Abstract

We present a novel method for THz generation in lithium niobate using a reflective stair-step echelon structure. The echelon produces a discretely tilted pulse front with less angular dispersion compared to a high groove-density grating. The THz output was characterized using both a 1-lens and 3-lens imaging system to set the tilt angle at room and cryogenic temperatures. Using broadband 800 nm pulses with a pulse energy of 0.95 mJ and a pulse duration of 70 fs (24 nm FWHM bandwidth, 39 fs transform limited width), we produced THz pulses with field strengths as high as 500 kV/cm and pulse energies as high as 3.1 μJ. The highest conversion efficiency we obtained was 0.33%. In addition, we find that the echelon is easily implemented into an experimental setup for quick alignment and optimization.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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  54. M. Jewariya, M. Nagai, and K. Tanaka, “Enhancement of terahertz wave generation by cascaded χ2 processes in LiNbO3,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26(9), A101–A106 (2009).
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2015 (1)

C. Lombosi, G. Polónyi, M. Mechler, Z. Ollmann, J. Hebling, and J. A. Fülöp, “Nonlinear distortion of intense THz beams,” New J. Phys. 17(8), 083041 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (7)

K. Ravi, W. R. Huang, S. Carbajo, X. Wu, and F. X. Kärtner, “Limitations to THz generation by optical rectification using tilted pulse fronts,” Opt. Express 22(17), 20239–20251 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Tsubouchi, K. Nagashima, F. Yoshida, Y. Ochi, and M. Maruyama, “Contact grating device with Fabry-Perot resonator for effective terahertz light generation,” Opt. Lett. 39(18), 5439–5442 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Blanchard, X. Ropagnol, H. Hafez, H. Razavipour, M. Bolduc, R. Morandotti, T. Ozaki, and D. G. Cooke, “Effect of extreme pump pulse reshaping on intense terahertz emission in lithium niobate at multimilliJoule pump energies,” Opt. Lett. 39(15), 4333–4336 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Y. Hwang, S. Fleischer, N. C. Brandt, B. G. Perkins, M. Liu, K. Fan, A. J. Sternbach, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and K. A. Nelson, “A review of non-linear terahertz spectroscopy with ultrashort tabletop-laser pulses,” J. Mod. Opt. 62(18), 1447–1479 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. A. Fülöp, Z. Ollmann, C. Lombosi, C. Skrobol, S. Klingebiel, L. Pálfalvi, F. Krausz, S. Karsch, and J. Hebling, “Efficient generation of THz pulses with 0.4 mJ energy,” Opt. Express 22(17), 20155–20163 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. R. Huang, S.-W. Huang, E. Granados, K. Ravi, K.-H. Hong, L. E. Zapata, and F. X. Kärtner, “Highly efficient terahertz pulse generation by optical rectification in stoichiometric and cryo-cooled congruent lithium niobate,” J. Mod. Opt. 62(18), 1–8 (2014).

X. Wu, S. Carbajo, K. Ravi, F. Ahr, G. Cirmi, Y. Zhou, O. D. Mücke, and F. X. Kärtner, “Terahertz generation in lithium niobate driven by Ti:sapphire laser pulses and its limitations,” Opt. Lett. 39(18), 5403–5406 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (7)

S. B. Bodrov, A. A. Murzanev, Y. A. Sergeev, Y. A. Malkov, and A. N. Stepanov, “Terahertz generation by tilted-front laser pulses in weakly and strongly nonlinear regimes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(25), 251103 (2013).
[Crossref]

S.-W. Huang, E. Granados, W. R. Huang, K.-H. Hong, L. E. Zapata, and F. X. Kärtner, “High conversion efficiency, high energy terahertz pulses by optical rectification in cryogenically cooled lithium niobate,” Opt. Lett. 38(5), 796–798 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Kunitski, M. Richter, M. D. Thomson, A. Vredenborg, J. Wu, T. Jahnke, M. Schöffler, H. Schmidt-Böcking, H. G. Roskos, and R. Dörner, “Optimization of single-cycle terahertz generation in LiNbO3 for sub-50 femtosecond pump pulses,” Opt. Express 21(6), 6826–6836 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Fan, H. Y. Hwang, M. Liu, A. C. Strikwerda, A. J. Sternbach, J. Zhang, X. Zhao, X. Zhang, K. A. Nelson, and R. D. Averitt, “Nonlinear terahertz metamaterials via field-enhanced carrier dynamics in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(21), 217404 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Y. Hwang, N. C. Brandt, H. Farhat, A. L. Hsu, J. Kong, and K. A. Nelson, “Nonlinear THz conductivity dynamics in P-type CVD-grown graphene,” J. Phys. Chem. B 117(49), 15819–15824 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. K. Grady, B. G. Perkins, H. Y. Hwang, N. C. Brandt, D. Torchinsky, R. Singh, L. Yan, D. Trugman, S. A. Trugman, Q. X. Jia, A. J. Taylor, K. A. Nelson, and H.-T. Chen, “Nonlinear high-temperature superconducting terahertz metamaterials,” New J. Phys. 15(10), 105016 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Minami, Y. Hayashi, J. Takeda, and I. Katayama, “Single-shot measurement of a terahertz electric-field waveform using a reflective echelon mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(5), 051103 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

M. Nagai, E. Matsubara, and M. Ashida, “High-efficiency terahertz pulse generation via optical rectification by suppressing stimulated Raman scattering process,” Opt. Express 20(6), 6509–6514 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Liu, H. Y. Hwang, H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, G. R. Keiser, A. J. Sternbach, K. G. West, S. Kittiwatanakul, J. Lu, S. A. Wolf, F. G. Omenetto, X. Zhang, K. A. Nelson, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz-field-induced insulator-to-metal transition in vanadium dioxide metamaterial,” Nature 487(7407), 345–348 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Fleischer, R. W. Field, and K. A. Nelson, “Commensurate two-quantum coherences induced by time-delayed THz fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(12), 123603 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (6)

H. Hirori, K. Shinokita, M. Shirai, S. Tani, Y. Kadoya, and K. Tanaka, “Extraordinary carrier multiplication gated by a picosecond electric field pulse,” Nat. Commun. 2(May), 594 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Fleischer, Y. Zhou, R. W. Field, and K. A. Nelson, “Molecular orientation and alignment by intense single-cycle THz pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(16), 163603 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. C. Hoffmann and J. A. Fülöp, “Intense ultrashort terahertz pulses: generation and applications,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 44(8), 083001 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. Tanaka, H. Hirori, and M. Nagai, “THz nonlinear spectroscopy of solids,” IEEE. Trans. THz Sci. Tech. 1(1), 301–312 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. A. Fülöp, L. Pálfalvi, M. C. Hoffmann, and J. Hebling, “Towards generation of mJ-level ultrashort THz pulses by optical rectification,” Opt. Express 19(16), 15090–15097 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. A. Werley, S. M. Teo, and K. A. Nelson, “Pulsed laser noise analysis and pump-probe signal detection with a data acquisition card,” Rev. Sci. Instr. 82(12), 123108 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (5)

J. A. Fülöp, L. Pálfalvi, G. Almási, and J. Hebling, “Design of high-energy terahertz sources based on optical rectification,” Opt. Express 18(12), 12311–12327 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Hirori, M. Nagai, and K. Tanaka, “Excitonic interactions with intense terahertz pulses in ZnSe/ZnMgSSe multiple quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 81(8), 081305 (2010).
[Crossref]

K. Shinokita, H. Hirori, M. Nagai, N. Satoh, Y. Kadoya, and K. Tanaka, “Dynamical Franz-Keldysh effect in GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum wells induced by single-cycle terahertz pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(21), 211902 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Hebling, M. C. Hoffmann, H. Y. Hwang, K.-L. Yeh, and K. A. Nelson, “Observation of nonequilibrium carrier distribution in Ge, Si, and GaAs by terahertz pump-terahertz probe measurements,” Phys. Rev. B 81(3), 035201 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Jewariya, M. Nagai, and K. Tanaka, “Ladder climbing on the anharmonic intermolecular potential in an amino acid microcrystal via an intense monocycle terahertz pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(20), 203003 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (4)

M. C. Hoffmann, N. C. Brandt, H. Y. Hwang, K.-L. Yeh, and K. A. Nelson, “Terahertz Kerr effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(23), 231105 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. C. Hoffmann, J. Hebling, H. Y. Hwang, K.-L. Yeh, and K. A. Nelson, “Impact ionization in InSb probed by terahertz pump-terahertz probe spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 79(16), 161201 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Nagai, M. Jewariya, Y. Ichikawa, H. Ohtake, T. Sugiura, Y. Uehara, and K. Tanaka, “Broadband and high power terahertz pulse generation beyond excitation bandwidth limitation via χ2 cascaded processes in LiNbO3,” Opt. Express 17(14), 11543–11549 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Jewariya, M. Nagai, and K. Tanaka, “Enhancement of terahertz wave generation by cascaded χ2 processes in LiNbO3,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26(9), A101–A106 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (3)

2007 (5)

K.-L. Yeh, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Hebling, and K. A. Nelson, “Generation of 10 μJ ultrashort terahertz pulses by optical rectification,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(17), 171121 (2007).
[Crossref]

B. S. Williams, “Terahertz quantum-cascade lasers,” Nature Photon. 1(9), 517–525 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. G. Stepanov, A. A. Mel’nikov, V. O. Kompanets, and S. V. Chekalin, “Spectral modification of femtosecond laser pulses in the process of highly efficient generation of terahertz radiation via optical rectification,” JETP Lett. 85(5), 227–230 (2007).
[Crossref]

T. Feurer, N. S. Stoyanov, D. W. Ward, J. C. Vaughan, E. R. Statz, and K. A. Nelson, “Terahertz polaritonics,” Annu. Rev. Mat. Res. 37(1), 317–350 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. C. Hoffmann, K.-L. Yeh, J. Hebling, and K. A. Nelson, “Efficient terahertz generation by optical rectification at 1035 nm,” Opt. Express 15(18), 11706–11713 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

M. Reid and R. Fedosejevs, “Quantitative comparison of terahertz emission from (100) InAs surfaces and a GaAs large-aperture photoconductive switch at high fluences,” Appl. Opt. 44(1), 149–153 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. G. Stepanov, J. Hebling, and J. Kuhl, “THz generation via optical rectification with ultrashort laser pulse focused to a line,” Appl. Phys. B 81(1), 23–26 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (3)

J. Hebling, A. Stepanov, G. Almási, B. Bartal, and J. Kuhl, “Tunable THz pulse generation by optical rectification of ultrashort laser pulses with tilted pulse fronts,” Appl. Phys. B 78(5), 593–599 (2004).
[Crossref]

M. Cronin-Golomb, “Cascaded nonlinear difference-frequency generation of enhanced terahertz wave production,” Opt. Lett. 29(17), 2046–2048 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. F. G. van der Meer, “FELs, nice toys or efficient tools?” Nucl. Instr. Meth. Phys. Res. A 528(1–2), 8–14 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

A. G. Stepanov, J. Hebling, and J. Kuhl, “Efficient generation of subpicosecond terahertz radiation by phase-matched optical rectification using ultrashort laser pulses with tilted pulse fronts,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(15), 3000 (2003).
[Crossref]

T. Feurer, J. C. Vaughan, and K. A. Nelson, “Spatiotemporal coherent control of lattice vibrational waves,” Science 299(5605), 374–377 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

2001 (2)

R. M. Koehl and K. A. Nelson, “Coherent optical control over collective vibrations traveling at lightlike speeds,” J. Chem. Phys. 114(4), 1443–1446 (2001).
[Crossref]

R. M. Koehl and K. A. Nelson, “Terahertz polaritonics: Automated spatiotemporal control over propagating lattice waves,” Chem. Phys. 267(1–3), 151–159 (2001).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

J. Hebling, “Derivation of the pulse front tilt caused by angular dispersion,” Opt. Quant. Electron. 28(12), 1759–1763 (1996).
[Crossref]

1986 (1)

O. E. Martinez, “Pulse distortions in tilted pulse schemes for ultrashort pulses,” Opt. Commun. 59(3), 229–232 (1986).
[Crossref]

1984 (1)

D. H. Auston, K. Cheung, J. Valdmanis, and D. A. Kleinman, “Cherenkov radiation from femtosecond optical pulses in electro-optic media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 53(16), 1555–1558 (1984).
[Crossref]

1954 (1)

Ahr, F.

Almási, G.

J. A. Fülöp, L. Pálfalvi, G. Almási, and J. Hebling, “Design of high-energy terahertz sources based on optical rectification,” Opt. Express 18(12), 12311–12327 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Pálfalvi, J. A. Fülöp, G. Almási, and J. Hebling, “Novel setups for extremely high power single-cycle terahertz pulse generation by optical rectification,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(17), 171107 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Hebling, A. Stepanov, G. Almási, B. Bartal, and J. Kuhl, “Tunable THz pulse generation by optical rectification of ultrashort laser pulses with tilted pulse fronts,” Appl. Phys. B 78(5), 593–599 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Hebling, G. Almási, I. Kozma, and J. Kuhl, “Velocity matching by pulse front tilting for large area THz-pulse generation,” Opt. Express 10(21), 1161–1166 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ashida, M.

Auston, D. H.

D. H. Auston, K. Cheung, J. Valdmanis, and D. A. Kleinman, “Cherenkov radiation from femtosecond optical pulses in electro-optic media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 53(16), 1555–1558 (1984).
[Crossref]

Averitt, R. D.

H. Y. Hwang, S. Fleischer, N. C. Brandt, B. G. Perkins, M. Liu, K. Fan, A. J. Sternbach, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and K. A. Nelson, “A review of non-linear terahertz spectroscopy with ultrashort tabletop-laser pulses,” J. Mod. Opt. 62(18), 1447–1479 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. Fan, H. Y. Hwang, M. Liu, A. C. Strikwerda, A. J. Sternbach, J. Zhang, X. Zhao, X. Zhang, K. A. Nelson, and R. D. Averitt, “Nonlinear terahertz metamaterials via field-enhanced carrier dynamics in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(21), 217404 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Liu, H. Y. Hwang, H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, G. R. Keiser, A. J. Sternbach, K. G. West, S. Kittiwatanakul, J. Lu, S. A. Wolf, F. G. Omenetto, X. Zhang, K. A. Nelson, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz-field-induced insulator-to-metal transition in vanadium dioxide metamaterial,” Nature 487(7407), 345–348 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Back, F. G.

Bartal, B.

J. Hebling, K.-L. Yeh, M. C. Hoffmann, B. Bartal, and K. A. Nelson, “Generation of high-power terahertz pulses by tilted-pulse-front excitation and their application possibilities,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25(7), B6–B19 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Hebling, A. Stepanov, G. Almási, B. Bartal, and J. Kuhl, “Tunable THz pulse generation by optical rectification of ultrashort laser pulses with tilted pulse fronts,” Appl. Phys. B 78(5), 593–599 (2004).
[Crossref]

Blanchard, F.

Bodrov, S. B.

S. B. Bodrov, A. A. Murzanev, Y. A. Sergeev, Y. A. Malkov, and A. N. Stepanov, “Terahertz generation by tilted-front laser pulses in weakly and strongly nonlinear regimes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(25), 251103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bolduc, M.

Bonacina, L.

Brandt, N. C.

H. Y. Hwang, S. Fleischer, N. C. Brandt, B. G. Perkins, M. Liu, K. Fan, A. J. Sternbach, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and K. A. Nelson, “A review of non-linear terahertz spectroscopy with ultrashort tabletop-laser pulses,” J. Mod. Opt. 62(18), 1447–1479 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Y. Hwang, N. C. Brandt, H. Farhat, A. L. Hsu, J. Kong, and K. A. Nelson, “Nonlinear THz conductivity dynamics in P-type CVD-grown graphene,” J. Phys. Chem. B 117(49), 15819–15824 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. K. Grady, B. G. Perkins, H. Y. Hwang, N. C. Brandt, D. Torchinsky, R. Singh, L. Yan, D. Trugman, S. A. Trugman, Q. X. Jia, A. J. Taylor, K. A. Nelson, and H.-T. Chen, “Nonlinear high-temperature superconducting terahertz metamaterials,” New J. Phys. 15(10), 105016 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. C. Hoffmann, N. C. Brandt, H. Y. Hwang, K.-L. Yeh, and K. A. Nelson, “Terahertz Kerr effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(23), 231105 (2009).
[Crossref]

Carbajo, S.

Chekalin, S. V.

A. G. Stepanov, L. Bonacina, S. V. Chekalin, and J.-P. Wolf, “Generation of 30 μJ single-cycle terahertz pulses at 100 Hz repetition rate by optical rectification,” Opt. Lett. 33(21), 2497–2499 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. G. Stepanov, A. A. Mel’nikov, V. O. Kompanets, and S. V. Chekalin, “Spectral modification of femtosecond laser pulses in the process of highly efficient generation of terahertz radiation via optical rectification,” JETP Lett. 85(5), 227–230 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chen, H.-T.

N. K. Grady, B. G. Perkins, H. Y. Hwang, N. C. Brandt, D. Torchinsky, R. Singh, L. Yan, D. Trugman, S. A. Trugman, Q. X. Jia, A. J. Taylor, K. A. Nelson, and H.-T. Chen, “Nonlinear high-temperature superconducting terahertz metamaterials,” New J. Phys. 15(10), 105016 (2013).
[Crossref]

Cheung, K.

D. H. Auston, K. Cheung, J. Valdmanis, and D. A. Kleinman, “Cherenkov radiation from femtosecond optical pulses in electro-optic media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 53(16), 1555–1558 (1984).
[Crossref]

Cirmi, G.

Cooke, D. G.

Cronin-Golomb, M.

Diels, J.-C.

J.-C. Diels and W. Rudolph, Ultrashort Laser Pulse Phenomena (Academic, 2006), 2nd ed.

Dörner, R.

Fan, K.

H. Y. Hwang, S. Fleischer, N. C. Brandt, B. G. Perkins, M. Liu, K. Fan, A. J. Sternbach, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and K. A. Nelson, “A review of non-linear terahertz spectroscopy with ultrashort tabletop-laser pulses,” J. Mod. Opt. 62(18), 1447–1479 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. Fan, H. Y. Hwang, M. Liu, A. C. Strikwerda, A. J. Sternbach, J. Zhang, X. Zhao, X. Zhang, K. A. Nelson, and R. D. Averitt, “Nonlinear terahertz metamaterials via field-enhanced carrier dynamics in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(21), 217404 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Liu, H. Y. Hwang, H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, G. R. Keiser, A. J. Sternbach, K. G. West, S. Kittiwatanakul, J. Lu, S. A. Wolf, F. G. Omenetto, X. Zhang, K. A. Nelson, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz-field-induced insulator-to-metal transition in vanadium dioxide metamaterial,” Nature 487(7407), 345–348 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Farhat, H.

H. Y. Hwang, N. C. Brandt, H. Farhat, A. L. Hsu, J. Kong, and K. A. Nelson, “Nonlinear THz conductivity dynamics in P-type CVD-grown graphene,” J. Phys. Chem. B 117(49), 15819–15824 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fedosejevs, R.

Feurer, T.

T. Feurer, N. S. Stoyanov, D. W. Ward, J. C. Vaughan, E. R. Statz, and K. A. Nelson, “Terahertz polaritonics,” Annu. Rev. Mat. Res. 37(1), 317–350 (2007).
[Crossref]

T. Feurer, J. C. Vaughan, and K. A. Nelson, “Spatiotemporal coherent control of lattice vibrational waves,” Science 299(5605), 374–377 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Field, R. W.

S. Fleischer, R. W. Field, and K. A. Nelson, “Commensurate two-quantum coherences induced by time-delayed THz fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(12), 123603 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Fleischer, Y. Zhou, R. W. Field, and K. A. Nelson, “Molecular orientation and alignment by intense single-cycle THz pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(16), 163603 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fleischer, S.

H. Y. Hwang, S. Fleischer, N. C. Brandt, B. G. Perkins, M. Liu, K. Fan, A. J. Sternbach, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and K. A. Nelson, “A review of non-linear terahertz spectroscopy with ultrashort tabletop-laser pulses,” J. Mod. Opt. 62(18), 1447–1479 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Fleischer, R. W. Field, and K. A. Nelson, “Commensurate two-quantum coherences induced by time-delayed THz fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(12), 123603 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Fleischer, Y. Zhou, R. W. Field, and K. A. Nelson, “Molecular orientation and alignment by intense single-cycle THz pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(16), 163603 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fülöp, J. A.

C. Lombosi, G. Polónyi, M. Mechler, Z. Ollmann, J. Hebling, and J. A. Fülöp, “Nonlinear distortion of intense THz beams,” New J. Phys. 17(8), 083041 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. A. Fülöp, Z. Ollmann, C. Lombosi, C. Skrobol, S. Klingebiel, L. Pálfalvi, F. Krausz, S. Karsch, and J. Hebling, “Efficient generation of THz pulses with 0.4 mJ energy,” Opt. Express 22(17), 20155–20163 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. Fülöp, L. Pálfalvi, M. C. Hoffmann, and J. Hebling, “Towards generation of mJ-level ultrashort THz pulses by optical rectification,” Opt. Express 19(16), 15090–15097 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. C. Hoffmann and J. A. Fülöp, “Intense ultrashort terahertz pulses: generation and applications,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 44(8), 083001 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. A. Fülöp, L. Pálfalvi, G. Almási, and J. Hebling, “Design of high-energy terahertz sources based on optical rectification,” Opt. Express 18(12), 12311–12327 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Pálfalvi, J. A. Fülöp, G. Almási, and J. Hebling, “Novel setups for extremely high power single-cycle terahertz pulse generation by optical rectification,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(17), 171107 (2008).
[Crossref]

Grady, N. K.

N. K. Grady, B. G. Perkins, H. Y. Hwang, N. C. Brandt, D. Torchinsky, R. Singh, L. Yan, D. Trugman, S. A. Trugman, Q. X. Jia, A. J. Taylor, K. A. Nelson, and H.-T. Chen, “Nonlinear high-temperature superconducting terahertz metamaterials,” New J. Phys. 15(10), 105016 (2013).
[Crossref]

Granados, E.

W. R. Huang, S.-W. Huang, E. Granados, K. Ravi, K.-H. Hong, L. E. Zapata, and F. X. Kärtner, “Highly efficient terahertz pulse generation by optical rectification in stoichiometric and cryo-cooled congruent lithium niobate,” J. Mod. Opt. 62(18), 1–8 (2014).

S.-W. Huang, E. Granados, W. R. Huang, K.-H. Hong, L. E. Zapata, and F. X. Kärtner, “High conversion efficiency, high energy terahertz pulses by optical rectification in cryogenically cooled lithium niobate,” Opt. Lett. 38(5), 796–798 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hafez, H.

Hansen, R. C.

R. C. Hansen, Phased Array Antennas (John Wiley & Sons, 2009), 2nd ed.
[Crossref]

Hayashi, Y.

Y. Minami, Y. Hayashi, J. Takeda, and I. Katayama, “Single-shot measurement of a terahertz electric-field waveform using a reflective echelon mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(5), 051103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hebling, J.

C. Lombosi, G. Polónyi, M. Mechler, Z. Ollmann, J. Hebling, and J. A. Fülöp, “Nonlinear distortion of intense THz beams,” New J. Phys. 17(8), 083041 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. A. Fülöp, Z. Ollmann, C. Lombosi, C. Skrobol, S. Klingebiel, L. Pálfalvi, F. Krausz, S. Karsch, and J. Hebling, “Efficient generation of THz pulses with 0.4 mJ energy,” Opt. Express 22(17), 20155–20163 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. Fülöp, L. Pálfalvi, M. C. Hoffmann, and J. Hebling, “Towards generation of mJ-level ultrashort THz pulses by optical rectification,” Opt. Express 19(16), 15090–15097 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. Fülöp, L. Pálfalvi, G. Almási, and J. Hebling, “Design of high-energy terahertz sources based on optical rectification,” Opt. Express 18(12), 12311–12327 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Hebling, M. C. Hoffmann, H. Y. Hwang, K.-L. Yeh, and K. A. Nelson, “Observation of nonequilibrium carrier distribution in Ge, Si, and GaAs by terahertz pump-terahertz probe measurements,” Phys. Rev. B 81(3), 035201 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. C. Hoffmann, J. Hebling, H. Y. Hwang, K.-L. Yeh, and K. A. Nelson, “Impact ionization in InSb probed by terahertz pump-terahertz probe spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 79(16), 161201 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Hebling, K.-L. Yeh, M. C. Hoffmann, B. Bartal, and K. A. Nelson, “Generation of high-power terahertz pulses by tilted-pulse-front excitation and their application possibilities,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25(7), B6–B19 (2008).
[Crossref]

L. Pálfalvi, J. A. Fülöp, G. Almási, and J. Hebling, “Novel setups for extremely high power single-cycle terahertz pulse generation by optical rectification,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(17), 171107 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. C. Hoffmann, K.-L. Yeh, J. Hebling, and K. A. Nelson, “Efficient terahertz generation by optical rectification at 1035 nm,” Opt. Express 15(18), 11706–11713 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K.-L. Yeh, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Hebling, and K. A. Nelson, “Generation of 10 μJ ultrashort terahertz pulses by optical rectification,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(17), 171121 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. G. Stepanov, J. Hebling, and J. Kuhl, “THz generation via optical rectification with ultrashort laser pulse focused to a line,” Appl. Phys. B 81(1), 23–26 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Hebling, A. Stepanov, G. Almási, B. Bartal, and J. Kuhl, “Tunable THz pulse generation by optical rectification of ultrashort laser pulses with tilted pulse fronts,” Appl. Phys. B 78(5), 593–599 (2004).
[Crossref]

A. G. Stepanov, J. Hebling, and J. Kuhl, “Efficient generation of subpicosecond terahertz radiation by phase-matched optical rectification using ultrashort laser pulses with tilted pulse fronts,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(15), 3000 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Hebling, G. Almási, I. Kozma, and J. Kuhl, “Velocity matching by pulse front tilting for large area THz-pulse generation,” Opt. Express 10(21), 1161–1166 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Hebling, “Derivation of the pulse front tilt caused by angular dispersion,” Opt. Quant. Electron. 28(12), 1759–1763 (1996).
[Crossref]

Hirori, H.

K. Tanaka, H. Hirori, and M. Nagai, “THz nonlinear spectroscopy of solids,” IEEE. Trans. THz Sci. Tech. 1(1), 301–312 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. Hirori, K. Shinokita, M. Shirai, S. Tani, Y. Kadoya, and K. Tanaka, “Extraordinary carrier multiplication gated by a picosecond electric field pulse,” Nat. Commun. 2(May), 594 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Hirori, M. Nagai, and K. Tanaka, “Excitonic interactions with intense terahertz pulses in ZnSe/ZnMgSSe multiple quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 81(8), 081305 (2010).
[Crossref]

K. Shinokita, H. Hirori, M. Nagai, N. Satoh, Y. Kadoya, and K. Tanaka, “Dynamical Franz-Keldysh effect in GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum wells induced by single-cycle terahertz pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(21), 211902 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hoffmann, M. C.

M. C. Hoffmann and J. A. Fülöp, “Intense ultrashort terahertz pulses: generation and applications,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 44(8), 083001 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. A. Fülöp, L. Pálfalvi, M. C. Hoffmann, and J. Hebling, “Towards generation of mJ-level ultrashort THz pulses by optical rectification,” Opt. Express 19(16), 15090–15097 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Hebling, M. C. Hoffmann, H. Y. Hwang, K.-L. Yeh, and K. A. Nelson, “Observation of nonequilibrium carrier distribution in Ge, Si, and GaAs by terahertz pump-terahertz probe measurements,” Phys. Rev. B 81(3), 035201 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. C. Hoffmann, J. Hebling, H. Y. Hwang, K.-L. Yeh, and K. A. Nelson, “Impact ionization in InSb probed by terahertz pump-terahertz probe spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 79(16), 161201 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. C. Hoffmann, N. C. Brandt, H. Y. Hwang, K.-L. Yeh, and K. A. Nelson, “Terahertz Kerr effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(23), 231105 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Hebling, K.-L. Yeh, M. C. Hoffmann, B. Bartal, and K. A. Nelson, “Generation of high-power terahertz pulses by tilted-pulse-front excitation and their application possibilities,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25(7), B6–B19 (2008).
[Crossref]

K.-L. Yeh, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Hebling, and K. A. Nelson, “Generation of 10 μJ ultrashort terahertz pulses by optical rectification,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(17), 171121 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. C. Hoffmann, K.-L. Yeh, J. Hebling, and K. A. Nelson, “Efficient terahertz generation by optical rectification at 1035 nm,” Opt. Express 15(18), 11706–11713 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hong, K.-H.

W. R. Huang, S.-W. Huang, E. Granados, K. Ravi, K.-H. Hong, L. E. Zapata, and F. X. Kärtner, “Highly efficient terahertz pulse generation by optical rectification in stoichiometric and cryo-cooled congruent lithium niobate,” J. Mod. Opt. 62(18), 1–8 (2014).

S.-W. Huang, E. Granados, W. R. Huang, K.-H. Hong, L. E. Zapata, and F. X. Kärtner, “High conversion efficiency, high energy terahertz pulses by optical rectification in cryogenically cooled lithium niobate,” Opt. Lett. 38(5), 796–798 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hornung, T.

K.-L. Yeh, T. Hornung, J. C. Vaughan, and K. A. Nelson, “Terahertz amplification in high-dielectric materials,” in “Ultrafast Phenomena XV Springer Series in Chemical Physics,”, P. Corkum, D. Jonas, R. Miller, and A. M. Weiner, eds. (2007), vol. 88, pp. 802–804.
[Crossref]

Hsu, A. L.

H. Y. Hwang, N. C. Brandt, H. Farhat, A. L. Hsu, J. Kong, and K. A. Nelson, “Nonlinear THz conductivity dynamics in P-type CVD-grown graphene,” J. Phys. Chem. B 117(49), 15819–15824 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, S.-W.

W. R. Huang, S.-W. Huang, E. Granados, K. Ravi, K.-H. Hong, L. E. Zapata, and F. X. Kärtner, “Highly efficient terahertz pulse generation by optical rectification in stoichiometric and cryo-cooled congruent lithium niobate,” J. Mod. Opt. 62(18), 1–8 (2014).

S.-W. Huang, E. Granados, W. R. Huang, K.-H. Hong, L. E. Zapata, and F. X. Kärtner, “High conversion efficiency, high energy terahertz pulses by optical rectification in cryogenically cooled lithium niobate,” Opt. Lett. 38(5), 796–798 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, W. R.

Hwang, H. Y.

H. Y. Hwang, S. Fleischer, N. C. Brandt, B. G. Perkins, M. Liu, K. Fan, A. J. Sternbach, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and K. A. Nelson, “A review of non-linear terahertz spectroscopy with ultrashort tabletop-laser pulses,” J. Mod. Opt. 62(18), 1447–1479 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. Fan, H. Y. Hwang, M. Liu, A. C. Strikwerda, A. J. Sternbach, J. Zhang, X. Zhao, X. Zhang, K. A. Nelson, and R. D. Averitt, “Nonlinear terahertz metamaterials via field-enhanced carrier dynamics in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(21), 217404 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Y. Hwang, N. C. Brandt, H. Farhat, A. L. Hsu, J. Kong, and K. A. Nelson, “Nonlinear THz conductivity dynamics in P-type CVD-grown graphene,” J. Phys. Chem. B 117(49), 15819–15824 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. K. Grady, B. G. Perkins, H. Y. Hwang, N. C. Brandt, D. Torchinsky, R. Singh, L. Yan, D. Trugman, S. A. Trugman, Q. X. Jia, A. J. Taylor, K. A. Nelson, and H.-T. Chen, “Nonlinear high-temperature superconducting terahertz metamaterials,” New J. Phys. 15(10), 105016 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Liu, H. Y. Hwang, H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, G. R. Keiser, A. J. Sternbach, K. G. West, S. Kittiwatanakul, J. Lu, S. A. Wolf, F. G. Omenetto, X. Zhang, K. A. Nelson, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz-field-induced insulator-to-metal transition in vanadium dioxide metamaterial,” Nature 487(7407), 345–348 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Hebling, M. C. Hoffmann, H. Y. Hwang, K.-L. Yeh, and K. A. Nelson, “Observation of nonequilibrium carrier distribution in Ge, Si, and GaAs by terahertz pump-terahertz probe measurements,” Phys. Rev. B 81(3), 035201 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. C. Hoffmann, J. Hebling, H. Y. Hwang, K.-L. Yeh, and K. A. Nelson, “Impact ionization in InSb probed by terahertz pump-terahertz probe spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 79(16), 161201 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. C. Hoffmann, N. C. Brandt, H. Y. Hwang, K.-L. Yeh, and K. A. Nelson, “Terahertz Kerr effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(23), 231105 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ichikawa, Y.

Jahnke, T.

Jewariya, M.

Jia, Q. X.

N. K. Grady, B. G. Perkins, H. Y. Hwang, N. C. Brandt, D. Torchinsky, R. Singh, L. Yan, D. Trugman, S. A. Trugman, Q. X. Jia, A. J. Taylor, K. A. Nelson, and H.-T. Chen, “Nonlinear high-temperature superconducting terahertz metamaterials,” New J. Phys. 15(10), 105016 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kadoya, Y.

H. Hirori, K. Shinokita, M. Shirai, S. Tani, Y. Kadoya, and K. Tanaka, “Extraordinary carrier multiplication gated by a picosecond electric field pulse,” Nat. Commun. 2(May), 594 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Shinokita, H. Hirori, M. Nagai, N. Satoh, Y. Kadoya, and K. Tanaka, “Dynamical Franz-Keldysh effect in GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum wells induced by single-cycle terahertz pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(21), 211902 (2010).
[Crossref]

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Kärtner, F. X.

Katayama, I.

Y. Minami, Y. Hayashi, J. Takeda, and I. Katayama, “Single-shot measurement of a terahertz electric-field waveform using a reflective echelon mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(5), 051103 (2013).
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M. Liu, H. Y. Hwang, H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, G. R. Keiser, A. J. Sternbach, K. G. West, S. Kittiwatanakul, J. Lu, S. A. Wolf, F. G. Omenetto, X. Zhang, K. A. Nelson, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz-field-induced insulator-to-metal transition in vanadium dioxide metamaterial,” Nature 487(7407), 345–348 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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M. Liu, H. Y. Hwang, H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, G. R. Keiser, A. J. Sternbach, K. G. West, S. Kittiwatanakul, J. Lu, S. A. Wolf, F. G. Omenetto, X. Zhang, K. A. Nelson, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz-field-induced insulator-to-metal transition in vanadium dioxide metamaterial,” Nature 487(7407), 345–348 (2012).
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[Crossref]

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Koehl, R. M.

R. M. Koehl and K. A. Nelson, “Coherent optical control over collective vibrations traveling at lightlike speeds,” J. Chem. Phys. 114(4), 1443–1446 (2001).
[Crossref]

R. M. Koehl and K. A. Nelson, “Terahertz polaritonics: Automated spatiotemporal control over propagating lattice waves,” Chem. Phys. 267(1–3), 151–159 (2001).
[Crossref]

Kompanets, V. O.

A. G. Stepanov, A. A. Mel’nikov, V. O. Kompanets, and S. V. Chekalin, “Spectral modification of femtosecond laser pulses in the process of highly efficient generation of terahertz radiation via optical rectification,” JETP Lett. 85(5), 227–230 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kong, J.

H. Y. Hwang, N. C. Brandt, H. Farhat, A. L. Hsu, J. Kong, and K. A. Nelson, “Nonlinear THz conductivity dynamics in P-type CVD-grown graphene,” J. Phys. Chem. B 117(49), 15819–15824 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kozma, I.

Krausz, F.

Kuhl, J.

A. G. Stepanov, J. Hebling, and J. Kuhl, “THz generation via optical rectification with ultrashort laser pulse focused to a line,” Appl. Phys. B 81(1), 23–26 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Hebling, A. Stepanov, G. Almási, B. Bartal, and J. Kuhl, “Tunable THz pulse generation by optical rectification of ultrashort laser pulses with tilted pulse fronts,” Appl. Phys. B 78(5), 593–599 (2004).
[Crossref]

A. G. Stepanov, J. Hebling, and J. Kuhl, “Efficient generation of subpicosecond terahertz radiation by phase-matched optical rectification using ultrashort laser pulses with tilted pulse fronts,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(15), 3000 (2003).
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J. Hebling, G. Almási, I. Kozma, and J. Kuhl, “Velocity matching by pulse front tilting for large area THz-pulse generation,” Opt. Express 10(21), 1161–1166 (2002).
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H. Y. Hwang, S. Fleischer, N. C. Brandt, B. G. Perkins, M. Liu, K. Fan, A. J. Sternbach, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and K. A. Nelson, “A review of non-linear terahertz spectroscopy with ultrashort tabletop-laser pulses,” J. Mod. Opt. 62(18), 1447–1479 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. Fan, H. Y. Hwang, M. Liu, A. C. Strikwerda, A. J. Sternbach, J. Zhang, X. Zhao, X. Zhang, K. A. Nelson, and R. D. Averitt, “Nonlinear terahertz metamaterials via field-enhanced carrier dynamics in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(21), 217404 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Liu, H. Y. Hwang, H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, G. R. Keiser, A. J. Sternbach, K. G. West, S. Kittiwatanakul, J. Lu, S. A. Wolf, F. G. Omenetto, X. Zhang, K. A. Nelson, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz-field-induced insulator-to-metal transition in vanadium dioxide metamaterial,” Nature 487(7407), 345–348 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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M. Liu, H. Y. Hwang, H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, G. R. Keiser, A. J. Sternbach, K. G. West, S. Kittiwatanakul, J. Lu, S. A. Wolf, F. G. Omenetto, X. Zhang, K. A. Nelson, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz-field-induced insulator-to-metal transition in vanadium dioxide metamaterial,” Nature 487(7407), 345–348 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Malkov, Y. A.

S. B. Bodrov, A. A. Murzanev, Y. A. Sergeev, Y. A. Malkov, and A. N. Stepanov, “Terahertz generation by tilted-front laser pulses in weakly and strongly nonlinear regimes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(25), 251103 (2013).
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C. Lombosi, G. Polónyi, M. Mechler, Z. Ollmann, J. Hebling, and J. A. Fülöp, “Nonlinear distortion of intense THz beams,” New J. Phys. 17(8), 083041 (2015).
[Crossref]

Mel’nikov, A. A.

A. G. Stepanov, A. A. Mel’nikov, V. O. Kompanets, and S. V. Chekalin, “Spectral modification of femtosecond laser pulses in the process of highly efficient generation of terahertz radiation via optical rectification,” JETP Lett. 85(5), 227–230 (2007).
[Crossref]

Minami, Y.

Y. Minami, Y. Hayashi, J. Takeda, and I. Katayama, “Single-shot measurement of a terahertz electric-field waveform using a reflective echelon mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(5), 051103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Morandotti, R.

Mücke, O. D.

Murzanev, A. A.

S. B. Bodrov, A. A. Murzanev, Y. A. Sergeev, Y. A. Malkov, and A. N. Stepanov, “Terahertz generation by tilted-front laser pulses in weakly and strongly nonlinear regimes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(25), 251103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nagai, M.

M. Nagai, E. Matsubara, and M. Ashida, “High-efficiency terahertz pulse generation via optical rectification by suppressing stimulated Raman scattering process,” Opt. Express 20(6), 6509–6514 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Tanaka, H. Hirori, and M. Nagai, “THz nonlinear spectroscopy of solids,” IEEE. Trans. THz Sci. Tech. 1(1), 301–312 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. Hirori, M. Nagai, and K. Tanaka, “Excitonic interactions with intense terahertz pulses in ZnSe/ZnMgSSe multiple quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 81(8), 081305 (2010).
[Crossref]

K. Shinokita, H. Hirori, M. Nagai, N. Satoh, Y. Kadoya, and K. Tanaka, “Dynamical Franz-Keldysh effect in GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum wells induced by single-cycle terahertz pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(21), 211902 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Jewariya, M. Nagai, and K. Tanaka, “Ladder climbing on the anharmonic intermolecular potential in an amino acid microcrystal via an intense monocycle terahertz pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(20), 203003 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Nagai, M. Jewariya, Y. Ichikawa, H. Ohtake, T. Sugiura, Y. Uehara, and K. Tanaka, “Broadband and high power terahertz pulse generation beyond excitation bandwidth limitation via χ2 cascaded processes in LiNbO3,” Opt. Express 17(14), 11543–11549 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Jewariya, M. Nagai, and K. Tanaka, “Enhancement of terahertz wave generation by cascaded χ2 processes in LiNbO3,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26(9), A101–A106 (2009).
[Crossref]

Nagashima, K.

Nelson, K. A.

H. Y. Hwang, S. Fleischer, N. C. Brandt, B. G. Perkins, M. Liu, K. Fan, A. J. Sternbach, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and K. A. Nelson, “A review of non-linear terahertz spectroscopy with ultrashort tabletop-laser pulses,” J. Mod. Opt. 62(18), 1447–1479 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. Fan, H. Y. Hwang, M. Liu, A. C. Strikwerda, A. J. Sternbach, J. Zhang, X. Zhao, X. Zhang, K. A. Nelson, and R. D. Averitt, “Nonlinear terahertz metamaterials via field-enhanced carrier dynamics in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(21), 217404 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Y. Hwang, N. C. Brandt, H. Farhat, A. L. Hsu, J. Kong, and K. A. Nelson, “Nonlinear THz conductivity dynamics in P-type CVD-grown graphene,” J. Phys. Chem. B 117(49), 15819–15824 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. K. Grady, B. G. Perkins, H. Y. Hwang, N. C. Brandt, D. Torchinsky, R. Singh, L. Yan, D. Trugman, S. A. Trugman, Q. X. Jia, A. J. Taylor, K. A. Nelson, and H.-T. Chen, “Nonlinear high-temperature superconducting terahertz metamaterials,” New J. Phys. 15(10), 105016 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Liu, H. Y. Hwang, H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, G. R. Keiser, A. J. Sternbach, K. G. West, S. Kittiwatanakul, J. Lu, S. A. Wolf, F. G. Omenetto, X. Zhang, K. A. Nelson, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz-field-induced insulator-to-metal transition in vanadium dioxide metamaterial,” Nature 487(7407), 345–348 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Fleischer, R. W. Field, and K. A. Nelson, “Commensurate two-quantum coherences induced by time-delayed THz fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(12), 123603 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Fleischer, Y. Zhou, R. W. Field, and K. A. Nelson, “Molecular orientation and alignment by intense single-cycle THz pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(16), 163603 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. A. Werley, S. M. Teo, and K. A. Nelson, “Pulsed laser noise analysis and pump-probe signal detection with a data acquisition card,” Rev. Sci. Instr. 82(12), 123108 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Hebling, M. C. Hoffmann, H. Y. Hwang, K.-L. Yeh, and K. A. Nelson, “Observation of nonequilibrium carrier distribution in Ge, Si, and GaAs by terahertz pump-terahertz probe measurements,” Phys. Rev. B 81(3), 035201 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. C. Hoffmann, N. C. Brandt, H. Y. Hwang, K.-L. Yeh, and K. A. Nelson, “Terahertz Kerr effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(23), 231105 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. C. Hoffmann, J. Hebling, H. Y. Hwang, K.-L. Yeh, and K. A. Nelson, “Impact ionization in InSb probed by terahertz pump-terahertz probe spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 79(16), 161201 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Hebling, K.-L. Yeh, M. C. Hoffmann, B. Bartal, and K. A. Nelson, “Generation of high-power terahertz pulses by tilted-pulse-front excitation and their application possibilities,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25(7), B6–B19 (2008).
[Crossref]

K.-L. Yeh, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Hebling, and K. A. Nelson, “Generation of 10 μJ ultrashort terahertz pulses by optical rectification,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(17), 171121 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. C. Hoffmann, K.-L. Yeh, J. Hebling, and K. A. Nelson, “Efficient terahertz generation by optical rectification at 1035 nm,” Opt. Express 15(18), 11706–11713 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Feurer, N. S. Stoyanov, D. W. Ward, J. C. Vaughan, E. R. Statz, and K. A. Nelson, “Terahertz polaritonics,” Annu. Rev. Mat. Res. 37(1), 317–350 (2007).
[Crossref]

T. Feurer, J. C. Vaughan, and K. A. Nelson, “Spatiotemporal coherent control of lattice vibrational waves,” Science 299(5605), 374–377 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. M. Koehl and K. A. Nelson, “Terahertz polaritonics: Automated spatiotemporal control over propagating lattice waves,” Chem. Phys. 267(1–3), 151–159 (2001).
[Crossref]

R. M. Koehl and K. A. Nelson, “Coherent optical control over collective vibrations traveling at lightlike speeds,” J. Chem. Phys. 114(4), 1443–1446 (2001).
[Crossref]

K.-L. Yeh, T. Hornung, J. C. Vaughan, and K. A. Nelson, “Terahertz amplification in high-dielectric materials,” in “Ultrafast Phenomena XV Springer Series in Chemical Physics,”, P. Corkum, D. Jonas, R. Miller, and A. M. Weiner, eds. (2007), vol. 88, pp. 802–804.
[Crossref]

Ochi, Y.

Ohtake, H.

Ollmann, Z.

Omenetto, F. G.

M. Liu, H. Y. Hwang, H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, G. R. Keiser, A. J. Sternbach, K. G. West, S. Kittiwatanakul, J. Lu, S. A. Wolf, F. G. Omenetto, X. Zhang, K. A. Nelson, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz-field-induced insulator-to-metal transition in vanadium dioxide metamaterial,” Nature 487(7407), 345–348 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ozaki, T.

Pálfalvi, L.

Perkins, B. G.

H. Y. Hwang, S. Fleischer, N. C. Brandt, B. G. Perkins, M. Liu, K. Fan, A. J. Sternbach, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and K. A. Nelson, “A review of non-linear terahertz spectroscopy with ultrashort tabletop-laser pulses,” J. Mod. Opt. 62(18), 1447–1479 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. K. Grady, B. G. Perkins, H. Y. Hwang, N. C. Brandt, D. Torchinsky, R. Singh, L. Yan, D. Trugman, S. A. Trugman, Q. X. Jia, A. J. Taylor, K. A. Nelson, and H.-T. Chen, “Nonlinear high-temperature superconducting terahertz metamaterials,” New J. Phys. 15(10), 105016 (2013).
[Crossref]

Polónyi, G.

C. Lombosi, G. Polónyi, M. Mechler, Z. Ollmann, J. Hebling, and J. A. Fülöp, “Nonlinear distortion of intense THz beams,” New J. Phys. 17(8), 083041 (2015).
[Crossref]

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Satoh, N.

K. Shinokita, H. Hirori, M. Nagai, N. Satoh, Y. Kadoya, and K. Tanaka, “Dynamical Franz-Keldysh effect in GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum wells induced by single-cycle terahertz pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(21), 211902 (2010).
[Crossref]

Schmidt-Böcking, H.

Schöffler, M.

Sergeev, Y. A.

S. B. Bodrov, A. A. Murzanev, Y. A. Sergeev, Y. A. Malkov, and A. N. Stepanov, “Terahertz generation by tilted-front laser pulses in weakly and strongly nonlinear regimes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(25), 251103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Shinokita, K.

H. Hirori, K. Shinokita, M. Shirai, S. Tani, Y. Kadoya, and K. Tanaka, “Extraordinary carrier multiplication gated by a picosecond electric field pulse,” Nat. Commun. 2(May), 594 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Shinokita, H. Hirori, M. Nagai, N. Satoh, Y. Kadoya, and K. Tanaka, “Dynamical Franz-Keldysh effect in GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum wells induced by single-cycle terahertz pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(21), 211902 (2010).
[Crossref]

Shirai, M.

H. Hirori, K. Shinokita, M. Shirai, S. Tani, Y. Kadoya, and K. Tanaka, “Extraordinary carrier multiplication gated by a picosecond electric field pulse,” Nat. Commun. 2(May), 594 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Singh, R.

N. K. Grady, B. G. Perkins, H. Y. Hwang, N. C. Brandt, D. Torchinsky, R. Singh, L. Yan, D. Trugman, S. A. Trugman, Q. X. Jia, A. J. Taylor, K. A. Nelson, and H.-T. Chen, “Nonlinear high-temperature superconducting terahertz metamaterials,” New J. Phys. 15(10), 105016 (2013).
[Crossref]

Skrobol, C.

Statz, E. R.

T. Feurer, N. S. Stoyanov, D. W. Ward, J. C. Vaughan, E. R. Statz, and K. A. Nelson, “Terahertz polaritonics,” Annu. Rev. Mat. Res. 37(1), 317–350 (2007).
[Crossref]

Stepanov, A.

J. Hebling, A. Stepanov, G. Almási, B. Bartal, and J. Kuhl, “Tunable THz pulse generation by optical rectification of ultrashort laser pulses with tilted pulse fronts,” Appl. Phys. B 78(5), 593–599 (2004).
[Crossref]

Stepanov, A. G.

A. G. Stepanov, L. Bonacina, S. V. Chekalin, and J.-P. Wolf, “Generation of 30 μJ single-cycle terahertz pulses at 100 Hz repetition rate by optical rectification,” Opt. Lett. 33(21), 2497–2499 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. G. Stepanov, A. A. Mel’nikov, V. O. Kompanets, and S. V. Chekalin, “Spectral modification of femtosecond laser pulses in the process of highly efficient generation of terahertz radiation via optical rectification,” JETP Lett. 85(5), 227–230 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. G. Stepanov, J. Hebling, and J. Kuhl, “THz generation via optical rectification with ultrashort laser pulse focused to a line,” Appl. Phys. B 81(1), 23–26 (2005).
[Crossref]

A. G. Stepanov, J. Hebling, and J. Kuhl, “Efficient generation of subpicosecond terahertz radiation by phase-matched optical rectification using ultrashort laser pulses with tilted pulse fronts,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(15), 3000 (2003).
[Crossref]

Stepanov, A. N.

S. B. Bodrov, A. A. Murzanev, Y. A. Sergeev, Y. A. Malkov, and A. N. Stepanov, “Terahertz generation by tilted-front laser pulses in weakly and strongly nonlinear regimes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(25), 251103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sternbach, A. J.

H. Y. Hwang, S. Fleischer, N. C. Brandt, B. G. Perkins, M. Liu, K. Fan, A. J. Sternbach, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and K. A. Nelson, “A review of non-linear terahertz spectroscopy with ultrashort tabletop-laser pulses,” J. Mod. Opt. 62(18), 1447–1479 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. Fan, H. Y. Hwang, M. Liu, A. C. Strikwerda, A. J. Sternbach, J. Zhang, X. Zhao, X. Zhang, K. A. Nelson, and R. D. Averitt, “Nonlinear terahertz metamaterials via field-enhanced carrier dynamics in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(21), 217404 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Liu, H. Y. Hwang, H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, G. R. Keiser, A. J. Sternbach, K. G. West, S. Kittiwatanakul, J. Lu, S. A. Wolf, F. G. Omenetto, X. Zhang, K. A. Nelson, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz-field-induced insulator-to-metal transition in vanadium dioxide metamaterial,” Nature 487(7407), 345–348 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stoyanov, N. S.

T. Feurer, N. S. Stoyanov, D. W. Ward, J. C. Vaughan, E. R. Statz, and K. A. Nelson, “Terahertz polaritonics,” Annu. Rev. Mat. Res. 37(1), 317–350 (2007).
[Crossref]

Strikwerda, A. C.

K. Fan, H. Y. Hwang, M. Liu, A. C. Strikwerda, A. J. Sternbach, J. Zhang, X. Zhao, X. Zhang, K. A. Nelson, and R. D. Averitt, “Nonlinear terahertz metamaterials via field-enhanced carrier dynamics in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(21), 217404 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Liu, H. Y. Hwang, H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, G. R. Keiser, A. J. Sternbach, K. G. West, S. Kittiwatanakul, J. Lu, S. A. Wolf, F. G. Omenetto, X. Zhang, K. A. Nelson, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz-field-induced insulator-to-metal transition in vanadium dioxide metamaterial,” Nature 487(7407), 345–348 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sugiura, T.

Takeda, J.

Y. Minami, Y. Hayashi, J. Takeda, and I. Katayama, “Single-shot measurement of a terahertz electric-field waveform using a reflective echelon mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(5), 051103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tanaka, K.

H. Hirori, K. Shinokita, M. Shirai, S. Tani, Y. Kadoya, and K. Tanaka, “Extraordinary carrier multiplication gated by a picosecond electric field pulse,” Nat. Commun. 2(May), 594 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Tanaka, H. Hirori, and M. Nagai, “THz nonlinear spectroscopy of solids,” IEEE. Trans. THz Sci. Tech. 1(1), 301–312 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. Hirori, M. Nagai, and K. Tanaka, “Excitonic interactions with intense terahertz pulses in ZnSe/ZnMgSSe multiple quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 81(8), 081305 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Jewariya, M. Nagai, and K. Tanaka, “Ladder climbing on the anharmonic intermolecular potential in an amino acid microcrystal via an intense monocycle terahertz pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(20), 203003 (2010).
[Crossref]

K. Shinokita, H. Hirori, M. Nagai, N. Satoh, Y. Kadoya, and K. Tanaka, “Dynamical Franz-Keldysh effect in GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum wells induced by single-cycle terahertz pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(21), 211902 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Nagai, M. Jewariya, Y. Ichikawa, H. Ohtake, T. Sugiura, Y. Uehara, and K. Tanaka, “Broadband and high power terahertz pulse generation beyond excitation bandwidth limitation via χ2 cascaded processes in LiNbO3,” Opt. Express 17(14), 11543–11549 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Jewariya, M. Nagai, and K. Tanaka, “Enhancement of terahertz wave generation by cascaded χ2 processes in LiNbO3,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26(9), A101–A106 (2009).
[Crossref]

Tani, S.

H. Hirori, K. Shinokita, M. Shirai, S. Tani, Y. Kadoya, and K. Tanaka, “Extraordinary carrier multiplication gated by a picosecond electric field pulse,” Nat. Commun. 2(May), 594 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tao, H.

M. Liu, H. Y. Hwang, H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, G. R. Keiser, A. J. Sternbach, K. G. West, S. Kittiwatanakul, J. Lu, S. A. Wolf, F. G. Omenetto, X. Zhang, K. A. Nelson, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz-field-induced insulator-to-metal transition in vanadium dioxide metamaterial,” Nature 487(7407), 345–348 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Taylor, A. J.

N. K. Grady, B. G. Perkins, H. Y. Hwang, N. C. Brandt, D. Torchinsky, R. Singh, L. Yan, D. Trugman, S. A. Trugman, Q. X. Jia, A. J. Taylor, K. A. Nelson, and H.-T. Chen, “Nonlinear high-temperature superconducting terahertz metamaterials,” New J. Phys. 15(10), 105016 (2013).
[Crossref]

Teo, S. M.

C. A. Werley, S. M. Teo, and K. A. Nelson, “Pulsed laser noise analysis and pump-probe signal detection with a data acquisition card,” Rev. Sci. Instr. 82(12), 123108 (2011).
[Crossref]

Thomson, M. D.

Torchinsky, D.

N. K. Grady, B. G. Perkins, H. Y. Hwang, N. C. Brandt, D. Torchinsky, R. Singh, L. Yan, D. Trugman, S. A. Trugman, Q. X. Jia, A. J. Taylor, K. A. Nelson, and H.-T. Chen, “Nonlinear high-temperature superconducting terahertz metamaterials,” New J. Phys. 15(10), 105016 (2013).
[Crossref]

Trugman, D.

N. K. Grady, B. G. Perkins, H. Y. Hwang, N. C. Brandt, D. Torchinsky, R. Singh, L. Yan, D. Trugman, S. A. Trugman, Q. X. Jia, A. J. Taylor, K. A. Nelson, and H.-T. Chen, “Nonlinear high-temperature superconducting terahertz metamaterials,” New J. Phys. 15(10), 105016 (2013).
[Crossref]

Trugman, S. A.

N. K. Grady, B. G. Perkins, H. Y. Hwang, N. C. Brandt, D. Torchinsky, R. Singh, L. Yan, D. Trugman, S. A. Trugman, Q. X. Jia, A. J. Taylor, K. A. Nelson, and H.-T. Chen, “Nonlinear high-temperature superconducting terahertz metamaterials,” New J. Phys. 15(10), 105016 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tsubouchi, M.

Uehara, Y.

Valdmanis, J.

D. H. Auston, K. Cheung, J. Valdmanis, and D. A. Kleinman, “Cherenkov radiation from femtosecond optical pulses in electro-optic media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 53(16), 1555–1558 (1984).
[Crossref]

van der Meer, A. F. G.

A. F. G. van der Meer, “FELs, nice toys or efficient tools?” Nucl. Instr. Meth. Phys. Res. A 528(1–2), 8–14 (2004).
[Crossref]

Vaughan, J. C.

T. Feurer, N. S. Stoyanov, D. W. Ward, J. C. Vaughan, E. R. Statz, and K. A. Nelson, “Terahertz polaritonics,” Annu. Rev. Mat. Res. 37(1), 317–350 (2007).
[Crossref]

T. Feurer, J. C. Vaughan, and K. A. Nelson, “Spatiotemporal coherent control of lattice vibrational waves,” Science 299(5605), 374–377 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K.-L. Yeh, T. Hornung, J. C. Vaughan, and K. A. Nelson, “Terahertz amplification in high-dielectric materials,” in “Ultrafast Phenomena XV Springer Series in Chemical Physics,”, P. Corkum, D. Jonas, R. Miller, and A. M. Weiner, eds. (2007), vol. 88, pp. 802–804.
[Crossref]

Vredenborg, A.

Ward, D. W.

T. Feurer, N. S. Stoyanov, D. W. Ward, J. C. Vaughan, E. R. Statz, and K. A. Nelson, “Terahertz polaritonics,” Annu. Rev. Mat. Res. 37(1), 317–350 (2007).
[Crossref]

Werley, C. A.

C. A. Werley, S. M. Teo, and K. A. Nelson, “Pulsed laser noise analysis and pump-probe signal detection with a data acquisition card,” Rev. Sci. Instr. 82(12), 123108 (2011).
[Crossref]

West, K. G.

M. Liu, H. Y. Hwang, H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, G. R. Keiser, A. J. Sternbach, K. G. West, S. Kittiwatanakul, J. Lu, S. A. Wolf, F. G. Omenetto, X. Zhang, K. A. Nelson, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz-field-induced insulator-to-metal transition in vanadium dioxide metamaterial,” Nature 487(7407), 345–348 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Williams, B. S.

B. S. Williams, “Terahertz quantum-cascade lasers,” Nature Photon. 1(9), 517–525 (2007).
[Crossref]

Wolf, J.-P.

Wolf, S. A.

M. Liu, H. Y. Hwang, H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, G. R. Keiser, A. J. Sternbach, K. G. West, S. Kittiwatanakul, J. Lu, S. A. Wolf, F. G. Omenetto, X. Zhang, K. A. Nelson, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz-field-induced insulator-to-metal transition in vanadium dioxide metamaterial,” Nature 487(7407), 345–348 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, J.

Wu, X.

Yan, L.

N. K. Grady, B. G. Perkins, H. Y. Hwang, N. C. Brandt, D. Torchinsky, R. Singh, L. Yan, D. Trugman, S. A. Trugman, Q. X. Jia, A. J. Taylor, K. A. Nelson, and H.-T. Chen, “Nonlinear high-temperature superconducting terahertz metamaterials,” New J. Phys. 15(10), 105016 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yeh, K.-L.

J. Hebling, M. C. Hoffmann, H. Y. Hwang, K.-L. Yeh, and K. A. Nelson, “Observation of nonequilibrium carrier distribution in Ge, Si, and GaAs by terahertz pump-terahertz probe measurements,” Phys. Rev. B 81(3), 035201 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. C. Hoffmann, J. Hebling, H. Y. Hwang, K.-L. Yeh, and K. A. Nelson, “Impact ionization in InSb probed by terahertz pump-terahertz probe spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 79(16), 161201 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. C. Hoffmann, N. C. Brandt, H. Y. Hwang, K.-L. Yeh, and K. A. Nelson, “Terahertz Kerr effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(23), 231105 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Hebling, K.-L. Yeh, M. C. Hoffmann, B. Bartal, and K. A. Nelson, “Generation of high-power terahertz pulses by tilted-pulse-front excitation and their application possibilities,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25(7), B6–B19 (2008).
[Crossref]

K.-L. Yeh, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Hebling, and K. A. Nelson, “Generation of 10 μJ ultrashort terahertz pulses by optical rectification,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(17), 171121 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. C. Hoffmann, K.-L. Yeh, J. Hebling, and K. A. Nelson, “Efficient terahertz generation by optical rectification at 1035 nm,” Opt. Express 15(18), 11706–11713 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K.-L. Yeh, T. Hornung, J. C. Vaughan, and K. A. Nelson, “Terahertz amplification in high-dielectric materials,” in “Ultrafast Phenomena XV Springer Series in Chemical Physics,”, P. Corkum, D. Jonas, R. Miller, and A. M. Weiner, eds. (2007), vol. 88, pp. 802–804.
[Crossref]

Yoshida, F.

Zapata, L. E.

W. R. Huang, S.-W. Huang, E. Granados, K. Ravi, K.-H. Hong, L. E. Zapata, and F. X. Kärtner, “Highly efficient terahertz pulse generation by optical rectification in stoichiometric and cryo-cooled congruent lithium niobate,” J. Mod. Opt. 62(18), 1–8 (2014).

S.-W. Huang, E. Granados, W. R. Huang, K.-H. Hong, L. E. Zapata, and F. X. Kärtner, “High conversion efficiency, high energy terahertz pulses by optical rectification in cryogenically cooled lithium niobate,” Opt. Lett. 38(5), 796–798 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, J.

K. Fan, H. Y. Hwang, M. Liu, A. C. Strikwerda, A. J. Sternbach, J. Zhang, X. Zhao, X. Zhang, K. A. Nelson, and R. D. Averitt, “Nonlinear terahertz metamaterials via field-enhanced carrier dynamics in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(21), 217404 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

H. Y. Hwang, S. Fleischer, N. C. Brandt, B. G. Perkins, M. Liu, K. Fan, A. J. Sternbach, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and K. A. Nelson, “A review of non-linear terahertz spectroscopy with ultrashort tabletop-laser pulses,” J. Mod. Opt. 62(18), 1447–1479 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. Fan, H. Y. Hwang, M. Liu, A. C. Strikwerda, A. J. Sternbach, J. Zhang, X. Zhao, X. Zhang, K. A. Nelson, and R. D. Averitt, “Nonlinear terahertz metamaterials via field-enhanced carrier dynamics in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(21), 217404 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Liu, H. Y. Hwang, H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, G. R. Keiser, A. J. Sternbach, K. G. West, S. Kittiwatanakul, J. Lu, S. A. Wolf, F. G. Omenetto, X. Zhang, K. A. Nelson, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz-field-induced insulator-to-metal transition in vanadium dioxide metamaterial,” Nature 487(7407), 345–348 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, X.

K. Fan, H. Y. Hwang, M. Liu, A. C. Strikwerda, A. J. Sternbach, J. Zhang, X. Zhao, X. Zhang, K. A. Nelson, and R. D. Averitt, “Nonlinear terahertz metamaterials via field-enhanced carrier dynamics in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(21), 217404 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, Y.

X. Wu, S. Carbajo, K. Ravi, F. Ahr, G. Cirmi, Y. Zhou, O. D. Mücke, and F. X. Kärtner, “Terahertz generation in lithium niobate driven by Ti:sapphire laser pulses and its limitations,” Opt. Lett. 39(18), 5403–5406 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Fleischer, Y. Zhou, R. W. Field, and K. A. Nelson, “Molecular orientation and alignment by intense single-cycle THz pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(16), 163603 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Annu. Rev. Mat. Res. (1)

T. Feurer, N. S. Stoyanov, D. W. Ward, J. C. Vaughan, E. R. Statz, and K. A. Nelson, “Terahertz polaritonics,” Annu. Rev. Mat. Res. 37(1), 317–350 (2007).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (2)

A. G. Stepanov, J. Hebling, and J. Kuhl, “THz generation via optical rectification with ultrashort laser pulse focused to a line,” Appl. Phys. B 81(1), 23–26 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Hebling, A. Stepanov, G. Almási, B. Bartal, and J. Kuhl, “Tunable THz pulse generation by optical rectification of ultrashort laser pulses with tilted pulse fronts,” Appl. Phys. B 78(5), 593–599 (2004).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (7)

Y. Minami, Y. Hayashi, J. Takeda, and I. Katayama, “Single-shot measurement of a terahertz electric-field waveform using a reflective echelon mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(5), 051103 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Pálfalvi, J. A. Fülöp, G. Almási, and J. Hebling, “Novel setups for extremely high power single-cycle terahertz pulse generation by optical rectification,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(17), 171107 (2008).
[Crossref]

K. Shinokita, H. Hirori, M. Nagai, N. Satoh, Y. Kadoya, and K. Tanaka, “Dynamical Franz-Keldysh effect in GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum wells induced by single-cycle terahertz pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(21), 211902 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. C. Hoffmann, N. C. Brandt, H. Y. Hwang, K.-L. Yeh, and K. A. Nelson, “Terahertz Kerr effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(23), 231105 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. G. Stepanov, J. Hebling, and J. Kuhl, “Efficient generation of subpicosecond terahertz radiation by phase-matched optical rectification using ultrashort laser pulses with tilted pulse fronts,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(15), 3000 (2003).
[Crossref]

K.-L. Yeh, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Hebling, and K. A. Nelson, “Generation of 10 μJ ultrashort terahertz pulses by optical rectification,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(17), 171121 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. B. Bodrov, A. A. Murzanev, Y. A. Sergeev, Y. A. Malkov, and A. N. Stepanov, “Terahertz generation by tilted-front laser pulses in weakly and strongly nonlinear regimes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(25), 251103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chem. Phys. (1)

R. M. Koehl and K. A. Nelson, “Terahertz polaritonics: Automated spatiotemporal control over propagating lattice waves,” Chem. Phys. 267(1–3), 151–159 (2001).
[Crossref]

IEEE. Trans. THz Sci. Tech. (1)

K. Tanaka, H. Hirori, and M. Nagai, “THz nonlinear spectroscopy of solids,” IEEE. Trans. THz Sci. Tech. 1(1), 301–312 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

R. M. Koehl and K. A. Nelson, “Coherent optical control over collective vibrations traveling at lightlike speeds,” J. Chem. Phys. 114(4), 1443–1446 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. Mod. Opt. (2)

H. Y. Hwang, S. Fleischer, N. C. Brandt, B. G. Perkins, M. Liu, K. Fan, A. J. Sternbach, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and K. A. Nelson, “A review of non-linear terahertz spectroscopy with ultrashort tabletop-laser pulses,” J. Mod. Opt. 62(18), 1447–1479 (2014).
[Crossref]

W. R. Huang, S.-W. Huang, E. Granados, K. Ravi, K.-H. Hong, L. E. Zapata, and F. X. Kärtner, “Highly efficient terahertz pulse generation by optical rectification in stoichiometric and cryo-cooled congruent lithium niobate,” J. Mod. Opt. 62(18), 1–8 (2014).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

J. Phys. Chem. B (1)

H. Y. Hwang, N. C. Brandt, H. Farhat, A. L. Hsu, J. Kong, and K. A. Nelson, “Nonlinear THz conductivity dynamics in P-type CVD-grown graphene,” J. Phys. Chem. B 117(49), 15819–15824 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. (1)

M. C. Hoffmann and J. A. Fülöp, “Intense ultrashort terahertz pulses: generation and applications,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 44(8), 083001 (2011).
[Crossref]

JETP Lett. (1)

A. G. Stepanov, A. A. Mel’nikov, V. O. Kompanets, and S. V. Chekalin, “Spectral modification of femtosecond laser pulses in the process of highly efficient generation of terahertz radiation via optical rectification,” JETP Lett. 85(5), 227–230 (2007).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (1)

H. Hirori, K. Shinokita, M. Shirai, S. Tani, Y. Kadoya, and K. Tanaka, “Extraordinary carrier multiplication gated by a picosecond electric field pulse,” Nat. Commun. 2(May), 594 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nature (1)

M. Liu, H. Y. Hwang, H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, G. R. Keiser, A. J. Sternbach, K. G. West, S. Kittiwatanakul, J. Lu, S. A. Wolf, F. G. Omenetto, X. Zhang, K. A. Nelson, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz-field-induced insulator-to-metal transition in vanadium dioxide metamaterial,” Nature 487(7407), 345–348 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nature Photon. (1)

B. S. Williams, “Terahertz quantum-cascade lasers,” Nature Photon. 1(9), 517–525 (2007).
[Crossref]

New J. Phys. (2)

N. K. Grady, B. G. Perkins, H. Y. Hwang, N. C. Brandt, D. Torchinsky, R. Singh, L. Yan, D. Trugman, S. A. Trugman, Q. X. Jia, A. J. Taylor, K. A. Nelson, and H.-T. Chen, “Nonlinear high-temperature superconducting terahertz metamaterials,” New J. Phys. 15(10), 105016 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Lombosi, G. Polónyi, M. Mechler, Z. Ollmann, J. Hebling, and J. A. Fülöp, “Nonlinear distortion of intense THz beams,” New J. Phys. 17(8), 083041 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nucl. Instr. Meth. Phys. Res. A (1)

A. F. G. van der Meer, “FELs, nice toys or efficient tools?” Nucl. Instr. Meth. Phys. Res. A 528(1–2), 8–14 (2004).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

O. E. Martinez, “Pulse distortions in tilted pulse schemes for ultrashort pulses,” Opt. Commun. 59(3), 229–232 (1986).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (9)

J. A. Fülöp, Z. Ollmann, C. Lombosi, C. Skrobol, S. Klingebiel, L. Pálfalvi, F. Krausz, S. Karsch, and J. Hebling, “Efficient generation of THz pulses with 0.4 mJ energy,” Opt. Express 22(17), 20155–20163 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. C. Hoffmann, K.-L. Yeh, J. Hebling, and K. A. Nelson, “Efficient terahertz generation by optical rectification at 1035 nm,” Opt. Express 15(18), 11706–11713 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Nagai, E. Matsubara, and M. Ashida, “High-efficiency terahertz pulse generation via optical rectification by suppressing stimulated Raman scattering process,” Opt. Express 20(6), 6509–6514 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Hebling, G. Almási, I. Kozma, and J. Kuhl, “Velocity matching by pulse front tilting for large area THz-pulse generation,” Opt. Express 10(21), 1161–1166 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. Fülöp, L. Pálfalvi, G. Almási, and J. Hebling, “Design of high-energy terahertz sources based on optical rectification,” Opt. Express 18(12), 12311–12327 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. Fülöp, L. Pálfalvi, M. C. Hoffmann, and J. Hebling, “Towards generation of mJ-level ultrashort THz pulses by optical rectification,” Opt. Express 19(16), 15090–15097 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Ravi, W. R. Huang, S. Carbajo, X. Wu, and F. X. Kärtner, “Limitations to THz generation by optical rectification using tilted pulse fronts,” Opt. Express 22(17), 20239–20251 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Kunitski, M. Richter, M. D. Thomson, A. Vredenborg, J. Wu, T. Jahnke, M. Schöffler, H. Schmidt-Böcking, H. G. Roskos, and R. Dörner, “Optimization of single-cycle terahertz generation in LiNbO3 for sub-50 femtosecond pump pulses,” Opt. Express 21(6), 6826–6836 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Nagai, M. Jewariya, Y. Ichikawa, H. Ohtake, T. Sugiura, Y. Uehara, and K. Tanaka, “Broadband and high power terahertz pulse generation beyond excitation bandwidth limitation via χ2 cascaded processes in LiNbO3,” Opt. Express 17(14), 11543–11549 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (6)

Opt. Quant. Electron. (1)

J. Hebling, “Derivation of the pulse front tilt caused by angular dispersion,” Opt. Quant. Electron. 28(12), 1759–1763 (1996).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. B (3)

H. Hirori, M. Nagai, and K. Tanaka, “Excitonic interactions with intense terahertz pulses in ZnSe/ZnMgSSe multiple quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 81(8), 081305 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. C. Hoffmann, J. Hebling, H. Y. Hwang, K.-L. Yeh, and K. A. Nelson, “Impact ionization in InSb probed by terahertz pump-terahertz probe spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 79(16), 161201 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Hebling, M. C. Hoffmann, H. Y. Hwang, K.-L. Yeh, and K. A. Nelson, “Observation of nonequilibrium carrier distribution in Ge, Si, and GaAs by terahertz pump-terahertz probe measurements,” Phys. Rev. B 81(3), 035201 (2010).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (5)

K. Fan, H. Y. Hwang, M. Liu, A. C. Strikwerda, A. J. Sternbach, J. Zhang, X. Zhao, X. Zhang, K. A. Nelson, and R. D. Averitt, “Nonlinear terahertz metamaterials via field-enhanced carrier dynamics in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(21), 217404 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Fleischer, Y. Zhou, R. W. Field, and K. A. Nelson, “Molecular orientation and alignment by intense single-cycle THz pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(16), 163603 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Fleischer, R. W. Field, and K. A. Nelson, “Commensurate two-quantum coherences induced by time-delayed THz fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(12), 123603 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Jewariya, M. Nagai, and K. Tanaka, “Ladder climbing on the anharmonic intermolecular potential in an amino acid microcrystal via an intense monocycle terahertz pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(20), 203003 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. H. Auston, K. Cheung, J. Valdmanis, and D. A. Kleinman, “Cherenkov radiation from femtosecond optical pulses in electro-optic media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 53(16), 1555–1558 (1984).
[Crossref]

Rev. Sci. Instr. (1)

C. A. Werley, S. M. Teo, and K. A. Nelson, “Pulsed laser noise analysis and pump-probe signal detection with a data acquisition card,” Rev. Sci. Instr. 82(12), 123108 (2011).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

T. Feurer, J. C. Vaughan, and K. A. Nelson, “Spatiotemporal coherent control of lattice vibrational waves,” Science 299(5605), 374–377 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (3)

K.-L. Yeh, T. Hornung, J. C. Vaughan, and K. A. Nelson, “Terahertz amplification in high-dielectric materials,” in “Ultrafast Phenomena XV Springer Series in Chemical Physics,”, P. Corkum, D. Jonas, R. Miller, and A. M. Weiner, eds. (2007), vol. 88, pp. 802–804.
[Crossref]

J.-C. Diels and W. Rudolph, Ultrashort Laser Pulse Phenomena (Academic, 2006), 2nd ed.

R. C. Hansen, Phased Array Antennas (John Wiley & Sons, 2009), 2nd ed.
[Crossref]

Supplementary Material (1)

NameDescription
» Visualization 1: AVI (1128 KB)      Time Series of THz spot

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic illustration of the stair-step echelon used for THz generation. The overall dimensions of the echelon are 50 mm × 50 mm × 10 mm. The height and width of each echelon step are H = 69 μm and W = 150 μm, respectively. (b) Method of operation: The echelon is set so that the width (“horizontal”) direction of the steps is at normal incidence to the incident beam. Each step produces a single reflected “beamlet” whose pulse is time delayed relative to an adjacent beamlet pulse due to the additional 2H path length. (c) Calculated Cherenkov wavefronts produced by a single beamlet pulse propagating through a LN crystal. The beamlet is polarized along the extraordinary (z) axis, which is parallel to the LN crystallographic c-axis. The spatially and temporally shifted beamlets all generate THz wavefronts that superpose constructively on one side.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Experimental setup. The output of an amplified Ti:Sapphire laser system was split 90:10 for the THz generation arm and EO sampling arms, respectively. The portion used for THz generation was directed through an optical chopper and toward the echelon which was imaged with a demagnification of ∼5 into the LN prism. The THz output from the LN prism was collected using a pair of off-axis parabolic mirrors and focused into a 200-μm active, 2-mm inert GaP crystal pair for EO sampling. (b) Image of echelon recorded with a camera placed at the image plane. The bright vertical strips are the individual echelon steps. (c) Spectra of the pump beam before (red) and after (blue) reflecting off the echelon. The strong modulation indicates that the single beam has been split into time delayed coherent pulses.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Free-space electro-optic sampling data obtained using a 200 μm active, 2 mm inert GaP crystal-pair for both the 1-lens (1L) and zoom-lens (ZL) imaging systems at both RT and CT. (a) Time-domain waveforms of THz pulse with the the highest peak THz field ∼500 kV/cm using 1L at CT. (b) Normalized magnitudes of the Fourier transform of the THz time-domain waveform. In all cases, the peak frequency is approximately 0.63 THz, the full width-half maximum bandwidth is in the range Δν ≈ 0.8–1.3 THz, and the spectral amplitude falls to 10% of the peak at ∼ 2.3 THz using 1L at CT, and at ∼ 1.6 THz for all other cases. (c) Image of the THz intensity profile at the focus of the GaP crystal using the ZL at CT. The blue traces along the top and side are line-outs through the center of the THz spot. These were fit to Gaussian functions and the extracted values represent the 1/e2 radii along the horizontal and vertical directions.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) THz pulse energy as a function of NIR pump pulse energy using the 1-lens (1L) and zoom lens (ZL) at both RT and CT, calculated from measured THz field strengths and profiles. For all measurements, the pump 1/e2 radii were wx = wy ∼ 1.0 mm entering the LN prism. (b) Calculated THz conversion efficiency. (c) Spectra of the NIR pump pulse of 1mJ reflected from the echelon, both before and after passing through the LN prism. The strongly modulated pump pulse experiences significant spectral red-shifting and broadening, which is indicative of cascading during THz generation in the LN prism.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

THz spot measurement procedure. (a) Image of orthogonal polarization states I(+) and I(−) obtained by imaging the EO sampling crystal through QWP and Wollaston prism. The THz signal can already be seen. (b) Reference image I0 obtained with THz blocked. (c) Image of states ΔI(+)/I0 and ΔI(−)/I0 obtained by first subtracting and then numerically dividing the signal image by reference image. (d) Balanced image obtained by taking the difference of the left and right spots in (c) to obtain ΔI/I0. (e) Normalized intensity image corresponding to the THz field intensity ITHz(x, y) obtained by numerically squaring and then normalizing the arcsin of balanced image.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Summary of THz generation results

Tables Icon

Table 2 Summary of THz generation results

Equations (3)

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γ = arctan ( 2 HM W n LN gr )
ν p c 0 π n LN THz w 0
U = 1 2 g T π c 0 ε 0 n GaP THz E 0 2 w x w y τ 0

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