Abstract

Ge on Si micro-disk, ring and racetrack cavities are fabricated and strained using silicon nitride stressor layers. Photoluminescence measurements demonstrate emission at wavelengths ≥ 2.3 μm, and the highest strained samples demonstrate in-plane, tensile strains of > 2 %, as measured by Raman spectroscopy. Strain analysis of the micro-disk structures demonstrate that shear strains are present in circular cavities, which can detrimentally effect the carrier concentration for direct band transitions. The advantages and disadvantages of each type of proposed cavity structure are discussed.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  26. S. Birner, T. Zibold, T. Andlauer, T. Kubis, M. Sabathil, A. Trellakis, and P. Vogl, “Nextnano: General purpose 3-d simulations,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 54, 2137–2142 (2007).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  28. M. Prost, M. E. Kurdi, A. Ghrib, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, N. Zerounian, F. Aniel, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, F. Boeuf, and P. Boucaud, “Tensile-strained germanium microdisk electroluminescence,” Opt. Express 23, 6722–6730 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (7)

L. Baldassarre, E. Sakat, J. Frigerio, A. Samarelli, K. Gallacher, E. Calandrini, G. Isella, D. J. Paul, M. Ortolani, and P. Biagioni, “Midinfrared plasmon-enhanced spectroscopy with germanium antennas on silicon substrates,” Nano Lett. 15, 7225–7231 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Prost, M. El Kurdi, F. Aniel, N. Zerounian, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, F. Bœuf, and P. Boucaud, “Analysis of optical gain threshold in n-doped and tensile-strained germanium heterostructure diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 118, 125704 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, M. Chaigneau, R. Ossikovski, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “All-around SiN stressor for high and homogeneous tensile strain in germanium microdisk cavities,” Advanced Optical Materials 3, 353–358 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9, 88–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Shen, N. Healy, C. J. Mitchell, J. S. Penades, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and A. C. Peacock, “Mid-infrared all-optical modulation in low-loss germanium-on-silicon waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 40, 268–271 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Prost, M. E. Kurdi, A. Ghrib, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, N. Zerounian, F. Aniel, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, F. Boeuf, and P. Boucaud, “Tensile-strained germanium microdisk electroluminescence,” Opt. Express 23, 6722–6730 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. W. Millar, K. Gallacher, A. Samarelli, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, T. Dieing, and D. J. Paul, “Extending the emission wavelength of Ge nanopillars to 2.25 μm using silicon nitride stressors,” Opt. Express 23, 18193–18202 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (3)

G. Capellini, C. Reich, S. Guha, Y. Yamamoto, M. Lisker, M. Virgilio, A. Ghrib, M. E. Kurdi, P. Boucaud, B. Tillack, and T. Schroeder, “Tensile Ge microstructures for lasing fabricated by means of a silicon complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor process,” Opt. Express 22, 399–410 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. M. Mirza, D. A. MacLaren, A. Samarelli, B. M. Holmes, H. Zhou, S. Thoms, D. MacIntyre, and D. J. Paul, “Determining the electronic performance limitations in top-down-fabricated si nanowires with mean widths down to 4 nm,” Nano Lett. 14, 6056–6060 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Geiger, J. Frigerio, M. J. Süess, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Excess carrier lifetimes in Ge layers on Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 062106 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. de Kersauson, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Tensile-strained germanium microdisks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 221112 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. J. Suess, R. Geiger, R. A. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Photonics 7, 466–472 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

M. M. Mirza, H. Zhou, P. Velha, X. Li, K. E. Docherty, A. Samarelli, G. Ternent, and D. J. Paul, “Nanofabrication of high aspect ratio (∼50:1) sub-10 nm silicon nanowires using inductively coupled plasma etching,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 30, 06FF02 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. E. Camacho-Aguilera, Y. Cai, N. Patel, J. T. Bessette, M. Romagnoli, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “An electrically pumped germanium laser,” Opt. Express 20, 11316–20 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

J. R. Sanchez-Perez, C. Boztug, F. Chen, F. F. Sudradjat, D. M. Paskiewicz, R. Jacobson, M. G. Lagally, and R. Paiella, “Direct-bandgap light-emitting germanium in tensilely strained nanomembranes,” Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 108, 18893–18898 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

R. Soref, “Mid-infrared photonics in silicon and germanium,” Nat. Photonics 4, 495–497 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. J. Paul, “The progress towards terahertz quantum cascade lasers on silicon substrates,” Laser Photonics Rev. 4, 610–632 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Liu, X. Sun, R. Camacho-Aguilera, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Ge-on-Si laser operating at room temperature,” Opt. Lett. 35, 679–681 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

D. J. Paul, “Silicon photonics: a bright future?” Electron. Lett. 45, 582–584 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

D. J. Paul, “8-band k.p modeling of the quantum confined Stark effect in Ge quantum wells on Si substrates,” Phys. Rev. B 77, 155323 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

Y. Sun, S. E. Thompson, and T. Nishida, “Physics of strain effects in semiconductors and metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 104503 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. Birner, T. Zibold, T. Andlauer, T. Kubis, M. Sabathil, A. Trellakis, and P. Vogl, “Nextnano: General purpose 3-d simulations,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 54, 2137–2142 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

K. Biswas and S. Kal, “Etch characteristics of KOH, TMAH and dual doped TMAH for bulk micromachining of silicon,” Microelectron J. 37, 519–525 (2006).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

I. De Wolf, H. E. Maes, and S. K. Jones, “Stress measurements in silicon devices through Raman spectroscopy: Bridging the gap between theory and experiment,” J. Appl. Physics 79, 7148–7156 (1996).
[Crossref]

1909 (1)

G. G. Stoney, “The tension of metallic films deposited by electrolysis,” Proc. Royal. Soc. London A: Maths. Phys. Char. 82, 172–175 (1909).
[Crossref]

Al-Attili, A. Z.

A. Z. Al-Attili, S. Kako, M. Husain, F. Gardes, N. Higashitarumizu, S. Iwamoto, Y. Arakawa, Y. Ishikawa, H. Arimoto, K. Oda, T. Ido, and S. Saito, “Whispering gallery mode resonances from ge micro-disks on suspended beams,” Frontiers in Materials2 (2015).
[Crossref]

Anastassakis, E.

E. Anastassakis, A. Pinczuk, E. Burstein, F. H. Pollak, M. Cardona, and R. Island, “Effect of static uniaxial stress on the Raman Spectrum of silicon,” Solid State Commun.8, 133–138.

Andlauer, T.

S. Birner, T. Zibold, T. Andlauer, T. Kubis, M. Sabathil, A. Trellakis, and P. Vogl, “Nextnano: General purpose 3-d simulations,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 54, 2137–2142 (2007).
[Crossref]

Aniel, F.

M. Prost, M. El Kurdi, F. Aniel, N. Zerounian, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, F. Bœuf, and P. Boucaud, “Analysis of optical gain threshold in n-doped and tensile-strained germanium heterostructure diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 118, 125704 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Prost, M. E. Kurdi, A. Ghrib, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, N. Zerounian, F. Aniel, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, F. Boeuf, and P. Boucaud, “Tensile-strained germanium microdisk electroluminescence,” Opt. Express 23, 6722–6730 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arakawa, Y.

A. Z. Al-Attili, S. Kako, M. Husain, F. Gardes, N. Higashitarumizu, S. Iwamoto, Y. Arakawa, Y. Ishikawa, H. Arimoto, K. Oda, T. Ido, and S. Saito, “Whispering gallery mode resonances from ge micro-disks on suspended beams,” Frontiers in Materials2 (2015).
[Crossref]

Arimoto, H.

A. Z. Al-Attili, S. Kako, M. Husain, F. Gardes, N. Higashitarumizu, S. Iwamoto, Y. Arakawa, Y. Ishikawa, H. Arimoto, K. Oda, T. Ido, and S. Saito, “Whispering gallery mode resonances from ge micro-disks on suspended beams,” Frontiers in Materials2 (2015).
[Crossref]

Baldassarre, L.

L. Baldassarre, E. Sakat, J. Frigerio, A. Samarelli, K. Gallacher, E. Calandrini, G. Isella, D. J. Paul, M. Ortolani, and P. Biagioni, “Midinfrared plasmon-enhanced spectroscopy with germanium antennas on silicon substrates,” Nano Lett. 15, 7225–7231 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beaudoin, G.

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, M. Chaigneau, R. Ossikovski, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “All-around SiN stressor for high and homogeneous tensile strain in germanium microdisk cavities,” Advanced Optical Materials 3, 353–358 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Prost, M. E. Kurdi, A. Ghrib, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, N. Zerounian, F. Aniel, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, F. Boeuf, and P. Boucaud, “Tensile-strained germanium microdisk electroluminescence,” Opt. Express 23, 6722–6730 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. de Kersauson, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Tensile-strained germanium microdisks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 221112 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bessette, J. T.

Biagioni, P.

L. Baldassarre, E. Sakat, J. Frigerio, A. Samarelli, K. Gallacher, E. Calandrini, G. Isella, D. J. Paul, M. Ortolani, and P. Biagioni, “Midinfrared plasmon-enhanced spectroscopy with germanium antennas on silicon substrates,” Nano Lett. 15, 7225–7231 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Birner, S.

S. Birner, T. Zibold, T. Andlauer, T. Kubis, M. Sabathil, A. Trellakis, and P. Vogl, “Nextnano: General purpose 3-d simulations,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 54, 2137–2142 (2007).
[Crossref]

Biswas, K.

K. Biswas and S. Kal, “Etch characteristics of KOH, TMAH and dual doped TMAH for bulk micromachining of silicon,” Microelectron J. 37, 519–525 (2006).
[Crossref]

Bœuf, F.

M. Prost, M. El Kurdi, F. Aniel, N. Zerounian, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, F. Bœuf, and P. Boucaud, “Analysis of optical gain threshold in n-doped and tensile-strained germanium heterostructure diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 118, 125704 (2015).
[Crossref]

Boeuf, F.

Boucaud, P.

M. Prost, M. E. Kurdi, A. Ghrib, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, N. Zerounian, F. Aniel, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, F. Boeuf, and P. Boucaud, “Tensile-strained germanium microdisk electroluminescence,” Opt. Express 23, 6722–6730 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Prost, M. El Kurdi, F. Aniel, N. Zerounian, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, F. Bœuf, and P. Boucaud, “Analysis of optical gain threshold in n-doped and tensile-strained germanium heterostructure diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 118, 125704 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, M. Chaigneau, R. Ossikovski, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “All-around SiN stressor for high and homogeneous tensile strain in germanium microdisk cavities,” Advanced Optical Materials 3, 353–358 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Capellini, C. Reich, S. Guha, Y. Yamamoto, M. Lisker, M. Virgilio, A. Ghrib, M. E. Kurdi, P. Boucaud, B. Tillack, and T. Schroeder, “Tensile Ge microstructures for lasing fabricated by means of a silicon complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor process,” Opt. Express 22, 399–410 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. de Kersauson, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Tensile-strained germanium microdisks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 221112 (2013).
[Crossref]

Boztug, C.

J. R. Sanchez-Perez, C. Boztug, F. Chen, F. F. Sudradjat, D. M. Paskiewicz, R. Jacobson, M. G. Lagally, and R. Paiella, “Direct-bandgap light-emitting germanium in tensilely strained nanomembranes,” Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 108, 18893–18898 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Buca, D.

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9, 88–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

Burstein, E.

E. Anastassakis, A. Pinczuk, E. Burstein, F. H. Pollak, M. Cardona, and R. Island, “Effect of static uniaxial stress on the Raman Spectrum of silicon,” Solid State Commun.8, 133–138.

Cai, Y.

Calandrini, E.

L. Baldassarre, E. Sakat, J. Frigerio, A. Samarelli, K. Gallacher, E. Calandrini, G. Isella, D. J. Paul, M. Ortolani, and P. Biagioni, “Midinfrared plasmon-enhanced spectroscopy with germanium antennas on silicon substrates,” Nano Lett. 15, 7225–7231 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Camacho-Aguilera, R.

Camacho-Aguilera, R. E.

Capellini, G.

Cardona, M.

E. Anastassakis, A. Pinczuk, E. Burstein, F. H. Pollak, M. Cardona, and R. Island, “Effect of static uniaxial stress on the Raman Spectrum of silicon,” Solid State Commun.8, 133–138.

Chaigneau, M.

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, M. Chaigneau, R. Ossikovski, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “All-around SiN stressor for high and homogeneous tensile strain in germanium microdisk cavities,” Advanced Optical Materials 3, 353–358 (2015).
[Crossref]

Checoury, X.

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, M. Chaigneau, R. Ossikovski, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “All-around SiN stressor for high and homogeneous tensile strain in germanium microdisk cavities,” Advanced Optical Materials 3, 353–358 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Prost, M. El Kurdi, F. Aniel, N. Zerounian, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, F. Bœuf, and P. Boucaud, “Analysis of optical gain threshold in n-doped and tensile-strained germanium heterostructure diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 118, 125704 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Prost, M. E. Kurdi, A. Ghrib, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, N. Zerounian, F. Aniel, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, F. Boeuf, and P. Boucaud, “Tensile-strained germanium microdisk electroluminescence,” Opt. Express 23, 6722–6730 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. de Kersauson, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Tensile-strained germanium microdisks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 221112 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chen, F.

J. R. Sanchez-Perez, C. Boztug, F. Chen, F. F. Sudradjat, D. M. Paskiewicz, R. Jacobson, M. G. Lagally, and R. Paiella, “Direct-bandgap light-emitting germanium in tensilely strained nanomembranes,” Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 108, 18893–18898 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chiussi, S.

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M. M. Mirza, H. Zhou, P. Velha, X. Li, K. E. Docherty, A. Samarelli, G. Ternent, and D. J. Paul, “Nanofabrication of high aspect ratio (∼50:1) sub-10 nm silicon nanowires using inductively coupled plasma etching,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 30, 06FF02 (2012).
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R. Geiger, J. Frigerio, M. J. Süess, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Excess carrier lifetimes in Ge layers on Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 062106 (2014).
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M. J. Suess, R. Geiger, R. A. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Photonics 7, 466–472 (2013).
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R. Geiger, J. Frigerio, M. J. Süess, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Excess carrier lifetimes in Ge layers on Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 062106 (2014).
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M. J. Suess, R. Geiger, R. A. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Photonics 7, 466–472 (2013).
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A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, M. Chaigneau, R. Ossikovski, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “All-around SiN stressor for high and homogeneous tensile strain in germanium microdisk cavities,” Advanced Optical Materials 3, 353–358 (2015).
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S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9, 88–92 (2015).
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R. Geiger, J. Frigerio, M. J. Süess, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Excess carrier lifetimes in Ge layers on Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 062106 (2014).
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M. J. Suess, R. Geiger, R. A. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Photonics 7, 466–472 (2013).
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M. M. Mirza, D. A. MacLaren, A. Samarelli, B. M. Holmes, H. Zhou, S. Thoms, D. MacIntyre, and D. J. Paul, “Determining the electronic performance limitations in top-down-fabricated si nanowires with mean widths down to 4 nm,” Nano Lett. 14, 6056–6060 (2014).
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S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9, 88–92 (2015).
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M. M. Mirza, D. A. MacLaren, A. Samarelli, B. M. Holmes, H. Zhou, S. Thoms, D. MacIntyre, and D. J. Paul, “Determining the electronic performance limitations in top-down-fabricated si nanowires with mean widths down to 4 nm,” Nano Lett. 14, 6056–6060 (2014).
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M. Prost, M. E. Kurdi, A. Ghrib, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, N. Zerounian, F. Aniel, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, F. Boeuf, and P. Boucaud, “Tensile-strained germanium microdisk electroluminescence,” Opt. Express 23, 6722–6730 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. de Kersauson, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Tensile-strained germanium microdisks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 221112 (2013).
[Crossref]

Saito, S.

A. Z. Al-Attili, S. Kako, M. Husain, F. Gardes, N. Higashitarumizu, S. Iwamoto, Y. Arakawa, Y. Ishikawa, H. Arimoto, K. Oda, T. Ido, and S. Saito, “Whispering gallery mode resonances from ge micro-disks on suspended beams,” Frontiers in Materials2 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sakat, E.

L. Baldassarre, E. Sakat, J. Frigerio, A. Samarelli, K. Gallacher, E. Calandrini, G. Isella, D. J. Paul, M. Ortolani, and P. Biagioni, “Midinfrared plasmon-enhanced spectroscopy with germanium antennas on silicon substrates,” Nano Lett. 15, 7225–7231 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Samarelli, A.

L. Baldassarre, E. Sakat, J. Frigerio, A. Samarelli, K. Gallacher, E. Calandrini, G. Isella, D. J. Paul, M. Ortolani, and P. Biagioni, “Midinfrared plasmon-enhanced spectroscopy with germanium antennas on silicon substrates,” Nano Lett. 15, 7225–7231 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. W. Millar, K. Gallacher, A. Samarelli, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, T. Dieing, and D. J. Paul, “Extending the emission wavelength of Ge nanopillars to 2.25 μm using silicon nitride stressors,” Opt. Express 23, 18193–18202 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. M. Mirza, D. A. MacLaren, A. Samarelli, B. M. Holmes, H. Zhou, S. Thoms, D. MacIntyre, and D. J. Paul, “Determining the electronic performance limitations in top-down-fabricated si nanowires with mean widths down to 4 nm,” Nano Lett. 14, 6056–6060 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. M. Mirza, H. Zhou, P. Velha, X. Li, K. E. Docherty, A. Samarelli, G. Ternent, and D. J. Paul, “Nanofabrication of high aspect ratio (∼50:1) sub-10 nm silicon nanowires using inductively coupled plasma etching,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 30, 06FF02 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sanchez-Perez, J. R.

J. R. Sanchez-Perez, C. Boztug, F. Chen, F. F. Sudradjat, D. M. Paskiewicz, R. Jacobson, M. G. Lagally, and R. Paiella, “Direct-bandgap light-emitting germanium in tensilely strained nanomembranes,” Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 108, 18893–18898 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sauvage, S.

M. Prost, M. El Kurdi, F. Aniel, N. Zerounian, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, F. Bœuf, and P. Boucaud, “Analysis of optical gain threshold in n-doped and tensile-strained germanium heterostructure diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 118, 125704 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, M. Chaigneau, R. Ossikovski, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “All-around SiN stressor for high and homogeneous tensile strain in germanium microdisk cavities,” Advanced Optical Materials 3, 353–358 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Prost, M. E. Kurdi, A. Ghrib, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, N. Zerounian, F. Aniel, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, F. Boeuf, and P. Boucaud, “Tensile-strained germanium microdisk electroluminescence,” Opt. Express 23, 6722–6730 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. de Kersauson, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Tensile-strained germanium microdisks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 221112 (2013).
[Crossref]

Schiefler, G.

M. J. Suess, R. Geiger, R. A. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Photonics 7, 466–472 (2013).
[Crossref]

Schroeder, T.

Shen, L.

Sigg, H.

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9, 88–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Geiger, J. Frigerio, M. J. Süess, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Excess carrier lifetimes in Ge layers on Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 062106 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. J. Suess, R. Geiger, R. A. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Photonics 7, 466–472 (2013).
[Crossref]

Soref, R.

R. Soref, “Mid-infrared photonics in silicon and germanium,” Nat. Photonics 4, 495–497 (2010).
[Crossref]

Spolenak, R.

R. Geiger, J. Frigerio, M. J. Süess, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Excess carrier lifetimes in Ge layers on Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 062106 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. J. Suess, R. Geiger, R. A. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Photonics 7, 466–472 (2013).
[Crossref]

Stoica, T.

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9, 88–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

Stoney, G. G.

G. G. Stoney, “The tension of metallic films deposited by electrolysis,” Proc. Royal. Soc. London A: Maths. Phys. Char. 82, 172–175 (1909).
[Crossref]

Sudradjat, F. F.

J. R. Sanchez-Perez, C. Boztug, F. Chen, F. F. Sudradjat, D. M. Paskiewicz, R. Jacobson, M. G. Lagally, and R. Paiella, “Direct-bandgap light-emitting germanium in tensilely strained nanomembranes,” Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 108, 18893–18898 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Suess, M. J.

M. J. Suess, R. Geiger, R. A. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Photonics 7, 466–472 (2013).
[Crossref]

Süess, M. J.

R. Geiger, J. Frigerio, M. J. Süess, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Excess carrier lifetimes in Ge layers on Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 062106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sun, X.

Sun, Y.

Y. Sun, S. E. Thompson, and T. Nishida, “Physics of strain effects in semiconductors and metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 104503 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ternent, G.

M. M. Mirza, H. Zhou, P. Velha, X. Li, K. E. Docherty, A. Samarelli, G. Ternent, and D. J. Paul, “Nanofabrication of high aspect ratio (∼50:1) sub-10 nm silicon nanowires using inductively coupled plasma etching,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 30, 06FF02 (2012).
[Crossref]

Thompson, S. E.

Y. Sun, S. E. Thompson, and T. Nishida, “Physics of strain effects in semiconductors and metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 104503 (2007).
[Crossref]

Thoms, S.

M. M. Mirza, D. A. MacLaren, A. Samarelli, B. M. Holmes, H. Zhou, S. Thoms, D. MacIntyre, and D. J. Paul, “Determining the electronic performance limitations in top-down-fabricated si nanowires with mean widths down to 4 nm,” Nano Lett. 14, 6056–6060 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tillack, B.

Trellakis, A.

S. Birner, T. Zibold, T. Andlauer, T. Kubis, M. Sabathil, A. Trellakis, and P. Vogl, “Nextnano: General purpose 3-d simulations,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 54, 2137–2142 (2007).
[Crossref]

Velha, P.

M. M. Mirza, H. Zhou, P. Velha, X. Li, K. E. Docherty, A. Samarelli, G. Ternent, and D. J. Paul, “Nanofabrication of high aspect ratio (∼50:1) sub-10 nm silicon nanowires using inductively coupled plasma etching,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 30, 06FF02 (2012).
[Crossref]

Virgilio, M.

Vogl, P.

S. Birner, T. Zibold, T. Andlauer, T. Kubis, M. Sabathil, A. Trellakis, and P. Vogl, “Nextnano: General purpose 3-d simulations,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 54, 2137–2142 (2007).
[Crossref]

von den Driesch, N.

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9, 88–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wirths, S.

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9, 88–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yamamoto, Y.

Zerounian, N.

M. Prost, M. E. Kurdi, A. Ghrib, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, N. Zerounian, F. Aniel, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, F. Boeuf, and P. Boucaud, “Tensile-strained germanium microdisk electroluminescence,” Opt. Express 23, 6722–6730 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Prost, M. El Kurdi, F. Aniel, N. Zerounian, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, F. Bœuf, and P. Boucaud, “Analysis of optical gain threshold in n-doped and tensile-strained germanium heterostructure diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 118, 125704 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhou, H.

M. M. Mirza, D. A. MacLaren, A. Samarelli, B. M. Holmes, H. Zhou, S. Thoms, D. MacIntyre, and D. J. Paul, “Determining the electronic performance limitations in top-down-fabricated si nanowires with mean widths down to 4 nm,” Nano Lett. 14, 6056–6060 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. M. Mirza, H. Zhou, P. Velha, X. Li, K. E. Docherty, A. Samarelli, G. Ternent, and D. J. Paul, “Nanofabrication of high aspect ratio (∼50:1) sub-10 nm silicon nanowires using inductively coupled plasma etching,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 30, 06FF02 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zibold, T.

S. Birner, T. Zibold, T. Andlauer, T. Kubis, M. Sabathil, A. Trellakis, and P. Vogl, “Nextnano: General purpose 3-d simulations,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 54, 2137–2142 (2007).
[Crossref]

Advanced Optical Materials (1)

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, M. Chaigneau, R. Ossikovski, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “All-around SiN stressor for high and homogeneous tensile strain in germanium microdisk cavities,” Advanced Optical Materials 3, 353–358 (2015).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

R. Geiger, J. Frigerio, M. J. Süess, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Excess carrier lifetimes in Ge layers on Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 062106 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. de Kersauson, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Tensile-strained germanium microdisks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 221112 (2013).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (1)

D. J. Paul, “Silicon photonics: a bright future?” Electron. Lett. 45, 582–584 (2009).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. (1)

S. Birner, T. Zibold, T. Andlauer, T. Kubis, M. Sabathil, A. Trellakis, and P. Vogl, “Nextnano: General purpose 3-d simulations,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 54, 2137–2142 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

Y. Sun, S. E. Thompson, and T. Nishida, “Physics of strain effects in semiconductors and metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 104503 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. Prost, M. El Kurdi, F. Aniel, N. Zerounian, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, F. Bœuf, and P. Boucaud, “Analysis of optical gain threshold in n-doped and tensile-strained germanium heterostructure diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 118, 125704 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Physics (1)

I. De Wolf, H. E. Maes, and S. K. Jones, “Stress measurements in silicon devices through Raman spectroscopy: Bridging the gap between theory and experiment,” J. Appl. Physics 79, 7148–7156 (1996).
[Crossref]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (1)

M. M. Mirza, H. Zhou, P. Velha, X. Li, K. E. Docherty, A. Samarelli, G. Ternent, and D. J. Paul, “Nanofabrication of high aspect ratio (∼50:1) sub-10 nm silicon nanowires using inductively coupled plasma etching,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 30, 06FF02 (2012).
[Crossref]

Laser Photonics Rev. (1)

D. J. Paul, “The progress towards terahertz quantum cascade lasers on silicon substrates,” Laser Photonics Rev. 4, 610–632 (2010).
[Crossref]

Microelectron J. (1)

K. Biswas and S. Kal, “Etch characteristics of KOH, TMAH and dual doped TMAH for bulk micromachining of silicon,” Microelectron J. 37, 519–525 (2006).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (2)

L. Baldassarre, E. Sakat, J. Frigerio, A. Samarelli, K. Gallacher, E. Calandrini, G. Isella, D. J. Paul, M. Ortolani, and P. Biagioni, “Midinfrared plasmon-enhanced spectroscopy with germanium antennas on silicon substrates,” Nano Lett. 15, 7225–7231 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. M. Mirza, D. A. MacLaren, A. Samarelli, B. M. Holmes, H. Zhou, S. Thoms, D. MacIntyre, and D. J. Paul, “Determining the electronic performance limitations in top-down-fabricated si nanowires with mean widths down to 4 nm,” Nano Lett. 14, 6056–6060 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (3)

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9, 88–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. J. Suess, R. Geiger, R. A. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Photonics 7, 466–472 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Soref, “Mid-infrared photonics in silicon and germanium,” Nat. Photonics 4, 495–497 (2010).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

D. J. Paul, “8-band k.p modeling of the quantum confined Stark effect in Ge quantum wells on Si substrates,” Phys. Rev. B 77, 155323 (2008).
[Crossref]

Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. (1)

J. R. Sanchez-Perez, C. Boztug, F. Chen, F. F. Sudradjat, D. M. Paskiewicz, R. Jacobson, M. G. Lagally, and R. Paiella, “Direct-bandgap light-emitting germanium in tensilely strained nanomembranes,” Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 108, 18893–18898 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Proc. Royal. Soc. London A: Maths. Phys. Char. (1)

G. G. Stoney, “The tension of metallic films deposited by electrolysis,” Proc. Royal. Soc. London A: Maths. Phys. Char. 82, 172–175 (1909).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

E. Anastassakis, A. Pinczuk, E. Burstein, F. H. Pollak, M. Cardona, and R. Island, “Effect of static uniaxial stress on the Raman Spectrum of silicon,” Solid State Commun.8, 133–138.

D. Lockwood, Light Scattering in Semiconductor Structures and Superlattices, vol. 273 of NATO ASI Series (Springer US, 1991).
[Crossref]

A. Z. Al-Attili, S. Kako, M. Husain, F. Gardes, N. Higashitarumizu, S. Iwamoto, Y. Arakawa, Y. Ishikawa, H. Arimoto, K. Oda, T. Ido, and S. Saito, “Whispering gallery mode resonances from ge micro-disks on suspended beams,” Frontiers in Materials2 (2015).
[Crossref]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) A cross sectional high angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscope image of a 4 μm diameter Ge micro-disk, after cross sectioning using a focussed ion beam microscope. (b) A scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of a 5 μm diameter Ge ring with a 1.5 μm waveguide width, which has been undercut by a wet etch. (c) A SEM of a 30 μm diameter ring structure undercut to produce free standing sections. (d) A SEM of a race-track cavity showing partially freestanding sections.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) The photoluminescence (PL) from a 4 μm Ge micro-disks undercut by ∼ 1300 nm with no stress (black). Also shown is the PL from 4 μm (green), 5 μm (blue) and 6 μm (red) μm disks, undercut by ∼ 1300 nm with red-shifts induced by a 2.45 GPa silicon nitride stressor layer (b) 4 μm diameter Ge micro-disk with varying undercut. (c) 4 μm Ge diameter rings with 1.5 μm waveguide widths with varying undercut. For (b) and (c) the green curve demonstrate the samples with no wet etch, while the blue and red curves represent undercuts of ∼ 625 and 1250 nm respectively. The detector cut-off is ∼ 2.5 μm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Raman maps of 4 μm micro-disks (top) and rings (bottom) with 300 nm thick, 2.37 GPa stressor layers. The structures on the left have no undercut etch, while at the centre and right they have undercuts of ∼ 625 nm and ∼ 1250 nm respectively. Each pixel is produced by fitting a Raman spectra with a single Lorentzian. The spectral position of the Lorentzian is then used to produce the colour map. (b) Raman spectra from a 4 μm micro-disk with a 2.45 GPa stressor showing a large shift of −9.9 1/cm. This corresponds to a strain of ∼ 2.3%

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) A histogram of the measured Raman line across a strained 6 μm diameter micro-disk and a ring cavity. The ring has a 1.5 μm waveguide width. Both structures had the same wet etch fabrication step and high stress silicon nitride layers. (b) Histograms for rings of varying diameter with no undercut and constant waveguide width of 1.5 μm. This demonstrates the trend of decreasing of the in-plane strain as the dimeter increases.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

COMSOL Multiphysics models of 4 μm Ge micro-disks with high stress silicon nitride layers. Both diagram present a 2D slice of a 3D model; the boundaries of which can be observed by the outline. The 2D slice is at the top of the Ge region. (a) demonstrates the ratio of εxx to εyy. (b) shows the shear strain, εxy, present at the edge of the micro-disk. The COMSOL model includes the anisotropy of the Ge elasticity tensor. x and y directions are orientated along the 〈100〉 crystal planes.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) 2D slices from finite element models through a Ge micro-disk demonstrating the shear strain component εxy, orientated parallel to two different crystallographic directions. In the [110] direction, it can be observed that the uniaxial stress transfer induces shear strains at the micro-disk edge, while in the [100] direction the shear strains are close to zero. (b) The percentage electron concentration at the Γ band is shown as a function of the shear strain component εxy, for different levels of in-plane strain i.e. (εxx+ εyy)/2. This demonstrates how the presence of shear strains can detrimentally effect the carrier concentration, and therefore the optical gain.

Equations (1)

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Δ ω = ( ε x x + ε y y ) 2 1 ω 0 [ p C 12 C 11 + q ]

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