Abstract

Superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors (SNSPDs) at a wavelength of 532 nm were designed and fabricated aiming to satellite laser ranging (SLR) applications. The NbN SNSPDs were fabricated on one-dimensional photonic crystals with a sensitive-area diameter of 42 μm. The devices were coupled with multimode fiber (ϕ = 50 μm) and exhibited a maximum system detection efficiency of 75% at an extremely low dark count rate of <0.1 Hz. An SLR experiment using an SNSPD at a wavelength of 532 nm was successfully demonstrated. The results showed a depth ranging with a precision of ~8.0 mm for the target satellite LARES, which is ~3,000 km away from the ground ranging station at the Sheshan Observatory.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (2)

H. Li, L. Zhang, L. You, X. Yang, W. Zhang, X. Liu, S. Chen, Z. Wang, and X. Xie, “Large-sensitive-area superconducting nanowire single-photon detector at 850 nm with high detection efficiency,” Opt. Express 23(13), 17301–17308 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. J. Zhang, H. Li, L. X. You, Y. H. He, L. Zhang, X. Y. Liu, X. Y. Yang, J. J. Wu, Q. Guo, S. J. Chen, Z. Wang, and X. M. Xie, “Superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors at a wavelength of 940 nm,” AIP Adv. 5(6), 067129 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (5)

2013 (10)

H. Shibata, K. Shimizu, H. Takesue, and Y. Tokura, “Superconducting nanowire single-photon detector with ultralow dark count rate using cold optical filters,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(7), 072801 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Schuck, W. H. Pernice, and H. X. Tang, “Waveguide integrated low noise NbTiN nanowire single-photon detectors with milli-Hz dark count rate,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1893 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 210–214 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Rosenberg, A. J. Kerman, R. J. Molnar, and E. A. Dauler, “High-speed and high-efficiency superconducting nanowire single photon detector array,” Opt. Express 21(2), 1440–1447 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Miki, T. Yamashita, H. Terai, and Z. Wang, “High performance fiber-coupled NbTiN superconducting nanowire single photon detectors with Gifford-McMahon cryocooler,” Opt. Express 21(8), 10208–10214 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Yamashita, S. Miki, H. Terai, and Z. Wang, “Low-filling-factor superconducting single photon detector with high system detection efficiency,” Opt. Express 21(22), 27177–27184 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. You, X. Yang, Y. He, W. Zhang, D. Liu, W. Zhang, L. Zhang, L. Zhang, X. Liu, S. Chen, Z. Wang, and X. Xie, “Jitter analysis of a superconducting nanowire single photon detector,” AIP Adv. 3(7), 072135 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Chen, D. Liu, W. Zhang, L. You, Y. He, W. Zhang, X. Yang, G. Wu, M. Ren, H. Zeng, Z. Wang, X. Xie, and M. Jiang, “Time-of-flight laser ranging and imaging at 1550 nm using low-jitter superconducting nanowire single-photon detection system,” Appl. Opt. 52(14), 3241–3245 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. McCarthy, N. J. Krichel, N. R. Gemmell, X. Ren, M. G. Tanner, S. N. Dorenbos, V. Zwiller, R. H. Hadfield, and G. S. Buller, “Kilometer-range, high resolution depth imaging via 1560 nm wavelength single-photon detection,” Opt. Express 21(7), 8904–8915 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. R. Gemmell, A. McCarthy, B. Liu, M. G. Tanner, S. D. Dorenbos, V. Zwiller, M. S. Patterson, G. S. Buller, B. C. Wilson, and R. H. Hadfield, “Singlet oxygen luminescence detection with a fiber-coupled superconducting nanowire single-photon detector,” Opt. Express 21(4), 5005–5013 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

W. H. P. Pernice, C. Schuck, O. Minaeva, M. Li, G. N. Goltsman, A. V. Sergienko, and H. X. Tang, “High-speed and high-efficiency travelling wave single-photon detectors embedded in nanophotonic circuits,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1325 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

A. Gaggero, S. J. Nejad, F. Marsili, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, D. Bitauld, D. Sahin, G. J. Hamhuis, R. Nötzel, R. Sanjines, and A. Fiore, “Nanowire superconducting single-photon detectors on GaAs for integrated quantum photonic applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(15), 151108 (2010).
[Crossref]

V. Karagodsky, F. G. Sedgwick, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Theoretical analysis of subwavelength high contrast grating reflectors,” Opt. Express 18(16), 16973–16988 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, and Y. Yamamoto, “Quantum key distribution over 40 dB channel loss using superconducting single photon detectors,” Nat. Photonics 1(6), 343–348 (2007).
[Crossref]

1985 (1)

J. J. Degnan, “Satellite laser ranging:current status and future prosoects,” IEEE T. Geosci. Remote. GE-23(4), 398–413 (1985).
[Crossref]

Baek, B.

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 210–214 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bitauld, D.

A. Gaggero, S. J. Nejad, F. Marsili, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, D. Bitauld, D. Sahin, G. J. Hamhuis, R. Nötzel, R. Sanjines, and A. Fiore, “Nanowire superconducting single-photon detectors on GaAs for integrated quantum photonic applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(15), 151108 (2010).
[Crossref]

Buller, G. S.

Chang-Hasnain, C. J.

Chen, S.

Chen, S. J.

W. J. Zhang, H. Li, L. X. You, Y. H. He, L. Zhang, X. Y. Liu, X. Y. Yang, J. J. Wu, Q. Guo, S. J. Chen, Z. Wang, and X. M. Xie, “Superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors at a wavelength of 940 nm,” AIP Adv. 5(6), 067129 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. L. Tang, H. L. Yin, S. J. Chen, Y. Liu, W. J. Zhang, X. Jiang, L. Zhang, J. Wang, L. X. You, J. Y. Guan, D. X. Yang, Z. Wang, H. Liang, Z. Zhang, N. Zhou, X. Ma, T. Y. Chen, Q. Zhang, and J. W. Pan, “Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution over 200 km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(19), 190501 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, T. Y.

Y. L. Tang, H. L. Yin, S. J. Chen, Y. Liu, W. J. Zhang, X. Jiang, L. Zhang, J. Wang, L. X. You, J. Y. Guan, D. X. Yang, Z. Wang, H. Liang, Z. Zhang, N. Zhou, X. Ma, T. Y. Chen, Q. Zhang, and J. W. Pan, “Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution over 200 km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(19), 190501 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dauler, E. A.

Degnan, J. J.

J. J. Degnan, “Satellite laser ranging:current status and future prosoects,” IEEE T. Geosci. Remote. GE-23(4), 398–413 (1985).
[Crossref]

Dorenbos, S. D.

Dorenbos, S. N.

Fiore, A.

A. Gaggero, S. J. Nejad, F. Marsili, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, D. Bitauld, D. Sahin, G. J. Hamhuis, R. Nötzel, R. Sanjines, and A. Fiore, “Nanowire superconducting single-photon detectors on GaAs for integrated quantum photonic applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(15), 151108 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gaggero, A.

A. Gaggero, S. J. Nejad, F. Marsili, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, D. Bitauld, D. Sahin, G. J. Hamhuis, R. Nötzel, R. Sanjines, and A. Fiore, “Nanowire superconducting single-photon detectors on GaAs for integrated quantum photonic applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(15), 151108 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gemmell, N. R.

Gerrits, T.

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 210–214 (2013).
[Crossref]

Goltsman, G. N.

W. H. P. Pernice, C. Schuck, O. Minaeva, M. Li, G. N. Goltsman, A. V. Sergienko, and H. X. Tang, “High-speed and high-efficiency travelling wave single-photon detectors embedded in nanophotonic circuits,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1325 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grein, M. E.

D. V. Murphy, J. E. Kansky, M. E. Grein, R. T. Schulein, M. M. Willis, and R. E. Lafon, “LLCD operations using the lunar lasercom ground terminal,” Proc. SPIE 8971, 89710V (2014).
[Crossref]

Guan, J. Y.

Y. L. Tang, H. L. Yin, S. J. Chen, Y. Liu, W. J. Zhang, X. Jiang, L. Zhang, J. Wang, L. X. You, J. Y. Guan, D. X. Yang, Z. Wang, H. Liang, Z. Zhang, N. Zhou, X. Ma, T. Y. Chen, Q. Zhang, and J. W. Pan, “Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution over 200 km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(19), 190501 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guo, Q.

W. J. Zhang, H. Li, L. X. You, Y. H. He, L. Zhang, X. Y. Liu, X. Y. Yang, J. J. Wu, Q. Guo, S. J. Chen, Z. Wang, and X. M. Xie, “Superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors at a wavelength of 940 nm,” AIP Adv. 5(6), 067129 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hadfield, R. H.

Hamhuis, G. J.

A. Gaggero, S. J. Nejad, F. Marsili, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, D. Bitauld, D. Sahin, G. J. Hamhuis, R. Nötzel, R. Sanjines, and A. Fiore, “Nanowire superconducting single-photon detectors on GaAs for integrated quantum photonic applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(15), 151108 (2010).
[Crossref]

Haraguchi, T.

Harrington, S.

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 210–214 (2013).
[Crossref]

He, Y.

L. You, X. Yang, Y. He, W. Zhang, D. Liu, W. Zhang, L. Zhang, L. Zhang, X. Liu, S. Chen, Z. Wang, and X. Xie, “Jitter analysis of a superconducting nanowire single photon detector,” AIP Adv. 3(7), 072135 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Chen, D. Liu, W. Zhang, L. You, Y. He, W. Zhang, X. Yang, G. Wu, M. Ren, H. Zeng, Z. Wang, X. Xie, and M. Jiang, “Time-of-flight laser ranging and imaging at 1550 nm using low-jitter superconducting nanowire single-photon detection system,” Appl. Opt. 52(14), 3241–3245 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

He, Y. H.

W. J. Zhang, H. Li, L. X. You, Y. H. He, L. Zhang, X. Y. Liu, X. Y. Yang, J. J. Wu, Q. Guo, S. J. Chen, Z. Wang, and X. M. Xie, “Superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors at a wavelength of 940 nm,” AIP Adv. 5(6), 067129 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hiraoka, Y.

Honjo, T.

H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, and Y. Yamamoto, “Quantum key distribution over 40 dB channel loss using superconducting single photon detectors,” Nat. Photonics 1(6), 343–348 (2007).
[Crossref]

Jiang, M.

Jiang, X.

Y. L. Tang, H. L. Yin, S. J. Chen, Y. Liu, W. J. Zhang, X. Jiang, L. Zhang, J. Wang, L. X. You, J. Y. Guan, D. X. Yang, Z. Wang, H. Liang, Z. Zhang, N. Zhou, X. Ma, T. Y. Chen, Q. Zhang, and J. W. Pan, “Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution over 200 km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(19), 190501 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kansky, J. E.

D. V. Murphy, J. E. Kansky, M. E. Grein, R. T. Schulein, M. M. Willis, and R. E. Lafon, “LLCD operations using the lunar lasercom ground terminal,” Proc. SPIE 8971, 89710V (2014).
[Crossref]

Karagodsky, V.

Kerman, A. J.

Kinjo, M.

Krichel, N. J.

Lafon, R. E.

D. V. Murphy, J. E. Kansky, M. E. Grein, R. T. Schulein, M. M. Willis, and R. E. Lafon, “LLCD operations using the lunar lasercom ground terminal,” Proc. SPIE 8971, 89710V (2014).
[Crossref]

Leoni, R.

A. Gaggero, S. J. Nejad, F. Marsili, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, D. Bitauld, D. Sahin, G. J. Hamhuis, R. Nötzel, R. Sanjines, and A. Fiore, “Nanowire superconducting single-photon detectors on GaAs for integrated quantum photonic applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(15), 151108 (2010).
[Crossref]

Li, H.

Li, M.

W. H. P. Pernice, C. Schuck, O. Minaeva, M. Li, G. N. Goltsman, A. V. Sergienko, and H. X. Tang, “High-speed and high-efficiency travelling wave single-photon detectors embedded in nanophotonic circuits,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1325 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liang, H.

Y. L. Tang, H. L. Yin, S. J. Chen, Y. Liu, W. J. Zhang, X. Jiang, L. Zhang, J. Wang, L. X. You, J. Y. Guan, D. X. Yang, Z. Wang, H. Liang, Z. Zhang, N. Zhou, X. Ma, T. Y. Chen, Q. Zhang, and J. W. Pan, “Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution over 200 km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(19), 190501 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lita, A. E.

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 210–214 (2013).
[Crossref]

Liu, B.

Liu, D.

Liu, X.

Liu, X. Y.

W. J. Zhang, H. Li, L. X. You, Y. H. He, L. Zhang, X. Y. Liu, X. Y. Yang, J. J. Wu, Q. Guo, S. J. Chen, Z. Wang, and X. M. Xie, “Superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors at a wavelength of 940 nm,” AIP Adv. 5(6), 067129 (2015).
[Crossref]

Liu, Y.

Y. L. Tang, H. L. Yin, S. J. Chen, Y. Liu, W. J. Zhang, X. Jiang, L. Zhang, J. Wang, L. X. You, J. Y. Guan, D. X. Yang, Z. Wang, H. Liang, Z. Zhang, N. Zhou, X. Ma, T. Y. Chen, Q. Zhang, and J. W. Pan, “Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution over 200 km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(19), 190501 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ma, X.

Y. L. Tang, H. L. Yin, S. J. Chen, Y. Liu, W. J. Zhang, X. Jiang, L. Zhang, J. Wang, L. X. You, J. Y. Guan, D. X. Yang, Z. Wang, H. Liang, Z. Zhang, N. Zhou, X. Ma, T. Y. Chen, Q. Zhang, and J. W. Pan, “Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution over 200 km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(19), 190501 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Marsili, F.

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 210–214 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Gaggero, S. J. Nejad, F. Marsili, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, D. Bitauld, D. Sahin, G. J. Hamhuis, R. Nötzel, R. Sanjines, and A. Fiore, “Nanowire superconducting single-photon detectors on GaAs for integrated quantum photonic applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(15), 151108 (2010).
[Crossref]

Mattioli, F.

A. Gaggero, S. J. Nejad, F. Marsili, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, D. Bitauld, D. Sahin, G. J. Hamhuis, R. Nötzel, R. Sanjines, and A. Fiore, “Nanowire superconducting single-photon detectors on GaAs for integrated quantum photonic applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(15), 151108 (2010).
[Crossref]

McCarthy, A.

Miki, S.

Minaeva, O.

W. H. P. Pernice, C. Schuck, O. Minaeva, M. Li, G. N. Goltsman, A. V. Sergienko, and H. X. Tang, “High-speed and high-efficiency travelling wave single-photon detectors embedded in nanophotonic circuits,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1325 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mirin, R. P.

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 210–214 (2013).
[Crossref]

Molnar, R. J.

Murphy, D. V.

D. V. Murphy, J. E. Kansky, M. E. Grein, R. T. Schulein, M. M. Willis, and R. E. Lafon, “LLCD operations using the lunar lasercom ground terminal,” Proc. SPIE 8971, 89710V (2014).
[Crossref]

Nam, S. W.

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 210–214 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, and Y. Yamamoto, “Quantum key distribution over 40 dB channel loss using superconducting single photon detectors,” Nat. Photonics 1(6), 343–348 (2007).
[Crossref]

Nejad, S. J.

A. Gaggero, S. J. Nejad, F. Marsili, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, D. Bitauld, D. Sahin, G. J. Hamhuis, R. Nötzel, R. Sanjines, and A. Fiore, “Nanowire superconducting single-photon detectors on GaAs for integrated quantum photonic applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(15), 151108 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nötzel, R.

A. Gaggero, S. J. Nejad, F. Marsili, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, D. Bitauld, D. Sahin, G. J. Hamhuis, R. Nötzel, R. Sanjines, and A. Fiore, “Nanowire superconducting single-photon detectors on GaAs for integrated quantum photonic applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(15), 151108 (2010).
[Crossref]

Pan, J. W.

Y. L. Tang, H. L. Yin, S. J. Chen, Y. Liu, W. J. Zhang, X. Jiang, L. Zhang, J. Wang, L. X. You, J. Y. Guan, D. X. Yang, Z. Wang, H. Liang, Z. Zhang, N. Zhou, X. Ma, T. Y. Chen, Q. Zhang, and J. W. Pan, “Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution over 200 km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(19), 190501 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Patterson, M. S.

Peng, W.

Pernice, W. H.

C. Schuck, W. H. Pernice, and H. X. Tang, “Waveguide integrated low noise NbTiN nanowire single-photon detectors with milli-Hz dark count rate,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1893 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pernice, W. H. P.

W. H. P. Pernice, C. Schuck, O. Minaeva, M. Li, G. N. Goltsman, A. V. Sergienko, and H. X. Tang, “High-speed and high-efficiency travelling wave single-photon detectors embedded in nanophotonic circuits,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1325 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ren, M.

Ren, X.

Rosenberg, D.

Sahin, D.

A. Gaggero, S. J. Nejad, F. Marsili, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, D. Bitauld, D. Sahin, G. J. Hamhuis, R. Nötzel, R. Sanjines, and A. Fiore, “Nanowire superconducting single-photon detectors on GaAs for integrated quantum photonic applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(15), 151108 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sanjines, R.

A. Gaggero, S. J. Nejad, F. Marsili, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, D. Bitauld, D. Sahin, G. J. Hamhuis, R. Nötzel, R. Sanjines, and A. Fiore, “Nanowire superconducting single-photon detectors on GaAs for integrated quantum photonic applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(15), 151108 (2010).
[Crossref]

Schuck, C.

C. Schuck, W. H. Pernice, and H. X. Tang, “Waveguide integrated low noise NbTiN nanowire single-photon detectors with milli-Hz dark count rate,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1893 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. H. P. Pernice, C. Schuck, O. Minaeva, M. Li, G. N. Goltsman, A. V. Sergienko, and H. X. Tang, “High-speed and high-efficiency travelling wave single-photon detectors embedded in nanophotonic circuits,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1325 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schulein, R. T.

D. V. Murphy, J. E. Kansky, M. E. Grein, R. T. Schulein, M. M. Willis, and R. E. Lafon, “LLCD operations using the lunar lasercom ground terminal,” Proc. SPIE 8971, 89710V (2014).
[Crossref]

Sedgwick, F. G.

Sergienko, A. V.

W. H. P. Pernice, C. Schuck, O. Minaeva, M. Li, G. N. Goltsman, A. V. Sergienko, and H. X. Tang, “High-speed and high-efficiency travelling wave single-photon detectors embedded in nanophotonic circuits,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1325 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shaw, M. D.

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 210–214 (2013).
[Crossref]

Shibata, H.

H. Shibata, K. Shimizu, H. Takesue, and Y. Tokura, “Superconducting nanowire single-photon detector with ultralow dark count rate using cold optical filters,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(7), 072801 (2013).
[Crossref]

Shimizu, K.

H. Shibata, K. Shimizu, H. Takesue, and Y. Tokura, “Superconducting nanowire single-photon detector with ultralow dark count rate using cold optical filters,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(7), 072801 (2013).
[Crossref]

Stern, J. A.

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 210–214 (2013).
[Crossref]

Takesue, H.

H. Shibata, K. Shimizu, H. Takesue, and Y. Tokura, “Superconducting nanowire single-photon detector with ultralow dark count rate using cold optical filters,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(7), 072801 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, and Y. Yamamoto, “Quantum key distribution over 40 dB channel loss using superconducting single photon detectors,” Nat. Photonics 1(6), 343–348 (2007).
[Crossref]

Tamaki, K.

H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, and Y. Yamamoto, “Quantum key distribution over 40 dB channel loss using superconducting single photon detectors,” Nat. Photonics 1(6), 343–348 (2007).
[Crossref]

Tang, H. X.

C. Schuck, W. H. Pernice, and H. X. Tang, “Waveguide integrated low noise NbTiN nanowire single-photon detectors with milli-Hz dark count rate,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1893 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. H. P. Pernice, C. Schuck, O. Minaeva, M. Li, G. N. Goltsman, A. V. Sergienko, and H. X. Tang, “High-speed and high-efficiency travelling wave single-photon detectors embedded in nanophotonic circuits,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1325 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tang, Y. L.

Y. L. Tang, H. L. Yin, S. J. Chen, Y. Liu, W. J. Zhang, X. Jiang, L. Zhang, J. Wang, L. X. You, J. Y. Guan, D. X. Yang, Z. Wang, H. Liang, Z. Zhang, N. Zhou, X. Ma, T. Y. Chen, Q. Zhang, and J. W. Pan, “Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution over 200 km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(19), 190501 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tanner, M. G.

Terai, H.

Tokura, Y.

H. Shibata, K. Shimizu, H. Takesue, and Y. Tokura, “Superconducting nanowire single-photon detector with ultralow dark count rate using cold optical filters,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(7), 072801 (2013).
[Crossref]

Vayshenker, I.

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 210–214 (2013).
[Crossref]

Verma, V. B.

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 210–214 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wang, J.

Y. L. Tang, H. L. Yin, S. J. Chen, Y. Liu, W. J. Zhang, X. Jiang, L. Zhang, J. Wang, L. X. You, J. Y. Guan, D. X. Yang, Z. Wang, H. Liang, Z. Zhang, N. Zhou, X. Ma, T. Y. Chen, Q. Zhang, and J. W. Pan, “Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution over 200 km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(19), 190501 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Z.

W. J. Zhang, H. Li, L. X. You, Y. H. He, L. Zhang, X. Y. Liu, X. Y. Yang, J. J. Wu, Q. Guo, S. J. Chen, Z. Wang, and X. M. Xie, “Superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors at a wavelength of 940 nm,” AIP Adv. 5(6), 067129 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Li, L. Zhang, L. You, X. Yang, W. Zhang, X. Liu, S. Chen, Z. Wang, and X. Xie, “Large-sensitive-area superconducting nanowire single-photon detector at 850 nm with high detection efficiency,” Opt. Express 23(13), 17301–17308 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Yamashita, D. Liu, S. Miki, J. Yamamoto, T. Haraguchi, M. Kinjo, Y. Hiraoka, Z. Wang, and H. Terai, “Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy with visible-wavelength superconducting nanowire single-photon detector,” Opt. Express 22(23), 28783–28789 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Liu, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, L. You, Z. Wang, and H. Terai, “Multimode fiber-coupled superconducting nanowire single-photon detector with 70% system efficiency at visible wavelength,” Opt. Express 22(18), 21167–21174 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Yang, H. Li, W. Zhang, L. You, L. Zhang, X. Liu, Z. Wang, W. Peng, X. Xie, and M. Jiang, “Superconducting nanowire single photon detector with on-chip bandpass filter,” Opt. Express 22(13), 16267–16272 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. L. Tang, H. L. Yin, S. J. Chen, Y. Liu, W. J. Zhang, X. Jiang, L. Zhang, J. Wang, L. X. You, J. Y. Guan, D. X. Yang, Z. Wang, H. Liang, Z. Zhang, N. Zhou, X. Ma, T. Y. Chen, Q. Zhang, and J. W. Pan, “Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution over 200 km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(19), 190501 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. You, X. Yang, Y. He, W. Zhang, D. Liu, W. Zhang, L. Zhang, L. Zhang, X. Liu, S. Chen, Z. Wang, and X. Xie, “Jitter analysis of a superconducting nanowire single photon detector,” AIP Adv. 3(7), 072135 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Yamashita, S. Miki, H. Terai, and Z. Wang, “Low-filling-factor superconducting single photon detector with high system detection efficiency,” Opt. Express 21(22), 27177–27184 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Chen, D. Liu, W. Zhang, L. You, Y. He, W. Zhang, X. Yang, G. Wu, M. Ren, H. Zeng, Z. Wang, X. Xie, and M. Jiang, “Time-of-flight laser ranging and imaging at 1550 nm using low-jitter superconducting nanowire single-photon detection system,” Appl. Opt. 52(14), 3241–3245 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Miki, T. Yamashita, H. Terai, and Z. Wang, “High performance fiber-coupled NbTiN superconducting nanowire single photon detectors with Gifford-McMahon cryocooler,” Opt. Express 21(8), 10208–10214 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Willis, M. M.

D. V. Murphy, J. E. Kansky, M. E. Grein, R. T. Schulein, M. M. Willis, and R. E. Lafon, “LLCD operations using the lunar lasercom ground terminal,” Proc. SPIE 8971, 89710V (2014).
[Crossref]

Wilson, B. C.

Wu, G.

Wu, J. J.

W. J. Zhang, H. Li, L. X. You, Y. H. He, L. Zhang, X. Y. Liu, X. Y. Yang, J. J. Wu, Q. Guo, S. J. Chen, Z. Wang, and X. M. Xie, “Superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors at a wavelength of 940 nm,” AIP Adv. 5(6), 067129 (2015).
[Crossref]

Xie, X.

Xie, X. M.

W. J. Zhang, H. Li, L. X. You, Y. H. He, L. Zhang, X. Y. Liu, X. Y. Yang, J. J. Wu, Q. Guo, S. J. Chen, Z. Wang, and X. M. Xie, “Superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors at a wavelength of 940 nm,” AIP Adv. 5(6), 067129 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yamamoto, J.

Yamamoto, Y.

H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, and Y. Yamamoto, “Quantum key distribution over 40 dB channel loss using superconducting single photon detectors,” Nat. Photonics 1(6), 343–348 (2007).
[Crossref]

Yamashita, T.

Yang, D. X.

Y. L. Tang, H. L. Yin, S. J. Chen, Y. Liu, W. J. Zhang, X. Jiang, L. Zhang, J. Wang, L. X. You, J. Y. Guan, D. X. Yang, Z. Wang, H. Liang, Z. Zhang, N. Zhou, X. Ma, T. Y. Chen, Q. Zhang, and J. W. Pan, “Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution over 200 km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(19), 190501 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, X.

Yang, X. Y.

W. J. Zhang, H. Li, L. X. You, Y. H. He, L. Zhang, X. Y. Liu, X. Y. Yang, J. J. Wu, Q. Guo, S. J. Chen, Z. Wang, and X. M. Xie, “Superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors at a wavelength of 940 nm,” AIP Adv. 5(6), 067129 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yin, H. L.

Y. L. Tang, H. L. Yin, S. J. Chen, Y. Liu, W. J. Zhang, X. Jiang, L. Zhang, J. Wang, L. X. You, J. Y. Guan, D. X. Yang, Z. Wang, H. Liang, Z. Zhang, N. Zhou, X. Ma, T. Y. Chen, Q. Zhang, and J. W. Pan, “Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution over 200 km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(19), 190501 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

You, L.

You, L. X.

W. J. Zhang, H. Li, L. X. You, Y. H. He, L. Zhang, X. Y. Liu, X. Y. Yang, J. J. Wu, Q. Guo, S. J. Chen, Z. Wang, and X. M. Xie, “Superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors at a wavelength of 940 nm,” AIP Adv. 5(6), 067129 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. L. Tang, H. L. Yin, S. J. Chen, Y. Liu, W. J. Zhang, X. Jiang, L. Zhang, J. Wang, L. X. You, J. Y. Guan, D. X. Yang, Z. Wang, H. Liang, Z. Zhang, N. Zhou, X. Ma, T. Y. Chen, Q. Zhang, and J. W. Pan, “Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution over 200 km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(19), 190501 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zeng, H.

Zhang, L.

W. J. Zhang, H. Li, L. X. You, Y. H. He, L. Zhang, X. Y. Liu, X. Y. Yang, J. J. Wu, Q. Guo, S. J. Chen, Z. Wang, and X. M. Xie, “Superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors at a wavelength of 940 nm,” AIP Adv. 5(6), 067129 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Li, L. Zhang, L. You, X. Yang, W. Zhang, X. Liu, S. Chen, Z. Wang, and X. Xie, “Large-sensitive-area superconducting nanowire single-photon detector at 850 nm with high detection efficiency,” Opt. Express 23(13), 17301–17308 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Yang, H. Li, W. Zhang, L. You, L. Zhang, X. Liu, Z. Wang, W. Peng, X. Xie, and M. Jiang, “Superconducting nanowire single photon detector with on-chip bandpass filter,” Opt. Express 22(13), 16267–16272 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. L. Tang, H. L. Yin, S. J. Chen, Y. Liu, W. J. Zhang, X. Jiang, L. Zhang, J. Wang, L. X. You, J. Y. Guan, D. X. Yang, Z. Wang, H. Liang, Z. Zhang, N. Zhou, X. Ma, T. Y. Chen, Q. Zhang, and J. W. Pan, “Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution over 200 km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(19), 190501 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. You, X. Yang, Y. He, W. Zhang, D. Liu, W. Zhang, L. Zhang, L. Zhang, X. Liu, S. Chen, Z. Wang, and X. Xie, “Jitter analysis of a superconducting nanowire single photon detector,” AIP Adv. 3(7), 072135 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. You, X. Yang, Y. He, W. Zhang, D. Liu, W. Zhang, L. Zhang, L. Zhang, X. Liu, S. Chen, Z. Wang, and X. Xie, “Jitter analysis of a superconducting nanowire single photon detector,” AIP Adv. 3(7), 072135 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Q.

Y. L. Tang, H. L. Yin, S. J. Chen, Y. Liu, W. J. Zhang, X. Jiang, L. Zhang, J. Wang, L. X. You, J. Y. Guan, D. X. Yang, Z. Wang, H. Liang, Z. Zhang, N. Zhou, X. Ma, T. Y. Chen, Q. Zhang, and J. W. Pan, “Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution over 200 km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(19), 190501 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, and Y. Yamamoto, “Quantum key distribution over 40 dB channel loss using superconducting single photon detectors,” Nat. Photonics 1(6), 343–348 (2007).
[Crossref]

Zhang, W.

H. Li, L. Zhang, L. You, X. Yang, W. Zhang, X. Liu, S. Chen, Z. Wang, and X. Xie, “Large-sensitive-area superconducting nanowire single-photon detector at 850 nm with high detection efficiency,” Opt. Express 23(13), 17301–17308 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Yang, H. Li, W. Zhang, L. You, L. Zhang, X. Liu, Z. Wang, W. Peng, X. Xie, and M. Jiang, “Superconducting nanowire single photon detector with on-chip bandpass filter,” Opt. Express 22(13), 16267–16272 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. You, X. Yang, Y. He, W. Zhang, D. Liu, W. Zhang, L. Zhang, L. Zhang, X. Liu, S. Chen, Z. Wang, and X. Xie, “Jitter analysis of a superconducting nanowire single photon detector,” AIP Adv. 3(7), 072135 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. You, X. Yang, Y. He, W. Zhang, D. Liu, W. Zhang, L. Zhang, L. Zhang, X. Liu, S. Chen, Z. Wang, and X. Xie, “Jitter analysis of a superconducting nanowire single photon detector,” AIP Adv. 3(7), 072135 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Chen, D. Liu, W. Zhang, L. You, Y. He, W. Zhang, X. Yang, G. Wu, M. Ren, H. Zeng, Z. Wang, X. Xie, and M. Jiang, “Time-of-flight laser ranging and imaging at 1550 nm using low-jitter superconducting nanowire single-photon detection system,” Appl. Opt. 52(14), 3241–3245 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Chen, D. Liu, W. Zhang, L. You, Y. He, W. Zhang, X. Yang, G. Wu, M. Ren, H. Zeng, Z. Wang, X. Xie, and M. Jiang, “Time-of-flight laser ranging and imaging at 1550 nm using low-jitter superconducting nanowire single-photon detection system,” Appl. Opt. 52(14), 3241–3245 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, W. J.

W. J. Zhang, H. Li, L. X. You, Y. H. He, L. Zhang, X. Y. Liu, X. Y. Yang, J. J. Wu, Q. Guo, S. J. Chen, Z. Wang, and X. M. Xie, “Superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors at a wavelength of 940 nm,” AIP Adv. 5(6), 067129 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. L. Tang, H. L. Yin, S. J. Chen, Y. Liu, W. J. Zhang, X. Jiang, L. Zhang, J. Wang, L. X. You, J. Y. Guan, D. X. Yang, Z. Wang, H. Liang, Z. Zhang, N. Zhou, X. Ma, T. Y. Chen, Q. Zhang, and J. W. Pan, “Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution over 200 km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(19), 190501 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Z.

Y. L. Tang, H. L. Yin, S. J. Chen, Y. Liu, W. J. Zhang, X. Jiang, L. Zhang, J. Wang, L. X. You, J. Y. Guan, D. X. Yang, Z. Wang, H. Liang, Z. Zhang, N. Zhou, X. Ma, T. Y. Chen, Q. Zhang, and J. W. Pan, “Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution over 200 km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(19), 190501 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, N.

Y. L. Tang, H. L. Yin, S. J. Chen, Y. Liu, W. J. Zhang, X. Jiang, L. Zhang, J. Wang, L. X. You, J. Y. Guan, D. X. Yang, Z. Wang, H. Liang, Z. Zhang, N. Zhou, X. Ma, T. Y. Chen, Q. Zhang, and J. W. Pan, “Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution over 200 km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(19), 190501 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zwiller, V.

AIP Adv. (2)

L. You, X. Yang, Y. He, W. Zhang, D. Liu, W. Zhang, L. Zhang, L. Zhang, X. Liu, S. Chen, Z. Wang, and X. Xie, “Jitter analysis of a superconducting nanowire single photon detector,” AIP Adv. 3(7), 072135 (2013).
[Crossref]

W. J. Zhang, H. Li, L. X. You, Y. H. He, L. Zhang, X. Y. Liu, X. Y. Yang, J. J. Wu, Q. Guo, S. J. Chen, Z. Wang, and X. M. Xie, “Superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors at a wavelength of 940 nm,” AIP Adv. 5(6), 067129 (2015).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Express (1)

H. Shibata, K. Shimizu, H. Takesue, and Y. Tokura, “Superconducting nanowire single-photon detector with ultralow dark count rate using cold optical filters,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(7), 072801 (2013).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

A. Gaggero, S. J. Nejad, F. Marsili, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, D. Bitauld, D. Sahin, G. J. Hamhuis, R. Nötzel, R. Sanjines, and A. Fiore, “Nanowire superconducting single-photon detectors on GaAs for integrated quantum photonic applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(15), 151108 (2010).
[Crossref]

IEEE T. Geosci. Remote. (1)

J. J. Degnan, “Satellite laser ranging:current status and future prosoects,” IEEE T. Geosci. Remote. GE-23(4), 398–413 (1985).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (1)

W. H. P. Pernice, C. Schuck, O. Minaeva, M. Li, G. N. Goltsman, A. V. Sergienko, and H. X. Tang, “High-speed and high-efficiency travelling wave single-photon detectors embedded in nanophotonic circuits,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1325 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (2)

H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, and Y. Yamamoto, “Quantum key distribution over 40 dB channel loss using superconducting single photon detectors,” Nat. Photonics 1(6), 343–348 (2007).
[Crossref]

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 210–214 (2013).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (10)

D. Rosenberg, A. J. Kerman, R. J. Molnar, and E. A. Dauler, “High-speed and high-efficiency superconducting nanowire single photon detector array,” Opt. Express 21(2), 1440–1447 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Miki, T. Yamashita, H. Terai, and Z. Wang, “High performance fiber-coupled NbTiN superconducting nanowire single photon detectors with Gifford-McMahon cryocooler,” Opt. Express 21(8), 10208–10214 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Yamashita, S. Miki, H. Terai, and Z. Wang, “Low-filling-factor superconducting single photon detector with high system detection efficiency,” Opt. Express 21(22), 27177–27184 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Yang, H. Li, W. Zhang, L. You, L. Zhang, X. Liu, Z. Wang, W. Peng, X. Xie, and M. Jiang, “Superconducting nanowire single photon detector with on-chip bandpass filter,” Opt. Express 22(13), 16267–16272 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic of the SNSPD based on a PC substrate. The PC structure was formed by multiple alternating Ta2O5 and SiO2 layers on a Si substrate (blue). (b) The measured reflectivity (blue curves) of the PC substrate consisting of 13 bilayers of Ta2O5 and SiO2. The other three curves illustrate the averaged absorptances of the nanowire for normal incidence with different pitches (260 nm, 280 nm and 340 nm) calculated using the RCWA method. The dips in the absorptance curves are caused by high order grating diffractions.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 System schematics for characterizing SNSPD. MMF: multimode fiber; ATT: variable attenuator; AMP: amplifier. The black dashed lines, solid lines with arrows, and red bold lines represent the DC path, RF path, and light path, respectively. The parallel solid and dashed lines represent the path for both DC and RF signals.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) I-V curves of our SNSPD. (b)DE (left) and DCR (right) versus bias current. The DE is approximately 75% with DCR of <1Hz. (c) Histograms of the time-correlated photon counts measured at a wavelength of 1,550 nm. The red lines were the fitted curves using Gaussian distribution. (d) Oscilloscope persistence map of the response at a bias current of 10.0 μA.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Schemetics of the SLR system using the deisgned SNSPD at the Sheshan Observatory (31°05′48″N121°11′24″E), Chinese Academy of Sciences. The system included a satellite-prediction system, control system, pulse laser, laser-beam transmitting system, telescope mount tracking system, high-precision timing system, receiving system and SNSPD system. (b) The ranging result. The horizontal axis is the time elapsed from the beginning of the tracking and the vertical axis is the range residual O-C between the observed and predicted values. The marked points in the dashed rectangular are returned photons’ trace of the satellite LARES.

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