Abstract

A quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS) sensor has been developed for the sensitive detection of ethylene (C2H4) at 10.5 µm using a continuous-wave distributed-feedback quantum cascade laser. At this long-wavelength infrared, the key acoustic elements of quartz tuning fork and micro-resonators were optimized to improve the detection signal-to-noise ratio by a factor of >4. The sensor calibration demonstrated an excellent linear response (R2>0.999) to C2H4 concentration at the selected operating pressure of 500 and 760 Torr. With a minimum detection limit of 50 parts per billion (ppb) achieved at an averaging time of 70 s, the sensor has been deployed for measuring the C2H4 efflux during the respiration of biological samples in an agronomic environment.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref]

2015 (2)

H. Yi, R. Maamary, X. Gao, M. W. Sigrist, E. Fertein, and W. Chen, “Short-lived species detection of nitrous acid by external-cavity quantum cascade laser based quartz-enhanced photoacoustic absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(10), 101109 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Nguyen Ba, M. Triki, G. Desbrosses, and A. Vicet, “Quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy sensor for ethylene detection with a 3.32 μm distributed feedback laser diode,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86(2), 023111 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (3)

P. Patimisco, G. Scamarcio, F. K. Tittel, and V. Spagnolo, “Quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy: a review,” Sensors (Basel) 14(4), 6165–6206 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Puiu, G. Giubileo, and A. Lai, “Investigation of plant–pathogen interaction by laser-based photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Int. J. Thermophys. 35(12), 2237–2245 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Janssen, K. Schmitt, M. Blanke, M. L. Bauersfeld, J. Wöllenstein, and W. Lang, “Ethylene detection in fruit supply chains,” Philos. Trans. A Math. Phys. Eng. Sci. 372(2017), 20130311 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (3)

C. Popa, M. Patachia, S. Banita, C. Matei, A. Bratu, and D. Dumitras, “The level of ethylene biomarker in the renal failure of elderly patients analyzed by photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Laser Phys. 23(12), 125701 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Böttger, M. Köhring, U. Willer, and W. Schade, “Off-beam quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy with LEDs,” Appl. Phys. B 113(2), 227–232 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Borri, P. Patimisco, A. Sampaolo, H. Beere, D. Ritchie, M. Vitiello, G. Scamarcio, and V. Spagnolo, “Terahertz quartz enhanced photo-acoustic sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(2), 021105 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

M. S. Aziz and A. J. Orr-Ewing, “Development and application of an optical sensor for ethene in ambient air using near infra-red cavity ring down spectroscopy and sample preconcentration,” J. Environ. Monit. 14(12), 3094–3100 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Ren, D. F. Davidson, and R. K. Hanson, “IR laser absorption diagnostic for C2H4 in shock tube kinetics studies,” Int. J. Chem. Kinet. 44(6), 423–432 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

2010 (2)

L. Dong, A. A. Kosterev, D. Thomazy, and F. K. Tittel, “QEPAS spectrophones: design, optimization, and performance,” Appl. Phys. B 100(3), 627–635 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. Mothé, M. Castro, M. Sthel, G. Lima, L. Brasil, L. Campos, A. Rocha, and H. Vargas, “Detection of greenhouse gas precursors from diesel engines using electrochemical and photoacoustic sensors,” Sensors (Basel) 10(11), 9726–9741 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (5)

J. Manne, W. Jäger, and J. Tulip, “Sensitive detection of ammonia and ethylene with a pulsed quantum cascade laser using intra and interpulse spectroscopic techniques,” Appl. Phys. B 94(2), 337–344 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. Schilt, A. A. Kosterev, and F. K. Tittel, “Performance evaluation of a near infrared QEPAS based ethylene sensor,” Appl. Phys. B 95(4), 813–824 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. A. de Gouw, S. te Lintel Hekkert, J. Mellqvist, C. Warneke, E. L. Atlas, F. C. Fehsenfeld, A. Fried, G. J. Frost, F. J. Harren, J. S. Holloway, B. Lefer, R. Lueb, J. F. Meagher, D. D. Parrish, M. Patel, L. Pope, D. Richter, C. Rivera, T. B. Ryerson, J. Samuelsson, J. Walega, R. A. Washenfelder, P. Weibring, and X. Zhu, “Airborne measurements of ethene from industrial sources using laser photo-acoustic spectroscopy,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 43(7), 2437–2442 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9), 533–572 (2009).
[Crossref]

K. Liu, X. Guo, H. Yi, W. Chen, W. Zhang, and X. Gao, “Off-beam quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 34(10), 1594–1596 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (4)

H. Li, G. B. Rieker, X. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Extension of wavelength-modulation spectroscopy to large modulation depth for diode laser absorption measurements in high-pressure gases,” Appl. Opt. 45(5), 1052–1061 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Wahl, S. Tan, S. Koulikov, B. Kharlamov, C. Rella, E. Crosson, D. Biswell, and B. Paldus, “Ultra-sensitive ethylene post-harvest monitor based on cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 14(4), 1673–1684 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Wysocki, A. Kosterev, and F. Tittel, “Influence of molecular relaxation dynamics on quartz-enhanced photoacoustic detection of CO2 at λ = 2 μm,” Appl. Phys. B 85(2–3), 301–306 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. Kosterev, T. Mosely, and F. Tittel, “Impact of humidity on quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy based detection of HCN,” Appl. Phys. B 85(2–3), 295–300 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

2004 (2)

2002 (1)

2000 (1)

Y. Y. Leshem and Y. Pinchasov, “Non-invasive photoacoustic spectroscopic determination of relative endogenous nitric oxide and ethylene content stoichiometry during the ripening of strawberries Fragaria anannasa (Duch.) and avocados Persea americana (Mill.),” J. Exp. Bot. 51(349), 1471–1473 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (2)

F. J. M. Harren, R. Berkelmans, K. Kuiper, S. Hekkert, P. Scheepers, R. Dekhuijzen, P. Hollander, and D. H. Parker, “On-line laser photoacoustic detection of ethene in exhaled air as biomarker of ultraviolet radiation damage of the human skin,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(12), 1761 (1999).
[Crossref]

M. Mürtz, B. Frech, and W. Urban, “High-resolution cavity leak-out absorption spectroscopy in the 10-μm region,” Appl. Phys. B 68(2), 243–249 (1999).
[Crossref]

1997 (2)

L. Voesenek, M. Banga, J. Rijnders, E. Visser, F. Harren, R. Brailsford, M. Jackson, and C. Blom, “Laser-driven photoacoustic spectroscopy: what we can do with it in flooding research,” Ann. Bot. (Lond.) 79(1suppl 1), 57–65 (1997).
[Crossref]

J. M. Lelièvre, A. Latchè, B. Jones, M. Bouzayen, and J. C. Pech, “Ethylene and fruit ripening,” Physiol. Plant. 101(4), 727–739 (1997).
[Crossref]

1989 (1)

J. H. Seinfeld, “Urban air pollution: state of the science,” Science 243(4892), 745–752 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1983 (1)

G. A. West, J. J. Barrett, D. R. Siebert, and K. V. Reddy, “Photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 54(7), 797–817 (1983).
[Crossref]

Atlas, E. L.

J. A. de Gouw, S. te Lintel Hekkert, J. Mellqvist, C. Warneke, E. L. Atlas, F. C. Fehsenfeld, A. Fried, G. J. Frost, F. J. Harren, J. S. Holloway, B. Lefer, R. Lueb, J. F. Meagher, D. D. Parrish, M. Patel, L. Pope, D. Richter, C. Rivera, T. B. Ryerson, J. Samuelsson, J. Walega, R. A. Washenfelder, P. Weibring, and X. Zhu, “Airborne measurements of ethene from industrial sources using laser photo-acoustic spectroscopy,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 43(7), 2437–2442 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aziz, M. S.

M. S. Aziz and A. J. Orr-Ewing, “Development and application of an optical sensor for ethene in ambient air using near infra-red cavity ring down spectroscopy and sample preconcentration,” J. Environ. Monit. 14(12), 3094–3100 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bakhirkin, Y. A.

Banga, M.

L. Voesenek, M. Banga, J. Rijnders, E. Visser, F. Harren, R. Brailsford, M. Jackson, and C. Blom, “Laser-driven photoacoustic spectroscopy: what we can do with it in flooding research,” Ann. Bot. (Lond.) 79(1suppl 1), 57–65 (1997).
[Crossref]

Banita, S.

C. Popa, M. Patachia, S. Banita, C. Matei, A. Bratu, and D. Dumitras, “The level of ethylene biomarker in the renal failure of elderly patients analyzed by photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Laser Phys. 23(12), 125701 (2013).
[Crossref]

Barbe, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9), 533–572 (2009).
[Crossref]

Barrett, J. J.

G. A. West, J. J. Barrett, D. R. Siebert, and K. V. Reddy, “Photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 54(7), 797–817 (1983).
[Crossref]

Bauersfeld, M. L.

S. Janssen, K. Schmitt, M. Blanke, M. L. Bauersfeld, J. Wöllenstein, and W. Lang, “Ethylene detection in fruit supply chains,” Philos. Trans. A Math. Phys. Eng. Sci. 372(2017), 20130311 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beere, H.

S. Borri, P. Patimisco, A. Sampaolo, H. Beere, D. Ritchie, M. Vitiello, G. Scamarcio, and V. Spagnolo, “Terahertz quartz enhanced photo-acoustic sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(2), 021105 (2013).
[Crossref]

Benner, D. C.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9), 533–572 (2009).
[Crossref]

Berkelmans, R.

F. J. M. Harren, R. Berkelmans, K. Kuiper, S. Hekkert, P. Scheepers, R. Dekhuijzen, P. Hollander, and D. H. Parker, “On-line laser photoacoustic detection of ethene in exhaled air as biomarker of ultraviolet radiation damage of the human skin,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(12), 1761 (1999).
[Crossref]

Bernath, P. F.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9), 533–572 (2009).
[Crossref]

Birk, M.

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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9), 533–572 (2009).
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Brasil, L.

G. Mothé, M. Castro, M. Sthel, G. Lima, L. Brasil, L. Campos, A. Rocha, and H. Vargas, “Detection of greenhouse gas precursors from diesel engines using electrochemical and photoacoustic sensors,” Sensors (Basel) 10(11), 9726–9741 (2010).
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Bratu, A.

C. Popa, M. Patachia, S. Banita, C. Matei, A. Bratu, and D. Dumitras, “The level of ethylene biomarker in the renal failure of elderly patients analyzed by photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Laser Phys. 23(12), 125701 (2013).
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Brown, L. R.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9), 533–572 (2009).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9), 533–572 (2009).
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Campos, L.

G. Mothé, M. Castro, M. Sthel, G. Lima, L. Brasil, L. Campos, A. Rocha, and H. Vargas, “Detection of greenhouse gas precursors from diesel engines using electrochemical and photoacoustic sensors,” Sensors (Basel) 10(11), 9726–9741 (2010).
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Castro, M.

G. Mothé, M. Castro, M. Sthel, G. Lima, L. Brasil, L. Campos, A. Rocha, and H. Vargas, “Detection of greenhouse gas precursors from diesel engines using electrochemical and photoacoustic sensors,” Sensors (Basel) 10(11), 9726–9741 (2010).
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Champion, J.-P.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9), 533–572 (2009).
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Chance, K.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9), 533–572 (2009).
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Chen, W.

H. Yi, R. Maamary, X. Gao, M. W. Sigrist, E. Fertein, and W. Chen, “Short-lived species detection of nitrous acid by external-cavity quantum cascade laser based quartz-enhanced photoacoustic absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(10), 101109 (2015).
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K. Liu, X. Guo, H. Yi, W. Chen, W. Zhang, and X. Gao, “Off-beam quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 34(10), 1594–1596 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chu, P. M.

Coudert, L. H.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9), 533–572 (2009).
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Crosson, E.

Curl, R. F.

Dana, V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9), 533–572 (2009).
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Davidson, D. F.

W. Ren, D. F. Davidson, and R. K. Hanson, “IR laser absorption diagnostic for C2H4 in shock tube kinetics studies,” Int. J. Chem. Kinet. 44(6), 423–432 (2012).
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de Gouw, J. A.

J. A. de Gouw, S. te Lintel Hekkert, J. Mellqvist, C. Warneke, E. L. Atlas, F. C. Fehsenfeld, A. Fried, G. J. Frost, F. J. Harren, J. S. Holloway, B. Lefer, R. Lueb, J. F. Meagher, D. D. Parrish, M. Patel, L. Pope, D. Richter, C. Rivera, T. B. Ryerson, J. Samuelsson, J. Walega, R. A. Washenfelder, P. Weibring, and X. Zhu, “Airborne measurements of ethene from industrial sources using laser photo-acoustic spectroscopy,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 43(7), 2437–2442 (2009).
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Dekhuijzen, R.

F. J. M. Harren, R. Berkelmans, K. Kuiper, S. Hekkert, P. Scheepers, R. Dekhuijzen, P. Hollander, and D. H. Parker, “On-line laser photoacoustic detection of ethene in exhaled air as biomarker of ultraviolet radiation damage of the human skin,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(12), 1761 (1999).
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Desbrosses, G.

T. Nguyen Ba, M. Triki, G. Desbrosses, and A. Vicet, “Quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy sensor for ethylene detection with a 3.32 μm distributed feedback laser diode,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86(2), 023111 (2015).
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Devi, V. M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9), 533–572 (2009).
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Dong, L.

L. Dong, V. Spagnolo, R. Lewicki, and F. K. Tittel, “Ppb-level detection of nitric oxide using an external cavity quantum cascade laser based QEPAS sensor,” Opt. Express 19(24), 24037–24045 (2011).
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L. Dong, A. A. Kosterev, D. Thomazy, and F. K. Tittel, “QEPAS spectrophones: design, optimization, and performance,” Appl. Phys. B 100(3), 627–635 (2010).
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Dumitras, D.

C. Popa, M. Patachia, S. Banita, C. Matei, A. Bratu, and D. Dumitras, “The level of ethylene biomarker in the renal failure of elderly patients analyzed by photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Laser Phys. 23(12), 125701 (2013).
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Duxbury, G.

Fally, S.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9), 533–572 (2009).
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Fehsenfeld, F. C.

J. A. de Gouw, S. te Lintel Hekkert, J. Mellqvist, C. Warneke, E. L. Atlas, F. C. Fehsenfeld, A. Fried, G. J. Frost, F. J. Harren, J. S. Holloway, B. Lefer, R. Lueb, J. F. Meagher, D. D. Parrish, M. Patel, L. Pope, D. Richter, C. Rivera, T. B. Ryerson, J. Samuelsson, J. Walega, R. A. Washenfelder, P. Weibring, and X. Zhu, “Airborne measurements of ethene from industrial sources using laser photo-acoustic spectroscopy,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 43(7), 2437–2442 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fertein, E.

H. Yi, R. Maamary, X. Gao, M. W. Sigrist, E. Fertein, and W. Chen, “Short-lived species detection of nitrous acid by external-cavity quantum cascade laser based quartz-enhanced photoacoustic absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(10), 101109 (2015).
[Crossref]

Flaud, J.-M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9), 533–572 (2009).
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Fraser, M. P.

Frech, B.

M. Mürtz, B. Frech, and W. Urban, “High-resolution cavity leak-out absorption spectroscopy in the 10-μm region,” Appl. Phys. B 68(2), 243–249 (1999).
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Fried, A.

J. A. de Gouw, S. te Lintel Hekkert, J. Mellqvist, C. Warneke, E. L. Atlas, F. C. Fehsenfeld, A. Fried, G. J. Frost, F. J. Harren, J. S. Holloway, B. Lefer, R. Lueb, J. F. Meagher, D. D. Parrish, M. Patel, L. Pope, D. Richter, C. Rivera, T. B. Ryerson, J. Samuelsson, J. Walega, R. A. Washenfelder, P. Weibring, and X. Zhu, “Airborne measurements of ethene from industrial sources using laser photo-acoustic spectroscopy,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 43(7), 2437–2442 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Frost, G. J.

J. A. de Gouw, S. te Lintel Hekkert, J. Mellqvist, C. Warneke, E. L. Atlas, F. C. Fehsenfeld, A. Fried, G. J. Frost, F. J. Harren, J. S. Holloway, B. Lefer, R. Lueb, J. F. Meagher, D. D. Parrish, M. Patel, L. Pope, D. Richter, C. Rivera, T. B. Ryerson, J. Samuelsson, J. Walega, R. A. Washenfelder, P. Weibring, and X. Zhu, “Airborne measurements of ethene from industrial sources using laser photo-acoustic spectroscopy,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 43(7), 2437–2442 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gamache, R. R.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9), 533–572 (2009).
[Crossref]

Gao, X.

H. Yi, R. Maamary, X. Gao, M. W. Sigrist, E. Fertein, and W. Chen, “Short-lived species detection of nitrous acid by external-cavity quantum cascade laser based quartz-enhanced photoacoustic absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(10), 101109 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Liu, X. Guo, H. Yi, W. Chen, W. Zhang, and X. Gao, “Off-beam quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 34(10), 1594–1596 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Giubileo, G.

A. Puiu, G. Giubileo, and A. Lai, “Investigation of plant–pathogen interaction by laser-based photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Int. J. Thermophys. 35(12), 2237–2245 (2014).
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Goldman, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9), 533–572 (2009).
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Gordon, I. E.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9), 533–572 (2009).
[Crossref]

Guo, X.

Hanson, R. K.

Harren, F.

L. Voesenek, M. Banga, J. Rijnders, E. Visser, F. Harren, R. Brailsford, M. Jackson, and C. Blom, “Laser-driven photoacoustic spectroscopy: what we can do with it in flooding research,” Ann. Bot. (Lond.) 79(1suppl 1), 57–65 (1997).
[Crossref]

Harren, F. J.

J. A. de Gouw, S. te Lintel Hekkert, J. Mellqvist, C. Warneke, E. L. Atlas, F. C. Fehsenfeld, A. Fried, G. J. Frost, F. J. Harren, J. S. Holloway, B. Lefer, R. Lueb, J. F. Meagher, D. D. Parrish, M. Patel, L. Pope, D. Richter, C. Rivera, T. B. Ryerson, J. Samuelsson, J. Walega, R. A. Washenfelder, P. Weibring, and X. Zhu, “Airborne measurements of ethene from industrial sources using laser photo-acoustic spectroscopy,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 43(7), 2437–2442 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Harren, F. J. M.

F. J. M. Harren, R. Berkelmans, K. Kuiper, S. Hekkert, P. Scheepers, R. Dekhuijzen, P. Hollander, and D. H. Parker, “On-line laser photoacoustic detection of ethene in exhaled air as biomarker of ultraviolet radiation damage of the human skin,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(12), 1761 (1999).
[Crossref]

Hekkert, S.

F. J. M. Harren, R. Berkelmans, K. Kuiper, S. Hekkert, P. Scheepers, R. Dekhuijzen, P. Hollander, and D. H. Parker, “On-line laser photoacoustic detection of ethene in exhaled air as biomarker of ultraviolet radiation damage of the human skin,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(12), 1761 (1999).
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J. Manne, W. Jäger, and J. Tulip, “Sensitive detection of ammonia and ethylene with a pulsed quantum cascade laser using intra and interpulse spectroscopic techniques,” Appl. Phys. B 94(2), 337–344 (2009).
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Meagher, J. F.

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G. Mothé, M. Castro, M. Sthel, G. Lima, L. Brasil, L. Campos, A. Rocha, and H. Vargas, “Detection of greenhouse gas precursors from diesel engines using electrochemical and photoacoustic sensors,” Sensors (Basel) 10(11), 9726–9741 (2010).
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Parker, D. H.

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Parrish, D. D.

J. A. de Gouw, S. te Lintel Hekkert, J. Mellqvist, C. Warneke, E. L. Atlas, F. C. Fehsenfeld, A. Fried, G. J. Frost, F. J. Harren, J. S. Holloway, B. Lefer, R. Lueb, J. F. Meagher, D. D. Parrish, M. Patel, L. Pope, D. Richter, C. Rivera, T. B. Ryerson, J. Samuelsson, J. Walega, R. A. Washenfelder, P. Weibring, and X. Zhu, “Airborne measurements of ethene from industrial sources using laser photo-acoustic spectroscopy,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 43(7), 2437–2442 (2009).
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C. Popa, M. Patachia, S. Banita, C. Matei, A. Bratu, and D. Dumitras, “The level of ethylene biomarker in the renal failure of elderly patients analyzed by photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Laser Phys. 23(12), 125701 (2013).
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T. Nguyen Ba, M. Triki, G. Desbrosses, and A. Vicet, “Quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy sensor for ethylene detection with a 3.32 μm distributed feedback laser diode,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86(2), 023111 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tulip, J.

J. Manne, W. Jäger, and J. Tulip, “Sensitive detection of ammonia and ethylene with a pulsed quantum cascade laser using intra and interpulse spectroscopic techniques,” Appl. Phys. B 94(2), 337–344 (2009).
[Crossref]

Urban, W.

M. Mürtz, B. Frech, and W. Urban, “High-resolution cavity leak-out absorption spectroscopy in the 10-μm region,” Appl. Phys. B 68(2), 243–249 (1999).
[Crossref]

Vandaele, A. C.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9), 533–572 (2009).
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Vander Auwera, J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9), 533–572 (2009).
[Crossref]

Vargas, H.

G. Mothé, M. Castro, M. Sthel, G. Lima, L. Brasil, L. Campos, A. Rocha, and H. Vargas, “Detection of greenhouse gas precursors from diesel engines using electrochemical and photoacoustic sensors,” Sensors (Basel) 10(11), 9726–9741 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vicet, A.

T. Nguyen Ba, M. Triki, G. Desbrosses, and A. Vicet, “Quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy sensor for ethylene detection with a 3.32 μm distributed feedback laser diode,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86(2), 023111 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Visser, E.

L. Voesenek, M. Banga, J. Rijnders, E. Visser, F. Harren, R. Brailsford, M. Jackson, and C. Blom, “Laser-driven photoacoustic spectroscopy: what we can do with it in flooding research,” Ann. Bot. (Lond.) 79(1suppl 1), 57–65 (1997).
[Crossref]

Vitiello, M.

S. Borri, P. Patimisco, A. Sampaolo, H. Beere, D. Ritchie, M. Vitiello, G. Scamarcio, and V. Spagnolo, “Terahertz quartz enhanced photo-acoustic sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(2), 021105 (2013).
[Crossref]

Voesenek, L.

L. Voesenek, M. Banga, J. Rijnders, E. Visser, F. Harren, R. Brailsford, M. Jackson, and C. Blom, “Laser-driven photoacoustic spectroscopy: what we can do with it in flooding research,” Ann. Bot. (Lond.) 79(1suppl 1), 57–65 (1997).
[Crossref]

Wahl, E.

Walega, J.

J. A. de Gouw, S. te Lintel Hekkert, J. Mellqvist, C. Warneke, E. L. Atlas, F. C. Fehsenfeld, A. Fried, G. J. Frost, F. J. Harren, J. S. Holloway, B. Lefer, R. Lueb, J. F. Meagher, D. D. Parrish, M. Patel, L. Pope, D. Richter, C. Rivera, T. B. Ryerson, J. Samuelsson, J. Walega, R. A. Washenfelder, P. Weibring, and X. Zhu, “Airborne measurements of ethene from industrial sources using laser photo-acoustic spectroscopy,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 43(7), 2437–2442 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Warneke, C.

J. A. de Gouw, S. te Lintel Hekkert, J. Mellqvist, C. Warneke, E. L. Atlas, F. C. Fehsenfeld, A. Fried, G. J. Frost, F. J. Harren, J. S. Holloway, B. Lefer, R. Lueb, J. F. Meagher, D. D. Parrish, M. Patel, L. Pope, D. Richter, C. Rivera, T. B. Ryerson, J. Samuelsson, J. Walega, R. A. Washenfelder, P. Weibring, and X. Zhu, “Airborne measurements of ethene from industrial sources using laser photo-acoustic spectroscopy,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 43(7), 2437–2442 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Washenfelder, R. A.

J. A. de Gouw, S. te Lintel Hekkert, J. Mellqvist, C. Warneke, E. L. Atlas, F. C. Fehsenfeld, A. Fried, G. J. Frost, F. J. Harren, J. S. Holloway, B. Lefer, R. Lueb, J. F. Meagher, D. D. Parrish, M. Patel, L. Pope, D. Richter, C. Rivera, T. B. Ryerson, J. Samuelsson, J. Walega, R. A. Washenfelder, P. Weibring, and X. Zhu, “Airborne measurements of ethene from industrial sources using laser photo-acoustic spectroscopy,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 43(7), 2437–2442 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weibring, P.

J. A. de Gouw, S. te Lintel Hekkert, J. Mellqvist, C. Warneke, E. L. Atlas, F. C. Fehsenfeld, A. Fried, G. J. Frost, F. J. Harren, J. S. Holloway, B. Lefer, R. Lueb, J. F. Meagher, D. D. Parrish, M. Patel, L. Pope, D. Richter, C. Rivera, T. B. Ryerson, J. Samuelsson, J. Walega, R. A. Washenfelder, P. Weibring, and X. Zhu, “Airborne measurements of ethene from industrial sources using laser photo-acoustic spectroscopy,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 43(7), 2437–2442 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weidmann, D.

West, G. A.

G. A. West, J. J. Barrett, D. R. Siebert, and K. V. Reddy, “Photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 54(7), 797–817 (1983).
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Willer, U.

S. Böttger, M. Köhring, U. Willer, and W. Schade, “Off-beam quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy with LEDs,” Appl. Phys. B 113(2), 227–232 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wöllenstein, J.

S. Janssen, K. Schmitt, M. Blanke, M. L. Bauersfeld, J. Wöllenstein, and W. Lang, “Ethylene detection in fruit supply chains,” Philos. Trans. A Math. Phys. Eng. Sci. 372(2017), 20130311 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wysocki, G.

G. Wysocki, A. Kosterev, and F. Tittel, “Influence of molecular relaxation dynamics on quartz-enhanced photoacoustic detection of CO2 at λ = 2 μm,” Appl. Phys. B 85(2–3), 301–306 (2006).
[Crossref]

Yi, H.

H. Yi, R. Maamary, X. Gao, M. W. Sigrist, E. Fertein, and W. Chen, “Short-lived species detection of nitrous acid by external-cavity quantum cascade laser based quartz-enhanced photoacoustic absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(10), 101109 (2015).
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K. Liu, X. Guo, H. Yi, W. Chen, W. Zhang, and X. Gao, “Off-beam quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 34(10), 1594–1596 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, W.

Zhu, X.

J. A. de Gouw, S. te Lintel Hekkert, J. Mellqvist, C. Warneke, E. L. Atlas, F. C. Fehsenfeld, A. Fried, G. J. Frost, F. J. Harren, J. S. Holloway, B. Lefer, R. Lueb, J. F. Meagher, D. D. Parrish, M. Patel, L. Pope, D. Richter, C. Rivera, T. B. Ryerson, J. Samuelsson, J. Walega, R. A. Washenfelder, P. Weibring, and X. Zhu, “Airborne measurements of ethene from industrial sources using laser photo-acoustic spectroscopy,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 43(7), 2437–2442 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ann. Bot. (Lond.) (1)

L. Voesenek, M. Banga, J. Rijnders, E. Visser, F. Harren, R. Brailsford, M. Jackson, and C. Blom, “Laser-driven photoacoustic spectroscopy: what we can do with it in flooding research,” Ann. Bot. (Lond.) 79(1suppl 1), 57–65 (1997).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys. B (7)

L. Dong, A. A. Kosterev, D. Thomazy, and F. K. Tittel, “QEPAS spectrophones: design, optimization, and performance,” Appl. Phys. B 100(3), 627–635 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. Wysocki, A. Kosterev, and F. Tittel, “Influence of molecular relaxation dynamics on quartz-enhanced photoacoustic detection of CO2 at λ = 2 μm,” Appl. Phys. B 85(2–3), 301–306 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. Kosterev, T. Mosely, and F. Tittel, “Impact of humidity on quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy based detection of HCN,” Appl. Phys. B 85(2–3), 295–300 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. Böttger, M. Köhring, U. Willer, and W. Schade, “Off-beam quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy with LEDs,” Appl. Phys. B 113(2), 227–232 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Schilt, A. A. Kosterev, and F. K. Tittel, “Performance evaluation of a near infrared QEPAS based ethylene sensor,” Appl. Phys. B 95(4), 813–824 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Manne, W. Jäger, and J. Tulip, “Sensitive detection of ammonia and ethylene with a pulsed quantum cascade laser using intra and interpulse spectroscopic techniques,” Appl. Phys. B 94(2), 337–344 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Mürtz, B. Frech, and W. Urban, “High-resolution cavity leak-out absorption spectroscopy in the 10-μm region,” Appl. Phys. B 68(2), 243–249 (1999).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

F. J. M. Harren, R. Berkelmans, K. Kuiper, S. Hekkert, P. Scheepers, R. Dekhuijzen, P. Hollander, and D. H. Parker, “On-line laser photoacoustic detection of ethene in exhaled air as biomarker of ultraviolet radiation damage of the human skin,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(12), 1761 (1999).
[Crossref]

S. Borri, P. Patimisco, A. Sampaolo, H. Beere, D. Ritchie, M. Vitiello, G. Scamarcio, and V. Spagnolo, “Terahertz quartz enhanced photo-acoustic sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(2), 021105 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Yi, R. Maamary, X. Gao, M. W. Sigrist, E. Fertein, and W. Chen, “Short-lived species detection of nitrous acid by external-cavity quantum cascade laser based quartz-enhanced photoacoustic absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(10), 101109 (2015).
[Crossref]

Appl. Spectrosc. (1)

Environ. Sci. Technol. (1)

J. A. de Gouw, S. te Lintel Hekkert, J. Mellqvist, C. Warneke, E. L. Atlas, F. C. Fehsenfeld, A. Fried, G. J. Frost, F. J. Harren, J. S. Holloway, B. Lefer, R. Lueb, J. F. Meagher, D. D. Parrish, M. Patel, L. Pope, D. Richter, C. Rivera, T. B. Ryerson, J. Samuelsson, J. Walega, R. A. Washenfelder, P. Weibring, and X. Zhu, “Airborne measurements of ethene from industrial sources using laser photo-acoustic spectroscopy,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 43(7), 2437–2442 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Int. J. Chem. Kinet. (1)

W. Ren, D. F. Davidson, and R. K. Hanson, “IR laser absorption diagnostic for C2H4 in shock tube kinetics studies,” Int. J. Chem. Kinet. 44(6), 423–432 (2012).
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Int. J. Thermophys. (1)

A. Puiu, G. Giubileo, and A. Lai, “Investigation of plant–pathogen interaction by laser-based photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Int. J. Thermophys. 35(12), 2237–2245 (2014).
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J. Environ. Monit. (1)

M. S. Aziz and A. J. Orr-Ewing, “Development and application of an optical sensor for ethene in ambient air using near infra-red cavity ring down spectroscopy and sample preconcentration,” J. Environ. Monit. 14(12), 3094–3100 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Exp. Bot. (1)

Y. Y. Leshem and Y. Pinchasov, “Non-invasive photoacoustic spectroscopic determination of relative endogenous nitric oxide and ethylene content stoichiometry during the ripening of strawberries Fragaria anannasa (Duch.) and avocados Persea americana (Mill.),” J. Exp. Bot. 51(349), 1471–1473 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. (1)

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9), 533–572 (2009).
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C. Popa, M. Patachia, S. Banita, C. Matei, A. Bratu, and D. Dumitras, “The level of ethylene biomarker in the renal failure of elderly patients analyzed by photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Laser Phys. 23(12), 125701 (2013).
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Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Philos. Trans. A Math. Phys. Eng. Sci. (1)

S. Janssen, K. Schmitt, M. Blanke, M. L. Bauersfeld, J. Wöllenstein, and W. Lang, “Ethylene detection in fruit supply chains,” Philos. Trans. A Math. Phys. Eng. Sci. 372(2017), 20130311 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Physiol. Plant. (1)

J. M. Lelièvre, A. Latchè, B. Jones, M. Bouzayen, and J. C. Pech, “Ethylene and fruit ripening,” Physiol. Plant. 101(4), 727–739 (1997).
[Crossref]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (2)

T. Nguyen Ba, M. Triki, G. Desbrosses, and A. Vicet, “Quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy sensor for ethylene detection with a 3.32 μm distributed feedback laser diode,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86(2), 023111 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. A. West, J. J. Barrett, D. R. Siebert, and K. V. Reddy, “Photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 54(7), 797–817 (1983).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

J. H. Seinfeld, “Urban air pollution: state of the science,” Science 243(4892), 745–752 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sensors (Basel) (2)

G. Mothé, M. Castro, M. Sthel, G. Lima, L. Brasil, L. Campos, A. Rocha, and H. Vargas, “Detection of greenhouse gas precursors from diesel engines using electrochemical and photoacoustic sensors,” Sensors (Basel) 10(11), 9726–9741 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Patimisco, G. Scamarcio, F. K. Tittel, and V. Spagnolo, “Quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy: a review,” Sensors (Basel) 14(4), 6165–6206 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Absorption spectra of C2H4 between 1 and 13 µm at 296 K for 1 ppm C2H4 and 1 m optical path length (PNNL [27] database). (b) Simulated absorption coefficients of 1 ppm C2H4 and standard air near 10.5 µm at 296 K and 500 Torr using HITRAN [28] database (the QCL tuning range with a single current scan is highlighted).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 The (a) power and (b) wavelength tuning characteristics of the CW DFB-QCL at different operating temperatures.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Interference signal of etalon (two adjacent etalon peaks correspond to one FSR). (b) QCL frequency modulation (FM) depth and the phase shift relative to the intensity modulation (IM); bottom panel, residual of the sine curve fit to the IM.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Schematic and photo of the QEPAS sensor setup for C2H4 detection. L1, L2: plano-convex lens; ADM, acoustic detection module; QTF, quartz tuning fork; mR, micro-resonator; CEU, control electronics unit; DAQ, data acquisition.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 QEPAS (a) 2f signal and (b) background noise of two different mR dimensions. Red line, ID 0.9 mm; black line, ID 0.6 mm.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) Measured QEPAS 2f peak amplitude as a function of laser modulation depth and gas pressure. (b) Representative QEPAS 2f curves at two different modulation depths and a fixed pressure of 500 Torr. (c) Measured 2f peak amplitude as a function of laser modulation depth at two different pressures.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a) Representative QEPAS 2f signals recorded with varied C2H4 concentrations at 500 Torr and modulation depth of 0.0939 cm−1. (b) Measured 2f peak amplitude as a function of C2H4 concentration with the best linear fit.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 (a) Linearity of the 2f peak amplitude to the C2H4 concentration at 760 Torr; inset graph, typical QEPAS 2f signals at different C2H4 concentrations. (b) Allan deviation plot of the C2H4 sensor system.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Experimental procedures of monitoring the C2H4 efflux of apples.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 (a) Representative QEPAS 2f signal of C2H4 emission by the apples; the 2f signal of a known concentration of C2H4/N2 mixture is also plotted for comparison. (b) Measured C2H4 efflux of the apples varied with time.

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