Abstract

The purpose of this study was to develop a more powerful blood analysis method based on polarized surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) technology for non-invasive and sensitive colorectal cancer (CRC) detection. The efficiency of different polarized scattering signals (non-polarization, parallel polarization and perpendicular polarization) on blood serum SERS was explored for the first time. Results demonstrated that polarized SERS was more sensitive to explore distinctive spectral differences between cancer and normal groups. And higher diagnostic accuracy of 91.6% could be achieved using polarized SERS integrated with PCA-LDA for classification of the two serum groups in comparison to conventional SERS technology. This exploratory study demonstrated that the nanobiosensor based on polarized SERS technique in conjunction with PCA-LDA provided a novel strategy for blood SERS analysis, and had the potential as a clinical complement for CRC screening.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  25. L. Brancaleon, A. J. Durkin, J. H. Tu, G. Menaker, J. D. Fallon, and N. Kollias, “In vivo fluorescence spectroscopy of nonmelanoma skin cancer,” Photochem. Photobiol. 73(2), 178–183 (2001).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. R. M. Bremnes, R. Sirera, and C. Camps, “Circulating tumour-derived DNA and RNA markers in blood: a tool for early detection, diagnostics, and follow-up?” Lung Cancer 49(1), 1–12 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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2015 (1)

2014 (9)

J. L. González-Solís, J. C. Martínez-Espinosa, L. A. Torres-González, A. Aguilar-Lemarroy, L. F. Jave-Suárez, and P. Palomares-Anda, “Cervical cancer detection based on serum sample Raman spectroscopy,” Lasers Med. Sci. 29(3), 979–985 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. A. Nima, M. Mahmood, Y. Xu, T. Mustafa, F. Watanabe, D. A. Nedosekin, M. A. Juratli, T. Fahmi, E. I. Galanzha, J. P. Nolan, A. G. Basnakian, V. P. Zharov, and A. S. Biris, “Circulating tumor cell identification by functionalized silver-gold nanorods with multicolor, super-enhanced SERS and photothermal resonances,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4752 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Huang, D. Lin, W. Chen, Y. Yu, J. Xu, Z. Liang, X. Lin, Z. Dong, and H. Shi, “Nondestructive discrimination between normal and hematological malignancy cell lines using near-infrared Raman spectroscopy and multivariate analysis,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11(8), 085601 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Siegel, C. Desantis, and A. Jemal, “Colorectal cancer statistics, 2014,” CA Cancer J. Clin. 64(2), 104–117 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

U. S. Dinish, G. Balasundaram, Y.-T. Chang, and M. Olivo, “Actively targeted in vivo multiplex detection of intrinsic cancer biomarkers using biocompatible SERS nanotags,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4075 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S.-C. Luo, K. Sivashanmugan, J.-D. Liao, C.-K. Yao, and H.-C. Peng, “Nanofabricated SERS-active substrates for single-molecule to virus detection in vitro: A review,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 61, 232–240 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Lin, J. Pan, H. Huang, G. Chen, S. Qiu, H. Shi, W. Chen, Y. Yu, S. Feng, and R. Chen, “Label-free blood plasma test based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering for tumor stages detection in nasopharyngeal cancer,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4751 (2014).
[PubMed]

H. Ito, H. Inoue, K. Hasegawa, Y. Hasegawa, T. Shimizu, S. Kimura, M. Onimaru, H. Ikeda, and S. E. Kudo, “Use of surface-enhanced Raman scattering for detection of cancer-related serum-constituents in gastrointestinal cancer patients,” Nanomedicine (Lond.) 10(3), 599–608 (2014).
[PubMed]

D. Lin, S. Feng, H. Huang, W. Chen, H. Shi, N. Liu, L. Chen, W. Chen, Y. Yu, and R. Chen, “Label-free detection of blood plasma using silver nanoparticle based surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for esophageal cancer screening,” J. Biomed. Nanotechnol. 10(3), 478–484 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (6)

S. Feng, D. Lin, J. Lin, B. Li, Z. Huang, G. Chen, W. Zhang, L. Wang, J. Pan, R. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Blood plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for non-invasive optical detection of cervical cancer,” Analyst (Lond.) 138(14), 3967–3974 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Vendrell, K. K. Maiti, K. Dhaliwal, and Y.-T. Chang, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering in cancer detection and imaging,” Trends Biotechnol. 31(4), 249–257 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Srajer, A. Schwaighofer, and C. Nowak, “Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for biomedical diagnostics and imaging,” Biomed. Spectrosc. Imaging 2, 51–71 (2013).

E.-J. Chae, J.-H. Lee, B.-K. Oh, and J.-W. Choi, “Label-free nanobiosensor to detect infectious bacterica based on SERS,” J. Biomed. Nanotechnol. 9(4), 659–663 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. C. Ng and S. H. Wong, “Colorectal cancer screening in Asia,” Br. Med. Bull. 105(1), 29–42 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. J. Kuipers, T. Rösch, and M. Bretthauer, “Colorectal cancer screening-optimizing current strategies and new directions,” Nat. Rev. Clin. Oncol. 10(3), 130–142 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (3)

W. R. Premasiri, J. C. Lee, and L. D. Ziegler, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering of whole human blood, blood plasma, and red blood cells: cellular processes and bioanalytical sensing,” J. Phys. Chem. B 116(31), 9376–9386 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Tu and C. Chang, “Diagnostic applications of Raman spectroscopy,” Nanomedicine (Lond.) 8(5), 545–558 (2012).
[PubMed]

J. Hu and C. Y. Zhang, “Single base extension reaction-based surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy for DNA methylation assay,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 31(1), 451–457 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (4)

K. C. Bantz, A. F. Meyer, N. J. Wittenberg, H. Im, O. Kurtuluş, S. H. Lee, N. C. Lindquist, S.-H. Oh, and C. L. Haynes, “Recent progress in SERS biosensing,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 13(24), 11551–11567 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Feng, R. Chen, J. Lin, J. Pan, Y. Wu, Y. Li, J. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Gastric cancer detection based on blood plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy excited by polarized laser light,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 26(7), 3167–3174 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. S. J. Lim, Z. Hamed, C. H. Yeow, C. Chan, and Z. Huang, “Early detection of biomolecular changes in disrupted porcine cartilage using polarized Raman spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 017003 (2011).

D. Lin, S. Feng, J. Pan, Y. Chen, J. Lin, G. Chen, S. Xie, H. Zeng, and R. Chen, “Colorectal cancer detection by gold nanoparticle based surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of blood serum and statistical analysis,” Opt. Express 19(14), 13565–13577 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

S. Feng, R. Chen, J. Lin, J. Pan, G. Chen, Y. Li, M. Cheng, Z. Huang, J. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Nasopharyngeal cancer detection based on blood plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and multivariate analysis,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 25(11), 2414–2419 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

H. Chon, S. Lee, S. W. Son, C. H. Oh, and J. Choo, “Highly sensitive immunoassay of lung cancer marker carcinoembryonic antigen using surface-enhanced Raman scattering of hollow gold nanospheres,” Anal. Chem. 81(8), 3029–3034 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

S. K. Teh, W. Zheng, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, “Diagnostic potential of near-infrared Raman spectroscopy in the stomach: differentiating dysplasia from normal tissue,” Br. J. Cancer 98(2), 457–465 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

M. Frattini, G. Gallino, S. Signoroni, D. Balestra, L. Battaglia, G. Sozzi, E. Leo, S. Pilotti, and M. A. Pierotti, “Quantitative analysis of plasma DNA in colorectal cancer patients: a novel prognostic tool,” Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1075(1), 185–190 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

R. M. Bremnes, R. Sirera, and C. Camps, “Circulating tumour-derived DNA and RNA markers in blood: a tool for early detection, diagnostics, and follow-up?” Lung Cancer 49(1), 1–12 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

Z. Huang, A. McWilliams, H. Lui, D. I. McLean, S. Lam, and H. Zeng, “Near-infrared Raman spectroscopy for optical diagnosis of lung cancer,” Int. J. Cancer 107(6), 1047–1052 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

L. Brancaleon, A. J. Durkin, J. H. Tu, G. Menaker, J. D. Fallon, and N. Kollias, “In vivo fluorescence spectroscopy of nonmelanoma skin cancer,” Photochem. Photobiol. 73(2), 178–183 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

C. Munro, W. Smith, M. Garner, J. Clarkson, and P. White, “Characterization of the surface of a citrate-reduced colloid optimized for use as a substrate for surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering,” Langmuir 11(10), 3712–3720 (1995).
[Crossref]

Aguilar-Lemarroy, A.

J. L. González-Solís, J. C. Martínez-Espinosa, L. A. Torres-González, A. Aguilar-Lemarroy, L. F. Jave-Suárez, and P. Palomares-Anda, “Cervical cancer detection based on serum sample Raman spectroscopy,” Lasers Med. Sci. 29(3), 979–985 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Balasundaram, G.

U. S. Dinish, G. Balasundaram, Y.-T. Chang, and M. Olivo, “Actively targeted in vivo multiplex detection of intrinsic cancer biomarkers using biocompatible SERS nanotags,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4075 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Balestra, D.

M. Frattini, G. Gallino, S. Signoroni, D. Balestra, L. Battaglia, G. Sozzi, E. Leo, S. Pilotti, and M. A. Pierotti, “Quantitative analysis of plasma DNA in colorectal cancer patients: a novel prognostic tool,” Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1075(1), 185–190 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bantz, K. C.

K. C. Bantz, A. F. Meyer, N. J. Wittenberg, H. Im, O. Kurtuluş, S. H. Lee, N. C. Lindquist, S.-H. Oh, and C. L. Haynes, “Recent progress in SERS biosensing,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 13(24), 11551–11567 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Basnakian, A. G.

Z. A. Nima, M. Mahmood, Y. Xu, T. Mustafa, F. Watanabe, D. A. Nedosekin, M. A. Juratli, T. Fahmi, E. I. Galanzha, J. P. Nolan, A. G. Basnakian, V. P. Zharov, and A. S. Biris, “Circulating tumor cell identification by functionalized silver-gold nanorods with multicolor, super-enhanced SERS and photothermal resonances,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4752 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Battaglia, L.

M. Frattini, G. Gallino, S. Signoroni, D. Balestra, L. Battaglia, G. Sozzi, E. Leo, S. Pilotti, and M. A. Pierotti, “Quantitative analysis of plasma DNA in colorectal cancer patients: a novel prognostic tool,” Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1075(1), 185–190 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biris, A. S.

Z. A. Nima, M. Mahmood, Y. Xu, T. Mustafa, F. Watanabe, D. A. Nedosekin, M. A. Juratli, T. Fahmi, E. I. Galanzha, J. P. Nolan, A. G. Basnakian, V. P. Zharov, and A. S. Biris, “Circulating tumor cell identification by functionalized silver-gold nanorods with multicolor, super-enhanced SERS and photothermal resonances,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4752 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brancaleon, L.

L. Brancaleon, A. J. Durkin, J. H. Tu, G. Menaker, J. D. Fallon, and N. Kollias, “In vivo fluorescence spectroscopy of nonmelanoma skin cancer,” Photochem. Photobiol. 73(2), 178–183 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bremnes, R. M.

R. M. Bremnes, R. Sirera, and C. Camps, “Circulating tumour-derived DNA and RNA markers in blood: a tool for early detection, diagnostics, and follow-up?” Lung Cancer 49(1), 1–12 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bretthauer, M.

E. J. Kuipers, T. Rösch, and M. Bretthauer, “Colorectal cancer screening-optimizing current strategies and new directions,” Nat. Rev. Clin. Oncol. 10(3), 130–142 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Camps, C.

R. M. Bremnes, R. Sirera, and C. Camps, “Circulating tumour-derived DNA and RNA markers in blood: a tool for early detection, diagnostics, and follow-up?” Lung Cancer 49(1), 1–12 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chae, E.-J.

E.-J. Chae, J.-H. Lee, B.-K. Oh, and J.-W. Choi, “Label-free nanobiosensor to detect infectious bacterica based on SERS,” J. Biomed. Nanotechnol. 9(4), 659–663 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chan, C.

N. S. J. Lim, Z. Hamed, C. H. Yeow, C. Chan, and Z. Huang, “Early detection of biomolecular changes in disrupted porcine cartilage using polarized Raman spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 017003 (2011).

Chang, C.

Q. Tu and C. Chang, “Diagnostic applications of Raman spectroscopy,” Nanomedicine (Lond.) 8(5), 545–558 (2012).
[PubMed]

Chang, Y.-T.

U. S. Dinish, G. Balasundaram, Y.-T. Chang, and M. Olivo, “Actively targeted in vivo multiplex detection of intrinsic cancer biomarkers using biocompatible SERS nanotags,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4075 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Vendrell, K. K. Maiti, K. Dhaliwal, and Y.-T. Chang, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering in cancer detection and imaging,” Trends Biotechnol. 31(4), 249–257 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, G.

D. Lin, J. Pan, H. Huang, G. Chen, S. Qiu, H. Shi, W. Chen, Y. Yu, S. Feng, and R. Chen, “Label-free blood plasma test based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering for tumor stages detection in nasopharyngeal cancer,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4751 (2014).
[PubMed]

S. Feng, D. Lin, J. Lin, B. Li, Z. Huang, G. Chen, W. Zhang, L. Wang, J. Pan, R. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Blood plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for non-invasive optical detection of cervical cancer,” Analyst (Lond.) 138(14), 3967–3974 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Lin, S. Feng, J. Pan, Y. Chen, J. Lin, G. Chen, S. Xie, H. Zeng, and R. Chen, “Colorectal cancer detection by gold nanoparticle based surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of blood serum and statistical analysis,” Opt. Express 19(14), 13565–13577 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Feng, R. Chen, J. Lin, J. Pan, G. Chen, Y. Li, M. Cheng, Z. Huang, J. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Nasopharyngeal cancer detection based on blood plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and multivariate analysis,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 25(11), 2414–2419 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, J.

S. Feng, R. Chen, J. Lin, J. Pan, Y. Wu, Y. Li, J. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Gastric cancer detection based on blood plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy excited by polarized laser light,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 26(7), 3167–3174 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Feng, R. Chen, J. Lin, J. Pan, G. Chen, Y. Li, M. Cheng, Z. Huang, J. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Nasopharyngeal cancer detection based on blood plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and multivariate analysis,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 25(11), 2414–2419 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, L.

D. Lin, S. Feng, H. Huang, W. Chen, H. Shi, N. Liu, L. Chen, W. Chen, Y. Yu, and R. Chen, “Label-free detection of blood plasma using silver nanoparticle based surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for esophageal cancer screening,” J. Biomed. Nanotechnol. 10(3), 478–484 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, R.

D. Lin, S. Feng, H. Huang, W. Chen, H. Shi, N. Liu, L. Chen, W. Chen, Y. Yu, and R. Chen, “Label-free detection of blood plasma using silver nanoparticle based surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for esophageal cancer screening,” J. Biomed. Nanotechnol. 10(3), 478–484 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Lin, J. Pan, H. Huang, G. Chen, S. Qiu, H. Shi, W. Chen, Y. Yu, S. Feng, and R. Chen, “Label-free blood plasma test based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering for tumor stages detection in nasopharyngeal cancer,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4751 (2014).
[PubMed]

S. Feng, D. Lin, J. Lin, B. Li, Z. Huang, G. Chen, W. Zhang, L. Wang, J. Pan, R. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Blood plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for non-invasive optical detection of cervical cancer,” Analyst (Lond.) 138(14), 3967–3974 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Feng, R. Chen, J. Lin, J. Pan, Y. Wu, Y. Li, J. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Gastric cancer detection based on blood plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy excited by polarized laser light,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 26(7), 3167–3174 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Lin, S. Feng, J. Pan, Y. Chen, J. Lin, G. Chen, S. Xie, H. Zeng, and R. Chen, “Colorectal cancer detection by gold nanoparticle based surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of blood serum and statistical analysis,” Opt. Express 19(14), 13565–13577 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Feng, R. Chen, J. Lin, J. Pan, G. Chen, Y. Li, M. Cheng, Z. Huang, J. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Nasopharyngeal cancer detection based on blood plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and multivariate analysis,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 25(11), 2414–2419 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, W.

D. Lin, S. Feng, H. Huang, W. Chen, H. Shi, N. Liu, L. Chen, W. Chen, Y. Yu, and R. Chen, “Label-free detection of blood plasma using silver nanoparticle based surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for esophageal cancer screening,” J. Biomed. Nanotechnol. 10(3), 478–484 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Lin, S. Feng, H. Huang, W. Chen, H. Shi, N. Liu, L. Chen, W. Chen, Y. Yu, and R. Chen, “Label-free detection of blood plasma using silver nanoparticle based surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for esophageal cancer screening,” J. Biomed. Nanotechnol. 10(3), 478–484 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Lin, J. Pan, H. Huang, G. Chen, S. Qiu, H. Shi, W. Chen, Y. Yu, S. Feng, and R. Chen, “Label-free blood plasma test based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering for tumor stages detection in nasopharyngeal cancer,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4751 (2014).
[PubMed]

H. Huang, D. Lin, W. Chen, Y. Yu, J. Xu, Z. Liang, X. Lin, Z. Dong, and H. Shi, “Nondestructive discrimination between normal and hematological malignancy cell lines using near-infrared Raman spectroscopy and multivariate analysis,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11(8), 085601 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.

Cheng, M.

S. Feng, R. Chen, J. Lin, J. Pan, G. Chen, Y. Li, M. Cheng, Z. Huang, J. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Nasopharyngeal cancer detection based on blood plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and multivariate analysis,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 25(11), 2414–2419 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choi, J.-W.

E.-J. Chae, J.-H. Lee, B.-K. Oh, and J.-W. Choi, “Label-free nanobiosensor to detect infectious bacterica based on SERS,” J. Biomed. Nanotechnol. 9(4), 659–663 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chon, H.

H. Chon, S. Lee, S. W. Son, C. H. Oh, and J. Choo, “Highly sensitive immunoassay of lung cancer marker carcinoembryonic antigen using surface-enhanced Raman scattering of hollow gold nanospheres,” Anal. Chem. 81(8), 3029–3034 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choo, J.

H. Chon, S. Lee, S. W. Son, C. H. Oh, and J. Choo, “Highly sensitive immunoassay of lung cancer marker carcinoembryonic antigen using surface-enhanced Raman scattering of hollow gold nanospheres,” Anal. Chem. 81(8), 3029–3034 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Clarkson, J.

C. Munro, W. Smith, M. Garner, J. Clarkson, and P. White, “Characterization of the surface of a citrate-reduced colloid optimized for use as a substrate for surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering,” Langmuir 11(10), 3712–3720 (1995).
[Crossref]

Desantis, C.

R. Siegel, C. Desantis, and A. Jemal, “Colorectal cancer statistics, 2014,” CA Cancer J. Clin. 64(2), 104–117 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dhaliwal, K.

M. Vendrell, K. K. Maiti, K. Dhaliwal, and Y.-T. Chang, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering in cancer detection and imaging,” Trends Biotechnol. 31(4), 249–257 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ding, J.

Dinish, U. S.

U. S. Dinish, G. Balasundaram, Y.-T. Chang, and M. Olivo, “Actively targeted in vivo multiplex detection of intrinsic cancer biomarkers using biocompatible SERS nanotags,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4075 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dong, Z.

H. Huang, D. Lin, W. Chen, Y. Yu, J. Xu, Z. Liang, X. Lin, Z. Dong, and H. Shi, “Nondestructive discrimination between normal and hematological malignancy cell lines using near-infrared Raman spectroscopy and multivariate analysis,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11(8), 085601 (2014).
[Crossref]

Durkin, A. J.

L. Brancaleon, A. J. Durkin, J. H. Tu, G. Menaker, J. D. Fallon, and N. Kollias, “In vivo fluorescence spectroscopy of nonmelanoma skin cancer,” Photochem. Photobiol. 73(2), 178–183 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fahmi, T.

Z. A. Nima, M. Mahmood, Y. Xu, T. Mustafa, F. Watanabe, D. A. Nedosekin, M. A. Juratli, T. Fahmi, E. I. Galanzha, J. P. Nolan, A. G. Basnakian, V. P. Zharov, and A. S. Biris, “Circulating tumor cell identification by functionalized silver-gold nanorods with multicolor, super-enhanced SERS and photothermal resonances,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4752 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fallon, J. D.

L. Brancaleon, A. J. Durkin, J. H. Tu, G. Menaker, J. D. Fallon, and N. Kollias, “In vivo fluorescence spectroscopy of nonmelanoma skin cancer,” Photochem. Photobiol. 73(2), 178–183 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feng, S.

D. Lin, S. Feng, H. Huang, W. Chen, H. Shi, N. Liu, L. Chen, W. Chen, Y. Yu, and R. Chen, “Label-free detection of blood plasma using silver nanoparticle based surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for esophageal cancer screening,” J. Biomed. Nanotechnol. 10(3), 478–484 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Lin, J. Pan, H. Huang, G. Chen, S. Qiu, H. Shi, W. Chen, Y. Yu, S. Feng, and R. Chen, “Label-free blood plasma test based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering for tumor stages detection in nasopharyngeal cancer,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4751 (2014).
[PubMed]

S. Feng, D. Lin, J. Lin, B. Li, Z. Huang, G. Chen, W. Zhang, L. Wang, J. Pan, R. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Blood plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for non-invasive optical detection of cervical cancer,” Analyst (Lond.) 138(14), 3967–3974 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Feng, R. Chen, J. Lin, J. Pan, Y. Wu, Y. Li, J. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Gastric cancer detection based on blood plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy excited by polarized laser light,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 26(7), 3167–3174 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Lin, S. Feng, J. Pan, Y. Chen, J. Lin, G. Chen, S. Xie, H. Zeng, and R. Chen, “Colorectal cancer detection by gold nanoparticle based surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of blood serum and statistical analysis,” Opt. Express 19(14), 13565–13577 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Feng, R. Chen, J. Lin, J. Pan, G. Chen, Y. Li, M. Cheng, Z. Huang, J. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Nasopharyngeal cancer detection based on blood plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and multivariate analysis,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 25(11), 2414–2419 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Frattini, M.

M. Frattini, G. Gallino, S. Signoroni, D. Balestra, L. Battaglia, G. Sozzi, E. Leo, S. Pilotti, and M. A. Pierotti, “Quantitative analysis of plasma DNA in colorectal cancer patients: a novel prognostic tool,” Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1075(1), 185–190 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Galanzha, E. I.

Z. A. Nima, M. Mahmood, Y. Xu, T. Mustafa, F. Watanabe, D. A. Nedosekin, M. A. Juratli, T. Fahmi, E. I. Galanzha, J. P. Nolan, A. G. Basnakian, V. P. Zharov, and A. S. Biris, “Circulating tumor cell identification by functionalized silver-gold nanorods with multicolor, super-enhanced SERS and photothermal resonances,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4752 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gallino, G.

M. Frattini, G. Gallino, S. Signoroni, D. Balestra, L. Battaglia, G. Sozzi, E. Leo, S. Pilotti, and M. A. Pierotti, “Quantitative analysis of plasma DNA in colorectal cancer patients: a novel prognostic tool,” Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1075(1), 185–190 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Garner, M.

C. Munro, W. Smith, M. Garner, J. Clarkson, and P. White, “Characterization of the surface of a citrate-reduced colloid optimized for use as a substrate for surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering,” Langmuir 11(10), 3712–3720 (1995).
[Crossref]

González-Solís, J. L.

J. L. González-Solís, J. C. Martínez-Espinosa, L. A. Torres-González, A. Aguilar-Lemarroy, L. F. Jave-Suárez, and P. Palomares-Anda, “Cervical cancer detection based on serum sample Raman spectroscopy,” Lasers Med. Sci. 29(3), 979–985 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guan, D.

Hamed, Z.

N. S. J. Lim, Z. Hamed, C. H. Yeow, C. Chan, and Z. Huang, “Early detection of biomolecular changes in disrupted porcine cartilage using polarized Raman spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 017003 (2011).

Hasegawa, K.

H. Ito, H. Inoue, K. Hasegawa, Y. Hasegawa, T. Shimizu, S. Kimura, M. Onimaru, H. Ikeda, and S. E. Kudo, “Use of surface-enhanced Raman scattering for detection of cancer-related serum-constituents in gastrointestinal cancer patients,” Nanomedicine (Lond.) 10(3), 599–608 (2014).
[PubMed]

Hasegawa, Y.

H. Ito, H. Inoue, K. Hasegawa, Y. Hasegawa, T. Shimizu, S. Kimura, M. Onimaru, H. Ikeda, and S. E. Kudo, “Use of surface-enhanced Raman scattering for detection of cancer-related serum-constituents in gastrointestinal cancer patients,” Nanomedicine (Lond.) 10(3), 599–608 (2014).
[PubMed]

Haynes, C. L.

K. C. Bantz, A. F. Meyer, N. J. Wittenberg, H. Im, O. Kurtuluş, S. H. Lee, N. C. Lindquist, S.-H. Oh, and C. L. Haynes, “Recent progress in SERS biosensing,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 13(24), 11551–11567 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ho, K. Y.

S. K. Teh, W. Zheng, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, “Diagnostic potential of near-infrared Raman spectroscopy in the stomach: differentiating dysplasia from normal tissue,” Br. J. Cancer 98(2), 457–465 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hu, J.

J. Hu and C. Y. Zhang, “Single base extension reaction-based surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy for DNA methylation assay,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 31(1), 451–457 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, H.

D. Lin, J. Pan, H. Huang, G. Chen, S. Qiu, H. Shi, W. Chen, Y. Yu, S. Feng, and R. Chen, “Label-free blood plasma test based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering for tumor stages detection in nasopharyngeal cancer,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4751 (2014).
[PubMed]

D. Lin, S. Feng, H. Huang, W. Chen, H. Shi, N. Liu, L. Chen, W. Chen, Y. Yu, and R. Chen, “Label-free detection of blood plasma using silver nanoparticle based surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for esophageal cancer screening,” J. Biomed. Nanotechnol. 10(3), 478–484 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Huang, D. Lin, W. Chen, Y. Yu, J. Xu, Z. Liang, X. Lin, Z. Dong, and H. Shi, “Nondestructive discrimination between normal and hematological malignancy cell lines using near-infrared Raman spectroscopy and multivariate analysis,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11(8), 085601 (2014).
[Crossref]

Huang, Z.

S. Feng, D. Lin, J. Lin, B. Li, Z. Huang, G. Chen, W. Zhang, L. Wang, J. Pan, R. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Blood plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for non-invasive optical detection of cervical cancer,” Analyst (Lond.) 138(14), 3967–3974 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. S. J. Lim, Z. Hamed, C. H. Yeow, C. Chan, and Z. Huang, “Early detection of biomolecular changes in disrupted porcine cartilage using polarized Raman spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 017003 (2011).

S. Feng, R. Chen, J. Lin, J. Pan, G. Chen, Y. Li, M. Cheng, Z. Huang, J. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Nasopharyngeal cancer detection based on blood plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and multivariate analysis,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 25(11), 2414–2419 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. K. Teh, W. Zheng, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, “Diagnostic potential of near-infrared Raman spectroscopy in the stomach: differentiating dysplasia from normal tissue,” Br. J. Cancer 98(2), 457–465 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Huang, A. McWilliams, H. Lui, D. I. McLean, S. Lam, and H. Zeng, “Near-infrared Raman spectroscopy for optical diagnosis of lung cancer,” Int. J. Cancer 107(6), 1047–1052 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ikeda, H.

H. Ito, H. Inoue, K. Hasegawa, Y. Hasegawa, T. Shimizu, S. Kimura, M. Onimaru, H. Ikeda, and S. E. Kudo, “Use of surface-enhanced Raman scattering for detection of cancer-related serum-constituents in gastrointestinal cancer patients,” Nanomedicine (Lond.) 10(3), 599–608 (2014).
[PubMed]

Im, H.

K. C. Bantz, A. F. Meyer, N. J. Wittenberg, H. Im, O. Kurtuluş, S. H. Lee, N. C. Lindquist, S.-H. Oh, and C. L. Haynes, “Recent progress in SERS biosensing,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 13(24), 11551–11567 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Inoue, H.

H. Ito, H. Inoue, K. Hasegawa, Y. Hasegawa, T. Shimizu, S. Kimura, M. Onimaru, H. Ikeda, and S. E. Kudo, “Use of surface-enhanced Raman scattering for detection of cancer-related serum-constituents in gastrointestinal cancer patients,” Nanomedicine (Lond.) 10(3), 599–608 (2014).
[PubMed]

Ito, H.

H. Ito, H. Inoue, K. Hasegawa, Y. Hasegawa, T. Shimizu, S. Kimura, M. Onimaru, H. Ikeda, and S. E. Kudo, “Use of surface-enhanced Raman scattering for detection of cancer-related serum-constituents in gastrointestinal cancer patients,” Nanomedicine (Lond.) 10(3), 599–608 (2014).
[PubMed]

Jave-Suárez, L. F.

J. L. González-Solís, J. C. Martínez-Espinosa, L. A. Torres-González, A. Aguilar-Lemarroy, L. F. Jave-Suárez, and P. Palomares-Anda, “Cervical cancer detection based on serum sample Raman spectroscopy,” Lasers Med. Sci. 29(3), 979–985 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jemal, A.

R. Siegel, C. Desantis, and A. Jemal, “Colorectal cancer statistics, 2014,” CA Cancer J. Clin. 64(2), 104–117 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jin, L.

Juratli, M. A.

Z. A. Nima, M. Mahmood, Y. Xu, T. Mustafa, F. Watanabe, D. A. Nedosekin, M. A. Juratli, T. Fahmi, E. I. Galanzha, J. P. Nolan, A. G. Basnakian, V. P. Zharov, and A. S. Biris, “Circulating tumor cell identification by functionalized silver-gold nanorods with multicolor, super-enhanced SERS and photothermal resonances,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4752 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kimura, S.

H. Ito, H. Inoue, K. Hasegawa, Y. Hasegawa, T. Shimizu, S. Kimura, M. Onimaru, H. Ikeda, and S. E. Kudo, “Use of surface-enhanced Raman scattering for detection of cancer-related serum-constituents in gastrointestinal cancer patients,” Nanomedicine (Lond.) 10(3), 599–608 (2014).
[PubMed]

Kollias, N.

L. Brancaleon, A. J. Durkin, J. H. Tu, G. Menaker, J. D. Fallon, and N. Kollias, “In vivo fluorescence spectroscopy of nonmelanoma skin cancer,” Photochem. Photobiol. 73(2), 178–183 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kudo, S. E.

H. Ito, H. Inoue, K. Hasegawa, Y. Hasegawa, T. Shimizu, S. Kimura, M. Onimaru, H. Ikeda, and S. E. Kudo, “Use of surface-enhanced Raman scattering for detection of cancer-related serum-constituents in gastrointestinal cancer patients,” Nanomedicine (Lond.) 10(3), 599–608 (2014).
[PubMed]

Kuipers, E. J.

E. J. Kuipers, T. Rösch, and M. Bretthauer, “Colorectal cancer screening-optimizing current strategies and new directions,” Nat. Rev. Clin. Oncol. 10(3), 130–142 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kurtulus, O.

K. C. Bantz, A. F. Meyer, N. J. Wittenberg, H. Im, O. Kurtuluş, S. H. Lee, N. C. Lindquist, S.-H. Oh, and C. L. Haynes, “Recent progress in SERS biosensing,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 13(24), 11551–11567 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lam, S.

Z. Huang, A. McWilliams, H. Lui, D. I. McLean, S. Lam, and H. Zeng, “Near-infrared Raman spectroscopy for optical diagnosis of lung cancer,” Int. J. Cancer 107(6), 1047–1052 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, J. C.

W. R. Premasiri, J. C. Lee, and L. D. Ziegler, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering of whole human blood, blood plasma, and red blood cells: cellular processes and bioanalytical sensing,” J. Phys. Chem. B 116(31), 9376–9386 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, J.-H.

E.-J. Chae, J.-H. Lee, B.-K. Oh, and J.-W. Choi, “Label-free nanobiosensor to detect infectious bacterica based on SERS,” J. Biomed. Nanotechnol. 9(4), 659–663 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, S.

H. Chon, S. Lee, S. W. Son, C. H. Oh, and J. Choo, “Highly sensitive immunoassay of lung cancer marker carcinoembryonic antigen using surface-enhanced Raman scattering of hollow gold nanospheres,” Anal. Chem. 81(8), 3029–3034 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, S. H.

K. C. Bantz, A. F. Meyer, N. J. Wittenberg, H. Im, O. Kurtuluş, S. H. Lee, N. C. Lindquist, S.-H. Oh, and C. L. Haynes, “Recent progress in SERS biosensing,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 13(24), 11551–11567 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leo, E.

M. Frattini, G. Gallino, S. Signoroni, D. Balestra, L. Battaglia, G. Sozzi, E. Leo, S. Pilotti, and M. A. Pierotti, “Quantitative analysis of plasma DNA in colorectal cancer patients: a novel prognostic tool,” Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1075(1), 185–190 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, B.

S. Feng, D. Lin, J. Lin, B. Li, Z. Huang, G. Chen, W. Zhang, L. Wang, J. Pan, R. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Blood plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for non-invasive optical detection of cervical cancer,” Analyst (Lond.) 138(14), 3967–3974 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, S.

Li, X.

Li, Y.

S. Feng, R. Chen, J. Lin, J. Pan, Y. Wu, Y. Li, J. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Gastric cancer detection based on blood plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy excited by polarized laser light,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 26(7), 3167–3174 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Feng, R. Chen, J. Lin, J. Pan, G. Chen, Y. Li, M. Cheng, Z. Huang, J. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Nasopharyngeal cancer detection based on blood plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and multivariate analysis,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 25(11), 2414–2419 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liang, Z.

H. Huang, D. Lin, W. Chen, Y. Yu, J. Xu, Z. Liang, X. Lin, Z. Dong, and H. Shi, “Nondestructive discrimination between normal and hematological malignancy cell lines using near-infrared Raman spectroscopy and multivariate analysis,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11(8), 085601 (2014).
[Crossref]

Liao, J.-D.

S.-C. Luo, K. Sivashanmugan, J.-D. Liao, C.-K. Yao, and H.-C. Peng, “Nanofabricated SERS-active substrates for single-molecule to virus detection in vitro: A review,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 61, 232–240 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lim, N. S. J.

N. S. J. Lim, Z. Hamed, C. H. Yeow, C. Chan, and Z. Huang, “Early detection of biomolecular changes in disrupted porcine cartilage using polarized Raman spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 017003 (2011).

Lin, D.

H. Huang, D. Lin, W. Chen, Y. Yu, J. Xu, Z. Liang, X. Lin, Z. Dong, and H. Shi, “Nondestructive discrimination between normal and hematological malignancy cell lines using near-infrared Raman spectroscopy and multivariate analysis,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11(8), 085601 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Lin, J. Pan, H. Huang, G. Chen, S. Qiu, H. Shi, W. Chen, Y. Yu, S. Feng, and R. Chen, “Label-free blood plasma test based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering for tumor stages detection in nasopharyngeal cancer,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4751 (2014).
[PubMed]

D. Lin, S. Feng, H. Huang, W. Chen, H. Shi, N. Liu, L. Chen, W. Chen, Y. Yu, and R. Chen, “Label-free detection of blood plasma using silver nanoparticle based surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for esophageal cancer screening,” J. Biomed. Nanotechnol. 10(3), 478–484 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Feng, D. Lin, J. Lin, B. Li, Z. Huang, G. Chen, W. Zhang, L. Wang, J. Pan, R. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Blood plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for non-invasive optical detection of cervical cancer,” Analyst (Lond.) 138(14), 3967–3974 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Lin, S. Feng, J. Pan, Y. Chen, J. Lin, G. Chen, S. Xie, H. Zeng, and R. Chen, “Colorectal cancer detection by gold nanoparticle based surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of blood serum and statistical analysis,” Opt. Express 19(14), 13565–13577 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, J.

S. Feng, D. Lin, J. Lin, B. Li, Z. Huang, G. Chen, W. Zhang, L. Wang, J. Pan, R. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Blood plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for non-invasive optical detection of cervical cancer,” Analyst (Lond.) 138(14), 3967–3974 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Feng, R. Chen, J. Lin, J. Pan, Y. Wu, Y. Li, J. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Gastric cancer detection based on blood plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy excited by polarized laser light,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 26(7), 3167–3174 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Lin, S. Feng, J. Pan, Y. Chen, J. Lin, G. Chen, S. Xie, H. Zeng, and R. Chen, “Colorectal cancer detection by gold nanoparticle based surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of blood serum and statistical analysis,” Opt. Express 19(14), 13565–13577 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Feng, R. Chen, J. Lin, J. Pan, G. Chen, Y. Li, M. Cheng, Z. Huang, J. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Nasopharyngeal cancer detection based on blood plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and multivariate analysis,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 25(11), 2414–2419 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, X.

H. Huang, D. Lin, W. Chen, Y. Yu, J. Xu, Z. Liang, X. Lin, Z. Dong, and H. Shi, “Nondestructive discrimination between normal and hematological malignancy cell lines using near-infrared Raman spectroscopy and multivariate analysis,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11(8), 085601 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lindquist, N. C.

K. C. Bantz, A. F. Meyer, N. J. Wittenberg, H. Im, O. Kurtuluş, S. H. Lee, N. C. Lindquist, S.-H. Oh, and C. L. Haynes, “Recent progress in SERS biosensing,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 13(24), 11551–11567 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, N.

D. Lin, S. Feng, H. Huang, W. Chen, H. Shi, N. Liu, L. Chen, W. Chen, Y. Yu, and R. Chen, “Label-free detection of blood plasma using silver nanoparticle based surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for esophageal cancer screening,” J. Biomed. Nanotechnol. 10(3), 478–484 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lui, H.

Z. Huang, A. McWilliams, H. Lui, D. I. McLean, S. Lam, and H. Zeng, “Near-infrared Raman spectroscopy for optical diagnosis of lung cancer,” Int. J. Cancer 107(6), 1047–1052 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Luo, S.-C.

S.-C. Luo, K. Sivashanmugan, J.-D. Liao, C.-K. Yao, and H.-C. Peng, “Nanofabricated SERS-active substrates for single-molecule to virus detection in vitro: A review,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 61, 232–240 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mahmood, M.

Z. A. Nima, M. Mahmood, Y. Xu, T. Mustafa, F. Watanabe, D. A. Nedosekin, M. A. Juratli, T. Fahmi, E. I. Galanzha, J. P. Nolan, A. G. Basnakian, V. P. Zharov, and A. S. Biris, “Circulating tumor cell identification by functionalized silver-gold nanorods with multicolor, super-enhanced SERS and photothermal resonances,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4752 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maiti, K. K.

M. Vendrell, K. K. Maiti, K. Dhaliwal, and Y.-T. Chang, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering in cancer detection and imaging,” Trends Biotechnol. 31(4), 249–257 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Martínez-Espinosa, J. C.

J. L. González-Solís, J. C. Martínez-Espinosa, L. A. Torres-González, A. Aguilar-Lemarroy, L. F. Jave-Suárez, and P. Palomares-Anda, “Cervical cancer detection based on serum sample Raman spectroscopy,” Lasers Med. Sci. 29(3), 979–985 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McLean, D. I.

Z. Huang, A. McWilliams, H. Lui, D. I. McLean, S. Lam, and H. Zeng, “Near-infrared Raman spectroscopy for optical diagnosis of lung cancer,” Int. J. Cancer 107(6), 1047–1052 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McWilliams, A.

Z. Huang, A. McWilliams, H. Lui, D. I. McLean, S. Lam, and H. Zeng, “Near-infrared Raman spectroscopy for optical diagnosis of lung cancer,” Int. J. Cancer 107(6), 1047–1052 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Menaker, G.

L. Brancaleon, A. J. Durkin, J. H. Tu, G. Menaker, J. D. Fallon, and N. Kollias, “In vivo fluorescence spectroscopy of nonmelanoma skin cancer,” Photochem. Photobiol. 73(2), 178–183 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Meyer, A. F.

K. C. Bantz, A. F. Meyer, N. J. Wittenberg, H. Im, O. Kurtuluş, S. H. Lee, N. C. Lindquist, S.-H. Oh, and C. L. Haynes, “Recent progress in SERS biosensing,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 13(24), 11551–11567 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Munro, C.

C. Munro, W. Smith, M. Garner, J. Clarkson, and P. White, “Characterization of the surface of a citrate-reduced colloid optimized for use as a substrate for surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering,” Langmuir 11(10), 3712–3720 (1995).
[Crossref]

Mustafa, T.

Z. A. Nima, M. Mahmood, Y. Xu, T. Mustafa, F. Watanabe, D. A. Nedosekin, M. A. Juratli, T. Fahmi, E. I. Galanzha, J. P. Nolan, A. G. Basnakian, V. P. Zharov, and A. S. Biris, “Circulating tumor cell identification by functionalized silver-gold nanorods with multicolor, super-enhanced SERS and photothermal resonances,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4752 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nedosekin, D. A.

Z. A. Nima, M. Mahmood, Y. Xu, T. Mustafa, F. Watanabe, D. A. Nedosekin, M. A. Juratli, T. Fahmi, E. I. Galanzha, J. P. Nolan, A. G. Basnakian, V. P. Zharov, and A. S. Biris, “Circulating tumor cell identification by functionalized silver-gold nanorods with multicolor, super-enhanced SERS and photothermal resonances,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4752 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ng, S. C.

S. C. Ng and S. H. Wong, “Colorectal cancer screening in Asia,” Br. Med. Bull. 105(1), 29–42 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nima, Z. A.

Z. A. Nima, M. Mahmood, Y. Xu, T. Mustafa, F. Watanabe, D. A. Nedosekin, M. A. Juratli, T. Fahmi, E. I. Galanzha, J. P. Nolan, A. G. Basnakian, V. P. Zharov, and A. S. Biris, “Circulating tumor cell identification by functionalized silver-gold nanorods with multicolor, super-enhanced SERS and photothermal resonances,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4752 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nolan, J. P.

Z. A. Nima, M. Mahmood, Y. Xu, T. Mustafa, F. Watanabe, D. A. Nedosekin, M. A. Juratli, T. Fahmi, E. I. Galanzha, J. P. Nolan, A. G. Basnakian, V. P. Zharov, and A. S. Biris, “Circulating tumor cell identification by functionalized silver-gold nanorods with multicolor, super-enhanced SERS and photothermal resonances,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4752 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nowak, C.

J. Srajer, A. Schwaighofer, and C. Nowak, “Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for biomedical diagnostics and imaging,” Biomed. Spectrosc. Imaging 2, 51–71 (2013).

Oh, B.-K.

E.-J. Chae, J.-H. Lee, B.-K. Oh, and J.-W. Choi, “Label-free nanobiosensor to detect infectious bacterica based on SERS,” J. Biomed. Nanotechnol. 9(4), 659–663 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Oh, C. H.

H. Chon, S. Lee, S. W. Son, C. H. Oh, and J. Choo, “Highly sensitive immunoassay of lung cancer marker carcinoembryonic antigen using surface-enhanced Raman scattering of hollow gold nanospheres,” Anal. Chem. 81(8), 3029–3034 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Oh, S.-H.

K. C. Bantz, A. F. Meyer, N. J. Wittenberg, H. Im, O. Kurtuluş, S. H. Lee, N. C. Lindquist, S.-H. Oh, and C. L. Haynes, “Recent progress in SERS biosensing,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 13(24), 11551–11567 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Olivo, M.

U. S. Dinish, G. Balasundaram, Y.-T. Chang, and M. Olivo, “Actively targeted in vivo multiplex detection of intrinsic cancer biomarkers using biocompatible SERS nanotags,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4075 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Onimaru, M.

H. Ito, H. Inoue, K. Hasegawa, Y. Hasegawa, T. Shimizu, S. Kimura, M. Onimaru, H. Ikeda, and S. E. Kudo, “Use of surface-enhanced Raman scattering for detection of cancer-related serum-constituents in gastrointestinal cancer patients,” Nanomedicine (Lond.) 10(3), 599–608 (2014).
[PubMed]

Palomares-Anda, P.

J. L. González-Solís, J. C. Martínez-Espinosa, L. A. Torres-González, A. Aguilar-Lemarroy, L. F. Jave-Suárez, and P. Palomares-Anda, “Cervical cancer detection based on serum sample Raman spectroscopy,” Lasers Med. Sci. 29(3), 979–985 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pan, J.

D. Lin, J. Pan, H. Huang, G. Chen, S. Qiu, H. Shi, W. Chen, Y. Yu, S. Feng, and R. Chen, “Label-free blood plasma test based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering for tumor stages detection in nasopharyngeal cancer,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4751 (2014).
[PubMed]

S. Feng, D. Lin, J. Lin, B. Li, Z. Huang, G. Chen, W. Zhang, L. Wang, J. Pan, R. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Blood plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for non-invasive optical detection of cervical cancer,” Analyst (Lond.) 138(14), 3967–3974 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Feng, R. Chen, J. Lin, J. Pan, Y. Wu, Y. Li, J. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Gastric cancer detection based on blood plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy excited by polarized laser light,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 26(7), 3167–3174 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Lin, S. Feng, J. Pan, Y. Chen, J. Lin, G. Chen, S. Xie, H. Zeng, and R. Chen, “Colorectal cancer detection by gold nanoparticle based surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of blood serum and statistical analysis,” Opt. Express 19(14), 13565–13577 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Feng, R. Chen, J. Lin, J. Pan, G. Chen, Y. Li, M. Cheng, Z. Huang, J. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Nasopharyngeal cancer detection based on blood plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and multivariate analysis,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 25(11), 2414–2419 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Peng, H.-C.

S.-C. Luo, K. Sivashanmugan, J.-D. Liao, C.-K. Yao, and H.-C. Peng, “Nanofabricated SERS-active substrates for single-molecule to virus detection in vitro: A review,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 61, 232–240 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pierotti, M. A.

M. Frattini, G. Gallino, S. Signoroni, D. Balestra, L. Battaglia, G. Sozzi, E. Leo, S. Pilotti, and M. A. Pierotti, “Quantitative analysis of plasma DNA in colorectal cancer patients: a novel prognostic tool,” Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1075(1), 185–190 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pilotti, S.

M. Frattini, G. Gallino, S. Signoroni, D. Balestra, L. Battaglia, G. Sozzi, E. Leo, S. Pilotti, and M. A. Pierotti, “Quantitative analysis of plasma DNA in colorectal cancer patients: a novel prognostic tool,” Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1075(1), 185–190 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Premasiri, W. R.

W. R. Premasiri, J. C. Lee, and L. D. Ziegler, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering of whole human blood, blood plasma, and red blood cells: cellular processes and bioanalytical sensing,” J. Phys. Chem. B 116(31), 9376–9386 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qiu, S.

D. Lin, J. Pan, H. Huang, G. Chen, S. Qiu, H. Shi, W. Chen, Y. Yu, S. Feng, and R. Chen, “Label-free blood plasma test based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering for tumor stages detection in nasopharyngeal cancer,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4751 (2014).
[PubMed]

Rösch, T.

E. J. Kuipers, T. Rösch, and M. Bretthauer, “Colorectal cancer screening-optimizing current strategies and new directions,” Nat. Rev. Clin. Oncol. 10(3), 130–142 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schwaighofer, A.

J. Srajer, A. Schwaighofer, and C. Nowak, “Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for biomedical diagnostics and imaging,” Biomed. Spectrosc. Imaging 2, 51–71 (2013).

Shi, H.

D. Lin, J. Pan, H. Huang, G. Chen, S. Qiu, H. Shi, W. Chen, Y. Yu, S. Feng, and R. Chen, “Label-free blood plasma test based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering for tumor stages detection in nasopharyngeal cancer,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4751 (2014).
[PubMed]

D. Lin, S. Feng, H. Huang, W. Chen, H. Shi, N. Liu, L. Chen, W. Chen, Y. Yu, and R. Chen, “Label-free detection of blood plasma using silver nanoparticle based surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for esophageal cancer screening,” J. Biomed. Nanotechnol. 10(3), 478–484 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Huang, D. Lin, W. Chen, Y. Yu, J. Xu, Z. Liang, X. Lin, Z. Dong, and H. Shi, “Nondestructive discrimination between normal and hematological malignancy cell lines using near-infrared Raman spectroscopy and multivariate analysis,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11(8), 085601 (2014).
[Crossref]

Shimizu, T.

H. Ito, H. Inoue, K. Hasegawa, Y. Hasegawa, T. Shimizu, S. Kimura, M. Onimaru, H. Ikeda, and S. E. Kudo, “Use of surface-enhanced Raman scattering for detection of cancer-related serum-constituents in gastrointestinal cancer patients,” Nanomedicine (Lond.) 10(3), 599–608 (2014).
[PubMed]

Siegel, R.

R. Siegel, C. Desantis, and A. Jemal, “Colorectal cancer statistics, 2014,” CA Cancer J. Clin. 64(2), 104–117 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Signoroni, S.

M. Frattini, G. Gallino, S. Signoroni, D. Balestra, L. Battaglia, G. Sozzi, E. Leo, S. Pilotti, and M. A. Pierotti, “Quantitative analysis of plasma DNA in colorectal cancer patients: a novel prognostic tool,” Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1075(1), 185–190 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sirera, R.

R. M. Bremnes, R. Sirera, and C. Camps, “Circulating tumour-derived DNA and RNA markers in blood: a tool for early detection, diagnostics, and follow-up?” Lung Cancer 49(1), 1–12 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sivashanmugan, K.

S.-C. Luo, K. Sivashanmugan, J.-D. Liao, C.-K. Yao, and H.-C. Peng, “Nanofabricated SERS-active substrates for single-molecule to virus detection in vitro: A review,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 61, 232–240 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Smith, W.

C. Munro, W. Smith, M. Garner, J. Clarkson, and P. White, “Characterization of the surface of a citrate-reduced colloid optimized for use as a substrate for surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering,” Langmuir 11(10), 3712–3720 (1995).
[Crossref]

Son, S. W.

H. Chon, S. Lee, S. W. Son, C. H. Oh, and J. Choo, “Highly sensitive immunoassay of lung cancer marker carcinoembryonic antigen using surface-enhanced Raman scattering of hollow gold nanospheres,” Anal. Chem. 81(8), 3029–3034 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sozzi, G.

M. Frattini, G. Gallino, S. Signoroni, D. Balestra, L. Battaglia, G. Sozzi, E. Leo, S. Pilotti, and M. A. Pierotti, “Quantitative analysis of plasma DNA in colorectal cancer patients: a novel prognostic tool,” Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1075(1), 185–190 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Srajer, J.

J. Srajer, A. Schwaighofer, and C. Nowak, “Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for biomedical diagnostics and imaging,” Biomed. Spectrosc. Imaging 2, 51–71 (2013).

Teh, M.

S. K. Teh, W. Zheng, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, “Diagnostic potential of near-infrared Raman spectroscopy in the stomach: differentiating dysplasia from normal tissue,” Br. J. Cancer 98(2), 457–465 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Teh, S. K.

S. K. Teh, W. Zheng, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, “Diagnostic potential of near-infrared Raman spectroscopy in the stomach: differentiating dysplasia from normal tissue,” Br. J. Cancer 98(2), 457–465 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Torres-González, L. A.

J. L. González-Solís, J. C. Martínez-Espinosa, L. A. Torres-González, A. Aguilar-Lemarroy, L. F. Jave-Suárez, and P. Palomares-Anda, “Cervical cancer detection based on serum sample Raman spectroscopy,” Lasers Med. Sci. 29(3), 979–985 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tu, J. H.

L. Brancaleon, A. J. Durkin, J. H. Tu, G. Menaker, J. D. Fallon, and N. Kollias, “In vivo fluorescence spectroscopy of nonmelanoma skin cancer,” Photochem. Photobiol. 73(2), 178–183 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tu, Q.

Q. Tu and C. Chang, “Diagnostic applications of Raman spectroscopy,” Nanomedicine (Lond.) 8(5), 545–558 (2012).
[PubMed]

Vendrell, M.

M. Vendrell, K. K. Maiti, K. Dhaliwal, and Y.-T. Chang, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering in cancer detection and imaging,” Trends Biotechnol. 31(4), 249–257 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, D.

Wang, L.

S. Feng, D. Lin, J. Lin, B. Li, Z. Huang, G. Chen, W. Zhang, L. Wang, J. Pan, R. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Blood plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for non-invasive optical detection of cervical cancer,” Analyst (Lond.) 138(14), 3967–3974 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Watanabe, F.

Z. A. Nima, M. Mahmood, Y. Xu, T. Mustafa, F. Watanabe, D. A. Nedosekin, M. A. Juratli, T. Fahmi, E. I. Galanzha, J. P. Nolan, A. G. Basnakian, V. P. Zharov, and A. S. Biris, “Circulating tumor cell identification by functionalized silver-gold nanorods with multicolor, super-enhanced SERS and photothermal resonances,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4752 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

White, P.

C. Munro, W. Smith, M. Garner, J. Clarkson, and P. White, “Characterization of the surface of a citrate-reduced colloid optimized for use as a substrate for surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering,” Langmuir 11(10), 3712–3720 (1995).
[Crossref]

Wittenberg, N. J.

K. C. Bantz, A. F. Meyer, N. J. Wittenberg, H. Im, O. Kurtuluş, S. H. Lee, N. C. Lindquist, S.-H. Oh, and C. L. Haynes, “Recent progress in SERS biosensing,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 13(24), 11551–11567 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wong, S. H.

S. C. Ng and S. H. Wong, “Colorectal cancer screening in Asia,” Br. Med. Bull. 105(1), 29–42 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, Y.

S. Feng, R. Chen, J. Lin, J. Pan, Y. Wu, Y. Li, J. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Gastric cancer detection based on blood plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy excited by polarized laser light,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 26(7), 3167–3174 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xie, S.

Xu, J.

H. Huang, D. Lin, W. Chen, Y. Yu, J. Xu, Z. Liang, X. Lin, Z. Dong, and H. Shi, “Nondestructive discrimination between normal and hematological malignancy cell lines using near-infrared Raman spectroscopy and multivariate analysis,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11(8), 085601 (2014).
[Crossref]

Xu, Y.

Z. A. Nima, M. Mahmood, Y. Xu, T. Mustafa, F. Watanabe, D. A. Nedosekin, M. A. Juratli, T. Fahmi, E. I. Galanzha, J. P. Nolan, A. G. Basnakian, V. P. Zharov, and A. S. Biris, “Circulating tumor cell identification by functionalized silver-gold nanorods with multicolor, super-enhanced SERS and photothermal resonances,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4752 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, T.

Yao, C.-K.

S.-C. Luo, K. Sivashanmugan, J.-D. Liao, C.-K. Yao, and H.-C. Peng, “Nanofabricated SERS-active substrates for single-molecule to virus detection in vitro: A review,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 61, 232–240 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yeoh, K. G.

S. K. Teh, W. Zheng, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, “Diagnostic potential of near-infrared Raman spectroscopy in the stomach: differentiating dysplasia from normal tissue,” Br. J. Cancer 98(2), 457–465 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yeow, C. H.

N. S. J. Lim, Z. Hamed, C. H. Yeow, C. Chan, and Z. Huang, “Early detection of biomolecular changes in disrupted porcine cartilage using polarized Raman spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 017003 (2011).

Yu, Y.

H. Huang, D. Lin, W. Chen, Y. Yu, J. Xu, Z. Liang, X. Lin, Z. Dong, and H. Shi, “Nondestructive discrimination between normal and hematological malignancy cell lines using near-infrared Raman spectroscopy and multivariate analysis,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11(8), 085601 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Lin, J. Pan, H. Huang, G. Chen, S. Qiu, H. Shi, W. Chen, Y. Yu, S. Feng, and R. Chen, “Label-free blood plasma test based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering for tumor stages detection in nasopharyngeal cancer,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4751 (2014).
[PubMed]

D. Lin, S. Feng, H. Huang, W. Chen, H. Shi, N. Liu, L. Chen, W. Chen, Y. Yu, and R. Chen, “Label-free detection of blood plasma using silver nanoparticle based surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for esophageal cancer screening,” J. Biomed. Nanotechnol. 10(3), 478–484 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zeng, H.

S. Feng, D. Lin, J. Lin, B. Li, Z. Huang, G. Chen, W. Zhang, L. Wang, J. Pan, R. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Blood plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for non-invasive optical detection of cervical cancer,” Analyst (Lond.) 138(14), 3967–3974 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Feng, R. Chen, J. Lin, J. Pan, Y. Wu, Y. Li, J. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Gastric cancer detection based on blood plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy excited by polarized laser light,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 26(7), 3167–3174 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Lin, S. Feng, J. Pan, Y. Chen, J. Lin, G. Chen, S. Xie, H. Zeng, and R. Chen, “Colorectal cancer detection by gold nanoparticle based surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of blood serum and statistical analysis,” Opt. Express 19(14), 13565–13577 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Feng, R. Chen, J. Lin, J. Pan, G. Chen, Y. Li, M. Cheng, Z. Huang, J. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Nasopharyngeal cancer detection based on blood plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and multivariate analysis,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 25(11), 2414–2419 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Huang, A. McWilliams, H. Lui, D. I. McLean, S. Lam, and H. Zeng, “Near-infrared Raman spectroscopy for optical diagnosis of lung cancer,” Int. J. Cancer 107(6), 1047–1052 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, C. Y.

J. Hu and C. Y. Zhang, “Single base extension reaction-based surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy for DNA methylation assay,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 31(1), 451–457 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, W.

S. Feng, D. Lin, J. Lin, B. Li, Z. Huang, G. Chen, W. Zhang, L. Wang, J. Pan, R. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Blood plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for non-invasive optical detection of cervical cancer,” Analyst (Lond.) 138(14), 3967–3974 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zharov, V. P.

Z. A. Nima, M. Mahmood, Y. Xu, T. Mustafa, F. Watanabe, D. A. Nedosekin, M. A. Juratli, T. Fahmi, E. I. Galanzha, J. P. Nolan, A. G. Basnakian, V. P. Zharov, and A. S. Biris, “Circulating tumor cell identification by functionalized silver-gold nanorods with multicolor, super-enhanced SERS and photothermal resonances,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4752 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zheng, W.

S. K. Teh, W. Zheng, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, “Diagnostic potential of near-infrared Raman spectroscopy in the stomach: differentiating dysplasia from normal tissue,” Br. J. Cancer 98(2), 457–465 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ziegler, L. D.

W. R. Premasiri, J. C. Lee, and L. D. Ziegler, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering of whole human blood, blood plasma, and red blood cells: cellular processes and bioanalytical sensing,” J. Phys. Chem. B 116(31), 9376–9386 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anal. Chem. (1)

H. Chon, S. Lee, S. W. Son, C. H. Oh, and J. Choo, “Highly sensitive immunoassay of lung cancer marker carcinoembryonic antigen using surface-enhanced Raman scattering of hollow gold nanospheres,” Anal. Chem. 81(8), 3029–3034 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Analyst (Lond.) (1)

S. Feng, D. Lin, J. Lin, B. Li, Z. Huang, G. Chen, W. Zhang, L. Wang, J. Pan, R. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Blood plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for non-invasive optical detection of cervical cancer,” Analyst (Lond.) 138(14), 3967–3974 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. (1)

M. Frattini, G. Gallino, S. Signoroni, D. Balestra, L. Battaglia, G. Sozzi, E. Leo, S. Pilotti, and M. A. Pierotti, “Quantitative analysis of plasma DNA in colorectal cancer patients: a novel prognostic tool,” Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1075(1), 185–190 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biomed. Spectrosc. Imaging (1)

J. Srajer, A. Schwaighofer, and C. Nowak, “Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for biomedical diagnostics and imaging,” Biomed. Spectrosc. Imaging 2, 51–71 (2013).

Biosens. Bioelectron. (4)

S. Feng, R. Chen, J. Lin, J. Pan, G. Chen, Y. Li, M. Cheng, Z. Huang, J. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Nasopharyngeal cancer detection based on blood plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and multivariate analysis,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 25(11), 2414–2419 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Feng, R. Chen, J. Lin, J. Pan, Y. Wu, Y. Li, J. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Gastric cancer detection based on blood plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy excited by polarized laser light,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 26(7), 3167–3174 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Hu and C. Y. Zhang, “Single base extension reaction-based surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy for DNA methylation assay,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 31(1), 451–457 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S.-C. Luo, K. Sivashanmugan, J.-D. Liao, C.-K. Yao, and H.-C. Peng, “Nanofabricated SERS-active substrates for single-molecule to virus detection in vitro: A review,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 61, 232–240 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Br. J. Cancer (1)

S. K. Teh, W. Zheng, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, “Diagnostic potential of near-infrared Raman spectroscopy in the stomach: differentiating dysplasia from normal tissue,” Br. J. Cancer 98(2), 457–465 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Br. Med. Bull. (1)

S. C. Ng and S. H. Wong, “Colorectal cancer screening in Asia,” Br. Med. Bull. 105(1), 29–42 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

CA Cancer J. Clin. (1)

R. Siegel, C. Desantis, and A. Jemal, “Colorectal cancer statistics, 2014,” CA Cancer J. Clin. 64(2), 104–117 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Int. J. Cancer (1)

Z. Huang, A. McWilliams, H. Lui, D. I. McLean, S. Lam, and H. Zeng, “Near-infrared Raman spectroscopy for optical diagnosis of lung cancer,” Int. J. Cancer 107(6), 1047–1052 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Nanotechnol. (2)

D. Lin, S. Feng, H. Huang, W. Chen, H. Shi, N. Liu, L. Chen, W. Chen, Y. Yu, and R. Chen, “Label-free detection of blood plasma using silver nanoparticle based surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for esophageal cancer screening,” J. Biomed. Nanotechnol. 10(3), 478–484 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E.-J. Chae, J.-H. Lee, B.-K. Oh, and J.-W. Choi, “Label-free nanobiosensor to detect infectious bacterica based on SERS,” J. Biomed. Nanotechnol. 9(4), 659–663 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

N. S. J. Lim, Z. Hamed, C. H. Yeow, C. Chan, and Z. Huang, “Early detection of biomolecular changes in disrupted porcine cartilage using polarized Raman spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 017003 (2011).

J. Phys. Chem. B (1)

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 The brief schematic of the polarized SERS measurement.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a-c) Comparison of normalized mean SERS spectra from 45 normal and 38 CRC blood serum samples under different polarized SERS. The shaded areas represent the standard deviations of the means. Also shown at the bottom is the difference spectrum. (d) Different polarized SERS spectra from a same serum sample.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Histogram of the eight special SERS peak intensities for the two blood sample types under different polarized SERS: (a) 494 cm−1, (b) 591 cm−1, (c) 638 cm−1, (d) 813 cm−1, (e) 888 cm−1, (f) 1135 cm−1, (g) 1578 cm−1 and (h) 1655 cm−1. Error bars (whiskers) represent the 1.5-fold interquartile range. *p <0.05 (pairwise comparison of blood groups with T-test).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a, c, e) The three diagnostically significant principal components (PCs) calculated from SERS spectra, revealing the diagnostically significant spectral features for serum classification under different polarized SERS. (b, d, f) Scatter plots of the corresponding PCs for normal and cancer groups under different polarized SERS.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a-c) Scatter plots of the posterior probabilities belonging to the normal and CRC groups using the PCA-LDA together with leave-one-out and cross-validation method. The separate line yields a diagnostic accuracy of 78.3%, 91.6% and 91.6% for nonpolarized, parallel and perpendicular polarized blood SERS spectral classification, respectively. (d) Comparison of ROC curves of the discrimination results for SERS spectra with different polarized SERS. The integration areas under the ROC curves (AUC) are 0.905, 0.962 and 0.964, respectively, for the three polarized SERS, respectively.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 The peak positions and tentative assignment of major vibrational bands observed in serum samples.

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Table 2 Results of polarized SERS spectra prediction for differentiating cancer from normal blood samples using PCA-LDA diagnostic algorithma.

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