aoyama, S. Koyama, and C. Kawaura, “An in-phantom dosimetry system using pin silicon photodiode radiation sensors for measuring organ doses in x-ray CT and other diagnostic radiology,” Med. Phys. 29(7), 1504–1510 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kinsella, T. J.

A. S. Beddar, T. J. Kinsella, A. Ikhlef, and C. H. Sibata, “A miniature ‘scintillator-fiberoptic-PMT’ detector system for the dosimetry of small fields in stereotactic radiosurgery,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 48(3), 924–928 (2001).
[Crossref]

Klarmann, J.

H. Perera, J. F. Williamson, S. P. Monthofer, W. R. Binns, J. Klarmann, G. L. Fuller, and J. W. Wong, “Rapid two-dimensional dose measurement in brachytherapy using plastic scintillator sheet: linearity, signal-to-noise ratio, and energy response characteristics,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 23(5), 1059–1069 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kolanoski, H.

D. Flühs, M. Heintz, F. Indenkampen, H. Kolanoski, and U. Quast, “Plastic scintilator dosimetry in regions with restricted secondary electron equilibrium,” Radiother. Oncol. 37, S31 (1995).
[Crossref]

Koyama, S.

T. Aoyama, S. Koyama, and C. Kawaura, “An in-phantom dosimetry system using pin silicon photodiode radiation sensors for measuring organ doses in x-ray CT and other diagnostic radiology,” Med. Phys. 29(7), 1504–1510 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lambert, J.

J. Lambert, T. Nakano, S. Law, J. Elsey, D. R. McKenzie, and N. Suchowerska, “In vivo dosimeters for HDR brachytherapy: a comparison of a diamond detector, MOSFET, TLD, and scintillation detector,” Med. Phys. 34(5), 1759–1765 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Law, S.

J. Lambert, T. Nakano, S. Law, J. Elsey, D. R. McKenzie, and N. Suchowerska, “In vivo dosimeters for HDR brachytherapy: a comparison of a diamond detector, MOSFET, TLD, and scintillation detector,” Med. Phys. 34(5), 1759–1765 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lewis, E.

D. McCarthy, S. O’Keeffe, E. Lewis, D. G. Sporea, A. Sporea, I. Tiseanu, P. Woulfe, and J. Cronin, “Radiation dosimeter using an extrinsic fiber optic sensor,” IEEE Sens. J. 14(3), 673–685 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. O’Keeffe, M. Grattan, A. Hounsell, D. McCarthy, P. Woulfe, J. Cronin, and E. Lewis, “Radiotherapy dosimetry based on plastic optical fibre sensors,” Proc. SPIE 8794, 879418 (2013).
[Crossref]

Mackie, T. R.

C. M. M. Wells, T. R. Mackie, M. B. Podgorsak, M. A. Holmes, N. Papanikolaou, P. J. Reckwerdt, J. Cygler, D. W. Rogers, A. F. Bielajew, D. G. Schmidt, and J. K. Muehlenkamp, “Measurements of the electron dose distribution near inhomogeneities using a plastic scintillation detector,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 29(5), 1157–1165 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. S. Beddar, T. R. Mackie, and F. H. Attix, “Water-equivalent plastic scintillation detectors for high-energy beam dosimetry: II. properties and measurements,” Phys. Med. Biol. 37(10), 1901–1913 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. S. Beddar, T. R. Mackie, and F. H. Attix, “Water-equivalent plastic scintillation detectors for high-energy beam dosimetry: I. physical characteristics and theoretical consideration,” Phys. Med. Biol. 37(10), 1883–1900 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Manigandan, D.

D. Manigandan, G. Bharanidharan, P. Aruna, K. Devan, D. Elangovan, V. Patil, R. Tamilarasan, S. Vasanthan, and S. Ganesan, “Dosimetric characteristics of a MOSFET dosimeter for clinical electron beams,” Phys. Med. 25(3), 141–147 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McCarthy, D.

D. McCarthy, S. O’Keeffe, E. Lewis, D. G. Sporea, A. Sporea, I. Tiseanu, P. Woulfe, and J. Cronin, “Radiation dosimeter using an extrinsic fiber optic sensor,” IEEE Sens. J. 14(3), 673–685 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. O’Keeffe, M. Grattan, A. Hounsell, D. McCarthy, P. Woulfe, J. Cronin, and E. Lewis, “Radiotherapy dosimetry based on plastic optical fibre sensors,” Proc. SPIE 8794, 879418 (2013).
[Crossref]

McKenzie, D. R.

J. Lambert, T. Nakano, S. Law, J. Elsey, D. R. McKenzie, and N. Suchowerska, “In vivo dosimeters for HDR brachytherapy: a comparison of a diamond detector, MOSFET, TLD, and scintillation detector,” Med. Phys. 34(5), 1759–1765 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Medellín-Rodríguez, F.

L. Hernández-Adame, F. Medellín-Rodríguez, A. Méndez-Blas, R. Vega-Acosta, and G. Palestino, “Synthesis of Gd2O2S:Tb nanoparticles and optical characterization,” Proc. SPIE 8626, 86261P (2013).
[Crossref]

Méndez-Blas, A.

L. Hernández-Adame, F. Medellín-Rodríguez, A. Méndez-Blas, R. Vega-Acosta, and G. Palestino, “Synthesis of Gd2O2S:Tb nanoparticles and optical characterization,” Proc. SPIE 8626, 86261P (2013).
[Crossref]

Monthofer, S. P.

H. Perera, J. F. Williamson, S. P. Monthofer, W. R. Binns, J. Klarmann, G. L. Fuller, and J. W. Wong, “Rapid two-dimensional dose measurement in brachytherapy using plastic scintillator sheet: linearity, signal-to-noise ratio, and energy response characteristics,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 23(5), 1059–1069 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Muehlenkamp, J. K.

C. M. M. Wells, T. R. Mackie, M. B. Podgorsak, M. A. Holmes, N. Papanikolaou, P. J. Reckwerdt, J. Cygler, D. W. Rogers, A. F. Bielajew, D. G. Schmidt, and J. K. Muehlenkamp, “Measurements of the electron dose distribution near inhomogeneities using a plastic scintillation detector,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 29(5), 1157–1165 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nakano, T.

J. Lambert, T. Nakano, S. Law, J. Elsey, D. R. McKenzie, and N. Suchowerska, “In vivo dosimeters for HDR brachytherapy: a comparison of a diamond detector, MOSFET, TLD, and scintillation detector,” Med. Phys. 34(5), 1759–1765 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O’Keeffe, S.

D. McCarthy, S. O’Keeffe, E. Lewis, D. G. Sporea, A. Sporea, I. Tiseanu, P. Woulfe, and J. Cronin, “Radiation dosimeter using an extrinsic fiber optic sensor,” IEEE Sens. J. 14(3), 673–685 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. O’Keeffe, M. Grattan, A. Hounsell, D. McCarthy, P. Woulfe, J. Cronin, and E. Lewis, “Radiotherapy dosimetry based on plastic optical fibre sensors,” Proc. SPIE 8794, 879418 (2013).
[Crossref]

Palestino, G.

L. Hernández-Adame, F. Medellín-Rodríguez, A. Méndez-Blas, R. Vega-Acosta, and G. Palestino, “Synthesis of Gd2O2S:Tb nanoparticles and optical characterization,” Proc. SPIE 8626, 86261P (2013).
[Crossref]

Papanikolaou, N.

C. M. M. Wells, T. R. Mackie, M. B. Podgorsak, M. A. Holmes, N. Papanikolaou, P. J. Reckwerdt, J. Cygler, D. W. Rogers, A. F. Bielajew, D. G. Schmidt, and J. K. Muehlenkamp, “Measurements of the electron dose distribution near inhomogeneities using a plastic scintillation detector,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 29(5), 1157–1165 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Patil, V.

D. Manigandan, G. Bharanidharan, P. Aruna, K. Devan, D. Elangovan, V. Patil, R. Tamilarasan, S. Vasanthan, and S. Ganesan, “Dosimetric characteristics of a MOSFET dosimeter for clinical electron beams,” Phys. Med. 25(3), 141–147 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Perera, H.

H. Perera, J. F. Williamson, S. P. Monthofer, W. R. Binns, J. Klarmann, G. L. Fuller, and J. W. Wong, “Rapid two-dimensional dose measurement in brachytherapy using plastic scintillator sheet: linearity, signal-to-noise ratio, and energy response characteristics,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 23(5), 1059–1069 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Podgorsak, M. B.

C. M. M. Wells, T. R. Mackie, M. B. Podgorsak, M. A. Holmes, N. Papanikolaou, P. J. Reckwerdt, J. Cygler, D. W. Rogers, A. F. Bielajew, D. G. Schmidt, and J. K. Muehlenkamp, “Measurements of the electron dose distribution near inhomogeneities using a plastic scintillation detector,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 29(5), 1157–1165 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Quast, U.

D. Flühs, M. Heintz, F. Indenkampen, H. Kolanoski, and U. Quast, “Plastic scintilator dosimetry in regions with restricted secondary electron equilibrium,” Radiother. Oncol. 37, S31 (1995).
[Crossref]

Reckwerdt, P. J.

C. M. M. Wells, T. R. Mackie, M. B. Podgorsak, M. A. Holmes, N. Papanikolaou, P. J. Reckwerdt, J. Cygler, D. W. Rogers, A. F. Bielajew, D. G. Schmidt, and J. K. Muehlenkamp, “Measurements of the electron dose distribution near inhomogeneities using a plastic scintillation detector,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 29(5), 1157–1165 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rogers, D. W.

C. M. M. Wells, T. R. Mackie, M. B. Podgorsak, M. A. Holmes, N. Papanikolaou, P. J. Reckwerdt, J. Cygler, D. W. Rogers, A. F. Bielajew, D. G. Schmidt, and J. K. Muehlenkamp, “Measurements of the electron dose distribution near inhomogeneities using a plastic scintillation detector,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 29(5), 1157–1165 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schmidt, D. G.

C. M. M. Wells, T. R. Mackie, M. B. Podgorsak, M. A. Holmes, N. Papanikolaou, P. J. Reckwerdt, J. Cygler, D. W. Rogers, A. F. Bielajew, D. G. Schmidt, and J. K. Muehlenkamp, “Measurements of the electron dose distribution near inhomogeneities using a plastic scintillation detector,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 29(5), 1157–1165 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sibata, C. H.

A. S. Beddar, T. J. Kinsella, A. Ikhlef, and C. H. Sibata, “A miniature ‘scintillator-fiberoptic-PMT’ detector system for the dosimetry of small fields in stereotactic radiosurgery,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 48(3), 924–928 (2001).
[Crossref]

Sporea, A.

D. McCarthy, S. O’Keeffe, E. Lewis, D. G. Sporea, A. Sporea, I. Tiseanu, P. Woulfe, and J. Cronin, “Radiation dosimeter using an extrinsic fiber optic sensor,” IEEE Sens. J. 14(3), 673–685 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sporea, D. G.

D. McCarthy, S. O’Keeffe, E. Lewis, D. G. Sporea, A. Sporea, I. Tiseanu, P. Woulfe, and J. Cronin, “Radiation dosimeter using an extrinsic fiber optic sensor,” IEEE Sens. J. 14(3), 673–685 (2014).
[Crossref]

Suchowerska, N.

J. Lambert, T. Nakano, S. Law, J. Elsey, D. R. McKenzie, and N. Suchowerska, “In vivo dosimeters for HDR brachytherapy: a comparison of a diamond detector, MOSFET, TLD, and scintillation detector,” Med. Phys. 34(5), 1759–1765 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sutton, R. A.

M. A. Cliftt, R. A. Sutton, and D. V. Webb, “Water equivalence of plastic organic scintillators in megavoltage radiotherapy bremsstrahlung beams,” Phys. Med. Biol. 45(7), 1885–1895 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Clift, R. A. Sutton, and D. V. Webb, “Dealing with Cerenkov radiation generated in organic scintillator dosimeters by bremsstrahlung beams,” Phys. Med. Biol. 45(5), 1165–1182 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tamilarasan, R.

D. Manigandan, G. Bharanidharan, P. Aruna, K. Devan, D. Elangovan, V. Patil, R. Tamilarasan, S. Vasanthan, and S. Ganesan, “Dosimetric characteristics of a MOSFET dosimeter for clinical electron beams,” Phys. Med. 25(3), 141–147 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tiseanu, I.

D. McCarthy, S. O’Keeffe, E. Lewis, D. G. Sporea, A. Sporea, I. Tiseanu, P. Woulfe, and J. Cronin, “Radiation dosimeter using an extrinsic fiber optic sensor,” IEEE Sens. J. 14(3), 673–685 (2014).
[Crossref]

Vasanthan, S.

D. Manigandan, G. Bharanidharan, P. Aruna, K. Devan, D. Elangovan, V. Patil, R. Tamilarasan, S. Vasanthan, and S. Ganesan, “Dosimetric characteristics of a MOSFET dosimeter for clinical electron beams,” Phys. Med. 25(3), 141–147 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vega-Acosta, R.

L. Hernández-Adame, F. Medellín-Rodríguez, A. Méndez-Blas, R. Vega-Acosta, and G. Palestino, “Synthesis of Gd2O2S:Tb nanoparticles and optical characterization,” Proc. SPIE 8626, 86261P (2013).
[Crossref]

Webb, D. V.

M. A. Clift, P. N. Johnston, and D. V. Webb, “A temporal method of avoiding the Cerenkov radiation generated in organic scintillator dosimeters by pulsed mega-voltage electron and photon beams,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(8), 1421–1433 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Clift, R. A. Sutton, and D. V. Webb, “Dealing with Cerenkov radiation generated in organic scintillator dosimeters by bremsstrahlung beams,” Phys. Med. Biol. 45(5), 1165–1182 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Cliftt, R. A. Sutton, and D. V. Webb, “Water equivalence of plastic organic scintillators in megavoltage radiotherapy bremsstrahlung beams,” Phys. Med. Biol. 45(7), 1885–1895 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wells, C. M. M.

C. M. M. Wells, T. R. Mackie, M. B. Podgorsak, M. A. Holmes, N. Papanikolaou, P. J. Reckwerdt, J. Cygler, D. W. Rogers, A. F. Bielajew, D. G. Schmidt, and J. K. Muehlenkamp, “Measurements of the electron dose distribution near inhomogeneities using a plastic scintillation detector,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 29(5), 1157–1165 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Williamson, J. F.

H. Perera, J. F. Williamson, S. P. Monthofer, W. R. Binns, J. Klarmann, G. L. Fuller, and J. W. Wong, “Rapid two-dimensional dose measurement in brachytherapy using plastic scintillator sheet: linearity, signal-to-noise ratio, and energy response characteristics,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 23(5), 1059–1069 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wong, J. W.

H. Perera, J. F. Williamson, S. P. Monthofer, W. R. Binns, J. Klarmann, G. L. Fuller, and J. W. Wong, “Rapid two-dimensional dose measurement in brachytherapy using plastic scintillator sheet: linearity, signal-to-noise ratio, and energy response characteristics,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 23(5), 1059–1069 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Woulfe, P.

D. McCarthy, S. O’Keeffe, E. Lewis, D. G. Sporea, A. Sporea, I. Tiseanu, P. Woulfe, and J. Cronin, “Radiation dosimeter using an extrinsic fiber optic sensor,” IEEE Sens. J. 14(3), 673–685 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. O’Keeffe, M. Grattan, A. Hounsell, D. McCarthy, P. Woulfe, J. Cronin, and E. Lewis, “Radiotherapy dosimetry based on plastic optical fibre sensors,” Proc. SPIE 8794, 879418 (2013).
[Crossref]

IEEE Sens. J. (1)

D. McCarthy, S. O’Keeffe, E. Lewis, D. G. Sporea, A. Sporea, I. Tiseanu, P. Woulfe, and J. Cronin, “Radiation dosimeter using an extrinsic fiber optic sensor,” IEEE Sens. J. 14(3), 673–685 (2014).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. (1)

A. S. Beddar, T. J. Kinsella, A. Ikhlef, and C. H. Sibata, “A miniature ‘scintillator-fiberoptic-PMT’ detector system for the dosimetry of small fields in stereotactic radiosurgery,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 48(3), 924–928 (2001).
[Crossref]

Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. (2)

H. Perera, J. F. Williamson, S. P. Monthofer, W. R. Binns, J. Klarmann, G. L. Fuller, and J. W. Wong, “Rapid two-dimensional dose measurement in brachytherapy using plastic scintillator sheet: linearity, signal-to-noise ratio, and energy response characteristics,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 23(5), 1059–1069 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. M. M. Wells, T. R. Mackie, M. B. Podgorsak, M. A. Holmes, N. Papanikolaou, P. J. Reckwerdt, J. Cygler, D. W. Rogers, A. F. Bielajew, D. G. Schmidt, and J. K. Muehlenkamp, “Measurements of the electron dose distribution near inhomogeneities using a plastic scintillation detector,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 29(5), 1157–1165 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Med. Phys. (4)

J. Lambert, T. Nakano, S. Law, J. Elsey, D. R. McKenzie, and N. Suchowerska, “In vivo dosimeters for HDR brachytherapy: a comparison of a diamond detector, MOSFET, TLD, and scintillation detector,” Med. Phys. 34(5), 1759–1765 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. E. Hyer, R. F. Fisher, and D. E. Hintenlang, “Characterization of a water-equivalent fiber-optic coupled dosimeter for use in diagnostic radiology,” Med. Phys. 36(5), 1711–1716 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. A. Benevides, A. L. Huston, B. L. Justus, P. Falkenstein, L. F. Brateman, and D. E. Hintenlang, “Characterization of a fiber-optic-coupled radioluminescent detector for application in the mammography energy range,” Med. Phys. 34(6), 2220–2227 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Aoyama, S. Koyama, and C. Kawaura, “An in-phantom dosimetry system using pin silicon photodiode radiation sensors for measuring organ doses in x-ray CT and other diagnostic radiology,” Med. Phys. 29(7), 1504–1510 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Med. (1)

D. Manigandan, G. Bharanidharan, P. Aruna, K. Devan, D. Elangovan, V. Patil, R. Tamilarasan, S. Vasanthan, and S. Ganesan, “Dosimetric characteristics of a MOSFET dosimeter for clinical electron beams,” Phys. Med. 25(3), 141–147 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Med. Biol. (5)

A. S. Beddar, T. R. Mackie, and F. H. Attix, “Water-equivalent plastic scintillation detectors for high-energy beam dosimetry: I. physical characteristics and theoretical consideration,” Phys. Med. Biol. 37(10), 1883–1900 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. S. Beddar, T. R. Mackie, and F. H. Attix, “Water-equivalent plastic scintillation detectors for high-energy beam dosimetry: II. properties and measurements,” Phys. Med. Biol. 37(10), 1901–1913 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Clift, R. A. Sutton, and D. V. Webb, “Dealing with Cerenkov radiation generated in organic scintillator dosimeters by bremsstrahlung beams,” Phys. Med. Biol. 45(5), 1165–1182 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Cliftt, R. A. Sutton, and D. V. Webb, “Water equivalence of plastic organic scintillators in megavoltage radiotherapy bremsstrahlung beams,” Phys. Med. Biol. 45(7), 1885–1895 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Clift, P. N. Johnston, and D. V. Webb, “A temporal method of avoiding the Cerenkov radiation generated in organic scintillator dosimeters by pulsed mega-voltage electron and photon beams,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(8), 1421–1433 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (3)

S. O’Keeffe, M. Grattan, A. Hounsell, D. McCarthy, P. Woulfe, J. Cronin, and E. Lewis, “Radiotherapy dosimetry based on plastic optical fibre sensors,” Proc. SPIE 8794, 879418 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. J. Jordan, “Evaluation of ruby as a fluorescent sensor for optical ficber-based radiation dosimetry,” Proc. SPIE 2079, 170–178 (1996).
[Crossref]

L. Hernández-Adame, F. Medellín-Rodríguez, A. Méndez-Blas, R. Vega-Acosta, and G. Palestino, “Synthesis of Gd2O2S:Tb nanoparticles and optical characterization,” Proc. SPIE 8626, 86261P (2013).
[Crossref]

Radiat. Prot. Dosimetry (1)

A. K. Jones and D. Hintenlang, “Potential clinical utility of a fibre optic-coupled dosemeter for dose measurements in diagnostic radiology,” Radiat. Prot. Dosimetry 132(1), 80–87 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Radiother. Oncol. (1)

D. Flühs, M. Heintz, F. Indenkampen, H. Kolanoski, and U. Quast, “Plastic scintilator dosimetry in regions with restricted secondary electron equilibrium,” Radiother. Oncol. 37, S31 (1995).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

E. B. Podgorsak, Radiation Oncology Physics: A Handbook for Teachers and Students (IAEA, 2005),Ch. 3.

E. B. Podgorsak, Radiation Oncology Physics: A Handbook for Teachers and Students (IAEA, 2005),Ch. 4.

D. McCarthy, S. O’Keeffe and E. Lewis, “Scintillating optical fibre sensor for radiotherapy dosimetry,” Proc. SPIE 8421, 8421BK (2012)
[Crossref]

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Figures (15)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 The experimental test facility at the Harbin Hospital Oncology Clinic:(a) Schematic layout. (b) The sensor immersed in the test water tank.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 The internal construction of the old dosimeter.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The novel fiber-optic dosimeter: (a) Schematic representation. (b) The photograph.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 The emission spectrum of the Gd2O2S:Tb.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The results: (a) The signal time resolved response measured by the previous dosimeter design. (b) response measured by the novel dosimeter.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 The advantage of the new dosimeter: (a)Old type of dosimeter; (b)Novel structure dosimeter.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Optical intensity for repeated exposures of 200MU at a dose rate of 600 MU/min at 6MV.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 The accumulated dose measurement using the dosimeter derived from Fig. 7.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 The optical intensity with background subtracted for the varying dose rates.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Accumulated dose of dosimeter output signal derived from Fig. 9 at the dose rate of 600MU/min.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 The variation of the accumulated integrated dose with measured dose using the commercial IC for dose rates in the range 100 to 600 MU/min.
Fig. 12
Fig. 12 The radar diagram for measurement radial angular dependence of dosimeter is shown, and how the azimuthal angle is defined too. The thick arrows with angular degrees indicate the direction of the incident radiation beams. For example, at 90°: (a) Radial angular dependence (b) Schematic diagram.
Fig. 13
Fig. 13 The radar diagram for measurement axial angular dependence of dosimeter is shown, and how the azimuthal angle is defined too. The thick arrows with angular degrees indicate the direction of the incident radiation beams: (a) Axial angular dependence (b) Schematic diagram.
Fig. 14
Fig. 14 The normalized dose versus depth and dose rate: (a) measured on the dosimeter (b) measured on IC.
Fig. 15
Fig. 15 The ratio between the dose deposited in the scintillator (Ddosi) to the dose deposited in water (DIC) change with the depth.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Integrated optical intensity, and percentage error, for repeated exposures at 200 MU.

Tables Icon

Table 2 The angular dependence of an oblique angle to dosimeter axis.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

α= sin 1 n co 2 n cl 2 n co
R 2 =1 Σ ( y i f i ) 2 Σ ( y i y ¯ ) 2

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