Abstract

An optical design for a see-through head-mounted display with high visibility is described. This design, which is based on a light guide plate with triangular microstructures, can overcome the limitations of the balance in optical efficiency. The optical efficiency of the virtual image can be larger than the optical efficiency of the real image, which ensures high visibility. The visibility can be increased to 22 with this design, much higher than the visibility possible with previous designs for a see-through head-mounted display, making this suitable for daily application.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. Rolland and O. Cakmakci, “Head-Worn Displays: The Future Through New Eyes,” Opt. Photonics News 20(4), 20 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  2. H. Hua and B. Javidi, “Augmented Reality: Easy on the Eyes,” Opt. Photonics News 26(2), 26 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  3. R. Azuma, Y. Baillot, R. Behringer, S. Feiner, S. Julier, and B. Macintyre, “Recent advances in augmented reality,” IEEE Comput. Graph. Appl. 21(6), 34–47 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  4. Smart glasses, website http://www.epson.com/cgi-bin/Store/jsp/Landing/moverio-bt-200-smart-glasses.do?ref=van_moverio_2014 .
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  6. J. Chen, W. Cranton, and M. Fihn, “Optical Components for Head-Worn Displays” in Handbook of Visual Display Technology, Vol. 4 (Springer, 2012) pp. 2184.
  7. J. P. Rolland and H. Hua, “ Head-mounted display systems,” Encyclopedia of Optical Engineering, R. G. Driggers, ed. (Taylor & Francis, 2003).
  8. D. Cheng, Y. Wang, H. Hua, and M. M. Talha, “Design of an optical see-through head-mounted display with a low f-number and large field of view using a freeform prism,” Appl. Opt. 48(14), 2655–2668 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. Z. Zheng, X. Liu, H. Li, and L. Xu, “Design and fabrication of an off-axis see-through head-mounted display with an x-y polynomial surface,” Appl. Opt. 49(19), 3661–3668 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. Y. Amitai, “Extremely compact high-performance HMDs based on substrate-guided optical element,” SID 2004 Digest 35, 310–313 (2004).
  11. Y. Amitai, “A two-dimensional aperture expander for ultra-compact, high-performance head-worn displays,” SID 2005 Digest 36, 360–363 (2005).
  12. J. W. Pan and H. C. Hung, “Optical design of a compact see-through head-mounted display with light guide plate,” J. Disp. Technol. 11(3), 223–228 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  13. G. Rajeswaran, M. Iton, M. Boroson, S. Barry, T. K. Hatwar, K. B. Kahen, K. Yoneda, R. Yokoyama, T. Yamada, N. Komiya, H. Kanno, and H. Takahashi, “Active metric low temperature poly-Si TFT/OLED full color displays: development status,” SID Digest 31, 974–977 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  14. J. Warren, Modern Optical Engineering (McGraw Hill, 2008), pp. 128–129.
  15. O. Cakmakci and J. Rolland, “Head-worn display: review,” J. Disp. Technol. 2(3), 199–216 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  16. J. Chen, W. Cranton, and M. Fihn, “Example of HWD Architectures: Low-, Mid- and Wide- Field of View Designs,” Handbook of Visual Display Technology, Vol. 4 (Springer, 2012) p. 2201.
  17. J. Chen, W. Cranton, and M. Fihn, “Optical Components for Head-Worn Displays” Handbook of visual Display Technology Vol. 4 (Springer, 2012) p. 2184.
  18. J. Warren Smith, Modern Optical Engineering (McGraw Hill, 2008), pp.272.
  19. E. Robert Fischer, B. Tadic-Galeb and P. R. Yoder, Optical System Design (McGraw Hill, 2008).
  20. J. W. Pan, C. M. Wang, H. C. Lan, W. S. Sun, and J. Y. Chang, “Homogenized LED-illumination using microlens arrays for a pocket-sized projector,” Opt. Express 15(17), 10483–10491 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. J. Warren Smith, Modern Optical Engineering (Mc Graw Hill, 2008), p. 621.

2015 (2)

H. Hua and B. Javidi, “Augmented Reality: Easy on the Eyes,” Opt. Photonics News 26(2), 26 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. W. Pan and H. C. Hung, “Optical design of a compact see-through head-mounted display with light guide plate,” J. Disp. Technol. 11(3), 223–228 (2015).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

B. Kress and T. Starner, “A review of head-mounted displays (HMD) technologies and applications for consumer electronics,” Proc. SPIE 8720, 87200A (2013).

2010 (1)

2009 (2)

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

O. Cakmakci and J. Rolland, “Head-worn display: review,” J. Disp. Technol. 2(3), 199–216 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

Y. Amitai, “A two-dimensional aperture expander for ultra-compact, high-performance head-worn displays,” SID 2005 Digest 36, 360–363 (2005).

2004 (1)

Y. Amitai, “Extremely compact high-performance HMDs based on substrate-guided optical element,” SID 2004 Digest 35, 310–313 (2004).

2001 (1)

R. Azuma, Y. Baillot, R. Behringer, S. Feiner, S. Julier, and B. Macintyre, “Recent advances in augmented reality,” IEEE Comput. Graph. Appl. 21(6), 34–47 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

G. Rajeswaran, M. Iton, M. Boroson, S. Barry, T. K. Hatwar, K. B. Kahen, K. Yoneda, R. Yokoyama, T. Yamada, N. Komiya, H. Kanno, and H. Takahashi, “Active metric low temperature poly-Si TFT/OLED full color displays: development status,” SID Digest 31, 974–977 (2000).
[Crossref]

Amitai, Y.

Y. Amitai, “A two-dimensional aperture expander for ultra-compact, high-performance head-worn displays,” SID 2005 Digest 36, 360–363 (2005).

Y. Amitai, “Extremely compact high-performance HMDs based on substrate-guided optical element,” SID 2004 Digest 35, 310–313 (2004).

Azuma, R.

R. Azuma, Y. Baillot, R. Behringer, S. Feiner, S. Julier, and B. Macintyre, “Recent advances in augmented reality,” IEEE Comput. Graph. Appl. 21(6), 34–47 (2001).
[Crossref]

Baillot, Y.

R. Azuma, Y. Baillot, R. Behringer, S. Feiner, S. Julier, and B. Macintyre, “Recent advances in augmented reality,” IEEE Comput. Graph. Appl. 21(6), 34–47 (2001).
[Crossref]

Barry, S.

G. Rajeswaran, M. Iton, M. Boroson, S. Barry, T. K. Hatwar, K. B. Kahen, K. Yoneda, R. Yokoyama, T. Yamada, N. Komiya, H. Kanno, and H. Takahashi, “Active metric low temperature poly-Si TFT/OLED full color displays: development status,” SID Digest 31, 974–977 (2000).
[Crossref]

Behringer, R.

R. Azuma, Y. Baillot, R. Behringer, S. Feiner, S. Julier, and B. Macintyre, “Recent advances in augmented reality,” IEEE Comput. Graph. Appl. 21(6), 34–47 (2001).
[Crossref]

Boroson, M.

G. Rajeswaran, M. Iton, M. Boroson, S. Barry, T. K. Hatwar, K. B. Kahen, K. Yoneda, R. Yokoyama, T. Yamada, N. Komiya, H. Kanno, and H. Takahashi, “Active metric low temperature poly-Si TFT/OLED full color displays: development status,” SID Digest 31, 974–977 (2000).
[Crossref]

Cakmakci, O.

J. Rolland and O. Cakmakci, “Head-Worn Displays: The Future Through New Eyes,” Opt. Photonics News 20(4), 20 (2009).
[Crossref]

O. Cakmakci and J. Rolland, “Head-worn display: review,” J. Disp. Technol. 2(3), 199–216 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chang, J. Y.

Cheng, D.

Feiner, S.

R. Azuma, Y. Baillot, R. Behringer, S. Feiner, S. Julier, and B. Macintyre, “Recent advances in augmented reality,” IEEE Comput. Graph. Appl. 21(6), 34–47 (2001).
[Crossref]

Hatwar, T. K.

G. Rajeswaran, M. Iton, M. Boroson, S. Barry, T. K. Hatwar, K. B. Kahen, K. Yoneda, R. Yokoyama, T. Yamada, N. Komiya, H. Kanno, and H. Takahashi, “Active metric low temperature poly-Si TFT/OLED full color displays: development status,” SID Digest 31, 974–977 (2000).
[Crossref]

Hua, H.

Hung, H. C.

J. W. Pan and H. C. Hung, “Optical design of a compact see-through head-mounted display with light guide plate,” J. Disp. Technol. 11(3), 223–228 (2015).
[Crossref]

Iton, M.

G. Rajeswaran, M. Iton, M. Boroson, S. Barry, T. K. Hatwar, K. B. Kahen, K. Yoneda, R. Yokoyama, T. Yamada, N. Komiya, H. Kanno, and H. Takahashi, “Active metric low temperature poly-Si TFT/OLED full color displays: development status,” SID Digest 31, 974–977 (2000).
[Crossref]

Javidi, B.

H. Hua and B. Javidi, “Augmented Reality: Easy on the Eyes,” Opt. Photonics News 26(2), 26 (2015).
[Crossref]

Julier, S.

R. Azuma, Y. Baillot, R. Behringer, S. Feiner, S. Julier, and B. Macintyre, “Recent advances in augmented reality,” IEEE Comput. Graph. Appl. 21(6), 34–47 (2001).
[Crossref]

Kahen, K. B.

G. Rajeswaran, M. Iton, M. Boroson, S. Barry, T. K. Hatwar, K. B. Kahen, K. Yoneda, R. Yokoyama, T. Yamada, N. Komiya, H. Kanno, and H. Takahashi, “Active metric low temperature poly-Si TFT/OLED full color displays: development status,” SID Digest 31, 974–977 (2000).
[Crossref]

Kanno, H.

G. Rajeswaran, M. Iton, M. Boroson, S. Barry, T. K. Hatwar, K. B. Kahen, K. Yoneda, R. Yokoyama, T. Yamada, N. Komiya, H. Kanno, and H. Takahashi, “Active metric low temperature poly-Si TFT/OLED full color displays: development status,” SID Digest 31, 974–977 (2000).
[Crossref]

Komiya, N.

G. Rajeswaran, M. Iton, M. Boroson, S. Barry, T. K. Hatwar, K. B. Kahen, K. Yoneda, R. Yokoyama, T. Yamada, N. Komiya, H. Kanno, and H. Takahashi, “Active metric low temperature poly-Si TFT/OLED full color displays: development status,” SID Digest 31, 974–977 (2000).
[Crossref]

Kress, B.

B. Kress and T. Starner, “A review of head-mounted displays (HMD) technologies and applications for consumer electronics,” Proc. SPIE 8720, 87200A (2013).

Lan, H. C.

Li, H.

Liu, X.

Macintyre, B.

R. Azuma, Y. Baillot, R. Behringer, S. Feiner, S. Julier, and B. Macintyre, “Recent advances in augmented reality,” IEEE Comput. Graph. Appl. 21(6), 34–47 (2001).
[Crossref]

Pan, J. W.

J. W. Pan and H. C. Hung, “Optical design of a compact see-through head-mounted display with light guide plate,” J. Disp. Technol. 11(3), 223–228 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. W. Pan, C. M. Wang, H. C. Lan, W. S. Sun, and J. Y. Chang, “Homogenized LED-illumination using microlens arrays for a pocket-sized projector,” Opt. Express 15(17), 10483–10491 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rajeswaran, G.

G. Rajeswaran, M. Iton, M. Boroson, S. Barry, T. K. Hatwar, K. B. Kahen, K. Yoneda, R. Yokoyama, T. Yamada, N. Komiya, H. Kanno, and H. Takahashi, “Active metric low temperature poly-Si TFT/OLED full color displays: development status,” SID Digest 31, 974–977 (2000).
[Crossref]

Rolland, J.

J. Rolland and O. Cakmakci, “Head-Worn Displays: The Future Through New Eyes,” Opt. Photonics News 20(4), 20 (2009).
[Crossref]

O. Cakmakci and J. Rolland, “Head-worn display: review,” J. Disp. Technol. 2(3), 199–216 (2006).
[Crossref]

Starner, T.

B. Kress and T. Starner, “A review of head-mounted displays (HMD) technologies and applications for consumer electronics,” Proc. SPIE 8720, 87200A (2013).

Sun, W. S.

Takahashi, H.

G. Rajeswaran, M. Iton, M. Boroson, S. Barry, T. K. Hatwar, K. B. Kahen, K. Yoneda, R. Yokoyama, T. Yamada, N. Komiya, H. Kanno, and H. Takahashi, “Active metric low temperature poly-Si TFT/OLED full color displays: development status,” SID Digest 31, 974–977 (2000).
[Crossref]

Talha, M. M.

Wang, C. M.

Wang, Y.

Xu, L.

Yamada, T.

G. Rajeswaran, M. Iton, M. Boroson, S. Barry, T. K. Hatwar, K. B. Kahen, K. Yoneda, R. Yokoyama, T. Yamada, N. Komiya, H. Kanno, and H. Takahashi, “Active metric low temperature poly-Si TFT/OLED full color displays: development status,” SID Digest 31, 974–977 (2000).
[Crossref]

Yokoyama, R.

G. Rajeswaran, M. Iton, M. Boroson, S. Barry, T. K. Hatwar, K. B. Kahen, K. Yoneda, R. Yokoyama, T. Yamada, N. Komiya, H. Kanno, and H. Takahashi, “Active metric low temperature poly-Si TFT/OLED full color displays: development status,” SID Digest 31, 974–977 (2000).
[Crossref]

Yoneda, K.

G. Rajeswaran, M. Iton, M. Boroson, S. Barry, T. K. Hatwar, K. B. Kahen, K. Yoneda, R. Yokoyama, T. Yamada, N. Komiya, H. Kanno, and H. Takahashi, “Active metric low temperature poly-Si TFT/OLED full color displays: development status,” SID Digest 31, 974–977 (2000).
[Crossref]

Zheng, Z.

Appl. Opt. (2)

IEEE Comput. Graph. Appl. (1)

R. Azuma, Y. Baillot, R. Behringer, S. Feiner, S. Julier, and B. Macintyre, “Recent advances in augmented reality,” IEEE Comput. Graph. Appl. 21(6), 34–47 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. Disp. Technol. (2)

J. W. Pan and H. C. Hung, “Optical design of a compact see-through head-mounted display with light guide plate,” J. Disp. Technol. 11(3), 223–228 (2015).
[Crossref]

O. Cakmakci and J. Rolland, “Head-worn display: review,” J. Disp. Technol. 2(3), 199–216 (2006).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Photonics News (2)

J. Rolland and O. Cakmakci, “Head-Worn Displays: The Future Through New Eyes,” Opt. Photonics News 20(4), 20 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Hua and B. Javidi, “Augmented Reality: Easy on the Eyes,” Opt. Photonics News 26(2), 26 (2015).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (1)

B. Kress and T. Starner, “A review of head-mounted displays (HMD) technologies and applications for consumer electronics,” Proc. SPIE 8720, 87200A (2013).

SID 2004 Digest (1)

Y. Amitai, “Extremely compact high-performance HMDs based on substrate-guided optical element,” SID 2004 Digest 35, 310–313 (2004).

SID 2005 Digest (1)

Y. Amitai, “A two-dimensional aperture expander for ultra-compact, high-performance head-worn displays,” SID 2005 Digest 36, 360–363 (2005).

SID Digest (1)

G. Rajeswaran, M. Iton, M. Boroson, S. Barry, T. K. Hatwar, K. B. Kahen, K. Yoneda, R. Yokoyama, T. Yamada, N. Komiya, H. Kanno, and H. Takahashi, “Active metric low temperature poly-Si TFT/OLED full color displays: development status,” SID Digest 31, 974–977 (2000).
[Crossref]

Other (9)

J. Warren, Modern Optical Engineering (McGraw Hill, 2008), pp. 128–129.

J. Chen, W. Cranton, and M. Fihn, “Example of HWD Architectures: Low-, Mid- and Wide- Field of View Designs,” Handbook of Visual Display Technology, Vol. 4 (Springer, 2012) p. 2201.

J. Chen, W. Cranton, and M. Fihn, “Optical Components for Head-Worn Displays” Handbook of visual Display Technology Vol. 4 (Springer, 2012) p. 2184.

J. Warren Smith, Modern Optical Engineering (McGraw Hill, 2008), pp.272.

E. Robert Fischer, B. Tadic-Galeb and P. R. Yoder, Optical System Design (McGraw Hill, 2008).

J. Warren Smith, Modern Optical Engineering (Mc Graw Hill, 2008), p. 621.

J. Chen, W. Cranton, and M. Fihn, “Optical Components for Head-Worn Displays” in Handbook of Visual Display Technology, Vol. 4 (Springer, 2012) pp. 2184.

J. P. Rolland and H. Hua, “ Head-mounted display systems,” Encyclopedia of Optical Engineering, R. G. Driggers, ed. (Taylor & Francis, 2003).

Smart glasses, website http://www.epson.com/cgi-bin/Store/jsp/Landing/moverio-bt-200-smart-glasses.do?ref=van_moverio_2014 .

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Layout of the see-through HMD.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Unfolded ray path of the virtual image in the see-through HMD.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Schematic diagram of the rays guided into the light guide plate: (a) The rays propagating into the light guide plate are guided by TIR.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Normal incident rays R0 strike the microstructure and are reflected by TIR.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) and (b) The oblique incident rays R1 and R2 strike the microstructure and are reflected by TIR.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Simulated values of the optical efficiencies of the virtual image and the real image under different microstructure conditions.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Suitable conditions for a see-through HMD for daily applications and visibility of the see-through HMD with a size of 50μm.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Multiple image for the see-through HMD. (a) normal incident rays of the real image, (b)and(c) oblique incident rays of the real image.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 The layout of the see-through HMD and eye model demonstrated with LightTools.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Tolerance level of the two bottom angles γ and β of the microstructure and the FOV of the see-through HMD.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 Microstructure with error angles θe of (a) −1°; (b) 1°.
Fig. 12
Fig. 12 Dependence of the optical efficiency of the virtual and the real image on the error angle θe.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Parameters and specifications of the see-through HMD system.

Tables Icon

Table 2 Relations between the combinations of two materials and the FOVs of the see-through HMDs.

Equations (21)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Visibility= E v E r = Luminanc e v Luminanc e r .
α sin 1 1 n 1 ,
α=2φ
α'=2φθ,α"=2φ+θ;
α' sin 1 1 n 1 ,α" sin 1 1 n 1 ;
φ 1 2 sin 1 1 n 1 + θ 2 ,φ 1 2 sin 1 1 n 1 θ 2 .
φ 1 2 sin 1 1 n 1 + θ 2 .
n 1 < n 2 ,
μ sin 1 n 1 n 2 ,
μ=180°α=90°φ,
γ=μ,
β=2φ.
μ'=μ+θ',μ"=μ θ ",
θ'= θ "= sin 1 ( n 1 n 2 sinθ).
μ' sin 1 n 1 n 2 ,μ" sin 1 n 1 n 2 .
μ sin 1 ( n 1 n 2 ) sin 1 ( n 1 n 2 sinθ),μ sin 1 ( n 1 n 2 )+ sin 1 ( n 1 n 2 sinθ),
φ90° sin 1 ( n 1 n 2 )+ sin 1 ( n 1 n 2 sinθ),φ90° sin 1 ( n 1 n 2 ) sin 1 ( n 1 n 2 sinθ),
φ90° sin 1 ( n 1 n 2 ) sin 1 ( n 1 n 2 sinθ).
1 2 sin 1 1 n 1 + θ 2 φ90° sin 1 ( n 1 n 2 ) sin 1 ( n 1 n 2 sinθ),
sin 1 ( n 1 n 2 )+ sin 1 ( n 1 n 2 sinθ)γ90° 1 2 sin 1 1 n 1 θ 2 ,
sin 1 ( n 1 n 2 )+θβ180°2 sin 1 ( n 1 n 2 )+2 sin 1 ( n 1 n 2 sinθ).

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