Abstract

Efficient sources of many-partite non-classical states are key for the advancement of quantum technologies and for the fundamental testing of quantum mechanics. We demonstrate the generation of time-correlated photon triplets at telecom wavelengths via pulsed cascaded parametric down-conversion in a monolithically integrated source. By detecting the generated states with success probabilities of (6.25 ± 1.09) × 10−11 per pump pulse at injected powers as low as 10 μW, we benchmark the efficiency of the complete system and deduce its high potential for scalability. Our source is unprecedentedly long-term stable, it overcomes interface losses intrinsically due to its monolithic architecture, and the photon-triplet states dominate uncorrelated noise significantly. These results mark crucial progress towards the proliferation of robust, scalable, synchronized and miniaturized quantum technology.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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2015 (4)

M. Giustina, M. A. M. Versteegh, S. Wengerowsky, J. Handsteiner, A. Hochrainer, K. Phelan, F. Steinlechner, J. Kofler, J.-A. Larsson, C. Abellan, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, M.W. Mitchell, J. Beyer, T. Gerrits, A. E. Lita, L.K. Shalm, S.W. Nam, T. Scheidl, R. Ursin, B. Wittmann, and A. Zeilinger, “A significant-loophole-free test of Bell’s theorem with entangled photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 250401 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. K. Shalm, E. Meyer-Scott, B. G. Christensen, P. Bierhorst, M. A. Wayne, M. J. Stevens, T. Gerrits, S. Glancy, D. R. Hamel, M. S. Allman, K. J. Coakley, S. D. Dyer, C. Hodge, A. E. Lita, V. B. Verma, C. Lambrocco, E. Tortorici, A. L. Migdall, Y. Zhang, D. R. Kumor, W. H. Farr, F. Marsili, M. D. Shaw, J. A. Stern, C. Abellán, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, T. Jennewein, M. W. Mitchell, P. G. Kwiat, J. C. Bienfang, R. P. Mirin, E. Knill, and S. W. Nam, “A strong loophole-free test of local realism,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 250402 (2015).
[Crossref]

D.-S. Ding, W. Zhang, S. Shi, Z.-Y. Zhou, Y. Li, B.-S. Shi, and G.-C. Guo, “Hybrid-cascaded generation of tripartite telecom photons using an atomic ensemble and a nonlinear waveguide,” Optica 2, 642–645 (2015).
[Crossref]

V. B. Verma, B. Korzh, F. Bussières, R. D. Horansky, S. D. Dyer, A. E. Lita, I. Vayshenker, F. Marsili, M. D. Shaw, H. Zbinden, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “High-efficiency superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors fabricated from MoSi thin-films,” Opt. Express 23, 33792–33801 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (7)

H. Jin, F. M. Liu, P. Xu, J. L. Xia, M. L. Zhong, Y. Yuan, J. W. Zhou, Y. X. Gong, W. Wang, and S. N. Zhu, “On-chip generation and manipulation of entangled photons based on reconfigurable lithium-niobate waveguide circuits,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 103601 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. W. Silverstone, D. Bonneau, K. Ohira, N. Suzuki, H. Yoshida, N. Iizuka, M. Ezaki, C. M. Natarajan, M. G. Tanner, R. H. Hadfield, V. Zwiller, G. D. Marshall, J. G. Rarity, J. L. O’Brien, and M. G. Thompson, “On-chip quantum interference between silicon photon-pair sources,” Nature Photon. 8, 104–108 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. Spagnolo, C. Vitelli, M. Bentivegna, D. J. Brod, A. Crespi, F. Flamini, S. Giacomini, G. Milani, R. Ramponi, P. Mataloni, R. Osellame, E. F. Galvao, and F. Sciarrino, “Experimental validation of photonic boson sampling,” Nature Photon. 8, 615–620 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Guerreiro, A. Martin, B. Sanguinetti, S. Pelc, J. C. Langrock, M. Fejer, M. N. Gisin, H. Zbinden, N. Sangouard, and R. T. Thew, “Nonlinear interaction between single photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 173601 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. R. Hamel, L. K. Shalm, H. Hübel, A. J. Miller, F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, R. P. Mirin, S. W. Nam, K. J. Resch, and T. Jennewein, “Direct generation of three-photon polarization entanglement,” Nature Photon. 8, 801–807 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. Qin, L. Cao, H. Wang, A. M. Marino, W. Zhang, and J. Jing, “Experimental generation of multiple quantum correlated beams from hot rubidium vapor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 023602 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Krapick, M. S. Stefszky, M. Jachura, B. Brecht, M. Avenhaus, and C. Silberhorn, “Bright integrated photon-pair source for practical passive decoy-state quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. A 89, 012329 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (5)

L. K. Shalm, D. R. Hamel, Z. Yan, C. Simon, K. J. Resch, and T. Jennewein, “Three-photon energy-time entanglement,” Nat. Phys. 9, 19–22 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7, 210–214 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Herrmann, X. Yang, A. Thomas, A. Poppe, W. Sohler, and C. Silberhorn, “Post-selection free, integrated optical source of non-degenerate, polarization entangled photon pairs,” Opt. Express 23, 27981–27991 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Krapick, H. Herrmann, V. Quiring, B. Brecht, H. Suche, and C. Silberhorn, “An efficient integrated two-color source for heralded single photons,” New J. Phys. 15, 033010 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Crespi, R. Osellame, R. Ramponi, D. J. Brod, E. F. Galvao, N. Spagnolo, C. Vitelli, E. Maiorino, P. Mataloni, and F. Sciarrino, “Integrated multimode interferometers with arbitrary designs for photonic boson sampling,” Nature Photon. 7, 545–549 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

X. Jia, Z. Yan, Z. Duan, X. Su, H. Wang, C. Xie, and K. Peng, “Experimental realization of three-color entanglement at optical fiber communication and atomic storage wavelengths,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 253604 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Martin, O. Alibart, M. P. D. Micheli, D. B. Ostrowsky, and S. Tanzilli, “A quantum relay chip based on telecommunication integrated optics technology,” New J. Phys. 14, 025002 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. Bonneau, E. Engin, K. Ohira, N. Suzuki, H. Yoshida, N. Iizuka, M. Ezaki, C. M. Natarajan, M. G. Tanner, R. H. Hadfield, S. N. Dorenbos, V. Zwiller, J. L. O’Brien, and M. G. Thompson, “Quantum interference and manipulation of entanglement in silicon wire waveguide quantum circuits,” New J. Phys. 14, 045003 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

D. A. Antonosyan, T. V. Gevorgyan, and G. Yu. Kryuchkyan, “Three-photon states in nonlinear crystal superlattices,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 043807 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. A. Broome, M. P. Almeida, A. Fedrizzi, and A. G. White, “Reducing multi-photon rates in pulsed down-conversion by temporal multiplexing,” Opt. Express 19, 22698–22708 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

H. Takesue and K. Shimizu, “Effects of multiple pairs on visibility measurements of entangled photons generated by spontaneous parametric processes,” Opt. Commun. 283, 276–287 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Barz, G. Cronenberg, A. Zeilinger, and P. Walther, “Heralded generation of entangled photon pairs,” Nature Photon. 4, 553–556 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Hübel, D. R. Hamel, A. Fedrizzi, S. Ramelow, K. J. Resch, and T. Jennewein, “Direct generation of photon triplets using cascaded photon-pair sources,” Nature 466, 601–603 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

2008 (2)

S.-Y. Baek, O. Kwon, and Y.-H. Kim, “Nonlocal dispersion control of a single-photon waveform,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 013816 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Politi, M. Cryan, J. G. Rarity, S. Yu, and J. L. O’Brien, “Silica-on-silicon waveguide quantum circuits,” Science 320, 646 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

G. Brida, M. V. Chekhova, M. Genovese, M. Gramegna, and L. A. Krivitsky, “Dispersion spreading of biphotons in optical fibers and two-photon interference,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 143601 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

2001 (1)

S. Tanzilli, H. de Riedmatten, H. Tittel, H. Zbinden, P. Baldi, M. De Micheli, D. Ostrowsky, and N. Gisin, “Highly efficient photon-pair source using periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide,” Electron. Lett. 37, 26–28 (2001).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

T. E. Keller, M. H. Rubin, Y. Shih, and L.-A. Wu, “Theory of the three-photon entangled state,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 2076–2079 (1998).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

G. S. Agarwal and K. Tara, “Nonclassical properties of states generated by the excitations on a coherent state,” Phys. Rev. A 43, 492–497 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

D. M. Greenberger, M. A. Horne, A. Shimony, and A. Zeilinger, “Bell’s theorem without inequalities,” Am. J. Phys. 58, 1131–1143 (1990).
[Crossref]

1985 (1)

R. Regener and W. Sohler, “Loss in low-finesse Ti:LiNbO3 optical waveguide resonators,” Appl. Phys. B 36, 143–147 (1985).
[Crossref]

1974 (1)

R. V. Schmidt and I. P. Kaminow, “Metal-diffused optical waveguides in LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 458–460 (1974).
[Crossref]

1935 (2)

E. Schroedinger, “Die gegenwaertige Situation in der Quantenmechanik,” Naturwissenschaften 23, 807–812 (1935).
[Crossref]

A. Einstein, B. Podolsky, and N. Rosen, “Can quantum-mechanical description of physical reality be considered complete?” Phys. Rev. 47, 777–780 (1935).
[Crossref]

Abellan, C.

M. Giustina, M. A. M. Versteegh, S. Wengerowsky, J. Handsteiner, A. Hochrainer, K. Phelan, F. Steinlechner, J. Kofler, J.-A. Larsson, C. Abellan, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, M.W. Mitchell, J. Beyer, T. Gerrits, A. E. Lita, L.K. Shalm, S.W. Nam, T. Scheidl, R. Ursin, B. Wittmann, and A. Zeilinger, “A significant-loophole-free test of Bell’s theorem with entangled photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 250401 (2015).
[Crossref]

Abellán, C.

L. K. Shalm, E. Meyer-Scott, B. G. Christensen, P. Bierhorst, M. A. Wayne, M. J. Stevens, T. Gerrits, S. Glancy, D. R. Hamel, M. S. Allman, K. J. Coakley, S. D. Dyer, C. Hodge, A. E. Lita, V. B. Verma, C. Lambrocco, E. Tortorici, A. L. Migdall, Y. Zhang, D. R. Kumor, W. H. Farr, F. Marsili, M. D. Shaw, J. A. Stern, C. Abellán, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, T. Jennewein, M. W. Mitchell, P. G. Kwiat, J. C. Bienfang, R. P. Mirin, E. Knill, and S. W. Nam, “A strong loophole-free test of local realism,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 250402 (2015).
[Crossref]

Agarwal, G. S.

G. S. Agarwal and K. Tara, “Nonclassical properties of states generated by the excitations on a coherent state,” Phys. Rev. A 43, 492–497 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alibart, O.

A. Martin, O. Alibart, M. P. D. Micheli, D. B. Ostrowsky, and S. Tanzilli, “A quantum relay chip based on telecommunication integrated optics technology,” New J. Phys. 14, 025002 (2012).
[Crossref]

Allman, M. S.

L. K. Shalm, E. Meyer-Scott, B. G. Christensen, P. Bierhorst, M. A. Wayne, M. J. Stevens, T. Gerrits, S. Glancy, D. R. Hamel, M. S. Allman, K. J. Coakley, S. D. Dyer, C. Hodge, A. E. Lita, V. B. Verma, C. Lambrocco, E. Tortorici, A. L. Migdall, Y. Zhang, D. R. Kumor, W. H. Farr, F. Marsili, M. D. Shaw, J. A. Stern, C. Abellán, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, T. Jennewein, M. W. Mitchell, P. G. Kwiat, J. C. Bienfang, R. P. Mirin, E. Knill, and S. W. Nam, “A strong loophole-free test of local realism,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 250402 (2015).
[Crossref]

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Amaya, W.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Device layout and on-chip functionalities: picosecond pulses at 532nm are injected to the coupled waveguide structure and pump the cascaded PDC process. They decay to photons at 790.3nm (signal 1) and at 1625nm (idler 1) in the periodically poled area I. The integrated directional coupler splits up the generated photon pairs spatio-spectrally. While idler 1 photons couple to the adjacent waveguide, the corresponding signal photons remain in the original waveguide and decay to secondary photon pairs at (1551 ± 25) nm (signal 2) and (1611 ± 25) nm (idler 2) in the periodically poled area II. Anti-reflective dielectric coatings on the waveguide end-faces provide the reduction of Fresnel-losses at telecom wavelengths, while the green pump is reflected in order to reduce additional filtering efforts.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup for photon-triplet verification: the tripartite states reside in the two output beams behind the device. A silicon filter blocks the pump and photons at 790.3nm in both beams. The lower output comprises the primary idler photons and the upper beam contains secondary photon pairs. We separate the secondary photon pairs quasi-deterministically according to their spectral correlations by fiber-based coarse wavelength division multiplexers at (1551 ± 7) nm and (1611 ± 7) nm, respectively. The three resulting fiber-coupled beams address free-running binary detectors. The data acquisition and evaluation is done by a time-tagging module and appropriate software. Legend: CWDM - coarse wavelength division multiplexer, FC - fiber coupling stage, FR-APD - free-running avalanche photodiode, HWP - half-wave plate, LPF - long-pass filter, SiF - silicon filter, SMF - single-mode fiber, SNSPD - superconducting nanowire single photon detector, TTM - time-tagging module, VAtt - variable attenuator.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Long-term stability of our device: we recorded the idler 1 count rate (per second) every ten seconds over the whole measurement time of 11.5 hours. The plot shows the relative change of the count rate with respect to the averaged value. We see that the relative fluctuations are less than 2% over the full measurement duration. After 2.5 hours of elapsed time, there is practically no residual drift, and the individual data points scatter with standard deviation of less than 0.5% around zero. This result is evidence for the unprecedented long-term stability of our integrated quantum circuit.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured three-fold coincidences around the expected arrival times (left). The central peak contains three-fold coincidences, which overcome the average noise background by a manifold and indicate strong time-correlations. We infer raw three-fold coincidence rates of 33 per 11.5 hours. Note that we merged the acquired data to time bins of τ16bin = (1.317 ± 0.002) ns, in order to take the joint timing jitter of the detection apparatus into account. Comparison of the absolute bin occupation in two temporal dimensions for a large analysis window (right). Our pump laser runs at a peak-to-peak repetition time of 100ns. The expected photon triplets reside in the time bin at around zero time delay between the three detectors. Neighboring three-fold coincidences with significantly lower absolute frequency are also present at timing distances of multiple integers of the inverse laser repetition rate. These accidental triple-coincidences represent the impact of higher-order photons and nonlinear Cherenkov-type PDC on the measurement. Note that we merged our data to time bins of around 10.5ns×10.5ns for improved visualization. The adjacent bar charts stem from the cross-cuts along the white dotted lines in the color-coded graph.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Histogram of the absolute frequencies of three-fold coincidences per 1.317ns-wide time bin: the logarithmic plot exhibits a Poisson-like distribution, underlined by the fit curve. Only one time bin contains Ntriplet = 33 ± 5.7 three-fold coincidences. Compared to the the mean value of 〈N3–fold〉 = 0.048 (standard deviation 〈N3–fold−1/2 = 0.218), this corresponds to a signal-to-noise-ratio of SNR > 680. The absolute frequencies for between 4 and 10 events per bin indicate pseudo-time-correlated accidental three-fold coincidences.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Determination of the optimum operation point for verifying photon triplets of high purity: with the two individual temperature tuning curves for fixed poling periods, it is convenient to find the fundamental point of operation at θ = 163.8°C and λs1 = 790.5nm (left). The spectral splitting of signal and idler wavelengths can be tuned such that addressing of suitable fiber-based filters (CWDM) can be achieved (right). This operation condition is fulfilled, when the secondary PDC is pumped with signal 1 photons at λs1 = λp2 ≤ 790.3nm. Note that the idler photons tend to be guided more and more weakly at wavelengths above 1635nm due to the cut-off-condition of our waveguides.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Estimation of the acceptance bandwidths of the 2nd PDC process. We integrate the spectrally resolved PDC outcome dependent on the pump wavelength. The peak at λp2 = 790.5nm denotes the principle wavelength operation point for a fixed temperature, while the width of our Gaussian fit curve indicates the acceptance bandwidth of the secondary PDC process and, thus, defines the good spectral overlap to the first PDC process.

Equations (9)

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ρ = ( ρ 0 ρ n ) ,
ρ m = e m m m m ! , m N 0 .
m = m = 0 m ρ m ,
P triplet th = η i 1 η s 2 η i 2 P PDC , 1 P PDC , 2 P p η p in λ p h c vac R rep
h ¯ ω p = h ¯ ω s + h ¯ ω i ,
1 λ p = 1 λ s + 1 λ i .
Δ k = k p k s k i .
k p k s k i ± 2 π Λ G = Δ k = 0 .
p i 1 + s 2 + i 2 , 532 nm 1625 nm + ( 1581 35 ) nm + ( 1581 ± 35 ) nm .

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