Abstract

We demonstrate that a distributed Raman amplification scheme based on random distributed feedback (DFB) fiber laser enables bidirectional second-order Raman pumping without increasing relative intensity noise (RIN) of the signal. This extends the reach of 10 × 116 Gb/s DP-QPSK WDM transmission up to 7915 km, compared with conventional Raman amplification schemes. Moreover, this scheme gives the longest maximum transmission distance among all the Raman amplification schemes presented in this paper, whilst maintaining relatively uniform and symmetric signal power distribution, and is also adjustable in order to be highly compatible with different nonlinearity compensation techniques, including mid-link optical phase conjugation (OPC) and nonlinear Fourier transform (NFT).

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. Ania-Castañón, “Quasi-lossless transmission using second-order Raman amplification and fibre Bragg gratings,” Opt. Express 12(19), 4372–4377 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. S. L. Jansen, D. V. Borne, P. M. Krummrich, S. Spalter, and H. D. Waardt, “Long-haul DWDM transmission systems employing optical phase conjugator,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 12(4), 505–520 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  3. I. D. Phillips, M. Tan, M. F. C. Stephens, M. McCarthy, E. Giacoumidis, S. Sygletos, P. Rosa, S. Fabbri, S. T. Le, T. Kanesan, P. Harper, S. K. Turitsyn, N. J. Doran, and A. D. Ellis, “Exceeding the nonlinear Shannon limit using Raman fibre based amplification and optical phase conjugation,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2014), paper M3C.1.
    [Crossref]
  4. P. Rosa, S. T. Le, G. Rizzelli, M. Tan, and J. D. Ania-Castañón, “Signal power asymmetry optimisation for optical phase conjugation using Raman amplification,” Opt. Express 23(25), 31772–31778 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. J. E. Prilepsky, S. A. Derevyanko, K. J. Blow, I. Gabitov, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Nonlinear inverse synthesis and eigenvalue division multiplexing in optical fiber channels,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(1), 013901 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. M. Tan, P. Rosa, S. T. Le, I. D. Phillips, and P. Harper, “Evaluation of 100G DP-QPSK long-haul transmission performance using second order co-pumped Raman laser based amplification,” Opt. Express 23(17), 22181–22189 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. J. Cheng, M. Tang, A. P. T. Lau, C. Lu, L. Wang, Z. Dong, S. M. Bilal, S. Fu, P. P. Shum, and D. Liu, “Pump RIN-induced impairments in unrepeatered transmission systems using distributed Raman amplifier,” Opt. Express 23(9), 11838–11854 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. S. B. Papernyi, V. I. Karpov, and W. R. L. Clements, “Third-order cascaded Raman amplification,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference (Optical Society of America, 2002), paper FB4.
    [Crossref]
  9. P. Rosa, M. Tan, S. T. Le, I. D. Phillips, J. D. Ania-Castañón, S. Sygletos, and P. Harper, “Unrepeatered DP-QPSK transmission over 352.8 km SMF using random DFB fiber laser amplification,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(11), 1041–1135 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  10. Z. Wang, H. Wu, M. Fan, L. Zhang, Y. J. Rao, W. L. Zhang, and X. H. Jia, “High power random fiber laser with short cavity length: theoretical and experimental investigations,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(1), 0900506 (2015).
  11. S. K. Turitsyn, S. A. Babin, D. Churkin, I. D. Vatnik, M. Nikulin, and E. V. Podivilov, “Random distributed feedback fibre lasers,” Phys. Rep. 542(2), 133–193 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  12. J. D. Ania-Castañón, V. Karalekas, P. Harper, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Simultaneous spatial and spectral transparency in ultralong fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(12), 123903 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. J.-C. Bouteiller, K. Brar, J. Bromage, S. Radic, and C. Headley, “Dual-order Raman pump,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15(2), 212–214 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  14. P. Rosa, G. Rizzelli, M. Tan, P. Harper, and J. D. Ania-Castañón, “Characterisation of random DFB Raman laser amplifier for WDM transmission,” Opt. Express 23, 28634–28639 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (6)

2014 (2)

S. K. Turitsyn, S. A. Babin, D. Churkin, I. D. Vatnik, M. Nikulin, and E. V. Podivilov, “Random distributed feedback fibre lasers,” Phys. Rep. 542(2), 133–193 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. E. Prilepsky, S. A. Derevyanko, K. J. Blow, I. Gabitov, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Nonlinear inverse synthesis and eigenvalue division multiplexing in optical fiber channels,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(1), 013901 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

J. D. Ania-Castañón, V. Karalekas, P. Harper, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Simultaneous spatial and spectral transparency in ultralong fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(12), 123903 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

S. L. Jansen, D. V. Borne, P. M. Krummrich, S. Spalter, and H. D. Waardt, “Long-haul DWDM transmission systems employing optical phase conjugator,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 12(4), 505–520 (2006).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

J.-C. Bouteiller, K. Brar, J. Bromage, S. Radic, and C. Headley, “Dual-order Raman pump,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15(2), 212–214 (2003).
[Crossref]

Ania-Castañón, J.

Ania-Castañón, J. D.

P. Rosa, G. Rizzelli, M. Tan, P. Harper, and J. D. Ania-Castañón, “Characterisation of random DFB Raman laser amplifier for WDM transmission,” Opt. Express 23, 28634–28639 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Rosa, S. T. Le, G. Rizzelli, M. Tan, and J. D. Ania-Castañón, “Signal power asymmetry optimisation for optical phase conjugation using Raman amplification,” Opt. Express 23(25), 31772–31778 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Rosa, M. Tan, S. T. Le, I. D. Phillips, J. D. Ania-Castañón, S. Sygletos, and P. Harper, “Unrepeatered DP-QPSK transmission over 352.8 km SMF using random DFB fiber laser amplification,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(11), 1041–1135 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. D. Ania-Castañón, V. Karalekas, P. Harper, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Simultaneous spatial and spectral transparency in ultralong fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(12), 123903 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Babin, S. A.

S. K. Turitsyn, S. A. Babin, D. Churkin, I. D. Vatnik, M. Nikulin, and E. V. Podivilov, “Random distributed feedback fibre lasers,” Phys. Rep. 542(2), 133–193 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bilal, S. M.

Blow, K. J.

J. E. Prilepsky, S. A. Derevyanko, K. J. Blow, I. Gabitov, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Nonlinear inverse synthesis and eigenvalue division multiplexing in optical fiber channels,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(1), 013901 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Borne, D. V.

S. L. Jansen, D. V. Borne, P. M. Krummrich, S. Spalter, and H. D. Waardt, “Long-haul DWDM transmission systems employing optical phase conjugator,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 12(4), 505–520 (2006).
[Crossref]

Bouteiller, J.-C.

J.-C. Bouteiller, K. Brar, J. Bromage, S. Radic, and C. Headley, “Dual-order Raman pump,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15(2), 212–214 (2003).
[Crossref]

Brar, K.

J.-C. Bouteiller, K. Brar, J. Bromage, S. Radic, and C. Headley, “Dual-order Raman pump,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15(2), 212–214 (2003).
[Crossref]

Bromage, J.

J.-C. Bouteiller, K. Brar, J. Bromage, S. Radic, and C. Headley, “Dual-order Raman pump,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15(2), 212–214 (2003).
[Crossref]

Cheng, J.

Churkin, D.

S. K. Turitsyn, S. A. Babin, D. Churkin, I. D. Vatnik, M. Nikulin, and E. V. Podivilov, “Random distributed feedback fibre lasers,” Phys. Rep. 542(2), 133–193 (2014).
[Crossref]

Derevyanko, S. A.

J. E. Prilepsky, S. A. Derevyanko, K. J. Blow, I. Gabitov, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Nonlinear inverse synthesis and eigenvalue division multiplexing in optical fiber channels,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(1), 013901 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dong, Z.

Fan, M.

Z. Wang, H. Wu, M. Fan, L. Zhang, Y. J. Rao, W. L. Zhang, and X. H. Jia, “High power random fiber laser with short cavity length: theoretical and experimental investigations,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(1), 0900506 (2015).

Fu, S.

Gabitov, I.

J. E. Prilepsky, S. A. Derevyanko, K. J. Blow, I. Gabitov, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Nonlinear inverse synthesis and eigenvalue division multiplexing in optical fiber channels,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(1), 013901 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Harper, P.

P. Rosa, G. Rizzelli, M. Tan, P. Harper, and J. D. Ania-Castañón, “Characterisation of random DFB Raman laser amplifier for WDM transmission,” Opt. Express 23, 28634–28639 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Tan, P. Rosa, S. T. Le, I. D. Phillips, and P. Harper, “Evaluation of 100G DP-QPSK long-haul transmission performance using second order co-pumped Raman laser based amplification,” Opt. Express 23(17), 22181–22189 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Rosa, M. Tan, S. T. Le, I. D. Phillips, J. D. Ania-Castañón, S. Sygletos, and P. Harper, “Unrepeatered DP-QPSK transmission over 352.8 km SMF using random DFB fiber laser amplification,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(11), 1041–1135 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. D. Ania-Castañón, V. Karalekas, P. Harper, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Simultaneous spatial and spectral transparency in ultralong fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(12), 123903 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Headley, C.

J.-C. Bouteiller, K. Brar, J. Bromage, S. Radic, and C. Headley, “Dual-order Raman pump,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15(2), 212–214 (2003).
[Crossref]

Jansen, S. L.

S. L. Jansen, D. V. Borne, P. M. Krummrich, S. Spalter, and H. D. Waardt, “Long-haul DWDM transmission systems employing optical phase conjugator,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 12(4), 505–520 (2006).
[Crossref]

Jia, X. H.

Z. Wang, H. Wu, M. Fan, L. Zhang, Y. J. Rao, W. L. Zhang, and X. H. Jia, “High power random fiber laser with short cavity length: theoretical and experimental investigations,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(1), 0900506 (2015).

Karalekas, V.

J. D. Ania-Castañón, V. Karalekas, P. Harper, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Simultaneous spatial and spectral transparency in ultralong fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(12), 123903 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Krummrich, P. M.

S. L. Jansen, D. V. Borne, P. M. Krummrich, S. Spalter, and H. D. Waardt, “Long-haul DWDM transmission systems employing optical phase conjugator,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 12(4), 505–520 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lau, A. P. T.

Le, S. T.

Liu, D.

Lu, C.

Nikulin, M.

S. K. Turitsyn, S. A. Babin, D. Churkin, I. D. Vatnik, M. Nikulin, and E. V. Podivilov, “Random distributed feedback fibre lasers,” Phys. Rep. 542(2), 133–193 (2014).
[Crossref]

Phillips, I. D.

P. Rosa, M. Tan, S. T. Le, I. D. Phillips, J. D. Ania-Castañón, S. Sygletos, and P. Harper, “Unrepeatered DP-QPSK transmission over 352.8 km SMF using random DFB fiber laser amplification,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(11), 1041–1135 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Tan, P. Rosa, S. T. Le, I. D. Phillips, and P. Harper, “Evaluation of 100G DP-QPSK long-haul transmission performance using second order co-pumped Raman laser based amplification,” Opt. Express 23(17), 22181–22189 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Podivilov, E. V.

S. K. Turitsyn, S. A. Babin, D. Churkin, I. D. Vatnik, M. Nikulin, and E. V. Podivilov, “Random distributed feedback fibre lasers,” Phys. Rep. 542(2), 133–193 (2014).
[Crossref]

Prilepsky, J. E.

J. E. Prilepsky, S. A. Derevyanko, K. J. Blow, I. Gabitov, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Nonlinear inverse synthesis and eigenvalue division multiplexing in optical fiber channels,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(1), 013901 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Radic, S.

J.-C. Bouteiller, K. Brar, J. Bromage, S. Radic, and C. Headley, “Dual-order Raman pump,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15(2), 212–214 (2003).
[Crossref]

Rao, Y. J.

Z. Wang, H. Wu, M. Fan, L. Zhang, Y. J. Rao, W. L. Zhang, and X. H. Jia, “High power random fiber laser with short cavity length: theoretical and experimental investigations,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(1), 0900506 (2015).

Rizzelli, G.

Rosa, P.

Shum, P. P.

Spalter, S.

S. L. Jansen, D. V. Borne, P. M. Krummrich, S. Spalter, and H. D. Waardt, “Long-haul DWDM transmission systems employing optical phase conjugator,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 12(4), 505–520 (2006).
[Crossref]

Sygletos, S.

P. Rosa, M. Tan, S. T. Le, I. D. Phillips, J. D. Ania-Castañón, S. Sygletos, and P. Harper, “Unrepeatered DP-QPSK transmission over 352.8 km SMF using random DFB fiber laser amplification,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(11), 1041–1135 (2015).
[Crossref]

Tan, M.

Tang, M.

Turitsyn, S. K.

J. E. Prilepsky, S. A. Derevyanko, K. J. Blow, I. Gabitov, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Nonlinear inverse synthesis and eigenvalue division multiplexing in optical fiber channels,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(1), 013901 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. K. Turitsyn, S. A. Babin, D. Churkin, I. D. Vatnik, M. Nikulin, and E. V. Podivilov, “Random distributed feedback fibre lasers,” Phys. Rep. 542(2), 133–193 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. D. Ania-Castañón, V. Karalekas, P. Harper, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Simultaneous spatial and spectral transparency in ultralong fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(12), 123903 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vatnik, I. D.

S. K. Turitsyn, S. A. Babin, D. Churkin, I. D. Vatnik, M. Nikulin, and E. V. Podivilov, “Random distributed feedback fibre lasers,” Phys. Rep. 542(2), 133–193 (2014).
[Crossref]

Waardt, H. D.

S. L. Jansen, D. V. Borne, P. M. Krummrich, S. Spalter, and H. D. Waardt, “Long-haul DWDM transmission systems employing optical phase conjugator,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 12(4), 505–520 (2006).
[Crossref]

Wang, L.

Wang, Z.

Z. Wang, H. Wu, M. Fan, L. Zhang, Y. J. Rao, W. L. Zhang, and X. H. Jia, “High power random fiber laser with short cavity length: theoretical and experimental investigations,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(1), 0900506 (2015).

Wu, H.

Z. Wang, H. Wu, M. Fan, L. Zhang, Y. J. Rao, W. L. Zhang, and X. H. Jia, “High power random fiber laser with short cavity length: theoretical and experimental investigations,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(1), 0900506 (2015).

Zhang, L.

Z. Wang, H. Wu, M. Fan, L. Zhang, Y. J. Rao, W. L. Zhang, and X. H. Jia, “High power random fiber laser with short cavity length: theoretical and experimental investigations,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(1), 0900506 (2015).

Zhang, W. L.

Z. Wang, H. Wu, M. Fan, L. Zhang, Y. J. Rao, W. L. Zhang, and X. H. Jia, “High power random fiber laser with short cavity length: theoretical and experimental investigations,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(1), 0900506 (2015).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

S. L. Jansen, D. V. Borne, P. M. Krummrich, S. Spalter, and H. D. Waardt, “Long-haul DWDM transmission systems employing optical phase conjugator,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 12(4), 505–520 (2006).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

Z. Wang, H. Wu, M. Fan, L. Zhang, Y. J. Rao, W. L. Zhang, and X. H. Jia, “High power random fiber laser with short cavity length: theoretical and experimental investigations,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(1), 0900506 (2015).

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (2)

J.-C. Bouteiller, K. Brar, J. Bromage, S. Radic, and C. Headley, “Dual-order Raman pump,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15(2), 212–214 (2003).
[Crossref]

P. Rosa, M. Tan, S. T. Le, I. D. Phillips, J. D. Ania-Castañón, S. Sygletos, and P. Harper, “Unrepeatered DP-QPSK transmission over 352.8 km SMF using random DFB fiber laser amplification,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(11), 1041–1135 (2015).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (5)

Phys. Rep. (1)

S. K. Turitsyn, S. A. Babin, D. Churkin, I. D. Vatnik, M. Nikulin, and E. V. Podivilov, “Random distributed feedback fibre lasers,” Phys. Rep. 542(2), 133–193 (2014).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

J. D. Ania-Castañón, V. Karalekas, P. Harper, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Simultaneous spatial and spectral transparency in ultralong fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(12), 123903 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. E. Prilepsky, S. A. Derevyanko, K. J. Blow, I. Gabitov, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Nonlinear inverse synthesis and eigenvalue division multiplexing in optical fiber channels,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(1), 013901 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (2)

I. D. Phillips, M. Tan, M. F. C. Stephens, M. McCarthy, E. Giacoumidis, S. Sygletos, P. Rosa, S. Fabbri, S. T. Le, T. Kanesan, P. Harper, S. K. Turitsyn, N. J. Doran, and A. D. Ellis, “Exceeding the nonlinear Shannon limit using Raman fibre based amplification and optical phase conjugation,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2014), paper M3C.1.
[Crossref]

S. B. Papernyi, V. I. Karpov, and W. R. L. Clements, “Third-order cascaded Raman amplification,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference (Optical Society of America, 2002), paper FB4.
[Crossref]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a). Experimental setup of long-haul transmission system. (b). Back to back Q factors versus OSNR of the central channel at 1545.32 nm of DP-QPSK WDM transmitter.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a). Schematic diagrams and pump powers of different Raman schemes. (b). Simulations (dotted lines) and experimental data (solid lines) of SPVs using different Raman configurations. (c) Simulations of noise distributions using different Raman configurations.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a). RIN of the output signal using three different random laser based amplification schemes. (b). Mode structures of forward-propagated random fiber lasers.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a). Simulated (dashed lines) and experimental (dots) Q factors versus launch power per channel at 3333 km; (b). Experimental Q factors versus transmission distances.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 OSNRs, Q factors, and received spectra measured at its maximum reach: (a). Symmetrical bidirectional pumped random laser scheme R2 at 7082 km; (b). BW-biased bidirectional pumped random laser scheme R3 at 7915 km; (c). BW-pumped random laser scheme R4 at 7082 km; (d). BW-pumped first-order scheme R6 at 4999 km.

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