Abstract

Owing to their unique properties, graphene-like two dimensional semiconducting materials, including Tungsten Disulfide (WS2) and Black Phosphorous (BP), have attracted increasing interest from basic research to practical applications. Herein, we demonstrated the ultrafast nonlinear saturable absorption response of WS2 and BP films in the waveguide structure. Through fabricating WS2 and BP films by evaporating the solutions on glass wafers. Saturable absorber films were attached onto the end-facet of the waveguide, which therefore constitutes a resonant cavity for the waveguide laser. Under a pump laser at 810 nm, we could obtain a stable Q-switched operation in the waveguide structure. This work indicated the significant potential of WS2 and BP for the ultrafast waveguide laser.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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2015 (12)

H. Mu, S. Lin, Z. Wang, S. Xiao, P. Li, Y. Chen, H. Zhang, H. Bao, S. P. Lau, C. Pan, D. Fan, and Q. Bao, “Black Phosphorus–Polymer Composites for Pulsed Lasers,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(10), 1447–1453 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Kim, S. S. Baik, S. H. Ryu, Y. Sohn, S. Park, B. G. Park, J. Denlinger, Y. Yi, H. J. Choi, and K. S. Kim, “Observation of tunable band gap and anisotropic Dirac semimetal state in black phosphorus,” Science 349(6249), 723–726 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Zhang, N. Dong, N. McEvoy, M. O’Brien, S. Winters, N. C. Berner, C. Yim, Y. Li, X. Zhang, Z. Chen, L. Zhang, G. S. Duesberg, and J. Wang, “Direct observation of degenerate two-photon absorption and its saturation in WS2 and MoS2 monolayer and few-layer films,” ACS Nano 9(7), 7142–7150 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, G. Huang, H. Mu, S. Lin, J. Chen, S. Xiao, Q. Bao, and J. He, “Ultrafast recovery time and broadband saturable absorption properties of black phosphorus suspension,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(9), 091905 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. W. Kim, S. Y. Choi, S. Aravazhi, M. Pollnau, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, S. Bae, K. J. Ahn, D. Yeom, and F. Rotermund, “Graphene Q-switched Yb:KYW planar waveguide laser,” AIP Adv. 5(1), 017110 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Mao, Y. Wang, C. Ma, L. Han, B. Jiang, X. Gan, S. Hua, W. Zhang, T. Mei, and J. Zhao, “WS2 mode-locked ultrafast fiber laser,” Sci. Rep. 5, 7965 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Tan, H. Zhang, C. Zhao, S. Akhmadaliev, S. Zhou, and F. Chen, “Bi₂Se₃ Q-switched Nd:YAG ceramic waveguide laser,” Opt. Lett. 40(4), 637–640 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Y. Choi, T. Calmano, M. H. Kim, D. I. Yeom, C. Kränkel, G. Huber, and F. Rotermund, “Q-switched operation of a femtosecond-laser-inscribed Yb:YAG channel waveguide laser using carbon nanotubes,” Opt. Express 23(6), 7999–8005 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Choudhary, S. J. Beecher, S. Dhingra, B. D’Urso, T. L. Parsonage, J. A. Grant-Jacob, P. Hua, J. I. Mackenzie, R. W. Eason, and D. P. Shepherd, “456-mW graphene Q-switched Yb:yttria waveguide laser by evanescent-field interaction,” Opt. Lett. 40(9), 1912–1915 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Chen, G. Jiang, S. Chen, Z. Guo, X. Yu, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, Q. Bao, S. Wen, D. Tang, and D. Fan, “Mechanically exfoliated black phosphorus as a new saturable absorber for both Q-switching and Mode-locking laser operation,” Opt. Express 23(10), 12823–12833 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Chen, G. Jiang, S. Chen, Z. Guo, X. Yu, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, Q. Bao, S. Wen, D. Tang, and D. Fan, “Mechanically exfoliated black phosphorus as a new saturable absorber for both Q-switching and Mode-locking laser operation,” Opt. Express 23(10), 12823–12833 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Zhang, F. Lou, R. Zhao, J. He, J. Li, X. Su, J. Ning, and K. Yang, “Exfoliated layers of black phosphorus as saturable absorber for ultrafast solid-state laser,” Opt. Lett. 40(16), 3691–3694 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (14)

Y. Tan, S. Akhmadaliev, S. Zhou, S. Sun, and F. Chen, “Guided continuous-wave and graphene-based Q-switched lasers in carbon ion irradiated Nd:YAG ceramic channel waveguide,” Opt. Express 22(3), 3572–3577 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Salamu, F. Jipa, M. Zamfirescu, and N. Pavel, “Laser emission from diode-pumped Nd:YAG ceramic waveguide lasers realized by direct femtosecond-laser writing technique,” Opt. Express 22(5), 5177–5182 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Choudhary, S. Dhingra, B. D’Urso, T. L. Parsonage, K. A. Sloyan, R. W. Eason, and D. P. Shepherd, “Q-switched operation of a pulsed-laser-deposited Yb:Y2O3 waveguide using graphene as a saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 39(15), 4325–4328 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Pavel, G. Salamu, F. Jipa, and M. Zamfirescu, “Diode-laser pumping into the emitting level for efficient lasing of depressed cladding waveguides realized in Nd:YVO4 by the direct femtosecond-laser writing technique,” Opt. Express 22(19), 23057–23065 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Fu, J. Qian, X. Qiao, P. Tan, and Z. Peng, “Nonlinear saturable absorption of vertically stood WS₂ nanoplates,” Opt. Lett. 39(22), 6450–6453 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Chen and J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, “Optical waveguides in crystalline dielectric materials produced by femtosecond - laser micromachining,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(2), 251–275 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Chanana and S. Mahapatra, “First principles study of metal contacts to monolayer black phosphorous,” J. Appl. Phys. 116(20), 204302 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. O. H. Churchill and P. Jarillo-Herrero, “Two-dimensional crystals: Phosphorus joins the family,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(5), 330–331 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Hong, J. Kim, S. F. Shi, Y. Zhang, C. Jin, Y. Sun, S. Tongay, J. Wu, Y. Zhang, and F. Wang, “Ultrafast charge transfer in atomically thin MoS₂/WS₂ heterostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(9), 682–686 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Gong, J. Lin, X. Wang, G. Shi, S. Lei, Z. Lin, X. Zou, G. Ye, R. Vajtai, B. I. Yakobson, H. Terrones, M. Terrones, B. K. Tay, J. Lou, S. T. Pantelides, Z. Liu, W. Zhou, and P. M. Ajayan, “Vertical and in-plane heterostructures from WS2/MoS2 monolayers,” Nat. Mater. 13(12), 1135–1142 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Xia, H. Wang, D. Xiao, M. Dubey, and A. Ramasubramaniam, “Two-dimensional material nanophotonics,” Nat. Photonics 8(12), 899–907 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. V. Kretinin, Y. Cao, J. S. Tu, G. L. Yu, R. Jalil, K. S. Novoselov, S. J. Haigh, A. Gholinia, A. Mishchenko, M. Lozada, T. Georgiou, C. R. Woods, F. Withers, P. Blake, G. Eda, A. Wirsig, C. Hucho, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, A. K. Geim, and R. V. Gorbachev, “Electronic properties of graphene encapsulated with different two-dimensional atomic crystals,” Nano Lett. 14(6), 3270–3276 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Roy, M. Tosun, J. S. Kang, A. B. Sachid, S. B. Desai, M. Hettick, C. C. Hu, and A. Javey, “Field-effect transistors built from all two-dimensional material components,” ACS Nano 8(6), 6259–6264 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Fiori, F. Bonaccorso, G. Iannaccone, T. Palacios, D. Neumaier, A. Seabaugh, S. K. Banerjee, and L. Colombo, “Electronics based on two-dimensional materials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(10), 768–779 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (1)

2012 (1)

F. Chen, “Micro - and submicrometric waveguiding structures in optical crystals produced by ion beams for photonic applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(5), 622–640 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

C. Grivas, “Optically pumped planar waveguide lasers, Part I: Fundamentals and fabrication techniques,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 35(6), 159–239 (2011).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Y. L. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. Tan, F. Chen, D. Jaque, W. L. Gao, H. J. Zhang, J. G. Solé, and H. J. Ma, “Ion-implanted optical-stripe waveguides in neodymium-doped calcium barium niobate crystals,” Opt. Lett. 34(9), 1438–1440 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

Y. F. Chen, Y. P. Lan, H. L. Chang, and J. Quan, “Analytical model for design criteria of passively Q-switched lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37(3), 462–468 (2001).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

1997 (1)

X. Zhang, S. Zhao, Q. Wang, Q. Zhang, L. Sun, and S. Zhang, “Optimization of Cr4+-doped saturable-absorber Q-switched lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33(12), 2286–2294 (1997).
[Crossref]

1991 (2)

J. J. Zayhowski and P. L. Kelley, “Optimization of Q-switched lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27(9), 2220–2225 (1991).
[Crossref]

E. Lallier, J. P. Pocholle, M. Papuchon, M. P. De Micheli, M. J. Li, Q. He, D. B. Ostrowsky, C. Grezes-Besset, and E. Pelletier, “Nd:MgO:LiNbO3 channel waveguide laser devices,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27(3), 618–625 (1991).
[Crossref]

Ahn, K. J.

J. W. Kim, S. Y. Choi, S. Aravazhi, M. Pollnau, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, S. Bae, K. J. Ahn, D. Yeom, and F. Rotermund, “Graphene Q-switched Yb:KYW planar waveguide laser,” AIP Adv. 5(1), 017110 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ajayan, P. M.

Y. Gong, J. Lin, X. Wang, G. Shi, S. Lei, Z. Lin, X. Zou, G. Ye, R. Vajtai, B. I. Yakobson, H. Terrones, M. Terrones, B. K. Tay, J. Lou, S. T. Pantelides, Z. Liu, W. Zhou, and P. M. Ajayan, “Vertical and in-plane heterostructures from WS2/MoS2 monolayers,” Nat. Mater. 13(12), 1135–1142 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Akhmadaliev, S.

Aravazhi, S.

J. W. Kim, S. Y. Choi, S. Aravazhi, M. Pollnau, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, S. Bae, K. J. Ahn, D. Yeom, and F. Rotermund, “Graphene Q-switched Yb:KYW planar waveguide laser,” AIP Adv. 5(1), 017110 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bae, S.

J. W. Kim, S. Y. Choi, S. Aravazhi, M. Pollnau, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, S. Bae, K. J. Ahn, D. Yeom, and F. Rotermund, “Graphene Q-switched Yb:KYW planar waveguide laser,” AIP Adv. 5(1), 017110 (2015).
[Crossref]

Baik, S. S.

J. Kim, S. S. Baik, S. H. Ryu, Y. Sohn, S. Park, B. G. Park, J. Denlinger, Y. Yi, H. J. Choi, and K. S. Kim, “Observation of tunable band gap and anisotropic Dirac semimetal state in black phosphorus,” Science 349(6249), 723–726 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Banerjee, S. K.

G. Fiori, F. Bonaccorso, G. Iannaccone, T. Palacios, D. Neumaier, A. Seabaugh, S. K. Banerjee, and L. Colombo, “Electronics based on two-dimensional materials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(10), 768–779 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bao, H.

H. Mu, S. Lin, Z. Wang, S. Xiao, P. Li, Y. Chen, H. Zhang, H. Bao, S. P. Lau, C. Pan, D. Fan, and Q. Bao, “Black Phosphorus–Polymer Composites for Pulsed Lasers,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(10), 1447–1453 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bao, Q.

H. Mu, S. Lin, Z. Wang, S. Xiao, P. Li, Y. Chen, H. Zhang, H. Bao, S. P. Lau, C. Pan, D. Fan, and Q. Bao, “Black Phosphorus–Polymer Composites for Pulsed Lasers,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(10), 1447–1453 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, G. Huang, H. Mu, S. Lin, J. Chen, S. Xiao, Q. Bao, and J. He, “Ultrafast recovery time and broadband saturable absorption properties of black phosphorus suspension,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(9), 091905 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, G. Jiang, S. Chen, Z. Guo, X. Yu, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, Q. Bao, S. Wen, D. Tang, and D. Fan, “Mechanically exfoliated black phosphorus as a new saturable absorber for both Q-switching and Mode-locking laser operation,” Opt. Express 23(10), 12823–12833 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Chen, G. Jiang, S. Chen, Z. Guo, X. Yu, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, Q. Bao, S. Wen, D. Tang, and D. Fan, “Mechanically exfoliated black phosphorus as a new saturable absorber for both Q-switching and Mode-locking laser operation,” Opt. Express 23(10), 12823–12833 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bao, Q. L.

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Y. L. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

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Ma, C.

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Paschotta, R.

Pavel, N.

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J. W. Kim, S. Y. Choi, S. Aravazhi, M. Pollnau, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, S. Bae, K. J. Ahn, D. Yeom, and F. Rotermund, “Graphene Q-switched Yb:KYW planar waveguide laser,” AIP Adv. 5(1), 017110 (2015).
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S. Y. Choi, T. Calmano, M. H. Kim, D. I. Yeom, C. Kränkel, G. Huber, and F. Rotermund, “Q-switched operation of a femtosecond-laser-inscribed Yb:YAG channel waveguide laser using carbon nanotubes,” Opt. Express 23(6), 7999–8005 (2015).
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T. Roy, M. Tosun, J. S. Kang, A. B. Sachid, S. B. Desai, M. Hettick, C. C. Hu, and A. Javey, “Field-effect transistors built from all two-dimensional material components,” ACS Nano 8(6), 6259–6264 (2014).
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Seabaugh, A.

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Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Y. L. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
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Shi, G.

Y. Gong, J. Lin, X. Wang, G. Shi, S. Lei, Z. Lin, X. Zou, G. Ye, R. Vajtai, B. I. Yakobson, H. Terrones, M. Terrones, B. K. Tay, J. Lou, S. T. Pantelides, Z. Liu, W. Zhou, and P. M. Ajayan, “Vertical and in-plane heterostructures from WS2/MoS2 monolayers,” Nat. Mater. 13(12), 1135–1142 (2014).
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Shi, S. F.

X. Hong, J. Kim, S. F. Shi, Y. Zhang, C. Jin, Y. Sun, S. Tongay, J. Wu, Y. Zhang, and F. Wang, “Ultrafast charge transfer in atomically thin MoS₂/WS₂ heterostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(9), 682–686 (2014).
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Sohn, Y.

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Spühler, G. J.

Su, X.

Sun, L.

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Sun, Y.

X. Hong, J. Kim, S. F. Shi, Y. Zhang, C. Jin, Y. Sun, S. Tongay, J. Wu, Y. Zhang, and F. Wang, “Ultrafast charge transfer in atomically thin MoS₂/WS₂ heterostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(9), 682–686 (2014).
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Tang, D.

Tang, D. Y.

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Y. Gong, J. Lin, X. Wang, G. Shi, S. Lei, Z. Lin, X. Zou, G. Ye, R. Vajtai, B. I. Yakobson, H. Terrones, M. Terrones, B. K. Tay, J. Lou, S. T. Pantelides, Z. Liu, W. Zhou, and P. M. Ajayan, “Vertical and in-plane heterostructures from WS2/MoS2 monolayers,” Nat. Mater. 13(12), 1135–1142 (2014).
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Y. Gong, J. Lin, X. Wang, G. Shi, S. Lei, Z. Lin, X. Zou, G. Ye, R. Vajtai, B. I. Yakobson, H. Terrones, M. Terrones, B. K. Tay, J. Lou, S. T. Pantelides, Z. Liu, W. Zhou, and P. M. Ajayan, “Vertical and in-plane heterostructures from WS2/MoS2 monolayers,” Nat. Mater. 13(12), 1135–1142 (2014).
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Wang, H.

F. Xia, H. Wang, D. Xiao, M. Dubey, and A. Ramasubramaniam, “Two-dimensional material nanophotonics,” Nat. Photonics 8(12), 899–907 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, J.

S. Zhang, N. Dong, N. McEvoy, M. O’Brien, S. Winters, N. C. Berner, C. Yim, Y. Li, X. Zhang, Z. Chen, L. Zhang, G. S. Duesberg, and J. Wang, “Direct observation of degenerate two-photon absorption and its saturation in WS2 and MoS2 monolayer and few-layer films,” ACS Nano 9(7), 7142–7150 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Q.

X. Zhang, S. Zhao, Q. Wang, Q. Zhang, L. Sun, and S. Zhang, “Optimization of Cr4+-doped saturable-absorber Q-switched lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33(12), 2286–2294 (1997).
[Crossref]

Wang, X.

Y. Gong, J. Lin, X. Wang, G. Shi, S. Lei, Z. Lin, X. Zou, G. Ye, R. Vajtai, B. I. Yakobson, H. Terrones, M. Terrones, B. K. Tay, J. Lou, S. T. Pantelides, Z. Liu, W. Zhou, and P. M. Ajayan, “Vertical and in-plane heterostructures from WS2/MoS2 monolayers,” Nat. Mater. 13(12), 1135–1142 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Y. Wang, G. Huang, H. Mu, S. Lin, J. Chen, S. Xiao, Q. Bao, and J. He, “Ultrafast recovery time and broadband saturable absorption properties of black phosphorus suspension,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(9), 091905 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Mao, Y. Wang, C. Ma, L. Han, B. Jiang, X. Gan, S. Hua, W. Zhang, T. Mei, and J. Zhao, “WS2 mode-locked ultrafast fiber laser,” Sci. Rep. 5, 7965 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Y. L. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wang, Z.

H. Mu, S. Lin, Z. Wang, S. Xiao, P. Li, Y. Chen, H. Zhang, H. Bao, S. P. Lau, C. Pan, D. Fan, and Q. Bao, “Black Phosphorus–Polymer Composites for Pulsed Lasers,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(10), 1447–1453 (2015).
[Crossref]

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A. V. Kretinin, Y. Cao, J. S. Tu, G. L. Yu, R. Jalil, K. S. Novoselov, S. J. Haigh, A. Gholinia, A. Mishchenko, M. Lozada, T. Georgiou, C. R. Woods, F. Withers, P. Blake, G. Eda, A. Wirsig, C. Hucho, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, A. K. Geim, and R. V. Gorbachev, “Electronic properties of graphene encapsulated with different two-dimensional atomic crystals,” Nano Lett. 14(6), 3270–3276 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wen, S.

Winters, S.

S. Zhang, N. Dong, N. McEvoy, M. O’Brien, S. Winters, N. C. Berner, C. Yim, Y. Li, X. Zhang, Z. Chen, L. Zhang, G. S. Duesberg, and J. Wang, “Direct observation of degenerate two-photon absorption and its saturation in WS2 and MoS2 monolayer and few-layer films,” ACS Nano 9(7), 7142–7150 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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A. V. Kretinin, Y. Cao, J. S. Tu, G. L. Yu, R. Jalil, K. S. Novoselov, S. J. Haigh, A. Gholinia, A. Mishchenko, M. Lozada, T. Georgiou, C. R. Woods, F. Withers, P. Blake, G. Eda, A. Wirsig, C. Hucho, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, A. K. Geim, and R. V. Gorbachev, “Electronic properties of graphene encapsulated with different two-dimensional atomic crystals,” Nano Lett. 14(6), 3270–3276 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Withers, F.

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[Crossref] [PubMed]

Woods, C. R.

A. V. Kretinin, Y. Cao, J. S. Tu, G. L. Yu, R. Jalil, K. S. Novoselov, S. J. Haigh, A. Gholinia, A. Mishchenko, M. Lozada, T. Georgiou, C. R. Woods, F. Withers, P. Blake, G. Eda, A. Wirsig, C. Hucho, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, A. K. Geim, and R. V. Gorbachev, “Electronic properties of graphene encapsulated with different two-dimensional atomic crystals,” Nano Lett. 14(6), 3270–3276 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, J.

X. Hong, J. Kim, S. F. Shi, Y. Zhang, C. Jin, Y. Sun, S. Tongay, J. Wu, Y. Zhang, and F. Wang, “Ultrafast charge transfer in atomically thin MoS₂/WS₂ heterostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(9), 682–686 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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F. Xia, H. Wang, D. Xiao, M. Dubey, and A. Ramasubramaniam, “Two-dimensional material nanophotonics,” Nat. Photonics 8(12), 899–907 (2014).
[Crossref]

Xiao, D.

F. Xia, H. Wang, D. Xiao, M. Dubey, and A. Ramasubramaniam, “Two-dimensional material nanophotonics,” Nat. Photonics 8(12), 899–907 (2014).
[Crossref]

Xiao, S.

H. Mu, S. Lin, Z. Wang, S. Xiao, P. Li, Y. Chen, H. Zhang, H. Bao, S. P. Lau, C. Pan, D. Fan, and Q. Bao, “Black Phosphorus–Polymer Composites for Pulsed Lasers,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(10), 1447–1453 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, G. Huang, H. Mu, S. Lin, J. Chen, S. Xiao, Q. Bao, and J. He, “Ultrafast recovery time and broadband saturable absorption properties of black phosphorus suspension,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(9), 091905 (2015).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Images of WS2 (a) and BP (b) SAMs. Insets of (a) and (b) are solutions of WS2 and BP, respectively. Measured Raman spectrum of WS2 (c) and BP (d) film.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Schematic plot of the experimental setup for the waveguide laser. The inset is the image of the Nd:YAG ceramic waveguide. (b) The variation of the output laser vs. time under the pump power of 1.08 W at 810 nm. The inset is the emission spectrum at 1064 nm. (c) The output power as a function of the launched pumping power. Inset is the measured near-field modal profile of the emitted laser from the waveguide.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) The nonlinear transmission of the WS2 film. The green range is the error band. Pulse trains (b), average output power (c), repetition rate and pulse duration (d) of the Q-switched pulse waveguide laser modulated by the WS2 film. The inset of (c) is the spectrum of the output laser.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) The nonlinear transmission of the BP film. Green range is the error band. Pulse trains (b), average output power (c), repetition rate and pulse duration (d) of the Q-switched pulse waveguide laser modulated by the BP film. The inset of (c) is the spectrum of the output laser.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The modulation depth (a) and the peak power (b) of the output pulse laser as a function of the pumping power modulated by WS2(circles) and BP (squares), respectively.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

α(I)= α NS + α s 1+ I I s
T(I)= e α(I)
P th M2orW S 2 = hc λ p 1 η σ e τ δ M2orW S 2 2
δ M2 =2αLln[(1 T 1 )×(1 T 2 )]
δ W S 2 =2αL+2 α W S 2 ln[(1 T 1 )×(1 T 2 )]
τ p = 3.52 T R ΔR

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