Abstract

A quantum key distribution system based on the subcarrier wave modulation method has been demonstrated which employs the BB84 protocol with a strong reference to generate secure bits at a rate of 16.5 kbit/s with an error of 0.5% over an optical channel of 10 dB loss, and 18 bits/s with an error of 0.75% over 25 dB of channel loss. To the best of our knowledge, these results represent the highest channel loss reported for secure quantum key distribution using the subcarrier wave approach. A passive unidirectional scheme has been used to compensate for the polarization dependence of the phase modulators in the receiver module, which resulted in a high visibility of 98.8%. The system is thus fully insensitive to polarization fluctuations and robust to environmental changes, making the approach promising for use in optical telecommunication networks. Further improvements in secure key rate and transmission distance can be achieved by implementing the decoy states protocol or by optimizing the mean photon number used in line with experimental parameters.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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2015 (2)

B. Korzh, C. C. W. Lim, R. Houlmann, N. Gisin, M. J. Li, D. Nolan, B. Sanguinetti, R. Thew, and H. Zbinden, “Provably secure and practical quantum key distribution over 307 km of optical fibre,” Nat. Photonics 9(3), 163–168 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Martinez-Mateo, C. Pacher, M. Peev, A. Ciurana, and V. Martin, “Demystifying the information reconciliation protocol Cascade,” Quantum Inf. Comput. 15, 453–477 (2015).

2014 (5)

K. A. Patel, J. F. Dynes, M. Lucamarini, I. Choi, A. W. Sharpe, Z. L. Yuan, R. V. Penty, and A. J. Shields, “Quantum key distribution for 10 Gb/s dense wavelength division multiplexing networks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(5), 051123 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. J. Collins, R. J. Donaldson, V. Dunjko, P. Wallden, P. J. Clarke, E. Andersson, J. Jeffers, and G. S. Buller, “Realization of quantum digital signatures without the requirement of quantum memory,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(4), 040502 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Korzh, N. Walenta, T. Lunghi, N. Gisin, and H. Zbinden, “Free-running InGaAs single photon detector with 1 dark count per second at 10% efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(8), 081108 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. V. Gleim, A. A. Anisimov, L. N. Asnis, Yu. B. Vaktkhtomin, A. V. Divochii, V. I. Egorov, V. V. Kovaluk, A. A. Korneev, S. M. Kynev, Yu. V. Nazarov, R. V. Ozhegov, A. V. Rupasov, K. V. Smirnov, M. A. Smirnov, G. N. Gol’tsman, and S. A. Kozlov, “Quantum key distribution in an optical fiber at distances of up to 200 km and a bit rate of 180 bit/s,” Bull. Russ. Acad. Sci., Physics 78(3), 171–175 (2014).
[Crossref]

E. A. Dauler, M. E. Grein, A. J. Kerman, F. Marsili, S. Miki, S. W. Nam, M. D. Shaw, H. Terai, V. B. Verma, and T. Yamashita, “Review of superconducting nanowire single-photon detector system design options and demonstrated performance,” Opt. Eng. 53(8), 081907 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

F. Xu, B. Qi, Z. Liao, and H.-K. Lo, “Long distance measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution with entangled photon sources,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(6), 061101 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Bhattacharya and P. Kumar, “Decoy-state method for subcarrier-multiplexed frequency-coded quantum key distribution,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30(4), 782–787 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (5)

2011 (2)

2010 (1)

A. R. Dixon, Z. L. Yuan, J. F. Dynes, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “Continuous operation of high bit rate quantum key distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(16), 161102 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (4)

J. Capmany, “Photon nonlinear mixing in subcarrier multiplexed quantum key distribution systems,” Opt. Express 17(8), 6457–6464 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys. 11(7), 075001 (2009).
[Crossref]

V. Scarani, H. Bechmann-Pasquinucci, N. J. Cerf, M. Dušek, N. Lütkenhaus, and M. Peev, “The security of practical quantum key distribution,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81(3), 1301–1350 (2009).
[Crossref]

R. Y. Q. Cai and V. Scarani, “Finite-key analysis for practical implementations of quantum key distribution,” New J. Phys. 11(4), 045024 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

V. Fernandez, R. J. Collins, K. J. Gordon, P. D. Townsend, and G. S. Buller, “Passive optical network approach to gigahertz-clocked multiuser quantum key distribution,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(2), 130–138 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

A. Ortigosa-Blanch and J. Capmany, “Subcarrier multiplexing optical quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. A 73(2), 024305 (2006).
[Crossref]

P. A. Hiskett, D. Rosenberg, C. G. Peterson, R. J. Hughes, S. Nam, A. E. Lita, A. J. Miller, and J. E. Nordholt, “Long-distance quantum key distribution in optical fiber,” New J. Phys. 8(9), 193 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (3)

X. Ma, B. Qi, Y. Zhao, and H.-K. Lo, “Practical decoy state for quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. A 72(1), 012326 (2005).
[Crossref]

O. Guerreau, F. J. Malassenet, S. W. McLaughlin, and J.-M. Merolla, “Quantum key distribution without a single photon source using a strong reference,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17(8), 1755–1757 (2005).
[Crossref]

H. K. Lo, X. Ma, and K. Chen, “Decoy state quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(23), 230504 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

M. Koashi, “Unconditional security of coherent-state quantum key distribution with a strong phase-reference pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(12), 120501 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

O. Guerreau, J.-M. Mérolla, A. Soujaeff, F. Patois, J. P. Goedgebuer, and F. J. Malassenet, “Long distance QKD transmission using single sideband detection scheme with WDM synchronization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(6), 1533–1540 (2003).
[Crossref]

2001 (2)

G. N. Gol’tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, “Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(6), 705–707 (2001).
[Crossref]

L. Duraffourg, J.-M. Merolla, J.-P. Goedgebuer, Y. Mazurenko, and W. T. Rhodes, “Compact transmission system using single-sideband modulation of light for quantum cryptography,” Opt. Lett. 26(18), 1427–1429 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (2)

J.-M. Mérolla, Y. Mazurenko, J.-P. Goedgebuer, H. Porte, and W. T. Rhodes, “Phase-modulation transmission system for quantum cryptography,” Opt. Lett. 24(2), 104–106 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J.-M. Merolla, Y. Mazurenko, J.-P. Goedgebuer, and W. T. Rhodes, “Single-photon interference in sidebands of phase-modulated light for quantum cryptography,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(8), 1656–1659 (1999).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

C.-C. Chen, H. Porte, A. Carenco, J.-P. Goedgebuer, and V. Armbruster, “Phase correction by laser ablation of a polarization independent LiNbO3 Mach–Zehnder modulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 9(10), 1361–1363 (1997).
[Crossref]

1982 (1)

W. K. Wootters and W. H. Zurek, “A single quantum cannot be cloned,” Nature 299(5886), 802–803 (1982).
[Crossref]

Allacher, A.

Alléaume, R.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys. 11(7), 075001 (2009).
[Crossref]

Amaya, W.

Andersson, E.

R. J. Collins, R. J. Donaldson, V. Dunjko, P. Wallden, P. J. Clarke, E. Andersson, J. Jeffers, and G. S. Buller, “Realization of quantum digital signatures without the requirement of quantum memory,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(4), 040502 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anisimov, A. A.

A. V. Gleim, A. A. Anisimov, L. N. Asnis, Yu. B. Vaktkhtomin, A. V. Divochii, V. I. Egorov, V. V. Kovaluk, A. A. Korneev, S. M. Kynev, Yu. V. Nazarov, R. V. Ozhegov, A. V. Rupasov, K. V. Smirnov, M. A. Smirnov, G. N. Gol’tsman, and S. A. Kozlov, “Quantum key distribution in an optical fiber at distances of up to 200 km and a bit rate of 180 bit/s,” Bull. Russ. Acad. Sci., Physics 78(3), 171–175 (2014).
[Crossref]

Armbruster, V.

C.-C. Chen, H. Porte, A. Carenco, J.-P. Goedgebuer, and V. Armbruster, “Phase correction by laser ablation of a polarization independent LiNbO3 Mach–Zehnder modulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 9(10), 1361–1363 (1997).
[Crossref]

Asai, T.

Asnis, L. N.

A. V. Gleim, A. A. Anisimov, L. N. Asnis, Yu. B. Vaktkhtomin, A. V. Divochii, V. I. Egorov, V. V. Kovaluk, A. A. Korneev, S. M. Kynev, Yu. V. Nazarov, R. V. Ozhegov, A. V. Rupasov, K. V. Smirnov, M. A. Smirnov, G. N. Gol’tsman, and S. A. Kozlov, “Quantum key distribution in an optical fiber at distances of up to 200 km and a bit rate of 180 bit/s,” Bull. Russ. Acad. Sci., Physics 78(3), 171–175 (2014).
[Crossref]

Barreiro, C.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys. 11(7), 075001 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bechmann-Pasquinucci, H.

V. Scarani, H. Bechmann-Pasquinucci, N. J. Cerf, M. Dušek, N. Lütkenhaus, and M. Peev, “The security of practical quantum key distribution,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81(3), 1301–1350 (2009).
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Bennett, C.

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Fossier, S.

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Fürst, M.

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García Muñoz, V.

García-Muñoz, V.

Gautier, J.-D.

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Li, M. J.

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P. A. Hiskett, D. Rosenberg, C. G. Peterson, R. J. Hughes, S. Nam, A. E. Lita, A. J. Miller, and J. E. Nordholt, “Long-distance quantum key distribution in optical fiber,” New J. Phys. 8(9), 193 (2006).
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J. Martinez-Mateo, C. Pacher, M. Peev, A. Ciurana, and V. Martin, “Demystifying the information reconciliation protocol Cascade,” Quantum Inf. Comput. 15, 453–477 (2015).

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Martínez, A.

Martinez-Mateo, J.

J. Martinez-Mateo, C. Pacher, M. Peev, A. Ciurana, and V. Martin, “Demystifying the information reconciliation protocol Cascade,” Quantum Inf. Comput. 15, 453–477 (2015).

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Matyus, T.

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McLaughlin, S. W.

O. Guerreau, F. J. Malassenet, S. W. McLaughlin, and J.-M. Merolla, “Quantum key distribution without a single photon source using a strong reference,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17(8), 1755–1757 (2005).
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O. Guerreau, F. J. Malassenet, S. W. McLaughlin, and J.-M. Merolla, “Quantum key distribution without a single photon source using a strong reference,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17(8), 1755–1757 (2005).
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Miller, A. J.

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Nam, S.

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Nauerth, S.

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P. A. Hiskett, D. Rosenberg, C. G. Peterson, R. J. Hughes, S. Nam, A. E. Lita, A. J. Miller, and J. E. Nordholt, “Long-distance quantum key distribution in optical fiber,” New J. Phys. 8(9), 193 (2006).
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J. Martinez-Mateo, C. Pacher, M. Peev, A. Ciurana, and V. Martin, “Demystifying the information reconciliation protocol Cascade,” Quantum Inf. Comput. 15, 453–477 (2015).

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys. 11(7), 075001 (2009).
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Page, J.-B.

M. Sasaki, M. Fujiwara, H. Ishizuka, W. Klaus, K. Wakui, M. Takeoka, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, Z. Wang, A. Tanaka, K. Yoshino, Y. Nambu, S. Takahashi, A. Tajima, A. Tomita, T. Domeki, T. Hasegawa, Y. Sakai, H. Kobayashi, T. Asai, K. Shimizu, T. Tokura, T. Tsurumaru, M. Matsui, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, H. Takesue, Y. Tokura, J. F. Dynes, A. R. Dixon, A. W. Sharpe, Z. L. Yuan, A. J. Shields, S. Uchikoga, M. Legré, S. Robyr, P. Trinkler, L. Monat, J.-B. Page, G. Ribordy, A. Poppe, A. Allacher, O. Maurhart, T. Länger, M. Peev, and A. Zeilinger, “Field test of quantum key distribution in the Tokyo QKD Network,” Opt. Express 19(11), 10387–10409 (2011).
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M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys. 11(7), 075001 (2009).
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K. A. Patel, J. F. Dynes, M. Lucamarini, I. Choi, A. W. Sharpe, Z. L. Yuan, R. V. Penty, and A. J. Shields, “Quantum key distribution for 10 Gb/s dense wavelength division multiplexing networks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(5), 051123 (2014).
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K. A. Patel, J. F. Dynes, I. Choi, A. W. Sharpe, A. R. Dixon, Z. L. Yuan, R. V. Penty, and A. J. Shields, “Coexistence of high-bit-rate quantum key distribution and data on optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. X 2(4), 041010 (2012).
[Crossref]

Patois, F.

O. Guerreau, J.-M. Mérolla, A. Soujaeff, F. Patois, J. P. Goedgebuer, and F. J. Malassenet, “Long distance QKD transmission using single sideband detection scheme with WDM synchronization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(6), 1533–1540 (2003).
[Crossref]

Peev, M.

J. Martinez-Mateo, C. Pacher, M. Peev, A. Ciurana, and V. Martin, “Demystifying the information reconciliation protocol Cascade,” Quantum Inf. Comput. 15, 453–477 (2015).

M. Sasaki, M. Fujiwara, H. Ishizuka, W. Klaus, K. Wakui, M. Takeoka, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, Z. Wang, A. Tanaka, K. Yoshino, Y. Nambu, S. Takahashi, A. Tajima, A. Tomita, T. Domeki, T. Hasegawa, Y. Sakai, H. Kobayashi, T. Asai, K. Shimizu, T. Tokura, T. Tsurumaru, M. Matsui, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, H. Takesue, Y. Tokura, J. F. Dynes, A. R. Dixon, A. W. Sharpe, Z. L. Yuan, A. J. Shields, S. Uchikoga, M. Legré, S. Robyr, P. Trinkler, L. Monat, J.-B. Page, G. Ribordy, A. Poppe, A. Allacher, O. Maurhart, T. Länger, M. Peev, and A. Zeilinger, “Field test of quantum key distribution in the Tokyo QKD Network,” Opt. Express 19(11), 10387–10409 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Scarani, H. Bechmann-Pasquinucci, N. J. Cerf, M. Dušek, N. Lütkenhaus, and M. Peev, “The security of practical quantum key distribution,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81(3), 1301–1350 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys. 11(7), 075001 (2009).
[Crossref]

Penty, R. V.

K. A. Patel, J. F. Dynes, M. Lucamarini, I. Choi, A. W. Sharpe, Z. L. Yuan, R. V. Penty, and A. J. Shields, “Quantum key distribution for 10 Gb/s dense wavelength division multiplexing networks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(5), 051123 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. A. Patel, J. F. Dynes, I. Choi, A. W. Sharpe, A. R. Dixon, Z. L. Yuan, R. V. Penty, and A. J. Shields, “Coexistence of high-bit-rate quantum key distribution and data on optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. X 2(4), 041010 (2012).
[Crossref]

Peterson, C. G.

P. A. Hiskett, D. Rosenberg, C. G. Peterson, R. J. Hughes, S. Nam, A. E. Lita, A. J. Miller, and J. E. Nordholt, “Long-distance quantum key distribution in optical fiber,” New J. Phys. 8(9), 193 (2006).
[Crossref]

Poppe, A.

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Ribordy, G.

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M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys. 11(7), 075001 (2009).
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Sakai, Y.

Salvail, L.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys. 11(7), 075001 (2009).
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Sharpe, A. W.

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K. A. Patel, J. F. Dynes, I. Choi, A. W. Sharpe, A. R. Dixon, Z. L. Yuan, R. V. Penty, and A. J. Shields, “Coexistence of high-bit-rate quantum key distribution and data on optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. X 2(4), 041010 (2012).
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A. R. Dixon, Z. L. Yuan, J. F. Dynes, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “Continuous operation of high bit rate quantum key distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(16), 161102 (2010).
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Shaw, M. D.

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Shields, A. J.

K. A. Patel, J. F. Dynes, M. Lucamarini, I. Choi, A. W. Sharpe, Z. L. Yuan, R. V. Penty, and A. J. Shields, “Quantum key distribution for 10 Gb/s dense wavelength division multiplexing networks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(5), 051123 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. A. Patel, J. F. Dynes, I. Choi, A. W. Sharpe, A. R. Dixon, Z. L. Yuan, R. V. Penty, and A. J. Shields, “Coexistence of high-bit-rate quantum key distribution and data on optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. X 2(4), 041010 (2012).
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M. Sasaki, M. Fujiwara, H. Ishizuka, W. Klaus, K. Wakui, M. Takeoka, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, Z. Wang, A. Tanaka, K. Yoshino, Y. Nambu, S. Takahashi, A. Tajima, A. Tomita, T. Domeki, T. Hasegawa, Y. Sakai, H. Kobayashi, T. Asai, K. Shimizu, T. Tokura, T. Tsurumaru, M. Matsui, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, H. Takesue, Y. Tokura, J. F. Dynes, A. R. Dixon, A. W. Sharpe, Z. L. Yuan, A. J. Shields, S. Uchikoga, M. Legré, S. Robyr, P. Trinkler, L. Monat, J.-B. Page, G. Ribordy, A. Poppe, A. Allacher, O. Maurhart, T. Länger, M. Peev, and A. Zeilinger, “Field test of quantum key distribution in the Tokyo QKD Network,” Opt. Express 19(11), 10387–10409 (2011).
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A. R. Dixon, Z. L. Yuan, J. F. Dynes, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “Continuous operation of high bit rate quantum key distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(16), 161102 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys. 11(7), 075001 (2009).
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Shimizu, K.

Smirnov, K.

G. N. Gol’tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, “Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(6), 705–707 (2001).
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Smirnov, K. V.

A. V. Gleim, A. A. Anisimov, L. N. Asnis, Yu. B. Vaktkhtomin, A. V. Divochii, V. I. Egorov, V. V. Kovaluk, A. A. Korneev, S. M. Kynev, Yu. V. Nazarov, R. V. Ozhegov, A. V. Rupasov, K. V. Smirnov, M. A. Smirnov, G. N. Gol’tsman, and S. A. Kozlov, “Quantum key distribution in an optical fiber at distances of up to 200 km and a bit rate of 180 bit/s,” Bull. Russ. Acad. Sci., Physics 78(3), 171–175 (2014).
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Smirnov, M. A.

A. V. Gleim, A. A. Anisimov, L. N. Asnis, Yu. B. Vaktkhtomin, A. V. Divochii, V. I. Egorov, V. V. Kovaluk, A. A. Korneev, S. M. Kynev, Yu. V. Nazarov, R. V. Ozhegov, A. V. Rupasov, K. V. Smirnov, M. A. Smirnov, G. N. Gol’tsman, and S. A. Kozlov, “Quantum key distribution in an optical fiber at distances of up to 200 km and a bit rate of 180 bit/s,” Bull. Russ. Acad. Sci., Physics 78(3), 171–175 (2014).
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Sobolewski, R.

G. N. Gol’tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, “Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(6), 705–707 (2001).
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Soujaeff, A.

O. Guerreau, J.-M. Mérolla, A. Soujaeff, F. Patois, J. P. Goedgebuer, and F. J. Malassenet, “Long distance QKD transmission using single sideband detection scheme with WDM synchronization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(6), 1533–1540 (2003).
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Stucki, D.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys. 11(7), 075001 (2009).
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Suda, M.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys. 11(7), 075001 (2009).
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Tajima, A.

Takahashi, S.

Takeoka, M.

Takesue, H.

Tamaki, K.

Tamas, C.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys. 11(7), 075001 (2009).
[Crossref]

Tanaka, A.

Terai, H.

E. A. Dauler, M. E. Grein, A. J. Kerman, F. Marsili, S. Miki, S. W. Nam, M. D. Shaw, H. Terai, V. B. Verma, and T. Yamashita, “Review of superconducting nanowire single-photon detector system design options and demonstrated performance,” Opt. Eng. 53(8), 081907 (2014).
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Themel, T.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys. 11(7), 075001 (2009).
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Thew, R.

B. Korzh, C. C. W. Lim, R. Houlmann, N. Gisin, M. J. Li, D. Nolan, B. Sanguinetti, R. Thew, and H. Zbinden, “Provably secure and practical quantum key distribution over 307 km of optical fibre,” Nat. Photonics 9(3), 163–168 (2015).
[Crossref]

Thew, R. T.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys. 11(7), 075001 (2009).
[Crossref]

Thoma, Y.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys. 11(7), 075001 (2009).
[Crossref]

Tokura, T.

Tokura, Y.

Tomita, A.

Townsend, P. D.

V. Fernandez, R. J. Collins, K. J. Gordon, P. D. Townsend, and G. S. Buller, “Passive optical network approach to gigahertz-clocked multiuser quantum key distribution,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(2), 130–138 (2007).
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Treiber, A.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys. 11(7), 075001 (2009).
[Crossref]

Trinkler, P.

M. Sasaki, M. Fujiwara, H. Ishizuka, W. Klaus, K. Wakui, M. Takeoka, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, Z. Wang, A. Tanaka, K. Yoshino, Y. Nambu, S. Takahashi, A. Tajima, A. Tomita, T. Domeki, T. Hasegawa, Y. Sakai, H. Kobayashi, T. Asai, K. Shimizu, T. Tokura, T. Tsurumaru, M. Matsui, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, H. Takesue, Y. Tokura, J. F. Dynes, A. R. Dixon, A. W. Sharpe, Z. L. Yuan, A. J. Shields, S. Uchikoga, M. Legré, S. Robyr, P. Trinkler, L. Monat, J.-B. Page, G. Ribordy, A. Poppe, A. Allacher, O. Maurhart, T. Länger, M. Peev, and A. Zeilinger, “Field test of quantum key distribution in the Tokyo QKD Network,” Opt. Express 19(11), 10387–10409 (2011).
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M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys. 11(7), 075001 (2009).
[Crossref]

Tsurumaru, T.

Tualle-Brouri, R.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys. 11(7), 075001 (2009).
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Uchikoga, S.

Vaktkhtomin, Yu. B.

A. V. Gleim, A. A. Anisimov, L. N. Asnis, Yu. B. Vaktkhtomin, A. V. Divochii, V. I. Egorov, V. V. Kovaluk, A. A. Korneev, S. M. Kynev, Yu. V. Nazarov, R. V. Ozhegov, A. V. Rupasov, K. V. Smirnov, M. A. Smirnov, G. N. Gol’tsman, and S. A. Kozlov, “Quantum key distribution in an optical fiber at distances of up to 200 km and a bit rate of 180 bit/s,” Bull. Russ. Acad. Sci., Physics 78(3), 171–175 (2014).
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Vannel, F.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys. 11(7), 075001 (2009).
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Verma, V. B.

E. A. Dauler, M. E. Grein, A. J. Kerman, F. Marsili, S. Miki, S. W. Nam, M. D. Shaw, H. Terai, V. B. Verma, and T. Yamashita, “Review of superconducting nanowire single-photon detector system design options and demonstrated performance,” Opt. Eng. 53(8), 081907 (2014).
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Voronov, B.

G. N. Gol’tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, “Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(6), 705–707 (2001).
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Wakui, K.

Walenta, N.

B. Korzh, N. Walenta, T. Lunghi, N. Gisin, and H. Zbinden, “Free-running InGaAs single photon detector with 1 dark count per second at 10% efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(8), 081108 (2014).
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M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys. 11(7), 075001 (2009).
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Wallden, P.

R. J. Collins, R. J. Donaldson, V. Dunjko, P. Wallden, P. J. Clarke, E. Andersson, J. Jeffers, and G. S. Buller, “Realization of quantum digital signatures without the requirement of quantum memory,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(4), 040502 (2014).
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Wang, S.

Wang, Z.

Weier, H.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys. 11(7), 075001 (2009).
[Crossref]

Weinfurter, H.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys. 11(7), 075001 (2009).
[Crossref]

Williams, C.

G. N. Gol’tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, “Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(6), 705–707 (2001).
[Crossref]

Wimberger, I.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys. 11(7), 075001 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wootters, W. K.

W. K. Wootters and W. H. Zurek, “A single quantum cannot be cloned,” Nature 299(5886), 802–803 (1982).
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Xu, F.

F. Xu, B. Qi, Z. Liao, and H.-K. Lo, “Long distance measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution with entangled photon sources,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(6), 061101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yamashita, T.

Yin, Z. Q.

Yoshino, K.

Yuan, Z. L.

K. A. Patel, J. F. Dynes, M. Lucamarini, I. Choi, A. W. Sharpe, Z. L. Yuan, R. V. Penty, and A. J. Shields, “Quantum key distribution for 10 Gb/s dense wavelength division multiplexing networks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(5), 051123 (2014).
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K. A. Patel, J. F. Dynes, I. Choi, A. W. Sharpe, A. R. Dixon, Z. L. Yuan, R. V. Penty, and A. J. Shields, “Coexistence of high-bit-rate quantum key distribution and data on optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. X 2(4), 041010 (2012).
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M. Sasaki, M. Fujiwara, H. Ishizuka, W. Klaus, K. Wakui, M. Takeoka, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, Z. Wang, A. Tanaka, K. Yoshino, Y. Nambu, S. Takahashi, A. Tajima, A. Tomita, T. Domeki, T. Hasegawa, Y. Sakai, H. Kobayashi, T. Asai, K. Shimizu, T. Tokura, T. Tsurumaru, M. Matsui, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, H. Takesue, Y. Tokura, J. F. Dynes, A. R. Dixon, A. W. Sharpe, Z. L. Yuan, A. J. Shields, S. Uchikoga, M. Legré, S. Robyr, P. Trinkler, L. Monat, J.-B. Page, G. Ribordy, A. Poppe, A. Allacher, O. Maurhart, T. Länger, M. Peev, and A. Zeilinger, “Field test of quantum key distribution in the Tokyo QKD Network,” Opt. Express 19(11), 10387–10409 (2011).
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A. R. Dixon, Z. L. Yuan, J. F. Dynes, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “Continuous operation of high bit rate quantum key distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(16), 161102 (2010).
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M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys. 11(7), 075001 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zbinden, H.

B. Korzh, C. C. W. Lim, R. Houlmann, N. Gisin, M. J. Li, D. Nolan, B. Sanguinetti, R. Thew, and H. Zbinden, “Provably secure and practical quantum key distribution over 307 km of optical fibre,” Nat. Photonics 9(3), 163–168 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Korzh, N. Walenta, T. Lunghi, N. Gisin, and H. Zbinden, “Free-running InGaAs single photon detector with 1 dark count per second at 10% efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(8), 081108 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys. 11(7), 075001 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zeilinger, A.

M. Sasaki, M. Fujiwara, H. Ishizuka, W. Klaus, K. Wakui, M. Takeoka, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, Z. Wang, A. Tanaka, K. Yoshino, Y. Nambu, S. Takahashi, A. Tajima, A. Tomita, T. Domeki, T. Hasegawa, Y. Sakai, H. Kobayashi, T. Asai, K. Shimizu, T. Tokura, T. Tsurumaru, M. Matsui, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, H. Takesue, Y. Tokura, J. F. Dynes, A. R. Dixon, A. W. Sharpe, Z. L. Yuan, A. J. Shields, S. Uchikoga, M. Legré, S. Robyr, P. Trinkler, L. Monat, J.-B. Page, G. Ribordy, A. Poppe, A. Allacher, O. Maurhart, T. Länger, M. Peev, and A. Zeilinger, “Field test of quantum key distribution in the Tokyo QKD Network,” Opt. Express 19(11), 10387–10409 (2011).
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M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys. 11(7), 075001 (2009).
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Zhao, Y.

X. Ma, B. Qi, Y. Zhao, and H.-K. Lo, “Practical decoy state for quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. A 72(1), 012326 (2005).
[Crossref]

Zhou, Z.

Zurek, W. H.

W. K. Wootters and W. H. Zurek, “A single quantum cannot be cloned,” Nature 299(5886), 802–803 (1982).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

G. N. Gol’tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, “Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(6), 705–707 (2001).
[Crossref]

B. Korzh, N. Walenta, T. Lunghi, N. Gisin, and H. Zbinden, “Free-running InGaAs single photon detector with 1 dark count per second at 10% efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(8), 081108 (2014).
[Crossref]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the polarization-independent subcarrier wave quantum key distribution system employing a standard telecommunication optical fiber quantum channel. DL1 and DL2 - Diode Laser 1 and 2, OI - Optical Isolator, OPM - Optical Phase Modulator, OA - Optical Attenuator, FPGA denotes a Field-Programmable Gated-Array and these serve (in conjunction with the control computers) as the control apparatus of this system, VCO - Voltage Control Oscillator, PLL - Phase Looked Loop, EPM - Electrical Phase Modulator, PBS and PBC are Polarization Beam Splitter and Combiner, OF – Optical Filter, SSPD – Superconducting Single Photon Detector, D - Photodiode. Φ denotes an optical phase modulator. In the current configuration, the system uses separate synchronization and signal channels to avoid additional noise in the quantum channel originating from Raman scattering and other unwanted optical contributions. The different quantum channel transmission distances were either composed of fiber or a combination of fiber and additional optical attenuation. Parameters ω and Ω are carrier and modulation frequencies (respectively), as detailed in Fig. 2 and utilized in (1) and (2).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Optical frequency spectra in the subcarrier wave quantum cryptography system after (a), Alice modulation; Bob modulation in case of (b) constructive; and (c) destructive interference. In each subfigure the green line represents the carrier while red and blue indicates the sub carriers.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Oscillogram of registered change of SNSPD response (a) based on relative phase introduced by Alice and Bob (b). An increase in number of optical counts per time interval due to constructive interference on sidebands corresponds to additive summation of electrical driving signals. It can be seen by comparing (a) and (b) that time periods with a high number of returns in (a) correspond to a low voltage in (b).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

QBER versus quantum channel length for experimental results and model. Measurements in optical fiber shown with filled markers, and unfilled markers denote those conducted using the combination of optical fiber and additional calibrated attenuation. “QBER, effective” denotes the BB84 protocol with strong reference.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The temporal fluctuations of the QBER in time monitored every 650 ms with a channel loss of 5 dB in the course of normal system operation. The dashed line indicates the mean value of the QBER for the illustrated period.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Raw and sifted key rate values in SCW QKD system. Measurements in optical fiber shown with filled markers while unfilled markers denote those conducted using the combination of optical fiber and additional attenuation.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Secure key exchange rates in SCW QKD system with different protocols

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Parameters used in SCW QKD with decoy states simulation [33]

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E= A e iωt + iAa 2 ( e i((ω+Ω)t+ φ A ) + e i((ωΩ)t φ A ) )
E=A' 10 αL+β 10 e iωt +iaA 10 αL+β 10 cos( φ A φ B 2 )( e i((ω+Ω)t+ φ A + φ B 2 ) + e i((ωΩ)t φ A + φ B 2 ) )
QBER= 1V 2 + p 4μη 10 αLβ 10
I E = 1( 1+μ ) e μ 1 e μ
F s =F(Δ(1h(Q/Δ))h(Q))
h( x )=x log 2 ( x )( 1x ) log 2 ( 1x )

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