Abstract

We demonstrate near-field imaging capabilities of a conical waveguide without cutoff using broadband terahertz (THz) radiation. In contrast to conventional conically tapered waveguides, which are characterized by strong suppression of transmission below the cutoff frequency, the proposed structure consists of two pieces, such that there is an adjustable gap along the length of the waveguide. We also ensure that the sidewalls are thin in the vicinity of the gap. The combination of these geometrical features allow for significantly enhanced transmission at frequencies below the cutoff frequency, without compromising the mode confinement and, consequently, the spatial resolution when used for imaging applications. We demonstrate near-field imaging with this probe simultaneously at several frequencies, corresponding to three regimes: above, near and below the cutoff frequency. We observe only mild degradation in the image quality as the frequency is reduced below the cutoff frequency. These results suggest that further refinements in the probe structure will allow for improved imaging capabilities at frequencies well below the cutoff frequency.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]
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  24. S. Liu, O. Mitrofanov, and A. Nahata, “Transmission bleaching and coupling crossover in a split tapered aperture,” Opt. Express 21(25), 30895–30902 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  25. A. J. Macfaden, J. L. Reno, I. Brener, and O. Mitrofanov, “3 micron aperture probes for near-field terahertz transmission microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(1), 011110 (2014).
    [Crossref]

2015 (1)

K. Moon, H. Park, J. Kim, Y. Do, S. Lee, G. Lee, H. Kang, and H. Han, “Subsurface nanoimaging by broadband terahertz pulse near-field microscopy,” Nano Lett. 15(1), 549–552 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (1)

A. J. Macfaden, J. L. Reno, I. Brener, and O. Mitrofanov, “3 micron aperture probes for near-field terahertz transmission microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(1), 011110 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

2012 (1)

2011 (1)

M. I. Stockman, “Nanofocusing of optical energy in tapered plasmonic waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(1), 019901 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

2008 (2)

A. Bitzer and M. Walther, “Terahertz near-field imaging of metallic subwavelength holes and hole arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(23), 231101 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. J. Huber, F. Keilmann, J. Wittborn, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Terahertz near-field nanoscopy of mobile carriers in single semiconductor nanodevices,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 3766–3770 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

K. Ishihara, K. Ohashi, T. Ikari, H. Minamide, H. Yokoyama, J. Shikata, and H. Ito, “Terahertz-wave near-field imaging with subwavelength resolution using surface-wave-assisted bow-tie aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(20), 201120 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

N. Klein, P. Lahl, U. Poppe, F. Kadlec, and P. Kužel, “A metal-dielectric antenna for terahertz near-field imaging,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(1), 014910 (2005).
[Crossref]

M. M. Awad and R. A. Cheville, “Transmission terahertz waveguide-based imaging below the diffraction limit,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(22), 221107 (2005).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

H.-T. Chen, R. Kersting, and G. C. Cho, “Terahertz imaging with nanometer resolution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(15), 3009–3011 (2003).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

O. Mitrofanov, M. Lee, J. W. P. Hsu, I. Brener, R. Harel, J. F. Federici, J. D. Wynn, L. N. Pfeiffer, and K. W. West, “Collection-mode near-field imaging with 0.5-THz pulses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7(4), 600–607 (2001).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

S. Hunsche, M. Koch, I. Brener, and M. C. Nuss, “THz near-field imaging,” Opt. Commun. 150(1-6), 22–26 (1998).
[Crossref]

1994 (2)

F. Zenhausern, M. P. O’Boyle, and H. K. Wickramasinghe, “Apertureless near‐field optical microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65(13), 1623–1625 (1994).
[Crossref]

Y. Inouye and S. Kawata, “Near-field scanning optical microscope with a metallic probe tip,” Opt. Lett. 19(3), 159–161 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, and R. L. Kostelak, “Breaking the diffraction barrier: optical microscopy on a nanometric scale,” Science 251(5000), 1468–1470 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1984 (2)

A. Lewis, M. Isaacson, A. Harootunian, and A. Muray, “Development of a 500 Å spatial resolution light microscope: I. light is efficiently transmitted through λ/16 diameter apertures,” Ultramicroscopy 13(3), 227–231 (1984).
[Crossref]

D. W. Pohl, W. Denk, and M. Lanz, “Optical stethoscopy: Image recording with resolution λ/20,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 44(7), 651–653 (1984).
[Crossref]

1972 (1)

E. A. Ash and G. Nicholls, “Super-resolution aperture scanning microscope,” Nature 237(5357), 510–512 (1972).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1928 (1)

E. H. Synge, “A suggested method for extending microscopic resolution into the ultra-microscopic region,” Philos. Mag. 6(35), 356–362 (1928).
[Crossref]

Aizpurua, J.

A. J. Huber, F. Keilmann, J. Wittborn, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Terahertz near-field nanoscopy of mobile carriers in single semiconductor nanodevices,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 3766–3770 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ash, E. A.

E. A. Ash and G. Nicholls, “Super-resolution aperture scanning microscope,” Nature 237(5357), 510–512 (1972).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Awad, M. M.

M. M. Awad and R. A. Cheville, “Transmission terahertz waveguide-based imaging below the diffraction limit,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(22), 221107 (2005).
[Crossref]

Betzig, E.

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, and R. L. Kostelak, “Breaking the diffraction barrier: optical microscopy on a nanometric scale,” Science 251(5000), 1468–1470 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bitzer, A.

A. Bitzer and M. Walther, “Terahertz near-field imaging of metallic subwavelength holes and hole arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(23), 231101 (2008).
[Crossref]

Brener, I.

A. J. Macfaden, J. L. Reno, I. Brener, and O. Mitrofanov, “3 micron aperture probes for near-field terahertz transmission microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(1), 011110 (2014).
[Crossref]

O. Mitrofanov, M. Lee, J. W. P. Hsu, I. Brener, R. Harel, J. F. Federici, J. D. Wynn, L. N. Pfeiffer, and K. W. West, “Collection-mode near-field imaging with 0.5-THz pulses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7(4), 600–607 (2001).
[Crossref]

S. Hunsche, M. Koch, I. Brener, and M. C. Nuss, “THz near-field imaging,” Opt. Commun. 150(1-6), 22–26 (1998).
[Crossref]

Burgess, J. A. J.

T. L. Cocker, V. Jelic, M. Gupta, S. J. Molesky, J. A. J. Burgess, G. D. L. Reyes, L. V. Titova, Y. Y. Tsui, M. R. Freeman, and F. A. Hegmann, “An ultrafast terahertz scanning tunnelling microscope,” Nat. Photonics 7(8), 620–625 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chen, H.-T.

H.-T. Chen, R. Kersting, and G. C. Cho, “Terahertz imaging with nanometer resolution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(15), 3009–3011 (2003).
[Crossref]

Cheville, R. A.

M. M. Awad and R. A. Cheville, “Transmission terahertz waveguide-based imaging below the diffraction limit,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(22), 221107 (2005).
[Crossref]

Cho, G. C.

H.-T. Chen, R. Kersting, and G. C. Cho, “Terahertz imaging with nanometer resolution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(15), 3009–3011 (2003).
[Crossref]

Cocker, T. L.

T. L. Cocker, V. Jelic, M. Gupta, S. J. Molesky, J. A. J. Burgess, G. D. L. Reyes, L. V. Titova, Y. Y. Tsui, M. R. Freeman, and F. A. Hegmann, “An ultrafast terahertz scanning tunnelling microscope,” Nat. Photonics 7(8), 620–625 (2013).
[Crossref]

Denk, W.

D. W. Pohl, W. Denk, and M. Lanz, “Optical stethoscopy: Image recording with resolution λ/20,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 44(7), 651–653 (1984).
[Crossref]

Do, Y.

K. Moon, H. Park, J. Kim, Y. Do, S. Lee, G. Lee, H. Kang, and H. Han, “Subsurface nanoimaging by broadband terahertz pulse near-field microscopy,” Nano Lett. 15(1), 549–552 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Federici, J. F.

O. Mitrofanov, M. Lee, J. W. P. Hsu, I. Brener, R. Harel, J. F. Federici, J. D. Wynn, L. N. Pfeiffer, and K. W. West, “Collection-mode near-field imaging with 0.5-THz pulses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7(4), 600–607 (2001).
[Crossref]

Freeman, M. R.

T. L. Cocker, V. Jelic, M. Gupta, S. J. Molesky, J. A. J. Burgess, G. D. L. Reyes, L. V. Titova, Y. Y. Tsui, M. R. Freeman, and F. A. Hegmann, “An ultrafast terahertz scanning tunnelling microscope,” Nat. Photonics 7(8), 620–625 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gupta, M.

T. L. Cocker, V. Jelic, M. Gupta, S. J. Molesky, J. A. J. Burgess, G. D. L. Reyes, L. V. Titova, Y. Y. Tsui, M. R. Freeman, and F. A. Hegmann, “An ultrafast terahertz scanning tunnelling microscope,” Nat. Photonics 7(8), 620–625 (2013).
[Crossref]

Han, H.

K. Moon, H. Park, J. Kim, Y. Do, S. Lee, G. Lee, H. Kang, and H. Han, “Subsurface nanoimaging by broadband terahertz pulse near-field microscopy,” Nano Lett. 15(1), 549–552 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Harel, R.

O. Mitrofanov, M. Lee, J. W. P. Hsu, I. Brener, R. Harel, J. F. Federici, J. D. Wynn, L. N. Pfeiffer, and K. W. West, “Collection-mode near-field imaging with 0.5-THz pulses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7(4), 600–607 (2001).
[Crossref]

Harootunian, A.

A. Lewis, M. Isaacson, A. Harootunian, and A. Muray, “Development of a 500 Å spatial resolution light microscope: I. light is efficiently transmitted through λ/16 diameter apertures,” Ultramicroscopy 13(3), 227–231 (1984).
[Crossref]

Harris, T. D.

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, and R. L. Kostelak, “Breaking the diffraction barrier: optical microscopy on a nanometric scale,” Science 251(5000), 1468–1470 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hegmann, F. A.

T. L. Cocker, V. Jelic, M. Gupta, S. J. Molesky, J. A. J. Burgess, G. D. L. Reyes, L. V. Titova, Y. Y. Tsui, M. R. Freeman, and F. A. Hegmann, “An ultrafast terahertz scanning tunnelling microscope,” Nat. Photonics 7(8), 620–625 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hillenbrand, R.

A. J. Huber, F. Keilmann, J. Wittborn, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Terahertz near-field nanoscopy of mobile carriers in single semiconductor nanodevices,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 3766–3770 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hsu, J. W. P.

O. Mitrofanov, M. Lee, J. W. P. Hsu, I. Brener, R. Harel, J. F. Federici, J. D. Wynn, L. N. Pfeiffer, and K. W. West, “Collection-mode near-field imaging with 0.5-THz pulses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7(4), 600–607 (2001).
[Crossref]

Huber, A. J.

A. J. Huber, F. Keilmann, J. Wittborn, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Terahertz near-field nanoscopy of mobile carriers in single semiconductor nanodevices,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 3766–3770 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hunsche, S.

S. Hunsche, M. Koch, I. Brener, and M. C. Nuss, “THz near-field imaging,” Opt. Commun. 150(1-6), 22–26 (1998).
[Crossref]

Ikari, T.

K. Ishihara, K. Ohashi, T. Ikari, H. Minamide, H. Yokoyama, J. Shikata, and H. Ito, “Terahertz-wave near-field imaging with subwavelength resolution using surface-wave-assisted bow-tie aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(20), 201120 (2006).
[Crossref]

Inouye, Y.

Isaacson, M.

A. Lewis, M. Isaacson, A. Harootunian, and A. Muray, “Development of a 500 Å spatial resolution light microscope: I. light is efficiently transmitted through λ/16 diameter apertures,” Ultramicroscopy 13(3), 227–231 (1984).
[Crossref]

Ishihara, K.

K. Ishihara, K. Ohashi, T. Ikari, H. Minamide, H. Yokoyama, J. Shikata, and H. Ito, “Terahertz-wave near-field imaging with subwavelength resolution using surface-wave-assisted bow-tie aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(20), 201120 (2006).
[Crossref]

Ito, H.

K. Ishihara, K. Ohashi, T. Ikari, H. Minamide, H. Yokoyama, J. Shikata, and H. Ito, “Terahertz-wave near-field imaging with subwavelength resolution using surface-wave-assisted bow-tie aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(20), 201120 (2006).
[Crossref]

Jelic, V.

T. L. Cocker, V. Jelic, M. Gupta, S. J. Molesky, J. A. J. Burgess, G. D. L. Reyes, L. V. Titova, Y. Y. Tsui, M. R. Freeman, and F. A. Hegmann, “An ultrafast terahertz scanning tunnelling microscope,” Nat. Photonics 7(8), 620–625 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kadlec, F.

N. Klein, P. Lahl, U. Poppe, F. Kadlec, and P. Kužel, “A metal-dielectric antenna for terahertz near-field imaging,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(1), 014910 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kang, H.

K. Moon, H. Park, J. Kim, Y. Do, S. Lee, G. Lee, H. Kang, and H. Han, “Subsurface nanoimaging by broadband terahertz pulse near-field microscopy,” Nano Lett. 15(1), 549–552 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kawata, S.

Keilmann, F.

A. J. Huber, F. Keilmann, J. Wittborn, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Terahertz near-field nanoscopy of mobile carriers in single semiconductor nanodevices,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 3766–3770 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kersting, R.

H.-T. Chen, R. Kersting, and G. C. Cho, “Terahertz imaging with nanometer resolution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(15), 3009–3011 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kim, J.

K. Moon, H. Park, J. Kim, Y. Do, S. Lee, G. Lee, H. Kang, and H. Han, “Subsurface nanoimaging by broadband terahertz pulse near-field microscopy,” Nano Lett. 15(1), 549–552 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Klein, N.

N. Klein, P. Lahl, U. Poppe, F. Kadlec, and P. Kužel, “A metal-dielectric antenna for terahertz near-field imaging,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(1), 014910 (2005).
[Crossref]

Koch, M.

S. Hunsche, M. Koch, I. Brener, and M. C. Nuss, “THz near-field imaging,” Opt. Commun. 150(1-6), 22–26 (1998).
[Crossref]

Kostelak, R. L.

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, and R. L. Kostelak, “Breaking the diffraction barrier: optical microscopy on a nanometric scale,” Science 251(5000), 1468–1470 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kužel, P.

N. Klein, P. Lahl, U. Poppe, F. Kadlec, and P. Kužel, “A metal-dielectric antenna for terahertz near-field imaging,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(1), 014910 (2005).
[Crossref]

Lahl, P.

N. Klein, P. Lahl, U. Poppe, F. Kadlec, and P. Kužel, “A metal-dielectric antenna for terahertz near-field imaging,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(1), 014910 (2005).
[Crossref]

Lanz, M.

D. W. Pohl, W. Denk, and M. Lanz, “Optical stethoscopy: Image recording with resolution λ/20,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 44(7), 651–653 (1984).
[Crossref]

Lee, G.

K. Moon, H. Park, J. Kim, Y. Do, S. Lee, G. Lee, H. Kang, and H. Han, “Subsurface nanoimaging by broadband terahertz pulse near-field microscopy,” Nano Lett. 15(1), 549–552 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, M.

O. Mitrofanov, M. Lee, J. W. P. Hsu, I. Brener, R. Harel, J. F. Federici, J. D. Wynn, L. N. Pfeiffer, and K. W. West, “Collection-mode near-field imaging with 0.5-THz pulses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7(4), 600–607 (2001).
[Crossref]

Lee, S.

K. Moon, H. Park, J. Kim, Y. Do, S. Lee, G. Lee, H. Kang, and H. Han, “Subsurface nanoimaging by broadband terahertz pulse near-field microscopy,” Nano Lett. 15(1), 549–552 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lewis, A.

A. Lewis, M. Isaacson, A. Harootunian, and A. Muray, “Development of a 500 Å spatial resolution light microscope: I. light is efficiently transmitted through λ/16 diameter apertures,” Ultramicroscopy 13(3), 227–231 (1984).
[Crossref]

Liu, S.

Macfaden, A. J.

A. J. Macfaden, J. L. Reno, I. Brener, and O. Mitrofanov, “3 micron aperture probes for near-field terahertz transmission microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(1), 011110 (2014).
[Crossref]

Mendis, R.

Minamide, H.

K. Ishihara, K. Ohashi, T. Ikari, H. Minamide, H. Yokoyama, J. Shikata, and H. Ito, “Terahertz-wave near-field imaging with subwavelength resolution using surface-wave-assisted bow-tie aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(20), 201120 (2006).
[Crossref]

Mitrofanov, O.

A. J. Macfaden, J. L. Reno, I. Brener, and O. Mitrofanov, “3 micron aperture probes for near-field terahertz transmission microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(1), 011110 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Liu, O. Mitrofanov, and A. Nahata, “Transmission bleaching and coupling crossover in a split tapered aperture,” Opt. Express 21(25), 30895–30902 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Mitrofanov, C. C. Renaud, and A. J. Seeds, “Terahertz probe for spectroscopy of sub-wavelength objects,” Opt. Express 20(6), 6197–6202 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Mitrofanov, M. Lee, J. W. P. Hsu, I. Brener, R. Harel, J. F. Federici, J. D. Wynn, L. N. Pfeiffer, and K. W. West, “Collection-mode near-field imaging with 0.5-THz pulses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7(4), 600–607 (2001).
[Crossref]

Mittleman, D. M.

Molesky, S. J.

T. L. Cocker, V. Jelic, M. Gupta, S. J. Molesky, J. A. J. Burgess, G. D. L. Reyes, L. V. Titova, Y. Y. Tsui, M. R. Freeman, and F. A. Hegmann, “An ultrafast terahertz scanning tunnelling microscope,” Nat. Photonics 7(8), 620–625 (2013).
[Crossref]

Moon, K.

K. Moon, H. Park, J. Kim, Y. Do, S. Lee, G. Lee, H. Kang, and H. Han, “Subsurface nanoimaging by broadband terahertz pulse near-field microscopy,” Nano Lett. 15(1), 549–552 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Muray, A.

A. Lewis, M. Isaacson, A. Harootunian, and A. Muray, “Development of a 500 Å spatial resolution light microscope: I. light is efficiently transmitted through λ/16 diameter apertures,” Ultramicroscopy 13(3), 227–231 (1984).
[Crossref]

Nahata, A.

Nguyen, T. D.

Nicholls, G.

E. A. Ash and G. Nicholls, “Super-resolution aperture scanning microscope,” Nature 237(5357), 510–512 (1972).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nuss, M. C.

S. Hunsche, M. Koch, I. Brener, and M. C. Nuss, “THz near-field imaging,” Opt. Commun. 150(1-6), 22–26 (1998).
[Crossref]

O’Boyle, M. P.

F. Zenhausern, M. P. O’Boyle, and H. K. Wickramasinghe, “Apertureless near‐field optical microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65(13), 1623–1625 (1994).
[Crossref]

Ohashi, K.

K. Ishihara, K. Ohashi, T. Ikari, H. Minamide, H. Yokoyama, J. Shikata, and H. Ito, “Terahertz-wave near-field imaging with subwavelength resolution using surface-wave-assisted bow-tie aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(20), 201120 (2006).
[Crossref]

Park, H.

K. Moon, H. Park, J. Kim, Y. Do, S. Lee, G. Lee, H. Kang, and H. Han, “Subsurface nanoimaging by broadband terahertz pulse near-field microscopy,” Nano Lett. 15(1), 549–552 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pfeiffer, L. N.

O. Mitrofanov, M. Lee, J. W. P. Hsu, I. Brener, R. Harel, J. F. Federici, J. D. Wynn, L. N. Pfeiffer, and K. W. West, “Collection-mode near-field imaging with 0.5-THz pulses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7(4), 600–607 (2001).
[Crossref]

Pohl, D. W.

D. W. Pohl, W. Denk, and M. Lanz, “Optical stethoscopy: Image recording with resolution λ/20,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 44(7), 651–653 (1984).
[Crossref]

Poppe, U.

N. Klein, P. Lahl, U. Poppe, F. Kadlec, and P. Kužel, “A metal-dielectric antenna for terahertz near-field imaging,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(1), 014910 (2005).
[Crossref]

Renaud, C. C.

Reno, J. L.

A. J. Macfaden, J. L. Reno, I. Brener, and O. Mitrofanov, “3 micron aperture probes for near-field terahertz transmission microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(1), 011110 (2014).
[Crossref]

Reyes, G. D. L.

T. L. Cocker, V. Jelic, M. Gupta, S. J. Molesky, J. A. J. Burgess, G. D. L. Reyes, L. V. Titova, Y. Y. Tsui, M. R. Freeman, and F. A. Hegmann, “An ultrafast terahertz scanning tunnelling microscope,” Nat. Photonics 7(8), 620–625 (2013).
[Crossref]

Seeds, A. J.

Shikata, J.

K. Ishihara, K. Ohashi, T. Ikari, H. Minamide, H. Yokoyama, J. Shikata, and H. Ito, “Terahertz-wave near-field imaging with subwavelength resolution using surface-wave-assisted bow-tie aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(20), 201120 (2006).
[Crossref]

Stockman, M. I.

M. I. Stockman, “Nanofocusing of optical energy in tapered plasmonic waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(1), 019901 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Synge, E. H.

E. H. Synge, “A suggested method for extending microscopic resolution into the ultra-microscopic region,” Philos. Mag. 6(35), 356–362 (1928).
[Crossref]

Titova, L. V.

T. L. Cocker, V. Jelic, M. Gupta, S. J. Molesky, J. A. J. Burgess, G. D. L. Reyes, L. V. Titova, Y. Y. Tsui, M. R. Freeman, and F. A. Hegmann, “An ultrafast terahertz scanning tunnelling microscope,” Nat. Photonics 7(8), 620–625 (2013).
[Crossref]

Trautman, J. K.

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, and R. L. Kostelak, “Breaking the diffraction barrier: optical microscopy on a nanometric scale,” Science 251(5000), 1468–1470 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tsui, Y. Y.

T. L. Cocker, V. Jelic, M. Gupta, S. J. Molesky, J. A. J. Burgess, G. D. L. Reyes, L. V. Titova, Y. Y. Tsui, M. R. Freeman, and F. A. Hegmann, “An ultrafast terahertz scanning tunnelling microscope,” Nat. Photonics 7(8), 620–625 (2013).
[Crossref]

Vardeny, Z. V.

Walther, M.

A. Bitzer and M. Walther, “Terahertz near-field imaging of metallic subwavelength holes and hole arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(23), 231101 (2008).
[Crossref]

Weiner, J. S.

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, and R. L. Kostelak, “Breaking the diffraction barrier: optical microscopy on a nanometric scale,” Science 251(5000), 1468–1470 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

West, K. W.

O. Mitrofanov, M. Lee, J. W. P. Hsu, I. Brener, R. Harel, J. F. Federici, J. D. Wynn, L. N. Pfeiffer, and K. W. West, “Collection-mode near-field imaging with 0.5-THz pulses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7(4), 600–607 (2001).
[Crossref]

Wickramasinghe, H. K.

F. Zenhausern, M. P. O’Boyle, and H. K. Wickramasinghe, “Apertureless near‐field optical microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65(13), 1623–1625 (1994).
[Crossref]

Wittborn, J.

A. J. Huber, F. Keilmann, J. Wittborn, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Terahertz near-field nanoscopy of mobile carriers in single semiconductor nanodevices,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 3766–3770 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wynn, J. D.

O. Mitrofanov, M. Lee, J. W. P. Hsu, I. Brener, R. Harel, J. F. Federici, J. D. Wynn, L. N. Pfeiffer, and K. W. West, “Collection-mode near-field imaging with 0.5-THz pulses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7(4), 600–607 (2001).
[Crossref]

Yokoyama, H.

K. Ishihara, K. Ohashi, T. Ikari, H. Minamide, H. Yokoyama, J. Shikata, and H. Ito, “Terahertz-wave near-field imaging with subwavelength resolution using surface-wave-assisted bow-tie aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(20), 201120 (2006).
[Crossref]

Zenhausern, F.

F. Zenhausern, M. P. O’Boyle, and H. K. Wickramasinghe, “Apertureless near‐field optical microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65(13), 1623–1625 (1994).
[Crossref]

Zhan, H.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (7)

F. Zenhausern, M. P. O’Boyle, and H. K. Wickramasinghe, “Apertureless near‐field optical microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65(13), 1623–1625 (1994).
[Crossref]

D. W. Pohl, W. Denk, and M. Lanz, “Optical stethoscopy: Image recording with resolution λ/20,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 44(7), 651–653 (1984).
[Crossref]

H.-T. Chen, R. Kersting, and G. C. Cho, “Terahertz imaging with nanometer resolution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(15), 3009–3011 (2003).
[Crossref]

M. M. Awad and R. A. Cheville, “Transmission terahertz waveguide-based imaging below the diffraction limit,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(22), 221107 (2005).
[Crossref]

K. Ishihara, K. Ohashi, T. Ikari, H. Minamide, H. Yokoyama, J. Shikata, and H. Ito, “Terahertz-wave near-field imaging with subwavelength resolution using surface-wave-assisted bow-tie aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(20), 201120 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. Bitzer and M. Walther, “Terahertz near-field imaging of metallic subwavelength holes and hole arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(23), 231101 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. J. Macfaden, J. L. Reno, I. Brener, and O. Mitrofanov, “3 micron aperture probes for near-field terahertz transmission microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(1), 011110 (2014).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

O. Mitrofanov, M. Lee, J. W. P. Hsu, I. Brener, R. Harel, J. F. Federici, J. D. Wynn, L. N. Pfeiffer, and K. W. West, “Collection-mode near-field imaging with 0.5-THz pulses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7(4), 600–607 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

N. Klein, P. Lahl, U. Poppe, F. Kadlec, and P. Kužel, “A metal-dielectric antenna for terahertz near-field imaging,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(1), 014910 (2005).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (2)

A. J. Huber, F. Keilmann, J. Wittborn, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Terahertz near-field nanoscopy of mobile carriers in single semiconductor nanodevices,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 3766–3770 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Moon, H. Park, J. Kim, Y. Do, S. Lee, G. Lee, H. Kang, and H. Han, “Subsurface nanoimaging by broadband terahertz pulse near-field microscopy,” Nano Lett. 15(1), 549–552 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

T. L. Cocker, V. Jelic, M. Gupta, S. J. Molesky, J. A. J. Burgess, G. D. L. Reyes, L. V. Titova, Y. Y. Tsui, M. R. Freeman, and F. A. Hegmann, “An ultrafast terahertz scanning tunnelling microscope,” Nat. Photonics 7(8), 620–625 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

E. A. Ash and G. Nicholls, “Super-resolution aperture scanning microscope,” Nature 237(5357), 510–512 (1972).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

S. Hunsche, M. Koch, I. Brener, and M. C. Nuss, “THz near-field imaging,” Opt. Commun. 150(1-6), 22–26 (1998).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Philos. Mag. (1)

E. H. Synge, “A suggested method for extending microscopic resolution into the ultra-microscopic region,” Philos. Mag. 6(35), 356–362 (1928).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

M. I. Stockman, “Nanofocusing of optical energy in tapered plasmonic waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(1), 019901 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (1)

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, and R. L. Kostelak, “Breaking the diffraction barrier: optical microscopy on a nanometric scale,” Science 251(5000), 1468–1470 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ultramicroscopy (1)

A. Lewis, M. Isaacson, A. Harootunian, and A. Muray, “Development of a 500 Å spatial resolution light microscope: I. light is efficiently transmitted through λ/16 diameter apertures,” Ultramicroscopy 13(3), 227–231 (1984).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

C. A. Balanis, Advanced Engineering Electromagnetics (John Wiley and Sons, 1989).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Details of the CWSA. (a) Schematic cross-section (left top), top view (left bottom) and side view (right bottom) of the structure with an input aperture diameter, D1 = 1.8 mm, an output aperture diameter, D2 = 180 μm, probe length, d = 3.0 mm, and a taper full angle, α = 30°. The two halves of the aperture are separated by a variable gap spacing, g. The bottom plane of the device is also cut at an angle θ = 10° with respect to the top surface. The sidewall thickness at the gap on both sides is 60 µm. (b) Perspective view of the CWSA with a gap. (c) Photographs of the CWSA (with g ≈0). For the purposes of this image, the CWSA is attached to a planar surface using double-sided tape. (d) Images of half of the CWSA from the side (left) and bottom (right).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Details of the experimental system. (a) Schematic diagram of the measurement system. Broadband THz radiation emitted from ZnTe was collected and focused, using a hyperhemispherical silicon lens, at normal incidence on the CWSA structure. The transmitted THz pulse was detected using the photoconductive probe with a 10 µm input aperture. (b) Enlarged diagram of the THz beam showing relevant positions of the components and the locations where measurements were taken. (c) Time domain waveforms measured at point B for three different circumstances.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Amplitude and spectra of the THz electric field incident and transmitted through the CWSAs for two different values of the gap spacing, g, and for a tapered aperture with g = 0. (a) Amplitude spectra for the three transmitted spectra are all scaled relative to the incident THz amplitude spectrum, which has a maximum value of 1. (b) Phase spectra showing the change in phase relative to the incident wave.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 THz electric field distribution at the CWSA output for g = 20 μm. (a, b) Space-time maps showing the transmitted THz pulse along the x-axis (y = 0) and along the y-axis (x = 0), respectively. (c, d) Photographs of the output aperture taken from the bottom of the CWSA with the region circled by the red square indicating the scanned regions in (e, f) respectively. Each pixel corresponds to the measured THz field at t = 1.27 ps. The overlaid red and blue curves in (e) show the electric field amplitudes along the x- and y- axes, respectively.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Imaging using a CWSA with an output aperture diameter of 180 µm and a gap spacing of 20 µm. (a) Design of a U shaped test structure. (b) Photograph of the fabricated structure in a 75 μm thick free-standing stainless steel foil. Near field images of the structure at (c) 0.5 THz, (d) 0.8 THz, (e) 1.0 THz and (f) 1.5 THz.

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