Abstract

We demonstrate PAM-4 and OOK operation of a novel silicon photonic modulator. The modulator design is based on two phase-shifts in a Bragg Grating structure driven in a push pull configuration. Back-to-back PAM-4 modulation is demonstrated below the FEC threshold at up to 60 Gb/s. OOK modulation is also shown up to 55 Gb/s with MMSE equalization and up to 50 Gb/s without equalization. Eye diagrams and BER curves at different bit rates are provided for both PAM-4 and OOK modulations. To our knowledge, this structure is the fastest silicon photonic modulator based on Bragg gratings, reaching modulation speed comparable to the fastest Mach-Zehnder modulators and micro-ring modulators.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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2015 (8)

A. Samani, M. Chagnon, D. Patel, V. Veerasubramanian, S. Ghosh, M. Osman, Q. Zhong, and D. V. Plant, “A low-voltage 35-GHz silicon photonic modulator-enabled 112-Gb/s Transmission System,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(3), 1–13 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Patel, A. Samani, V. Veerasubramanian, S. Ghosh, and D. V. Plant, “Silicon photonic segmented modulator-based electro-optic DAC for 100 Gb/s PAM-4 generation,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(23), 2433–2436 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Caverley, X. Wang, K. Murray, N. A. F. Jaeger, and L. Chrostowski, “Silicon-on-insulator modulators using a quarter-wave phase-shifted Bragg grating,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(22), 2331–2334 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. P. Absil, P. De Heyn, H. Chen, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, M. Pantouvaki, J. De Coster, A. Khanna, Y. Drissi, D. Van Thourhout, and J. Van Campenhout, “Imec iSiPP25G silicon photonics: a robust CMOS-based photonics technology platform,” Proc. SPIE 9367, 93670V (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Patel, S. Ghosh, M. Chagnon, A. Samani, V. Veerasubramanian, M. Osman, and D. V. Plant, “Design, analysis, and transmission system performance of a 41 GHz silicon photonic modulator,” Opt. Express 23(11), 14263–14287 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. D. Simard and S. LaRochelle, “Complex apodized Bragg grating filters without circulators in silicon-on-insulator,” Opt. Express 23(13), 16662–16675 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Zhang, N. Ehteshami, W. Liu, and J. Yao, “Silicon-based on-chip electrically tunable sidewall Bragg grating Fabry-Perot filter,” Opt. Lett. 40(13), 3153–3156 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. S. Azadeh, F. Merget, S. Romero-García, A. Moscoso-Mártir, N. von den Driesch, J. Müller, S. Mantl, D. Buca, and J. Witzens, “Low Vπ Silicon photonics modulators with highly linear epitaxially grown phase shifters,” Opt. Express 23(18), 23526–23550 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (2)

2013 (6)

2012 (3)

C. Cole, “Beyond 100G client optics,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 50(2), s58–s66 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. A. Vlasov, “Silicon CMOS-integrated nano-photonics for computer and data communications beyond 100G,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 50(2), s67–s72 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Xu, X. Xiao, X. Li, Y. Hu, Z. Li, T. Chu, Y. Yu, and J. Yu, “High speed silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator based on interleaved PN junctions,” Opt. Express 20(14), 15093–15099 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

2010 (1)

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

Absil, P. P.

P. P. Absil, P. De Heyn, H. Chen, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, M. Pantouvaki, J. De Coster, A. Khanna, Y. Drissi, D. Van Thourhout, and J. Van Campenhout, “Imec iSiPP25G silicon photonics: a robust CMOS-based photonics technology platform,” Proc. SPIE 9367, 93670V (2015).
[Crossref]

Aimez, V.

Amann, M.

Ayotte, N.

Azadeh, S. S.

Azaña, J.

Baehr-Jones, T.

Beaudin, G.

Bedard, S.

Buca, D.

Burla, M.

Caverley, M.

M. Caverley, X. Wang, K. Murray, N. A. F. Jaeger, and L. Chrostowski, “Silicon-on-insulator modulators using a quarter-wave phase-shifted Bragg grating,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(22), 2331–2334 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Wang, M. Caverley, J. Flueckiger, Y. Wang, N. A. F. Jaeger, and L. Chrostowski, “Silicon photonic Bragg grating modulators,” in 2014 IEEE Photonics Conf. (IPC, 2014), pp. 190–191.

Chagnon, M.

D. Patel, S. Ghosh, M. Chagnon, A. Samani, V. Veerasubramanian, M. Osman, and D. V. Plant, “Design, analysis, and transmission system performance of a 41 GHz silicon photonic modulator,” Opt. Express 23(11), 14263–14287 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Samani, M. Chagnon, D. Patel, V. Veerasubramanian, S. Ghosh, M. Osman, Q. Zhong, and D. V. Plant, “A low-voltage 35-GHz silicon photonic modulator-enabled 112-Gb/s Transmission System,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(3), 1–13 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Chagnon, M. Osman, M. Poulin, C. Latrasse, J.-F. Gagné, Y. Painchaud, C. Paquet, S. Lessard, and D. Plant, “Experimental study of 112 Gb/s short reach transmission employing PAM formats and SiP intensity modulator at 1.3 μm,” Opt. Express 22(17), 21018–21036 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Poulin, C. Latrasse, J.-F. Gagne, Y. Painchaud, M. Cyr, C. Paquet, M. Morsy-Osman, M. Chagnon, S. Lessard, and D. V. Plant, “107 Gb/s PAM-4 transmission over 10 km using a SiP series push-pull modulator at 1310 nm,” in Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. (ECOC, 2014), pp. 1–3.
[Crossref]

Chee, E. K. S.

Chen, H.

P. P. Absil, P. De Heyn, H. Chen, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, M. Pantouvaki, J. De Coster, A. Khanna, Y. Drissi, D. Van Thourhout, and J. Van Campenhout, “Imec iSiPP25G silicon photonics: a robust CMOS-based photonics technology platform,” Proc. SPIE 9367, 93670V (2015).
[Crossref]

Chrostowski, L.

M. Caverley, X. Wang, K. Murray, N. A. F. Jaeger, and L. Chrostowski, “Silicon-on-insulator modulators using a quarter-wave phase-shifted Bragg grating,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(22), 2331–2334 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Burla, L. R. Cortés, M. Li, X. Wang, L. Chrostowski, and J. Azaña, “Integrated waveguide Bragg gratings for microwave photonics signal processing,” Opt. Express 21(21), 25120–25147 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Wang, M. Caverley, J. Flueckiger, Y. Wang, N. A. F. Jaeger, and L. Chrostowski, “Silicon photonic Bragg grating modulators,” in 2014 IEEE Photonics Conf. (IPC, 2014), pp. 190–191.

Chu, T.

X. Li, X. Xiao, H. Xu, Z. Li, T. Chu, J. Yu, and Y. Yu, “Highly efficient silicon Michelson interferometer modulators,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(5), 407–409 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Xu, X. Xiao, X. Li, Y. Hu, Z. Li, T. Chu, Y. Yu, and J. Yu, “High speed silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator based on interleaved PN junctions,” Opt. Express 20(14), 15093–15099 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cole, C.

C. Cole, I. Lyubomirsky, A. Ghiasi, and V. Telang, “Higher-order modulation for client optics,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 51(3), 50–57 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Cole, “Beyond 100G client optics,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 50(2), s58–s66 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cortés, L. R.

Cyr, M.

M. Poulin, C. Latrasse, J.-F. Gagne, Y. Painchaud, M. Cyr, C. Paquet, M. Morsy-Osman, M. Chagnon, S. Lessard, and D. V. Plant, “107 Gb/s PAM-4 transmission over 10 km using a SiP series push-pull modulator at 1310 nm,” in Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. (ECOC, 2014), pp. 1–3.
[Crossref]

De Coster, J.

P. P. Absil, P. De Heyn, H. Chen, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, M. Pantouvaki, J. De Coster, A. Khanna, Y. Drissi, D. Van Thourhout, and J. Van Campenhout, “Imec iSiPP25G silicon photonics: a robust CMOS-based photonics technology platform,” Proc. SPIE 9367, 93670V (2015).
[Crossref]

De Heyn, P.

P. P. Absil, P. De Heyn, H. Chen, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, M. Pantouvaki, J. De Coster, A. Khanna, Y. Drissi, D. Van Thourhout, and J. Van Campenhout, “Imec iSiPP25G silicon photonics: a robust CMOS-based photonics technology platform,” Proc. SPIE 9367, 93670V (2015).
[Crossref]

Ding, R.

Drissi, Y.

P. P. Absil, P. De Heyn, H. Chen, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, M. Pantouvaki, J. De Coster, A. Khanna, Y. Drissi, D. Van Thourhout, and J. Van Campenhout, “Imec iSiPP25G silicon photonics: a robust CMOS-based photonics technology platform,” Proc. SPIE 9367, 93670V (2015).
[Crossref]

Dubé-Demers, R.

R. Dubé-Demers, S. LaRochelle, and W. Shi, “Pulse amplitude modulation with a femtojoule silicon microring modulator at 80-Gb/s,” in 12th IEEE Int. Conf. Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2015), pp. 26–28.

Ehteshami, N.

Estaran, J.

Flueckiger, J.

X. Wang, M. Caverley, J. Flueckiger, Y. Wang, N. A. F. Jaeger, and L. Chrostowski, “Silicon photonic Bragg grating modulators,” in 2014 IEEE Photonics Conf. (IPC, 2014), pp. 190–191.

Gagne, J.-F.

M. Poulin, C. Latrasse, J.-F. Gagne, Y. Painchaud, M. Cyr, C. Paquet, M. Morsy-Osman, M. Chagnon, S. Lessard, and D. V. Plant, “107 Gb/s PAM-4 transmission over 10 km using a SiP series push-pull modulator at 1310 nm,” in Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. (ECOC, 2014), pp. 1–3.
[Crossref]

Gagné, J.-F.

Gardes, F. Y.

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ghiasi, A.

C. Cole, I. Lyubomirsky, A. Ghiasi, and V. Telang, “Higher-order modulation for client optics,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 51(3), 50–57 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ghosh, S.

A. Samani, M. Chagnon, D. Patel, V. Veerasubramanian, S. Ghosh, M. Osman, Q. Zhong, and D. V. Plant, “A low-voltage 35-GHz silicon photonic modulator-enabled 112-Gb/s Transmission System,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(3), 1–13 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Patel, S. Ghosh, M. Chagnon, A. Samani, V. Veerasubramanian, M. Osman, and D. V. Plant, “Design, analysis, and transmission system performance of a 41 GHz silicon photonic modulator,” Opt. Express 23(11), 14263–14287 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Patel, A. Samani, V. Veerasubramanian, S. Ghosh, and D. V. Plant, “Silicon photonic segmented modulator-based electro-optic DAC for 100 Gb/s PAM-4 generation,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(23), 2433–2436 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Patel, V. Veerasubramanian, S. Ghosh, A. Samani, Q. Zhong, and D. V. Plant, “High-speed compact silicon photonic Michelson interferometric modulator,” Opt. Express 22(22), 26788–26802 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gruendl, T.

Gruner, M.

S. Lange, R. Kaiser, M. Gruner, M. Hamacher, K.-O. Velthaus, and M. Schell, “Low switching voltage InP-based travelling wave electrode Mach-Zehnder modulator monolithically entegrated with DFB-laser for 60 Gb/s NRZ,” in Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper Th4E1.

Hamacher, M.

S. Lange, R. Kaiser, M. Gruner, M. Hamacher, K.-O. Velthaus, and M. Schell, “Low switching voltage InP-based travelling wave electrode Mach-Zehnder modulator monolithically entegrated with DFB-laser for 60 Gb/s NRZ,” in Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper Th4E1.

Hochberg, M.

Hu, Y.

Ip, E.

Jaeger, N. A. F.

M. Caverley, X. Wang, K. Murray, N. A. F. Jaeger, and L. Chrostowski, “Silicon-on-insulator modulators using a quarter-wave phase-shifted Bragg grating,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(22), 2331–2334 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Wang, M. Caverley, J. Flueckiger, Y. Wang, N. A. F. Jaeger, and L. Chrostowski, “Silicon photonic Bragg grating modulators,” in 2014 IEEE Photonics Conf. (IPC, 2014), pp. 190–191.

Jensen, J. B.

Kahn, J. M.

Kaiser, R.

S. Lange, R. Kaiser, M. Gruner, M. Hamacher, K.-O. Velthaus, and M. Schell, “Low switching voltage InP-based travelling wave electrode Mach-Zehnder modulator monolithically entegrated with DFB-laser for 60 Gb/s NRZ,” in Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper Th4E1.

Khanna, A.

P. P. Absil, P. De Heyn, H. Chen, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, M. Pantouvaki, J. De Coster, A. Khanna, Y. Drissi, D. Van Thourhout, and J. Van Campenhout, “Imec iSiPP25G silicon photonics: a robust CMOS-based photonics technology platform,” Proc. SPIE 9367, 93670V (2015).
[Crossref]

Lange, S.

S. Lange, R. Kaiser, M. Gruner, M. Hamacher, K.-O. Velthaus, and M. Schell, “Low switching voltage InP-based travelling wave electrode Mach-Zehnder modulator monolithically entegrated with DFB-laser for 60 Gb/s NRZ,” in Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper Th4E1.

LaRochelle, S.

Larsen, K. J.

Latrasse, C.

M. Chagnon, M. Osman, M. Poulin, C. Latrasse, J.-F. Gagné, Y. Painchaud, C. Paquet, S. Lessard, and D. Plant, “Experimental study of 112 Gb/s short reach transmission employing PAM formats and SiP intensity modulator at 1.3 μm,” Opt. Express 22(17), 21018–21036 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Poulin, C. Latrasse, J.-F. Gagne, Y. Painchaud, M. Cyr, C. Paquet, M. Morsy-Osman, M. Chagnon, S. Lessard, and D. V. Plant, “107 Gb/s PAM-4 transmission over 10 km using a SiP series push-pull modulator at 1310 nm,” in Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. (ECOC, 2014), pp. 1–3.
[Crossref]

Lepage, G.

P. P. Absil, P. De Heyn, H. Chen, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, M. Pantouvaki, J. De Coster, A. Khanna, Y. Drissi, D. Van Thourhout, and J. Van Campenhout, “Imec iSiPP25G silicon photonics: a robust CMOS-based photonics technology platform,” Proc. SPIE 9367, 93670V (2015).
[Crossref]

Lessard, S.

M. Chagnon, M. Osman, M. Poulin, C. Latrasse, J.-F. Gagné, Y. Painchaud, C. Paquet, S. Lessard, and D. Plant, “Experimental study of 112 Gb/s short reach transmission employing PAM formats and SiP intensity modulator at 1.3 μm,” Opt. Express 22(17), 21018–21036 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Poulin, C. Latrasse, J.-F. Gagne, Y. Painchaud, M. Cyr, C. Paquet, M. Morsy-Osman, M. Chagnon, S. Lessard, and D. V. Plant, “107 Gb/s PAM-4 transmission over 10 km using a SiP series push-pull modulator at 1310 nm,” in Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. (ECOC, 2014), pp. 1–3.
[Crossref]

Li, B.

Li, M.

Li, X.

X. Li, X. Xiao, H. Xu, Z. Li, T. Chu, J. Yu, and Y. Yu, “Highly efficient silicon Michelson interferometer modulators,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(5), 407–409 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Xu, X. Xiao, X. Li, Y. Hu, Z. Li, T. Chu, Y. Yu, and J. Yu, “High speed silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator based on interleaved PN junctions,” Opt. Express 20(14), 15093–15099 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, Z.

X. Li, X. Xiao, H. Xu, Z. Li, T. Chu, J. Yu, and Y. Yu, “Highly efficient silicon Michelson interferometer modulators,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(5), 407–409 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Xu, X. Xiao, X. Li, Y. Hu, Z. Li, T. Chu, Y. Yu, and J. Yu, “High speed silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator based on interleaved PN junctions,” Opt. Express 20(14), 15093–15099 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lim, A. E.-J.

Liu, W.

Liu, Y.

Lo, P. G.-Q.

Lyubomirsky, I.

C. Cole, I. Lyubomirsky, A. Ghiasi, and V. Telang, “Higher-order modulation for client optics,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 51(3), 50–57 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ma, Y.

Mantl, S.

Mashanovich, G.

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[Crossref]

Merget, F.

Monroy, I. T.

Morsy-Osman, M.

M. Poulin, C. Latrasse, J.-F. Gagne, Y. Painchaud, M. Cyr, C. Paquet, M. Morsy-Osman, M. Chagnon, S. Lessard, and D. V. Plant, “107 Gb/s PAM-4 transmission over 10 km using a SiP series push-pull modulator at 1310 nm,” in Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. (ECOC, 2014), pp. 1–3.
[Crossref]

Moscoso-Mártir, A.

Mueller, M.

Müller, J.

Murray, K.

M. Caverley, X. Wang, K. Murray, N. A. F. Jaeger, and L. Chrostowski, “Silicon-on-insulator modulators using a quarter-wave phase-shifted Bragg grating,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(22), 2331–2334 (2015).
[Crossref]

Neumeyr, C.

Novack, A.

Ortsiefer, M.

Osman, M.

Painchaud, Y.

Pantouvaki, M.

P. P. Absil, P. De Heyn, H. Chen, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, M. Pantouvaki, J. De Coster, A. Khanna, Y. Drissi, D. Van Thourhout, and J. Van Campenhout, “Imec iSiPP25G silicon photonics: a robust CMOS-based photonics technology platform,” Proc. SPIE 9367, 93670V (2015).
[Crossref]

Paquet, C.

M. Chagnon, M. Osman, M. Poulin, C. Latrasse, J.-F. Gagné, Y. Painchaud, C. Paquet, S. Lessard, and D. Plant, “Experimental study of 112 Gb/s short reach transmission employing PAM formats and SiP intensity modulator at 1.3 μm,” Opt. Express 22(17), 21018–21036 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Poulin, C. Latrasse, J.-F. Gagne, Y. Painchaud, M. Cyr, C. Paquet, M. Morsy-Osman, M. Chagnon, S. Lessard, and D. V. Plant, “107 Gb/s PAM-4 transmission over 10 km using a SiP series push-pull modulator at 1310 nm,” in Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. (ECOC, 2014), pp. 1–3.
[Crossref]

Patel, D.

A. Samani, M. Chagnon, D. Patel, V. Veerasubramanian, S. Ghosh, M. Osman, Q. Zhong, and D. V. Plant, “A low-voltage 35-GHz silicon photonic modulator-enabled 112-Gb/s Transmission System,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(3), 1–13 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Patel, S. Ghosh, M. Chagnon, A. Samani, V. Veerasubramanian, M. Osman, and D. V. Plant, “Design, analysis, and transmission system performance of a 41 GHz silicon photonic modulator,” Opt. Express 23(11), 14263–14287 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Patel, A. Samani, V. Veerasubramanian, S. Ghosh, and D. V. Plant, “Silicon photonic segmented modulator-based electro-optic DAC for 100 Gb/s PAM-4 generation,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(23), 2433–2436 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Patel, V. Veerasubramanian, S. Ghosh, A. Samani, Q. Zhong, and D. V. Plant, “High-speed compact silicon photonic Michelson interferometric modulator,” Opt. Express 22(22), 26788–26802 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Plant, D.

Plant, D. V.

A. Samani, M. Chagnon, D. Patel, V. Veerasubramanian, S. Ghosh, M. Osman, Q. Zhong, and D. V. Plant, “A low-voltage 35-GHz silicon photonic modulator-enabled 112-Gb/s Transmission System,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(3), 1–13 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Patel, A. Samani, V. Veerasubramanian, S. Ghosh, and D. V. Plant, “Silicon photonic segmented modulator-based electro-optic DAC for 100 Gb/s PAM-4 generation,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(23), 2433–2436 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Patel, S. Ghosh, M. Chagnon, A. Samani, V. Veerasubramanian, M. Osman, and D. V. Plant, “Design, analysis, and transmission system performance of a 41 GHz silicon photonic modulator,” Opt. Express 23(11), 14263–14287 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Patel, V. Veerasubramanian, S. Ghosh, A. Samani, Q. Zhong, and D. V. Plant, “High-speed compact silicon photonic Michelson interferometric modulator,” Opt. Express 22(22), 26788–26802 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Poulin, C. Latrasse, J.-F. Gagne, Y. Painchaud, M. Cyr, C. Paquet, M. Morsy-Osman, M. Chagnon, S. Lessard, and D. V. Plant, “107 Gb/s PAM-4 transmission over 10 km using a SiP series push-pull modulator at 1310 nm,” in Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. (ECOC, 2014), pp. 1–3.
[Crossref]

Poulin, M.

M. Chagnon, M. Osman, M. Poulin, C. Latrasse, J.-F. Gagné, Y. Painchaud, C. Paquet, S. Lessard, and D. Plant, “Experimental study of 112 Gb/s short reach transmission employing PAM formats and SiP intensity modulator at 1.3 μm,” Opt. Express 22(17), 21018–21036 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Poulin, C. Latrasse, J.-F. Gagne, Y. Painchaud, M. Cyr, C. Paquet, M. Morsy-Osman, M. Chagnon, S. Lessard, and D. V. Plant, “107 Gb/s PAM-4 transmission over 10 km using a SiP series push-pull modulator at 1310 nm,” in Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. (ECOC, 2014), pp. 1–3.
[Crossref]

Reed, G. T.

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[Crossref]

Rodes, R.

Romero-García, S.

Rosskopf, J.

Samani, A.

D. Patel, S. Ghosh, M. Chagnon, A. Samani, V. Veerasubramanian, M. Osman, and D. V. Plant, “Design, analysis, and transmission system performance of a 41 GHz silicon photonic modulator,” Opt. Express 23(11), 14263–14287 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Patel, A. Samani, V. Veerasubramanian, S. Ghosh, and D. V. Plant, “Silicon photonic segmented modulator-based electro-optic DAC for 100 Gb/s PAM-4 generation,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(23), 2433–2436 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Samani, M. Chagnon, D. Patel, V. Veerasubramanian, S. Ghosh, M. Osman, Q. Zhong, and D. V. Plant, “A low-voltage 35-GHz silicon photonic modulator-enabled 112-Gb/s Transmission System,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(3), 1–13 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Patel, V. Veerasubramanian, S. Ghosh, A. Samani, Q. Zhong, and D. V. Plant, “High-speed compact silicon photonic Michelson interferometric modulator,” Opt. Express 22(22), 26788–26802 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schell, M.

S. Lange, R. Kaiser, M. Gruner, M. Hamacher, K.-O. Velthaus, and M. Schell, “Low switching voltage InP-based travelling wave electrode Mach-Zehnder modulator monolithically entegrated with DFB-laser for 60 Gb/s NRZ,” in Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper Th4E1.

Shi, W.

R. Dubé-Demers, S. LaRochelle, and W. Shi, “Pulse amplitude modulation with a femtojoule silicon microring modulator at 80-Gb/s,” in 12th IEEE Int. Conf. Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2015), pp. 26–28.

Simard, A. D.

Streshinsky, M.

Telang, V.

C. Cole, I. Lyubomirsky, A. Ghiasi, and V. Telang, “Higher-order modulation for client optics,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 51(3), 50–57 (2013).
[Crossref]

Thomson, D. J.

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[Crossref]

Tu, X.

Van Campenhout, J.

P. P. Absil, P. De Heyn, H. Chen, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, M. Pantouvaki, J. De Coster, A. Khanna, Y. Drissi, D. Van Thourhout, and J. Van Campenhout, “Imec iSiPP25G silicon photonics: a robust CMOS-based photonics technology platform,” Proc. SPIE 9367, 93670V (2015).
[Crossref]

Van Thourhout, D.

P. P. Absil, P. De Heyn, H. Chen, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, M. Pantouvaki, J. De Coster, A. Khanna, Y. Drissi, D. Van Thourhout, and J. Van Campenhout, “Imec iSiPP25G silicon photonics: a robust CMOS-based photonics technology platform,” Proc. SPIE 9367, 93670V (2015).
[Crossref]

Veerasubramanian, V.

D. Patel, S. Ghosh, M. Chagnon, A. Samani, V. Veerasubramanian, M. Osman, and D. V. Plant, “Design, analysis, and transmission system performance of a 41 GHz silicon photonic modulator,” Opt. Express 23(11), 14263–14287 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Patel, A. Samani, V. Veerasubramanian, S. Ghosh, and D. V. Plant, “Silicon photonic segmented modulator-based electro-optic DAC for 100 Gb/s PAM-4 generation,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(23), 2433–2436 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Samani, M. Chagnon, D. Patel, V. Veerasubramanian, S. Ghosh, M. Osman, Q. Zhong, and D. V. Plant, “A low-voltage 35-GHz silicon photonic modulator-enabled 112-Gb/s Transmission System,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(3), 1–13 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Patel, V. Veerasubramanian, S. Ghosh, A. Samani, Q. Zhong, and D. V. Plant, “High-speed compact silicon photonic Michelson interferometric modulator,” Opt. Express 22(22), 26788–26802 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Velthaus, K.-O.

S. Lange, R. Kaiser, M. Gruner, M. Hamacher, K.-O. Velthaus, and M. Schell, “Low switching voltage InP-based travelling wave electrode Mach-Zehnder modulator monolithically entegrated with DFB-laser for 60 Gb/s NRZ,” in Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper Th4E1.

Verheyen, P.

P. P. Absil, P. De Heyn, H. Chen, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, M. Pantouvaki, J. De Coster, A. Khanna, Y. Drissi, D. Van Thourhout, and J. Van Campenhout, “Imec iSiPP25G silicon photonics: a robust CMOS-based photonics technology platform,” Proc. SPIE 9367, 93670V (2015).
[Crossref]

Vlasov, Y. A.

Y. A. Vlasov, “Silicon CMOS-integrated nano-photonics for computer and data communications beyond 100G,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 50(2), s67–s72 (2012).
[Crossref]

von den Driesch, N.

Wang, X.

M. Caverley, X. Wang, K. Murray, N. A. F. Jaeger, and L. Chrostowski, “Silicon-on-insulator modulators using a quarter-wave phase-shifted Bragg grating,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(22), 2331–2334 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Burla, L. R. Cortés, M. Li, X. Wang, L. Chrostowski, and J. Azaña, “Integrated waveguide Bragg gratings for microwave photonics signal processing,” Opt. Express 21(21), 25120–25147 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Wang, M. Caverley, J. Flueckiger, Y. Wang, N. A. F. Jaeger, and L. Chrostowski, “Silicon photonic Bragg grating modulators,” in 2014 IEEE Photonics Conf. (IPC, 2014), pp. 190–191.

Wang, Y.

X. Wang, M. Caverley, J. Flueckiger, Y. Wang, N. A. F. Jaeger, and L. Chrostowski, “Silicon photonic Bragg grating modulators,” in 2014 IEEE Photonics Conf. (IPC, 2014), pp. 190–191.

Witzens, J.

Xiao, X.

X. Li, X. Xiao, H. Xu, Z. Li, T. Chu, J. Yu, and Y. Yu, “Highly efficient silicon Michelson interferometer modulators,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(5), 407–409 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Xu, X. Xiao, X. Li, Y. Hu, Z. Li, T. Chu, Y. Yu, and J. Yu, “High speed silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator based on interleaved PN junctions,” Opt. Express 20(14), 15093–15099 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xiaotie Wu, B. D.

B. D. Xiaotie Wu, “A 20Gb/s NRZ/PAM-4 1V transmitter in 40nm CMOS driving a Si-photonic modulator in 0.13µm CMOS,” in Dig. Tech. Pap. - IEEE Int. Solid-State Circuits Conf. (ISSCC, 2013), pp. 128–129.

Xu, H.

X. Li, X. Xiao, H. Xu, Z. Li, T. Chu, J. Yu, and Y. Yu, “Highly efficient silicon Michelson interferometer modulators,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(5), 407–409 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Xu, X. Xiao, X. Li, Y. Hu, Z. Li, T. Chu, Y. Yu, and J. Yu, “High speed silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator based on interleaved PN junctions,” Opt. Express 20(14), 15093–15099 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, Y.

Yao, J.

Yu, J.

X. Li, X. Xiao, H. Xu, Z. Li, T. Chu, J. Yu, and Y. Yu, “Highly efficient silicon Michelson interferometer modulators,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(5), 407–409 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Xu, X. Xiao, X. Li, Y. Hu, Z. Li, T. Chu, Y. Yu, and J. Yu, “High speed silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator based on interleaved PN junctions,” Opt. Express 20(14), 15093–15099 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, Y.

X. Li, X. Xiao, H. Xu, Z. Li, T. Chu, J. Yu, and Y. Yu, “Highly efficient silicon Michelson interferometer modulators,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(5), 407–409 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Xu, X. Xiao, X. Li, Y. Hu, Z. Li, T. Chu, Y. Yu, and J. Yu, “High speed silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator based on interleaved PN junctions,” Opt. Express 20(14), 15093–15099 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, W.

Zhong, Q.

A. Samani, M. Chagnon, D. Patel, V. Veerasubramanian, S. Ghosh, M. Osman, Q. Zhong, and D. V. Plant, “A low-voltage 35-GHz silicon photonic modulator-enabled 112-Gb/s Transmission System,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(3), 1–13 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Patel, V. Veerasubramanian, S. Ghosh, A. Samani, Q. Zhong, and D. V. Plant, “High-speed compact silicon photonic Michelson interferometric modulator,” Opt. Express 22(22), 26788–26802 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

IEEE Commun. Mag. (3)

C. Cole, “Beyond 100G client optics,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 50(2), s58–s66 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. A. Vlasov, “Silicon CMOS-integrated nano-photonics for computer and data communications beyond 100G,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 50(2), s67–s72 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Cole, I. Lyubomirsky, A. Ghiasi, and V. Telang, “Higher-order modulation for client optics,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 51(3), 50–57 (2013).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics J. (1)

A. Samani, M. Chagnon, D. Patel, V. Veerasubramanian, S. Ghosh, M. Osman, Q. Zhong, and D. V. Plant, “A low-voltage 35-GHz silicon photonic modulator-enabled 112-Gb/s Transmission System,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(3), 1–13 (2015).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (3)

X. Li, X. Xiao, H. Xu, Z. Li, T. Chu, J. Yu, and Y. Yu, “Highly efficient silicon Michelson interferometer modulators,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(5), 407–409 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Patel, A. Samani, V. Veerasubramanian, S. Ghosh, and D. V. Plant, “Silicon photonic segmented modulator-based electro-optic DAC for 100 Gb/s PAM-4 generation,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(23), 2433–2436 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Caverley, X. Wang, K. Murray, N. A. F. Jaeger, and L. Chrostowski, “Silicon-on-insulator modulators using a quarter-wave phase-shifted Bragg grating,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(22), 2331–2334 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

Nat. Photonics (1)

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (9)

H. Xu, X. Xiao, X. Li, Y. Hu, Z. Li, T. Chu, Y. Yu, and J. Yu, “High speed silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator based on interleaved PN junctions,” Opt. Express 20(14), 15093–15099 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. S. Azadeh, F. Merget, S. Romero-García, A. Moscoso-Mártir, N. von den Driesch, J. Müller, S. Mantl, D. Buca, and J. Witzens, “Low Vπ Silicon photonics modulators with highly linear epitaxially grown phase shifters,” Opt. Express 23(18), 23526–23550 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. D. Simard, G. Beaudin, V. Aimez, Y. Painchaud, and S. Larochelle, “Characterization and reduction of spectral distortions in silicon-on-insulator integrated Bragg gratings,” Opt. Express 21(20), 23145–23159 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Burla, L. R. Cortés, M. Li, X. Wang, L. Chrostowski, and J. Azaña, “Integrated waveguide Bragg gratings for microwave photonics signal processing,” Opt. Express 21(21), 25120–25147 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Streshinsky, R. Ding, Y. Liu, A. Novack, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, X. Tu, E. K. S. Chee, A. E.-J. Lim, P. G.-Q. Lo, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Low power 50 Gb/s silicon traveling wave Mach-Zehnder modulator near 1300 nm,” Opt. Express 21(25), 30350–30357 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Chagnon, M. Osman, M. Poulin, C. Latrasse, J.-F. Gagné, Y. Painchaud, C. Paquet, S. Lessard, and D. Plant, “Experimental study of 112 Gb/s short reach transmission employing PAM formats and SiP intensity modulator at 1.3 μm,” Opt. Express 22(17), 21018–21036 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Patel, V. Veerasubramanian, S. Ghosh, A. Samani, Q. Zhong, and D. V. Plant, “High-speed compact silicon photonic Michelson interferometric modulator,” Opt. Express 22(22), 26788–26802 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Patel, S. Ghosh, M. Chagnon, A. Samani, V. Veerasubramanian, M. Osman, and D. V. Plant, “Design, analysis, and transmission system performance of a 41 GHz silicon photonic modulator,” Opt. Express 23(11), 14263–14287 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. D. Simard and S. LaRochelle, “Complex apodized Bragg grating filters without circulators in silicon-on-insulator,” Opt. Express 23(13), 16662–16675 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. SPIE (1)

P. P. Absil, P. De Heyn, H. Chen, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, M. Pantouvaki, J. De Coster, A. Khanna, Y. Drissi, D. Van Thourhout, and J. Van Campenhout, “Imec iSiPP25G silicon photonics: a robust CMOS-based photonics technology platform,” Proc. SPIE 9367, 93670V (2015).
[Crossref]

Other (8)

M.-J. Picard, Y. Painchaud, C. Latrasse, C. Larouche, F. Pelletier, and M. Poulin, “Novel spot-size converter for optical fiber to sub-um silicon waveguide coupling with low loss, low wavelength dependence and high tolerance to alignment,” in Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. (ECOC, 2015), paper Mo.4.2.4.

B. D. Xiaotie Wu, “A 20Gb/s NRZ/PAM-4 1V transmitter in 40nm CMOS driving a Si-photonic modulator in 0.13µm CMOS,” in Dig. Tech. Pap. - IEEE Int. Solid-State Circuits Conf. (ISSCC, 2013), pp. 128–129.

X. Wang, M. Caverley, J. Flueckiger, Y. Wang, N. A. F. Jaeger, and L. Chrostowski, “Silicon photonic Bragg grating modulators,” in 2014 IEEE Photonics Conf. (IPC, 2014), pp. 190–191.

M. Poulin, C. Latrasse, J.-F. Gagne, Y. Painchaud, M. Cyr, C. Paquet, M. Morsy-Osman, M. Chagnon, S. Lessard, and D. V. Plant, “107 Gb/s PAM-4 transmission over 10 km using a SiP series push-pull modulator at 1310 nm,” in Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. (ECOC, 2014), pp. 1–3.
[Crossref]

K. P. Zhong, W. Chen, Q. Sui, J. Man, A. P. T. Lau, C. Lu, and L. Zeng, “Low cost 400GE transceiver for 2km optical interconnect using PAM4 and direct detection,” in Asia Commun. Photonics Conf. (Optical Society of America, 2014), paper ATh4D2.
[Crossref]

S. Lange, R. Kaiser, M. Gruner, M. Hamacher, K.-O. Velthaus, and M. Schell, “Low switching voltage InP-based travelling wave electrode Mach-Zehnder modulator monolithically entegrated with DFB-laser for 60 Gb/s NRZ,” in Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper Th4E1.

R. Dubé-Demers, S. LaRochelle, and W. Shi, “Pulse amplitude modulation with a femtojoule silicon microring modulator at 80-Gb/s,” in 12th IEEE Int. Conf. Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2015), pp. 26–28.

X. Xiao, H. Xu, X. Li, Z. Li, T. Chu, J. Yu, and Y. Yu, “60 Gbit/s silicon modulators with enhanced electro-optical efficiency,” in Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Fiber Opt. Eng. Conf.2013 (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper OW4J3.
[Crossref]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic of the dual phase-shift Bragg grating modulator. (b) Typical spectra with (red, solid) and without (blue, dashed) bias voltages applied to the PN junctions; a typical spectrum for a Bragg grating with a single π phase-shift is also shown (black, dotted).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Transmission and reflection spectra of the IBG without DC bias, (b) close up on the transmission peak measured for different bias voltages. The legend indicates the reverse bias voltage of the first electrode (left) and the second electrode (right).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Experimental setup used to measure the BER (block C) and the eye diagrams (block D) with PAM-4 (block A) and OOK (block B) modulation.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Eye diagrams for different bit rates and modulation format with a received power of 1 dBm. The optical power is displayed on a linear scale with the height of the black boxes corresponding to an optical power difference of 3 mW. The eye ER are displayed when available.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 BER vs. received power for different bit rates: (a) OOK, (b) PAM-4. Dotted lines with equalization, solid lines without.

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