Abstract

Normal-incidence Ge1-xSnx photodiode detectors with Sn compositions of 7 and 10% have been demonstrated. Such detectors were based on Ge/Ge1-xSnx/Ge double heterostructures grown directly on a Si substrate via a chemical vapor deposition system. A temperature-dependence study of these detectors was conducted using both electrical and optical characterizations from 300 to 77 K. Spectral response up to 2.6 µm was achieved for a 10% Sn device at room temperature. The peak responsivity and specific detectivity (D*) were measured to be 0.3 A/W and 4 × 109 cmHz1/2W−1 at 1.55 µm, respectively. The spectral D* of a 7% Sn device at 77 K was only one order-of-magnitude lower than that of an extended-InGaAs photodiode operating in the same wavelength range, indicating the promising future of GeSn-based photodetectors.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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2015 (3)

C. Lu, C. H. Lee, T. Nishimura, and A. Toriumi, “Yttrium scandate thin film as alternative high-permittivity dielectric for germanium gate stack formation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(7), 072904 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. N. Pham, W. Du, B. R. Conley, J. Margetis, G. Sun, R. Soref, J. Tolle, B. Li, and S.-Q. Yu, “Si-based Ge0.9Sn0.1 photodetector with peak responsivity of 2.85 A/W and longwave cutoff at 2.4 μm,” Electron. Lett. 51(11), 854–856 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Dong, W. Wang, D. Lei, X. Gong, Q. Zhou, S. Y. Lee, W. K. Loke, S. F. Yoon, E. S. Tok, G. Liang, and Y. C. Yeo, “Suppression of dark current in germanium-tin on silicon p-i-n photodiode by a silicon surface passivation technique,” Opt. Express 23(14), 18611–18619 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (7)

M. Oehme, K. Kostecki, K. Ye, S. Bechler, K. Ulbricht, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, M. Gollhofer, R. Körner, W. Zhang, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “GeSn-on-Si normal incidence photodetectors with bandwidths more than 40 GHz,” Opt. Express 22(1), 839–846 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. R. Conley, A. Mosleh, S. A. Ghetmiri, W. Du, R. A. Soref, G. Sun, J. Margetis, J. Tolle, H. A. Naseem, and S. Q. Yu, “Temperature dependent spectral response and detectivity of GeSn photoconductors on silicon for short wave infrared detection,” Opt. Express 22(13), 15639–15652 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y.-H. Peng, H. H. Cheng, V. I. Mashanov, and G.-E. Chang, “GeSn p-i-n waveguide photodetectors on silicon substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(23), 231109 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. A. Ghetmiri, W. Du, B. R. Conley, A. Mosleh, A. Nazzal, G. Sun, R. A. Soref, J. Margetis, T. Joe, H. A. Naseem, and S. Q. Yu, “Shortwave-infrared photoluminescence from Ge1-xSnx thin films on silicon,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 32(6), 060601 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Oehme, K. Kostecki, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, M. Gollhofer, K. Ye, D. Widmann, R. Koerner, S. Bechler, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Franz-Keldysh effect in GeSn pin photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(16), 161115 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. R. Conley, J. Margetis, W. Du, H. Tran, A. Mosleh, S. A. Ghetmiri, J. Tolle, G. Sun, R. Soref, B. Li, H. A. Naseem, and S.-Q. Yu, “Si based GeSn photoconductors with a 1.63 A/W peak responsivity and a 2.4 μm longwavelength cutoff,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(22), 221117 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Margetis, S. A. Ghetmiri, W. Du, B. R. Conley, A. Mosleh, R. A. Soref, G. Sun, L. Domulevicz, H. A. Naseem, S. Q. Yu, and J. Tolle, “Growth and characterization of epitaxial Ge1-XSnx alloys and heterostructures using a commercial CVD system,” ECS Trans. 64(6), 711 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (4)

S. Kim, J. Gupta, N. Bhargava, M. Coppinger, and J. Kolodzey, “Current-Voltage Characteristics of GeSn/Ge Heterojunction Diodes Grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 34(10), 1217–1219 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Coppinger, J. Hart, N. Bhargava, S. Kim, and J. Kolodzey, “Photoconductivity of germanium tin alloys grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(14), 141101 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. H. Tseng, H. Li, V. Mashanov, Y. J. Yang, H. H. Cheng, G. E. Chang, R. A. Soref, and G. Sun, “GeSn based p-i-n photodiodes with strained active layer on a Si wafer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(23), 231907 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Zhang, C. Xue, B. Cheng, S. Su, Z. Liu, X. Zhang, G. Zhang, C. Li, and Q. Wang, “High-responsivity GeSn short-wave infrared p-i-n photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(14), 141111 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

A. Gassenq, F. Gencarelli, J. Van Campenhout, Y. Shimura, R. Loo, G. Narcy, B. Vincent, and G. Roelkens, “GeSn/Ge heterostructure short-wave infrared photodetectors on silicon,” Opt. Express 20(25), 27297–27303 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Rogalski, “Progress in focal plane array technologies,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 36(2-3), 342–473 (2012).
[Crossref]

V. Sorianello, A. De Iacovo, L. Colace, A. Fabbri, L. Tortora, E. Buffagni, and G. Assanto, “High responsivity near-infrared photodetectors in evaporated Ge-on-Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(8), 081101 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

J. Werner, M. Oehme, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, A. Schirmer, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Germanium-tin p-i-n photodetectors integrated on silicon grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(6), 061108 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. Roucka, J. Mathews, C. Weng, R. Beeler, J. Tolle, J. Menendez, and J. Kouvetakis, “High-Performance Near-IR Photodiodes: A Novel Chemistry-Based Approach to Ge and Ge–Sn Devices Integrated on Silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 47(2), 213–222 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Su, B. Cheng, C. Xue, W. Wang, Q. Cao, H. Xue, W. Hu, G. Zhang, Y. Zuo, and Q. Wang, “GeSn p-i-n photodetector for all telecommunication bands detection,” Opt. Express 19(7), 6400–6405 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

J. Mathews, R. Roucka, J. Xie, S. Yu, J. Menéndez, and J. Kouvetakis, “Extended performance GeSn/Si(100) p-i- n photodetectors for full spectral range telecommunication applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(13), 133506 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

R. Roucka, J. Xie, J. Kouvetakis, J. Mathews, V. D’Costa, J. Menendez, J. Tolle, and S. Q. Yu, “Ge1-ySny photoconductor structures at 1.55 µm: From advanced materials to prototype devices,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 26(6), 1952–1959 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

Z. Huang, J. Oh, S. K. Banerjee, and J. C. Campbell, “Effectiveness of SiGe buffer layers in reducing dark currents of Ge-on-Si photodetectors,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(3), 238–242 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

H. W. Yoon, M. C. Dopkiss, and G. P. Eppeldauer, “Performance comparisons of InGaAs, extended InGaAs, and short-wave HgCdTe detectors between 1 μm and 2.5 μm,” Proc. SPIE 6297, 629703 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

G. Karve, S. Wang, F. Ma, X. Li, J. C. Campbell, R. G. Ispasoiu, D. S. Bethune, W. P. Risk, G. S. Kinsey, J. C. Boisvert, T. D. Isshiki, and R. Sudharsanan, “Origin of dark counts in In0.53Ga0.47As/In0.52Al0.48As avalanche photodiodes operated in Geiger mode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(6), 063505 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

S. S. Hegedus and W. N. Shafarman, “Thin-film solar cells: device measurements and analysis,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 12(23), 155–176 (2004).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

A. Rogalski, “Infrared detectors: an overview,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 43(3), 187–210 (2002).
[Crossref]

1989 (1)

J. R. Sites and P. H. Mauk, “Diode quality factor determination for thin-film solar cells,” Solar Cells. 27(1), 411–417 (1989).
[Crossref]

1952 (1)

W. Shockley and W. T. Read., “Statistics of the recombinations of holes and electrons,” Phys. Rev. 87(5), 835–842 (1952).
[Crossref]

Assanto, G.

V. Sorianello, A. De Iacovo, L. Colace, A. Fabbri, L. Tortora, E. Buffagni, and G. Assanto, “High responsivity near-infrared photodetectors in evaporated Ge-on-Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(8), 081101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Banerjee, S. K.

Z. Huang, J. Oh, S. K. Banerjee, and J. C. Campbell, “Effectiveness of SiGe buffer layers in reducing dark currents of Ge-on-Si photodetectors,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(3), 238–242 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bechler, S.

M. Oehme, K. Kostecki, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, M. Gollhofer, K. Ye, D. Widmann, R. Koerner, S. Bechler, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Franz-Keldysh effect in GeSn pin photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(16), 161115 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Oehme, K. Kostecki, K. Ye, S. Bechler, K. Ulbricht, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, M. Gollhofer, R. Körner, W. Zhang, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “GeSn-on-Si normal incidence photodetectors with bandwidths more than 40 GHz,” Opt. Express 22(1), 839–846 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beeler, R.

R. Roucka, J. Mathews, C. Weng, R. Beeler, J. Tolle, J. Menendez, and J. Kouvetakis, “High-Performance Near-IR Photodiodes: A Novel Chemistry-Based Approach to Ge and Ge–Sn Devices Integrated on Silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 47(2), 213–222 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bethune, D. S.

G. Karve, S. Wang, F. Ma, X. Li, J. C. Campbell, R. G. Ispasoiu, D. S. Bethune, W. P. Risk, G. S. Kinsey, J. C. Boisvert, T. D. Isshiki, and R. Sudharsanan, “Origin of dark counts in In0.53Ga0.47As/In0.52Al0.48As avalanche photodiodes operated in Geiger mode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(6), 063505 (2005).
[Crossref]

Bhargava, N.

M. Coppinger, J. Hart, N. Bhargava, S. Kim, and J. Kolodzey, “Photoconductivity of germanium tin alloys grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(14), 141101 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Kim, J. Gupta, N. Bhargava, M. Coppinger, and J. Kolodzey, “Current-Voltage Characteristics of GeSn/Ge Heterojunction Diodes Grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 34(10), 1217–1219 (2013).
[Crossref]

Boisvert, J. C.

G. Karve, S. Wang, F. Ma, X. Li, J. C. Campbell, R. G. Ispasoiu, D. S. Bethune, W. P. Risk, G. S. Kinsey, J. C. Boisvert, T. D. Isshiki, and R. Sudharsanan, “Origin of dark counts in In0.53Ga0.47As/In0.52Al0.48As avalanche photodiodes operated in Geiger mode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(6), 063505 (2005).
[Crossref]

Buffagni, E.

V. Sorianello, A. De Iacovo, L. Colace, A. Fabbri, L. Tortora, E. Buffagni, and G. Assanto, “High responsivity near-infrared photodetectors in evaporated Ge-on-Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(8), 081101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Campbell, J. C.

Z. Huang, J. Oh, S. K. Banerjee, and J. C. Campbell, “Effectiveness of SiGe buffer layers in reducing dark currents of Ge-on-Si photodetectors,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(3), 238–242 (2007).
[Crossref]

G. Karve, S. Wang, F. Ma, X. Li, J. C. Campbell, R. G. Ispasoiu, D. S. Bethune, W. P. Risk, G. S. Kinsey, J. C. Boisvert, T. D. Isshiki, and R. Sudharsanan, “Origin of dark counts in In0.53Ga0.47As/In0.52Al0.48As avalanche photodiodes operated in Geiger mode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(6), 063505 (2005).
[Crossref]

Cao, Q.

Chang, G. E.

H. H. Tseng, H. Li, V. Mashanov, Y. J. Yang, H. H. Cheng, G. E. Chang, R. A. Soref, and G. Sun, “GeSn based p-i-n photodiodes with strained active layer on a Si wafer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(23), 231907 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chang, G.-E.

Y.-H. Peng, H. H. Cheng, V. I. Mashanov, and G.-E. Chang, “GeSn p-i-n waveguide photodetectors on silicon substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(23), 231109 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cheng, B.

D. Zhang, C. Xue, B. Cheng, S. Su, Z. Liu, X. Zhang, G. Zhang, C. Li, and Q. Wang, “High-responsivity GeSn short-wave infrared p-i-n photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(14), 141111 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Su, B. Cheng, C. Xue, W. Wang, Q. Cao, H. Xue, W. Hu, G. Zhang, Y. Zuo, and Q. Wang, “GeSn p-i-n photodetector for all telecommunication bands detection,” Opt. Express 19(7), 6400–6405 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheng, H. H.

Y.-H. Peng, H. H. Cheng, V. I. Mashanov, and G.-E. Chang, “GeSn p-i-n waveguide photodetectors on silicon substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(23), 231109 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. H. Tseng, H. Li, V. Mashanov, Y. J. Yang, H. H. Cheng, G. E. Chang, R. A. Soref, and G. Sun, “GeSn based p-i-n photodiodes with strained active layer on a Si wafer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(23), 231907 (2013).
[Crossref]

Colace, L.

V. Sorianello, A. De Iacovo, L. Colace, A. Fabbri, L. Tortora, E. Buffagni, and G. Assanto, “High responsivity near-infrared photodetectors in evaporated Ge-on-Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(8), 081101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Conley, B. R.

T. N. Pham, W. Du, B. R. Conley, J. Margetis, G. Sun, R. Soref, J. Tolle, B. Li, and S.-Q. Yu, “Si-based Ge0.9Sn0.1 photodetector with peak responsivity of 2.85 A/W and longwave cutoff at 2.4 μm,” Electron. Lett. 51(11), 854–856 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. R. Conley, J. Margetis, W. Du, H. Tran, A. Mosleh, S. A. Ghetmiri, J. Tolle, G. Sun, R. Soref, B. Li, H. A. Naseem, and S.-Q. Yu, “Si based GeSn photoconductors with a 1.63 A/W peak responsivity and a 2.4 μm longwavelength cutoff,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(22), 221117 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Margetis, S. A. Ghetmiri, W. Du, B. R. Conley, A. Mosleh, R. A. Soref, G. Sun, L. Domulevicz, H. A. Naseem, S. Q. Yu, and J. Tolle, “Growth and characterization of epitaxial Ge1-XSnx alloys and heterostructures using a commercial CVD system,” ECS Trans. 64(6), 711 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. A. Ghetmiri, W. Du, B. R. Conley, A. Mosleh, A. Nazzal, G. Sun, R. A. Soref, J. Margetis, T. Joe, H. A. Naseem, and S. Q. Yu, “Shortwave-infrared photoluminescence from Ge1-xSnx thin films on silicon,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 32(6), 060601 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. R. Conley, A. Mosleh, S. A. Ghetmiri, W. Du, R. A. Soref, G. Sun, J. Margetis, J. Tolle, H. A. Naseem, and S. Q. Yu, “Temperature dependent spectral response and detectivity of GeSn photoconductors on silicon for short wave infrared detection,” Opt. Express 22(13), 15639–15652 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Coppinger, M.

S. Kim, J. Gupta, N. Bhargava, M. Coppinger, and J. Kolodzey, “Current-Voltage Characteristics of GeSn/Ge Heterojunction Diodes Grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 34(10), 1217–1219 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Coppinger, J. Hart, N. Bhargava, S. Kim, and J. Kolodzey, “Photoconductivity of germanium tin alloys grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(14), 141101 (2013).
[Crossref]

D’Costa, V.

R. Roucka, J. Xie, J. Kouvetakis, J. Mathews, V. D’Costa, J. Menendez, J. Tolle, and S. Q. Yu, “Ge1-ySny photoconductor structures at 1.55 µm: From advanced materials to prototype devices,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 26(6), 1952–1959 (2008).
[Crossref]

De Iacovo, A.

V. Sorianello, A. De Iacovo, L. Colace, A. Fabbri, L. Tortora, E. Buffagni, and G. Assanto, “High responsivity near-infrared photodetectors in evaporated Ge-on-Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(8), 081101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Domulevicz, L.

J. Margetis, S. A. Ghetmiri, W. Du, B. R. Conley, A. Mosleh, R. A. Soref, G. Sun, L. Domulevicz, H. A. Naseem, S. Q. Yu, and J. Tolle, “Growth and characterization of epitaxial Ge1-XSnx alloys and heterostructures using a commercial CVD system,” ECS Trans. 64(6), 711 (2014).
[Crossref]

Dong, Y.

Dopkiss, M. C.

H. W. Yoon, M. C. Dopkiss, and G. P. Eppeldauer, “Performance comparisons of InGaAs, extended InGaAs, and short-wave HgCdTe detectors between 1 μm and 2.5 μm,” Proc. SPIE 6297, 629703 (2006).
[Crossref]

Du, W.

T. N. Pham, W. Du, B. R. Conley, J. Margetis, G. Sun, R. Soref, J. Tolle, B. Li, and S.-Q. Yu, “Si-based Ge0.9Sn0.1 photodetector with peak responsivity of 2.85 A/W and longwave cutoff at 2.4 μm,” Electron. Lett. 51(11), 854–856 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. R. Conley, J. Margetis, W. Du, H. Tran, A. Mosleh, S. A. Ghetmiri, J. Tolle, G. Sun, R. Soref, B. Li, H. A. Naseem, and S.-Q. Yu, “Si based GeSn photoconductors with a 1.63 A/W peak responsivity and a 2.4 μm longwavelength cutoff,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(22), 221117 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Margetis, S. A. Ghetmiri, W. Du, B. R. Conley, A. Mosleh, R. A. Soref, G. Sun, L. Domulevicz, H. A. Naseem, S. Q. Yu, and J. Tolle, “Growth and characterization of epitaxial Ge1-XSnx alloys and heterostructures using a commercial CVD system,” ECS Trans. 64(6), 711 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. A. Ghetmiri, W. Du, B. R. Conley, A. Mosleh, A. Nazzal, G. Sun, R. A. Soref, J. Margetis, T. Joe, H. A. Naseem, and S. Q. Yu, “Shortwave-infrared photoluminescence from Ge1-xSnx thin films on silicon,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 32(6), 060601 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. R. Conley, A. Mosleh, S. A. Ghetmiri, W. Du, R. A. Soref, G. Sun, J. Margetis, J. Tolle, H. A. Naseem, and S. Q. Yu, “Temperature dependent spectral response and detectivity of GeSn photoconductors on silicon for short wave infrared detection,” Opt. Express 22(13), 15639–15652 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eppeldauer, G. P.

H. W. Yoon, M. C. Dopkiss, and G. P. Eppeldauer, “Performance comparisons of InGaAs, extended InGaAs, and short-wave HgCdTe detectors between 1 μm and 2.5 μm,” Proc. SPIE 6297, 629703 (2006).
[Crossref]

Fabbri, A.

V. Sorianello, A. De Iacovo, L. Colace, A. Fabbri, L. Tortora, E. Buffagni, and G. Assanto, “High responsivity near-infrared photodetectors in evaporated Ge-on-Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(8), 081101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Gassenq, A.

Gencarelli, F.

Ghetmiri, S. A.

B. R. Conley, A. Mosleh, S. A. Ghetmiri, W. Du, R. A. Soref, G. Sun, J. Margetis, J. Tolle, H. A. Naseem, and S. Q. Yu, “Temperature dependent spectral response and detectivity of GeSn photoconductors on silicon for short wave infrared detection,” Opt. Express 22(13), 15639–15652 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. A. Ghetmiri, W. Du, B. R. Conley, A. Mosleh, A. Nazzal, G. Sun, R. A. Soref, J. Margetis, T. Joe, H. A. Naseem, and S. Q. Yu, “Shortwave-infrared photoluminescence from Ge1-xSnx thin films on silicon,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 32(6), 060601 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Margetis, S. A. Ghetmiri, W. Du, B. R. Conley, A. Mosleh, R. A. Soref, G. Sun, L. Domulevicz, H. A. Naseem, S. Q. Yu, and J. Tolle, “Growth and characterization of epitaxial Ge1-XSnx alloys and heterostructures using a commercial CVD system,” ECS Trans. 64(6), 711 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. R. Conley, J. Margetis, W. Du, H. Tran, A. Mosleh, S. A. Ghetmiri, J. Tolle, G. Sun, R. Soref, B. Li, H. A. Naseem, and S.-Q. Yu, “Si based GeSn photoconductors with a 1.63 A/W peak responsivity and a 2.4 μm longwavelength cutoff,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(22), 221117 (2014).
[Crossref]

Gollhofer, M.

M. Oehme, K. Kostecki, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, M. Gollhofer, K. Ye, D. Widmann, R. Koerner, S. Bechler, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Franz-Keldysh effect in GeSn pin photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(16), 161115 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Oehme, K. Kostecki, K. Ye, S. Bechler, K. Ulbricht, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, M. Gollhofer, R. Körner, W. Zhang, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “GeSn-on-Si normal incidence photodetectors with bandwidths more than 40 GHz,” Opt. Express 22(1), 839–846 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gong, X.

Gupta, J.

S. Kim, J. Gupta, N. Bhargava, M. Coppinger, and J. Kolodzey, “Current-Voltage Characteristics of GeSn/Ge Heterojunction Diodes Grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 34(10), 1217–1219 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hart, J.

M. Coppinger, J. Hart, N. Bhargava, S. Kim, and J. Kolodzey, “Photoconductivity of germanium tin alloys grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(14), 141101 (2013).
[Crossref]

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S. S. Hegedus and W. N. Shafarman, “Thin-film solar cells: device measurements and analysis,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 12(23), 155–176 (2004).
[Crossref]

Hu, W.

Huang, Z.

Z. Huang, J. Oh, S. K. Banerjee, and J. C. Campbell, “Effectiveness of SiGe buffer layers in reducing dark currents of Ge-on-Si photodetectors,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(3), 238–242 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ispasoiu, R. G.

G. Karve, S. Wang, F. Ma, X. Li, J. C. Campbell, R. G. Ispasoiu, D. S. Bethune, W. P. Risk, G. S. Kinsey, J. C. Boisvert, T. D. Isshiki, and R. Sudharsanan, “Origin of dark counts in In0.53Ga0.47As/In0.52Al0.48As avalanche photodiodes operated in Geiger mode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(6), 063505 (2005).
[Crossref]

Isshiki, T. D.

G. Karve, S. Wang, F. Ma, X. Li, J. C. Campbell, R. G. Ispasoiu, D. S. Bethune, W. P. Risk, G. S. Kinsey, J. C. Boisvert, T. D. Isshiki, and R. Sudharsanan, “Origin of dark counts in In0.53Ga0.47As/In0.52Al0.48As avalanche photodiodes operated in Geiger mode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(6), 063505 (2005).
[Crossref]

Joe, T.

S. A. Ghetmiri, W. Du, B. R. Conley, A. Mosleh, A. Nazzal, G. Sun, R. A. Soref, J. Margetis, T. Joe, H. A. Naseem, and S. Q. Yu, “Shortwave-infrared photoluminescence from Ge1-xSnx thin films on silicon,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 32(6), 060601 (2014).
[Crossref]

Karve, G.

G. Karve, S. Wang, F. Ma, X. Li, J. C. Campbell, R. G. Ispasoiu, D. S. Bethune, W. P. Risk, G. S. Kinsey, J. C. Boisvert, T. D. Isshiki, and R. Sudharsanan, “Origin of dark counts in In0.53Ga0.47As/In0.52Al0.48As avalanche photodiodes operated in Geiger mode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(6), 063505 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kaschel, M.

M. Oehme, K. Kostecki, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, M. Gollhofer, K. Ye, D. Widmann, R. Koerner, S. Bechler, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Franz-Keldysh effect in GeSn pin photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(16), 161115 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Oehme, K. Kostecki, K. Ye, S. Bechler, K. Ulbricht, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, M. Gollhofer, R. Körner, W. Zhang, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “GeSn-on-Si normal incidence photodetectors with bandwidths more than 40 GHz,” Opt. Express 22(1), 839–846 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Werner, M. Oehme, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, A. Schirmer, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Germanium-tin p-i-n photodetectors integrated on silicon grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(6), 061108 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kasper, E.

M. Oehme, K. Kostecki, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, M. Gollhofer, K. Ye, D. Widmann, R. Koerner, S. Bechler, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Franz-Keldysh effect in GeSn pin photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(16), 161115 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Oehme, K. Kostecki, K. Ye, S. Bechler, K. Ulbricht, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, M. Gollhofer, R. Körner, W. Zhang, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “GeSn-on-Si normal incidence photodetectors with bandwidths more than 40 GHz,” Opt. Express 22(1), 839–846 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Werner, M. Oehme, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, A. Schirmer, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Germanium-tin p-i-n photodetectors integrated on silicon grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(6), 061108 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kim, S.

S. Kim, J. Gupta, N. Bhargava, M. Coppinger, and J. Kolodzey, “Current-Voltage Characteristics of GeSn/Ge Heterojunction Diodes Grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 34(10), 1217–1219 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Coppinger, J. Hart, N. Bhargava, S. Kim, and J. Kolodzey, “Photoconductivity of germanium tin alloys grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(14), 141101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kinsey, G. S.

G. Karve, S. Wang, F. Ma, X. Li, J. C. Campbell, R. G. Ispasoiu, D. S. Bethune, W. P. Risk, G. S. Kinsey, J. C. Boisvert, T. D. Isshiki, and R. Sudharsanan, “Origin of dark counts in In0.53Ga0.47As/In0.52Al0.48As avalanche photodiodes operated in Geiger mode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(6), 063505 (2005).
[Crossref]

Koerner, R.

M. Oehme, K. Kostecki, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, M. Gollhofer, K. Ye, D. Widmann, R. Koerner, S. Bechler, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Franz-Keldysh effect in GeSn pin photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(16), 161115 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kolodzey, J.

M. Coppinger, J. Hart, N. Bhargava, S. Kim, and J. Kolodzey, “Photoconductivity of germanium tin alloys grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(14), 141101 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Kim, J. Gupta, N. Bhargava, M. Coppinger, and J. Kolodzey, “Current-Voltage Characteristics of GeSn/Ge Heterojunction Diodes Grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 34(10), 1217–1219 (2013).
[Crossref]

Körner, R.

Kostecki, K.

M. Oehme, K. Kostecki, K. Ye, S. Bechler, K. Ulbricht, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, M. Gollhofer, R. Körner, W. Zhang, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “GeSn-on-Si normal incidence photodetectors with bandwidths more than 40 GHz,” Opt. Express 22(1), 839–846 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Oehme, K. Kostecki, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, M. Gollhofer, K. Ye, D. Widmann, R. Koerner, S. Bechler, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Franz-Keldysh effect in GeSn pin photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(16), 161115 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kouvetakis, J.

R. Roucka, J. Mathews, C. Weng, R. Beeler, J. Tolle, J. Menendez, and J. Kouvetakis, “High-Performance Near-IR Photodiodes: A Novel Chemistry-Based Approach to Ge and Ge–Sn Devices Integrated on Silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 47(2), 213–222 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Mathews, R. Roucka, J. Xie, S. Yu, J. Menéndez, and J. Kouvetakis, “Extended performance GeSn/Si(100) p-i- n photodetectors for full spectral range telecommunication applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(13), 133506 (2009).
[Crossref]

R. Roucka, J. Xie, J. Kouvetakis, J. Mathews, V. D’Costa, J. Menendez, J. Tolle, and S. Q. Yu, “Ge1-ySny photoconductor structures at 1.55 µm: From advanced materials to prototype devices,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 26(6), 1952–1959 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lee, C. H.

C. Lu, C. H. Lee, T. Nishimura, and A. Toriumi, “Yttrium scandate thin film as alternative high-permittivity dielectric for germanium gate stack formation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(7), 072904 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lee, S. Y.

Lei, D.

Li, B.

T. N. Pham, W. Du, B. R. Conley, J. Margetis, G. Sun, R. Soref, J. Tolle, B. Li, and S.-Q. Yu, “Si-based Ge0.9Sn0.1 photodetector with peak responsivity of 2.85 A/W and longwave cutoff at 2.4 μm,” Electron. Lett. 51(11), 854–856 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. R. Conley, J. Margetis, W. Du, H. Tran, A. Mosleh, S. A. Ghetmiri, J. Tolle, G. Sun, R. Soref, B. Li, H. A. Naseem, and S.-Q. Yu, “Si based GeSn photoconductors with a 1.63 A/W peak responsivity and a 2.4 μm longwavelength cutoff,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(22), 221117 (2014).
[Crossref]

Li, C.

D. Zhang, C. Xue, B. Cheng, S. Su, Z. Liu, X. Zhang, G. Zhang, C. Li, and Q. Wang, “High-responsivity GeSn short-wave infrared p-i-n photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(14), 141111 (2013).
[Crossref]

Li, H.

H. H. Tseng, H. Li, V. Mashanov, Y. J. Yang, H. H. Cheng, G. E. Chang, R. A. Soref, and G. Sun, “GeSn based p-i-n photodiodes with strained active layer on a Si wafer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(23), 231907 (2013).
[Crossref]

Li, X.

G. Karve, S. Wang, F. Ma, X. Li, J. C. Campbell, R. G. Ispasoiu, D. S. Bethune, W. P. Risk, G. S. Kinsey, J. C. Boisvert, T. D. Isshiki, and R. Sudharsanan, “Origin of dark counts in In0.53Ga0.47As/In0.52Al0.48As avalanche photodiodes operated in Geiger mode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(6), 063505 (2005).
[Crossref]

Liang, G.

Liu, Z.

D. Zhang, C. Xue, B. Cheng, S. Su, Z. Liu, X. Zhang, G. Zhang, C. Li, and Q. Wang, “High-responsivity GeSn short-wave infrared p-i-n photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(14), 141111 (2013).
[Crossref]

Loke, W. K.

Loo, R.

Lu, C.

C. Lu, C. H. Lee, T. Nishimura, and A. Toriumi, “Yttrium scandate thin film as alternative high-permittivity dielectric for germanium gate stack formation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(7), 072904 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ma, F.

G. Karve, S. Wang, F. Ma, X. Li, J. C. Campbell, R. G. Ispasoiu, D. S. Bethune, W. P. Risk, G. S. Kinsey, J. C. Boisvert, T. D. Isshiki, and R. Sudharsanan, “Origin of dark counts in In0.53Ga0.47As/In0.52Al0.48As avalanche photodiodes operated in Geiger mode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(6), 063505 (2005).
[Crossref]

Margetis, J.

T. N. Pham, W. Du, B. R. Conley, J. Margetis, G. Sun, R. Soref, J. Tolle, B. Li, and S.-Q. Yu, “Si-based Ge0.9Sn0.1 photodetector with peak responsivity of 2.85 A/W and longwave cutoff at 2.4 μm,” Electron. Lett. 51(11), 854–856 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. R. Conley, J. Margetis, W. Du, H. Tran, A. Mosleh, S. A. Ghetmiri, J. Tolle, G. Sun, R. Soref, B. Li, H. A. Naseem, and S.-Q. Yu, “Si based GeSn photoconductors with a 1.63 A/W peak responsivity and a 2.4 μm longwavelength cutoff,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(22), 221117 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Margetis, S. A. Ghetmiri, W. Du, B. R. Conley, A. Mosleh, R. A. Soref, G. Sun, L. Domulevicz, H. A. Naseem, S. Q. Yu, and J. Tolle, “Growth and characterization of epitaxial Ge1-XSnx alloys and heterostructures using a commercial CVD system,” ECS Trans. 64(6), 711 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. A. Ghetmiri, W. Du, B. R. Conley, A. Mosleh, A. Nazzal, G. Sun, R. A. Soref, J. Margetis, T. Joe, H. A. Naseem, and S. Q. Yu, “Shortwave-infrared photoluminescence from Ge1-xSnx thin films on silicon,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 32(6), 060601 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. R. Conley, A. Mosleh, S. A. Ghetmiri, W. Du, R. A. Soref, G. Sun, J. Margetis, J. Tolle, H. A. Naseem, and S. Q. Yu, “Temperature dependent spectral response and detectivity of GeSn photoconductors on silicon for short wave infrared detection,” Opt. Express 22(13), 15639–15652 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mashanov, V.

H. H. Tseng, H. Li, V. Mashanov, Y. J. Yang, H. H. Cheng, G. E. Chang, R. A. Soref, and G. Sun, “GeSn based p-i-n photodiodes with strained active layer on a Si wafer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(23), 231907 (2013).
[Crossref]

Mashanov, V. I.

Y.-H. Peng, H. H. Cheng, V. I. Mashanov, and G.-E. Chang, “GeSn p-i-n waveguide photodetectors on silicon substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(23), 231109 (2014).
[Crossref]

Mathews, J.

R. Roucka, J. Mathews, C. Weng, R. Beeler, J. Tolle, J. Menendez, and J. Kouvetakis, “High-Performance Near-IR Photodiodes: A Novel Chemistry-Based Approach to Ge and Ge–Sn Devices Integrated on Silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 47(2), 213–222 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Mathews, R. Roucka, J. Xie, S. Yu, J. Menéndez, and J. Kouvetakis, “Extended performance GeSn/Si(100) p-i- n photodetectors for full spectral range telecommunication applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(13), 133506 (2009).
[Crossref]

R. Roucka, J. Xie, J. Kouvetakis, J. Mathews, V. D’Costa, J. Menendez, J. Tolle, and S. Q. Yu, “Ge1-ySny photoconductor structures at 1.55 µm: From advanced materials to prototype devices,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 26(6), 1952–1959 (2008).
[Crossref]

Mauk, P. H.

J. R. Sites and P. H. Mauk, “Diode quality factor determination for thin-film solar cells,” Solar Cells. 27(1), 411–417 (1989).
[Crossref]

Menendez, J.

R. Roucka, J. Mathews, C. Weng, R. Beeler, J. Tolle, J. Menendez, and J. Kouvetakis, “High-Performance Near-IR Photodiodes: A Novel Chemistry-Based Approach to Ge and Ge–Sn Devices Integrated on Silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 47(2), 213–222 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. Roucka, J. Xie, J. Kouvetakis, J. Mathews, V. D’Costa, J. Menendez, J. Tolle, and S. Q. Yu, “Ge1-ySny photoconductor structures at 1.55 µm: From advanced materials to prototype devices,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 26(6), 1952–1959 (2008).
[Crossref]

Menéndez, J.

J. Mathews, R. Roucka, J. Xie, S. Yu, J. Menéndez, and J. Kouvetakis, “Extended performance GeSn/Si(100) p-i- n photodetectors for full spectral range telecommunication applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(13), 133506 (2009).
[Crossref]

Mosleh, A.

J. Margetis, S. A. Ghetmiri, W. Du, B. R. Conley, A. Mosleh, R. A. Soref, G. Sun, L. Domulevicz, H. A. Naseem, S. Q. Yu, and J. Tolle, “Growth and characterization of epitaxial Ge1-XSnx alloys and heterostructures using a commercial CVD system,” ECS Trans. 64(6), 711 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. R. Conley, J. Margetis, W. Du, H. Tran, A. Mosleh, S. A. Ghetmiri, J. Tolle, G. Sun, R. Soref, B. Li, H. A. Naseem, and S.-Q. Yu, “Si based GeSn photoconductors with a 1.63 A/W peak responsivity and a 2.4 μm longwavelength cutoff,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(22), 221117 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. A. Ghetmiri, W. Du, B. R. Conley, A. Mosleh, A. Nazzal, G. Sun, R. A. Soref, J. Margetis, T. Joe, H. A. Naseem, and S. Q. Yu, “Shortwave-infrared photoluminescence from Ge1-xSnx thin films on silicon,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 32(6), 060601 (2014).
[Crossref]

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Naseem, H. A.

B. R. Conley, A. Mosleh, S. A. Ghetmiri, W. Du, R. A. Soref, G. Sun, J. Margetis, J. Tolle, H. A. Naseem, and S. Q. Yu, “Temperature dependent spectral response and detectivity of GeSn photoconductors on silicon for short wave infrared detection,” Opt. Express 22(13), 15639–15652 (2014).
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S. A. Ghetmiri, W. Du, B. R. Conley, A. Mosleh, A. Nazzal, G. Sun, R. A. Soref, J. Margetis, T. Joe, H. A. Naseem, and S. Q. Yu, “Shortwave-infrared photoluminescence from Ge1-xSnx thin films on silicon,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 32(6), 060601 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. R. Conley, J. Margetis, W. Du, H. Tran, A. Mosleh, S. A. Ghetmiri, J. Tolle, G. Sun, R. Soref, B. Li, H. A. Naseem, and S.-Q. Yu, “Si based GeSn photoconductors with a 1.63 A/W peak responsivity and a 2.4 μm longwavelength cutoff,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(22), 221117 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Margetis, S. A. Ghetmiri, W. Du, B. R. Conley, A. Mosleh, R. A. Soref, G. Sun, L. Domulevicz, H. A. Naseem, S. Q. Yu, and J. Tolle, “Growth and characterization of epitaxial Ge1-XSnx alloys and heterostructures using a commercial CVD system,” ECS Trans. 64(6), 711 (2014).
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S. A. Ghetmiri, W. Du, B. R. Conley, A. Mosleh, A. Nazzal, G. Sun, R. A. Soref, J. Margetis, T. Joe, H. A. Naseem, and S. Q. Yu, “Shortwave-infrared photoluminescence from Ge1-xSnx thin films on silicon,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 32(6), 060601 (2014).
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C. Lu, C. H. Lee, T. Nishimura, and A. Toriumi, “Yttrium scandate thin film as alternative high-permittivity dielectric for germanium gate stack formation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(7), 072904 (2015).
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M. Oehme, K. Kostecki, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, M. Gollhofer, K. Ye, D. Widmann, R. Koerner, S. Bechler, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Franz-Keldysh effect in GeSn pin photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(16), 161115 (2014).
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J. Werner, M. Oehme, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, A. Schirmer, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Germanium-tin p-i-n photodetectors integrated on silicon grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(6), 061108 (2011).
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T. N. Pham, W. Du, B. R. Conley, J. Margetis, G. Sun, R. Soref, J. Tolle, B. Li, and S.-Q. Yu, “Si-based Ge0.9Sn0.1 photodetector with peak responsivity of 2.85 A/W and longwave cutoff at 2.4 μm,” Electron. Lett. 51(11), 854–856 (2015).
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J. Mathews, R. Roucka, J. Xie, S. Yu, J. Menéndez, and J. Kouvetakis, “Extended performance GeSn/Si(100) p-i- n photodetectors for full spectral range telecommunication applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(13), 133506 (2009).
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R. Roucka, J. Xie, J. Kouvetakis, J. Mathews, V. D’Costa, J. Menendez, J. Tolle, and S. Q. Yu, “Ge1-ySny photoconductor structures at 1.55 µm: From advanced materials to prototype devices,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 26(6), 1952–1959 (2008).
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J. Werner, M. Oehme, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, A. Schirmer, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Germanium-tin p-i-n photodetectors integrated on silicon grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(6), 061108 (2011).
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M. Oehme, K. Kostecki, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, M. Gollhofer, K. Ye, D. Widmann, R. Koerner, S. Bechler, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Franz-Keldysh effect in GeSn pin photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(16), 161115 (2014).
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M. Oehme, K. Kostecki, K. Ye, S. Bechler, K. Ulbricht, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, M. Gollhofer, R. Körner, W. Zhang, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “GeSn-on-Si normal incidence photodetectors with bandwidths more than 40 GHz,” Opt. Express 22(1), 839–846 (2014).
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J. Werner, M. Oehme, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, A. Schirmer, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Germanium-tin p-i-n photodetectors integrated on silicon grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(6), 061108 (2011).
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Schulze, J.

M. Oehme, K. Kostecki, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, M. Gollhofer, K. Ye, D. Widmann, R. Koerner, S. Bechler, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Franz-Keldysh effect in GeSn pin photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(16), 161115 (2014).
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M. Oehme, K. Kostecki, K. Ye, S. Bechler, K. Ulbricht, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, M. Gollhofer, R. Körner, W. Zhang, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “GeSn-on-Si normal incidence photodetectors with bandwidths more than 40 GHz,” Opt. Express 22(1), 839–846 (2014).
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J. Werner, M. Oehme, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, A. Schirmer, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Germanium-tin p-i-n photodetectors integrated on silicon grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(6), 061108 (2011).
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T. N. Pham, W. Du, B. R. Conley, J. Margetis, G. Sun, R. Soref, J. Tolle, B. Li, and S.-Q. Yu, “Si-based Ge0.9Sn0.1 photodetector with peak responsivity of 2.85 A/W and longwave cutoff at 2.4 μm,” Electron. Lett. 51(11), 854–856 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. R. Conley, J. Margetis, W. Du, H. Tran, A. Mosleh, S. A. Ghetmiri, J. Tolle, G. Sun, R. Soref, B. Li, H. A. Naseem, and S.-Q. Yu, “Si based GeSn photoconductors with a 1.63 A/W peak responsivity and a 2.4 μm longwavelength cutoff,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(22), 221117 (2014).
[Crossref]

Soref, R. A.

J. Margetis, S. A. Ghetmiri, W. Du, B. R. Conley, A. Mosleh, R. A. Soref, G. Sun, L. Domulevicz, H. A. Naseem, S. Q. Yu, and J. Tolle, “Growth and characterization of epitaxial Ge1-XSnx alloys and heterostructures using a commercial CVD system,” ECS Trans. 64(6), 711 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. A. Ghetmiri, W. Du, B. R. Conley, A. Mosleh, A. Nazzal, G. Sun, R. A. Soref, J. Margetis, T. Joe, H. A. Naseem, and S. Q. Yu, “Shortwave-infrared photoluminescence from Ge1-xSnx thin films on silicon,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 32(6), 060601 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. R. Conley, A. Mosleh, S. A. Ghetmiri, W. Du, R. A. Soref, G. Sun, J. Margetis, J. Tolle, H. A. Naseem, and S. Q. Yu, “Temperature dependent spectral response and detectivity of GeSn photoconductors on silicon for short wave infrared detection,” Opt. Express 22(13), 15639–15652 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. H. Tseng, H. Li, V. Mashanov, Y. J. Yang, H. H. Cheng, G. E. Chang, R. A. Soref, and G. Sun, “GeSn based p-i-n photodiodes with strained active layer on a Si wafer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(23), 231907 (2013).
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V. Sorianello, A. De Iacovo, L. Colace, A. Fabbri, L. Tortora, E. Buffagni, and G. Assanto, “High responsivity near-infrared photodetectors in evaporated Ge-on-Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(8), 081101 (2012).
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Su, S.

D. Zhang, C. Xue, B. Cheng, S. Su, Z. Liu, X. Zhang, G. Zhang, C. Li, and Q. Wang, “High-responsivity GeSn short-wave infrared p-i-n photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(14), 141111 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Su, B. Cheng, C. Xue, W. Wang, Q. Cao, H. Xue, W. Hu, G. Zhang, Y. Zuo, and Q. Wang, “GeSn p-i-n photodetector for all telecommunication bands detection,” Opt. Express 19(7), 6400–6405 (2011).
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Sudharsanan, R.

G. Karve, S. Wang, F. Ma, X. Li, J. C. Campbell, R. G. Ispasoiu, D. S. Bethune, W. P. Risk, G. S. Kinsey, J. C. Boisvert, T. D. Isshiki, and R. Sudharsanan, “Origin of dark counts in In0.53Ga0.47As/In0.52Al0.48As avalanche photodiodes operated in Geiger mode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(6), 063505 (2005).
[Crossref]

Sun, G.

T. N. Pham, W. Du, B. R. Conley, J. Margetis, G. Sun, R. Soref, J. Tolle, B. Li, and S.-Q. Yu, “Si-based Ge0.9Sn0.1 photodetector with peak responsivity of 2.85 A/W and longwave cutoff at 2.4 μm,” Electron. Lett. 51(11), 854–856 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. R. Conley, J. Margetis, W. Du, H. Tran, A. Mosleh, S. A. Ghetmiri, J. Tolle, G. Sun, R. Soref, B. Li, H. A. Naseem, and S.-Q. Yu, “Si based GeSn photoconductors with a 1.63 A/W peak responsivity and a 2.4 μm longwavelength cutoff,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(22), 221117 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Margetis, S. A. Ghetmiri, W. Du, B. R. Conley, A. Mosleh, R. A. Soref, G. Sun, L. Domulevicz, H. A. Naseem, S. Q. Yu, and J. Tolle, “Growth and characterization of epitaxial Ge1-XSnx alloys and heterostructures using a commercial CVD system,” ECS Trans. 64(6), 711 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. A. Ghetmiri, W. Du, B. R. Conley, A. Mosleh, A. Nazzal, G. Sun, R. A. Soref, J. Margetis, T. Joe, H. A. Naseem, and S. Q. Yu, “Shortwave-infrared photoluminescence from Ge1-xSnx thin films on silicon,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 32(6), 060601 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. R. Conley, A. Mosleh, S. A. Ghetmiri, W. Du, R. A. Soref, G. Sun, J. Margetis, J. Tolle, H. A. Naseem, and S. Q. Yu, “Temperature dependent spectral response and detectivity of GeSn photoconductors on silicon for short wave infrared detection,” Opt. Express 22(13), 15639–15652 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. H. Tseng, H. Li, V. Mashanov, Y. J. Yang, H. H. Cheng, G. E. Chang, R. A. Soref, and G. Sun, “GeSn based p-i-n photodiodes with strained active layer on a Si wafer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(23), 231907 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tok, E. S.

Tolle, J.

T. N. Pham, W. Du, B. R. Conley, J. Margetis, G. Sun, R. Soref, J. Tolle, B. Li, and S.-Q. Yu, “Si-based Ge0.9Sn0.1 photodetector with peak responsivity of 2.85 A/W and longwave cutoff at 2.4 μm,” Electron. Lett. 51(11), 854–856 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. R. Conley, J. Margetis, W. Du, H. Tran, A. Mosleh, S. A. Ghetmiri, J. Tolle, G. Sun, R. Soref, B. Li, H. A. Naseem, and S.-Q. Yu, “Si based GeSn photoconductors with a 1.63 A/W peak responsivity and a 2.4 μm longwavelength cutoff,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(22), 221117 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Margetis, S. A. Ghetmiri, W. Du, B. R. Conley, A. Mosleh, R. A. Soref, G. Sun, L. Domulevicz, H. A. Naseem, S. Q. Yu, and J. Tolle, “Growth and characterization of epitaxial Ge1-XSnx alloys and heterostructures using a commercial CVD system,” ECS Trans. 64(6), 711 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. R. Conley, A. Mosleh, S. A. Ghetmiri, W. Du, R. A. Soref, G. Sun, J. Margetis, J. Tolle, H. A. Naseem, and S. Q. Yu, “Temperature dependent spectral response and detectivity of GeSn photoconductors on silicon for short wave infrared detection,” Opt. Express 22(13), 15639–15652 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Roucka, J. Mathews, C. Weng, R. Beeler, J. Tolle, J. Menendez, and J. Kouvetakis, “High-Performance Near-IR Photodiodes: A Novel Chemistry-Based Approach to Ge and Ge–Sn Devices Integrated on Silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 47(2), 213–222 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. Roucka, J. Xie, J. Kouvetakis, J. Mathews, V. D’Costa, J. Menendez, J. Tolle, and S. Q. Yu, “Ge1-ySny photoconductor structures at 1.55 µm: From advanced materials to prototype devices,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 26(6), 1952–1959 (2008).
[Crossref]

Toriumi, A.

C. Lu, C. H. Lee, T. Nishimura, and A. Toriumi, “Yttrium scandate thin film as alternative high-permittivity dielectric for germanium gate stack formation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(7), 072904 (2015).
[Crossref]

Tortora, L.

V. Sorianello, A. De Iacovo, L. Colace, A. Fabbri, L. Tortora, E. Buffagni, and G. Assanto, “High responsivity near-infrared photodetectors in evaporated Ge-on-Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(8), 081101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Tran, H.

B. R. Conley, J. Margetis, W. Du, H. Tran, A. Mosleh, S. A. Ghetmiri, J. Tolle, G. Sun, R. Soref, B. Li, H. A. Naseem, and S.-Q. Yu, “Si based GeSn photoconductors with a 1.63 A/W peak responsivity and a 2.4 μm longwavelength cutoff,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(22), 221117 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tseng, H. H.

H. H. Tseng, H. Li, V. Mashanov, Y. J. Yang, H. H. Cheng, G. E. Chang, R. A. Soref, and G. Sun, “GeSn based p-i-n photodiodes with strained active layer on a Si wafer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(23), 231907 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ulbricht, K.

Van Campenhout, J.

Vincent, B.

Wang, Q.

D. Zhang, C. Xue, B. Cheng, S. Su, Z. Liu, X. Zhang, G. Zhang, C. Li, and Q. Wang, “High-responsivity GeSn short-wave infrared p-i-n photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(14), 141111 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Su, B. Cheng, C. Xue, W. Wang, Q. Cao, H. Xue, W. Hu, G. Zhang, Y. Zuo, and Q. Wang, “GeSn p-i-n photodetector for all telecommunication bands detection,” Opt. Express 19(7), 6400–6405 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, S.

G. Karve, S. Wang, F. Ma, X. Li, J. C. Campbell, R. G. Ispasoiu, D. S. Bethune, W. P. Risk, G. S. Kinsey, J. C. Boisvert, T. D. Isshiki, and R. Sudharsanan, “Origin of dark counts in In0.53Ga0.47As/In0.52Al0.48As avalanche photodiodes operated in Geiger mode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(6), 063505 (2005).
[Crossref]

Wang, W.

Weng, C.

R. Roucka, J. Mathews, C. Weng, R. Beeler, J. Tolle, J. Menendez, and J. Kouvetakis, “High-Performance Near-IR Photodiodes: A Novel Chemistry-Based Approach to Ge and Ge–Sn Devices Integrated on Silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 47(2), 213–222 (2011).
[Crossref]

Werner, J.

J. Werner, M. Oehme, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, A. Schirmer, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Germanium-tin p-i-n photodetectors integrated on silicon grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(6), 061108 (2011).
[Crossref]

Widmann, D.

M. Oehme, K. Kostecki, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, M. Gollhofer, K. Ye, D. Widmann, R. Koerner, S. Bechler, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Franz-Keldysh effect in GeSn pin photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(16), 161115 (2014).
[Crossref]

Xie, J.

J. Mathews, R. Roucka, J. Xie, S. Yu, J. Menéndez, and J. Kouvetakis, “Extended performance GeSn/Si(100) p-i- n photodetectors for full spectral range telecommunication applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(13), 133506 (2009).
[Crossref]

R. Roucka, J. Xie, J. Kouvetakis, J. Mathews, V. D’Costa, J. Menendez, J. Tolle, and S. Q. Yu, “Ge1-ySny photoconductor structures at 1.55 µm: From advanced materials to prototype devices,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 26(6), 1952–1959 (2008).
[Crossref]

Xue, C.

D. Zhang, C. Xue, B. Cheng, S. Su, Z. Liu, X. Zhang, G. Zhang, C. Li, and Q. Wang, “High-responsivity GeSn short-wave infrared p-i-n photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(14), 141111 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Su, B. Cheng, C. Xue, W. Wang, Q. Cao, H. Xue, W. Hu, G. Zhang, Y. Zuo, and Q. Wang, “GeSn p-i-n photodetector for all telecommunication bands detection,” Opt. Express 19(7), 6400–6405 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xue, H.

Yang, Y. J.

H. H. Tseng, H. Li, V. Mashanov, Y. J. Yang, H. H. Cheng, G. E. Chang, R. A. Soref, and G. Sun, “GeSn based p-i-n photodiodes with strained active layer on a Si wafer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(23), 231907 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ye, K.

M. Oehme, K. Kostecki, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, M. Gollhofer, K. Ye, D. Widmann, R. Koerner, S. Bechler, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Franz-Keldysh effect in GeSn pin photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(16), 161115 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Oehme, K. Kostecki, K. Ye, S. Bechler, K. Ulbricht, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, M. Gollhofer, R. Körner, W. Zhang, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “GeSn-on-Si normal incidence photodetectors with bandwidths more than 40 GHz,” Opt. Express 22(1), 839–846 (2014).
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Yoon, H. W.

H. W. Yoon, M. C. Dopkiss, and G. P. Eppeldauer, “Performance comparisons of InGaAs, extended InGaAs, and short-wave HgCdTe detectors between 1 μm and 2.5 μm,” Proc. SPIE 6297, 629703 (2006).
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Yoon, S. F.

Yu, S.

J. Mathews, R. Roucka, J. Xie, S. Yu, J. Menéndez, and J. Kouvetakis, “Extended performance GeSn/Si(100) p-i- n photodetectors for full spectral range telecommunication applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(13), 133506 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yu, S. Q.

J. Margetis, S. A. Ghetmiri, W. Du, B. R. Conley, A. Mosleh, R. A. Soref, G. Sun, L. Domulevicz, H. A. Naseem, S. Q. Yu, and J. Tolle, “Growth and characterization of epitaxial Ge1-XSnx alloys and heterostructures using a commercial CVD system,” ECS Trans. 64(6), 711 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. A. Ghetmiri, W. Du, B. R. Conley, A. Mosleh, A. Nazzal, G. Sun, R. A. Soref, J. Margetis, T. Joe, H. A. Naseem, and S. Q. Yu, “Shortwave-infrared photoluminescence from Ge1-xSnx thin films on silicon,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 32(6), 060601 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. R. Conley, A. Mosleh, S. A. Ghetmiri, W. Du, R. A. Soref, G. Sun, J. Margetis, J. Tolle, H. A. Naseem, and S. Q. Yu, “Temperature dependent spectral response and detectivity of GeSn photoconductors on silicon for short wave infrared detection,” Opt. Express 22(13), 15639–15652 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Roucka, J. Xie, J. Kouvetakis, J. Mathews, V. D’Costa, J. Menendez, J. Tolle, and S. Q. Yu, “Ge1-ySny photoconductor structures at 1.55 µm: From advanced materials to prototype devices,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 26(6), 1952–1959 (2008).
[Crossref]

Yu, S.-Q.

T. N. Pham, W. Du, B. R. Conley, J. Margetis, G. Sun, R. Soref, J. Tolle, B. Li, and S.-Q. Yu, “Si-based Ge0.9Sn0.1 photodetector with peak responsivity of 2.85 A/W and longwave cutoff at 2.4 μm,” Electron. Lett. 51(11), 854–856 (2015).
[Crossref]

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ECS Trans. (1)

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic cross-sectional view of the device structure. (b) Top view SEM image of 250 µm device.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Ge/Ge1-xSnx/Ge DHS band structure (not to scale). Type-I band alignment was formed, which provides a favorable carrier confinement for the device.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Temperature dependent I-V characteristic of GeSn photodiode with (a) 7% Sn and (b) 10% Sn. The mesa size is 250 µm in diameter.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Zero-bias resistance-area product (R0A) at different temperatures of (a) 7% Sn and (b) 10% Sn devices. (c) Linear fit of (Icorr)−1 as a function of dV/dIcorr at 77 and 300 K of the 7% Sn sample. (d) Activation energy of 7 and 10% Sn with different mesa sizes.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Temperature dependent spectral response of (a) 7% and (b) 10% Sn photodiode. Temperature dependent absorption edge of (c) 7% and (d) 10% Sn photodiode. The value of slope indicates the absorption mechanism.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Temperature dependent responsivity measured at 1.55 µm of (a) 7% Sn and (b) 10% Sn devices with mesa size of 250 µm in diameter.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Temperature dependent specific D* of (a) 7% Sn and (b) 10% Sn device with mesa size of 250 µm in diameter.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Spectral D* of 7 and 10% Sn photodiodes measured at 0.1 V reverse bias voltage across a 250 µm-diam device. Other market dominating detectors in same spectral range are plotted for comparison.

Tables (4)

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Table 1 Sn Composition, Thickness, and Strain for Each Layer.

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Table 2 Series Resistance, Shunt Resistance, Reverse Saturation Current, and Activation Energy at 77 K and 300 K

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Table 3 Dark current and photocurrent at different reverse bias voltages

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Table 4 Thermal Noise and Shot Noise of 7 and 10% Sn DHS Photodiodes with Different Diameter Size, Temperature, and Applied Voltage.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I= I 0 exp[ q(V R S I corr ) nkT ]+ V R Sh
P PR = P INC ×(1 e αx )
α [hν E g ± E p ] m
R= λ 1.24 (1r) η r (1 e αx )
D*= A NEP = R AΔf I n 2

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