Abstract

The far-field emission profile of terahertz quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) in metal-metal waveguides is controlled in directionality and form through planar horn-type shape structures, whilst conserving a broad spectral response. The structures produce a gradual change in the high modal confinement of the waveguides and permit an improved far-field emission profile and resulting in a four-fold increase in the emitted output power. The two-dimensional far-field patterns are measured at 77 K and are agreement in with 3D modal simulations. The influence of parasitic high-order transverse modes is shown to be controlled by engineering the horn structure (ridge and horn widths), allowing only the fundamental mode to be coupled out.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref]

2015 (1)

2014 (4)

L. Li, L. Chen, J. Zhu, J. Freeman, P. Dean, A. Valavanis, A. G. Davies, and E. H. Linfield, “Terahertz quantum cascade lasers with> 1 W output powers,” Electron. Lett. 50(4), 309–311 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Brewer, J. R. Freeman, P. Cavalié, J. Maysonnave, J. Tignon, S. S. Dhillon, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Coherent detection of metal-metal terahertz quantum cascade lasers with improved emission characteristics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(8), 081107 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Burghoff, T.-Y. Kao, N. Han, C. W. I. Chan, X. Cai, Y. Yang, D. J. Hayton, J.-R. Gao, J. L. Reno, and Q. Hu, “Terahertz laser frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 8(6), 462–467 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Wienold, B. Röben, L. Schrottke, R. Sharma, A. Tahraoui, K. Biermann, and H. T. Grahn, “High-temperature, continuous-wave operation of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers with metal-metal waveguides and third-order distributed feedback,” Opt. Express 22(3), 3334–3348 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (1)

2012 (3)

2011 (2)

D. Burghoff, T.-Y. Kao, D. Ban, A. W. M. Lee, Q. Hu, and J. Reno, “A terahertz pulse emitter monolithically integrated with a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(6), 061112 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Barbieri, M. Ravaro, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, C. Manquest, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Coherent sampling of active mode-locked terahertz quantum cascade lasers and frequency synthesis,” Nat. Photonics 5(5), 306–313 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

D. Oustinov, N. Jukam, R. Rungsawang, J. Madéo, S. Barbieri, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, X. Marcadet, J. Tignon, and S. Dhillon, “Phase seeding of a terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Commun. 1(6), 69 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

M. I. Amanti, M. Fischer, G. Scalari, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Low-divergence single-mode terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Photonics 3(10), 586–590 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (3)

W. Maineult, P. Gellie, A. Andronico, P. Filloux, G. Leo, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, E. Peytavit, T. Akalin, J.-F. Lampin, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Metal-metal terahertz quantum cascade laser with micro-transverse-electromagnetic-horn antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(18), 183508 (2008).
[Crossref]

P. Gellie, W. Maineult, A. Andronico, G. Leo, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, Y. Chassagneux, J. R. Coudevylle, R. Colombelli, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Effect of transverse mode structure on the far field pattern of metal-metal terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(12), 124513 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. A. Belkin, J. A. Fan, S. Hormoz, F. Capasso, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, A. G. Davies, and E. H. Linfield, “Terahertz quantum cascade lasers with copper metal-metal waveguides operating up to 178 K,” Opt. Express 16(5), 3242–3248 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

2002 (1)

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Akalin, T.

W. Maineult, P. Gellie, A. Andronico, P. Filloux, G. Leo, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, E. Peytavit, T. Akalin, J.-F. Lampin, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Metal-metal terahertz quantum cascade laser with micro-transverse-electromagnetic-horn antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(18), 183508 (2008).
[Crossref]

Amanti, M. I.

M. I. Amanti, M. Fischer, G. Scalari, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Low-divergence single-mode terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Photonics 3(10), 586–590 (2009).
[Crossref]

Andronico, A.

P. Gellie, W. Maineult, A. Andronico, G. Leo, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, Y. Chassagneux, J. R. Coudevylle, R. Colombelli, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Effect of transverse mode structure on the far field pattern of metal-metal terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(12), 124513 (2008).
[Crossref]

W. Maineult, P. Gellie, A. Andronico, P. Filloux, G. Leo, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, E. Peytavit, T. Akalin, J.-F. Lampin, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Metal-metal terahertz quantum cascade laser with micro-transverse-electromagnetic-horn antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(18), 183508 (2008).
[Crossref]

Arrington, C. L.

M. C. Wanke, C. Nordquist, C. L. Arrington, A. M. Rowen, A. D. Grine, E. A. Shaner, and M. Lee, “Integration of terahertz quantum cascade lasers with lithographically micromachined waveguides,” in 33rd International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter and Terahertz Waves (2008), pp. 15–19.
[Crossref]

Ban, D.

Barbieri, S.

S. Barbieri, M. Ravaro, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, C. Manquest, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Coherent sampling of active mode-locked terahertz quantum cascade lasers and frequency synthesis,” Nat. Photonics 5(5), 306–313 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. Oustinov, N. Jukam, R. Rungsawang, J. Madéo, S. Barbieri, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, X. Marcadet, J. Tignon, and S. Dhillon, “Phase seeding of a terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Commun. 1(6), 69 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Maineult, P. Gellie, A. Andronico, P. Filloux, G. Leo, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, E. Peytavit, T. Akalin, J.-F. Lampin, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Metal-metal terahertz quantum cascade laser with micro-transverse-electromagnetic-horn antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(18), 183508 (2008).
[Crossref]

P. Gellie, W. Maineult, A. Andronico, G. Leo, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, Y. Chassagneux, J. R. Coudevylle, R. Colombelli, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Effect of transverse mode structure on the far field pattern of metal-metal terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(12), 124513 (2008).
[Crossref]

Beck, M.

M. I. Amanti, M. Fischer, G. Scalari, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Low-divergence single-mode terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Photonics 3(10), 586–590 (2009).
[Crossref]

Beere, H. E.

A. Brewer, J. R. Freeman, P. Cavalié, J. Maysonnave, J. Tignon, S. S. Dhillon, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Coherent detection of metal-metal terahertz quantum cascade lasers with improved emission characteristics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(8), 081107 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. R. Freeman, J. Maysonnave, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, J. Tignon, and S. S. Dhillon, “Electric field sampling of modelocked pulses from a quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Express 21(13), 16162–16169 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Xu, R. Colombelli, S. P. Khanna, A. Belarouci, X. Letartre, L. Li, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Efficient power extraction in surface-emitting semiconductor lasers using graded photonic heterostructures,” Nat. Commun. 3, 952 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Maysonnave, K. Maussang, J. R. Freeman, N. Jukam, J. Madéo, P. Cavalié, R. Rungsawang, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, S. S. Dhillon, and J. Tignon, “Mode-locking of a terahertz laser by direct phase synchronization,” Opt. Express 20(19), 20855–20862 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Maineult, P. Gellie, A. Andronico, P. Filloux, G. Leo, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, E. Peytavit, T. Akalin, J.-F. Lampin, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Metal-metal terahertz quantum cascade laser with micro-transverse-electromagnetic-horn antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(18), 183508 (2008).
[Crossref]

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Belarouci, A.

G. Xu, R. Colombelli, S. P. Khanna, A. Belarouci, X. Letartre, L. Li, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Efficient power extraction in surface-emitting semiconductor lasers using graded photonic heterostructures,” Nat. Commun. 3, 952 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Belkin, M. A.

Beltram, F.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biermann, K.

Brewer, A.

A. Brewer, J. R. Freeman, P. Cavalié, J. Maysonnave, J. Tignon, S. S. Dhillon, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Coherent detection of metal-metal terahertz quantum cascade lasers with improved emission characteristics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(8), 081107 (2014).
[Crossref]

Burghoff, D.

D. Burghoff, T.-Y. Kao, N. Han, C. W. I. Chan, X. Cai, Y. Yang, D. J. Hayton, J.-R. Gao, J. L. Reno, and Q. Hu, “Terahertz laser frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 8(6), 462–467 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Burghoff, T.-Y. Kao, D. Ban, A. W. M. Lee, Q. Hu, and J. Reno, “A terahertz pulse emitter monolithically integrated with a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(6), 061112 (2011).
[Crossref]

Cai, X.

D. Burghoff, T.-Y. Kao, N. Han, C. W. I. Chan, X. Cai, Y. Yang, D. J. Hayton, J.-R. Gao, J. L. Reno, and Q. Hu, “Terahertz laser frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 8(6), 462–467 (2014).
[Crossref]

Capasso, F.

Cavalié, P.

A. Brewer, J. R. Freeman, P. Cavalié, J. Maysonnave, J. Tignon, S. S. Dhillon, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Coherent detection of metal-metal terahertz quantum cascade lasers with improved emission characteristics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(8), 081107 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Maysonnave, K. Maussang, J. R. Freeman, N. Jukam, J. Madéo, P. Cavalié, R. Rungsawang, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, S. S. Dhillon, and J. Tignon, “Mode-locking of a terahertz laser by direct phase synchronization,” Opt. Express 20(19), 20855–20862 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chan, C. W. I.

Chassagneux, Y.

P. Gellie, W. Maineult, A. Andronico, G. Leo, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, Y. Chassagneux, J. R. Coudevylle, R. Colombelli, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Effect of transverse mode structure on the far field pattern of metal-metal terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(12), 124513 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chen, L.

L. Li, L. Chen, J. Zhu, J. Freeman, P. Dean, A. Valavanis, A. G. Davies, and E. H. Linfield, “Terahertz quantum cascade lasers with> 1 W output powers,” Electron. Lett. 50(4), 309–311 (2014).
[Crossref]

Colombelli, R.

F. Wang, K. Maussang, S. Moumdji, R. Colombelli, J. R. Freeman, I. Kundu, L. Li, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, J. Mangeney, J. Tignon, and S. S. Dhillon, “Generating ultrafast pulses of light from quantum cascade lasers,” Optica 2(11), 944 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Xu, R. Colombelli, S. P. Khanna, A. Belarouci, X. Letartre, L. Li, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Efficient power extraction in surface-emitting semiconductor lasers using graded photonic heterostructures,” Nat. Commun. 3, 952 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Gellie, W. Maineult, A. Andronico, G. Leo, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, Y. Chassagneux, J. R. Coudevylle, R. Colombelli, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Effect of transverse mode structure on the far field pattern of metal-metal terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(12), 124513 (2008).
[Crossref]

Coudevylle, J. R.

P. Gellie, W. Maineult, A. Andronico, G. Leo, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, Y. Chassagneux, J. R. Coudevylle, R. Colombelli, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Effect of transverse mode structure on the far field pattern of metal-metal terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(12), 124513 (2008).
[Crossref]

Davies, A. G.

F. Wang, K. Maussang, S. Moumdji, R. Colombelli, J. R. Freeman, I. Kundu, L. Li, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, J. Mangeney, J. Tignon, and S. S. Dhillon, “Generating ultrafast pulses of light from quantum cascade lasers,” Optica 2(11), 944 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Li, L. Chen, J. Zhu, J. Freeman, P. Dean, A. Valavanis, A. G. Davies, and E. H. Linfield, “Terahertz quantum cascade lasers with> 1 W output powers,” Electron. Lett. 50(4), 309–311 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Maysonnave, K. Maussang, J. R. Freeman, N. Jukam, J. Madéo, P. Cavalié, R. Rungsawang, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, S. S. Dhillon, and J. Tignon, “Mode-locking of a terahertz laser by direct phase synchronization,” Opt. Express 20(19), 20855–20862 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Xu, R. Colombelli, S. P. Khanna, A. Belarouci, X. Letartre, L. Li, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Efficient power extraction in surface-emitting semiconductor lasers using graded photonic heterostructures,” Nat. Commun. 3, 952 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Barbieri, M. Ravaro, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, C. Manquest, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Coherent sampling of active mode-locked terahertz quantum cascade lasers and frequency synthesis,” Nat. Photonics 5(5), 306–313 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. A. Belkin, J. A. Fan, S. Hormoz, F. Capasso, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, A. G. Davies, and E. H. Linfield, “Terahertz quantum cascade lasers with copper metal-metal waveguides operating up to 178 K,” Opt. Express 16(5), 3242–3248 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Gellie, W. Maineult, A. Andronico, G. Leo, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, Y. Chassagneux, J. R. Coudevylle, R. Colombelli, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Effect of transverse mode structure on the far field pattern of metal-metal terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(12), 124513 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. A. Fan, M. A. Belkin, F. Capasso, S. Khanna, M. Lachab, A. G. Davies, and E. H. Linfield, “Surface emitting terahertz quantum cascade laser with a double-metal waveguide,” Opt. Express 14(24), 11672–11680 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dean, P.

L. Li, L. Chen, J. Zhu, J. Freeman, P. Dean, A. Valavanis, A. G. Davies, and E. H. Linfield, “Terahertz quantum cascade lasers with> 1 W output powers,” Electron. Lett. 50(4), 309–311 (2014).
[Crossref]

Dhillon, S.

D. Oustinov, N. Jukam, R. Rungsawang, J. Madéo, S. Barbieri, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, X. Marcadet, J. Tignon, and S. Dhillon, “Phase seeding of a terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Commun. 1(6), 69 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dhillon, S. S.

Dupont, E.

Faist, J.

M. I. Amanti, M. Fischer, G. Scalari, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Low-divergence single-mode terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Photonics 3(10), 586–590 (2009).
[Crossref]

Fan, J. A.

Fathololoumi, S.

Filloux, P.

D. Oustinov, N. Jukam, R. Rungsawang, J. Madéo, S. Barbieri, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, X. Marcadet, J. Tignon, and S. Dhillon, “Phase seeding of a terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Commun. 1(6), 69 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Maineult, P. Gellie, A. Andronico, P. Filloux, G. Leo, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, E. Peytavit, T. Akalin, J.-F. Lampin, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Metal-metal terahertz quantum cascade laser with micro-transverse-electromagnetic-horn antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(18), 183508 (2008).
[Crossref]

Fischer, M.

M. I. Amanti, M. Fischer, G. Scalari, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Low-divergence single-mode terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Photonics 3(10), 586–590 (2009).
[Crossref]

Freeman, J.

L. Li, L. Chen, J. Zhu, J. Freeman, P. Dean, A. Valavanis, A. G. Davies, and E. H. Linfield, “Terahertz quantum cascade lasers with> 1 W output powers,” Electron. Lett. 50(4), 309–311 (2014).
[Crossref]

Freeman, J. R.

Gao, J.-R.

D. Burghoff, T.-Y. Kao, N. Han, C. W. I. Chan, X. Cai, Y. Yang, D. J. Hayton, J.-R. Gao, J. L. Reno, and Q. Hu, “Terahertz laser frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 8(6), 462–467 (2014).
[Crossref]

Gellie, P.

S. Barbieri, M. Ravaro, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, C. Manquest, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Coherent sampling of active mode-locked terahertz quantum cascade lasers and frequency synthesis,” Nat. Photonics 5(5), 306–313 (2011).
[Crossref]

P. Gellie, W. Maineult, A. Andronico, G. Leo, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, Y. Chassagneux, J. R. Coudevylle, R. Colombelli, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Effect of transverse mode structure on the far field pattern of metal-metal terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(12), 124513 (2008).
[Crossref]

W. Maineult, P. Gellie, A. Andronico, P. Filloux, G. Leo, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, E. Peytavit, T. Akalin, J.-F. Lampin, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Metal-metal terahertz quantum cascade laser with micro-transverse-electromagnetic-horn antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(18), 183508 (2008).
[Crossref]

Grahn, H. T.

Grine, A. D.

M. C. Wanke, C. Nordquist, C. L. Arrington, A. M. Rowen, A. D. Grine, E. A. Shaner, and M. Lee, “Integration of terahertz quantum cascade lasers with lithographically micromachined waveguides,” in 33rd International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter and Terahertz Waves (2008), pp. 15–19.
[Crossref]

Han, N.

D. Burghoff, T.-Y. Kao, N. Han, C. W. I. Chan, X. Cai, Y. Yang, D. J. Hayton, J.-R. Gao, J. L. Reno, and Q. Hu, “Terahertz laser frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 8(6), 462–467 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hayton, D. J.

D. Burghoff, T.-Y. Kao, N. Han, C. W. I. Chan, X. Cai, Y. Yang, D. J. Hayton, J.-R. Gao, J. L. Reno, and Q. Hu, “Terahertz laser frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 8(6), 462–467 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hormoz, S.

Hu, Q.

D. Burghoff, T.-Y. Kao, N. Han, C. W. I. Chan, X. Cai, Y. Yang, D. J. Hayton, J.-R. Gao, J. L. Reno, and Q. Hu, “Terahertz laser frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 8(6), 462–467 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Fathololoumi, E. Dupont, C. W. I. Chan, Z. R. Wasilewski, S. R. Laframboise, D. Ban, A. Mátyás, C. Jirauschek, Q. Hu, and H. C. Liu, “Terahertz quantum cascade lasers operating up to ∼ 200 K with optimized oscillator strength and improved injection tunneling,” Opt. Express 20(4), 3866–3876 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Burghoff, T.-Y. Kao, D. Ban, A. W. M. Lee, Q. Hu, and J. Reno, “A terahertz pulse emitter monolithically integrated with a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(6), 061112 (2011).
[Crossref]

Iotti, R. C.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jirauschek, C.

Jukam, N.

Kao, T.-Y.

D. Burghoff, T.-Y. Kao, N. Han, C. W. I. Chan, X. Cai, Y. Yang, D. J. Hayton, J.-R. Gao, J. L. Reno, and Q. Hu, “Terahertz laser frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 8(6), 462–467 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Burghoff, T.-Y. Kao, D. Ban, A. W. M. Lee, Q. Hu, and J. Reno, “A terahertz pulse emitter monolithically integrated with a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(6), 061112 (2011).
[Crossref]

Khanna, S.

Khanna, S. P.

J. Maysonnave, K. Maussang, J. R. Freeman, N. Jukam, J. Madéo, P. Cavalié, R. Rungsawang, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, S. S. Dhillon, and J. Tignon, “Mode-locking of a terahertz laser by direct phase synchronization,” Opt. Express 20(19), 20855–20862 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Xu, R. Colombelli, S. P. Khanna, A. Belarouci, X. Letartre, L. Li, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Efficient power extraction in surface-emitting semiconductor lasers using graded photonic heterostructures,” Nat. Commun. 3, 952 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Barbieri, M. Ravaro, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, C. Manquest, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Coherent sampling of active mode-locked terahertz quantum cascade lasers and frequency synthesis,” Nat. Photonics 5(5), 306–313 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. A. Belkin, J. A. Fan, S. Hormoz, F. Capasso, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, A. G. Davies, and E. H. Linfield, “Terahertz quantum cascade lasers with copper metal-metal waveguides operating up to 178 K,” Opt. Express 16(5), 3242–3248 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Gellie, W. Maineult, A. Andronico, G. Leo, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, Y. Chassagneux, J. R. Coudevylle, R. Colombelli, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Effect of transverse mode structure on the far field pattern of metal-metal terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(12), 124513 (2008).
[Crossref]

Köhler, R.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kundu, I.

Lachab, M.

Laframboise, S. R.

Lampin, J.-F.

W. Maineult, P. Gellie, A. Andronico, P. Filloux, G. Leo, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, E. Peytavit, T. Akalin, J.-F. Lampin, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Metal-metal terahertz quantum cascade laser with micro-transverse-electromagnetic-horn antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(18), 183508 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lee, A. W. M.

D. Burghoff, T.-Y. Kao, D. Ban, A. W. M. Lee, Q. Hu, and J. Reno, “A terahertz pulse emitter monolithically integrated with a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(6), 061112 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lee, M.

M. C. Wanke, C. Nordquist, C. L. Arrington, A. M. Rowen, A. D. Grine, E. A. Shaner, and M. Lee, “Integration of terahertz quantum cascade lasers with lithographically micromachined waveguides,” in 33rd International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter and Terahertz Waves (2008), pp. 15–19.
[Crossref]

Leo, G.

P. Gellie, W. Maineult, A. Andronico, G. Leo, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, Y. Chassagneux, J. R. Coudevylle, R. Colombelli, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Effect of transverse mode structure on the far field pattern of metal-metal terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(12), 124513 (2008).
[Crossref]

W. Maineult, P. Gellie, A. Andronico, P. Filloux, G. Leo, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, E. Peytavit, T. Akalin, J.-F. Lampin, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Metal-metal terahertz quantum cascade laser with micro-transverse-electromagnetic-horn antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(18), 183508 (2008).
[Crossref]

Letartre, X.

G. Xu, R. Colombelli, S. P. Khanna, A. Belarouci, X. Letartre, L. Li, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Efficient power extraction in surface-emitting semiconductor lasers using graded photonic heterostructures,” Nat. Commun. 3, 952 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, L.

F. Wang, K. Maussang, S. Moumdji, R. Colombelli, J. R. Freeman, I. Kundu, L. Li, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, J. Mangeney, J. Tignon, and S. S. Dhillon, “Generating ultrafast pulses of light from quantum cascade lasers,” Optica 2(11), 944 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Li, L. Chen, J. Zhu, J. Freeman, P. Dean, A. Valavanis, A. G. Davies, and E. H. Linfield, “Terahertz quantum cascade lasers with> 1 W output powers,” Electron. Lett. 50(4), 309–311 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Xu, R. Colombelli, S. P. Khanna, A. Belarouci, X. Letartre, L. Li, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Efficient power extraction in surface-emitting semiconductor lasers using graded photonic heterostructures,” Nat. Commun. 3, 952 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Linfield, E. H.

F. Wang, K. Maussang, S. Moumdji, R. Colombelli, J. R. Freeman, I. Kundu, L. Li, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, J. Mangeney, J. Tignon, and S. S. Dhillon, “Generating ultrafast pulses of light from quantum cascade lasers,” Optica 2(11), 944 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Li, L. Chen, J. Zhu, J. Freeman, P. Dean, A. Valavanis, A. G. Davies, and E. H. Linfield, “Terahertz quantum cascade lasers with> 1 W output powers,” Electron. Lett. 50(4), 309–311 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Maysonnave, K. Maussang, J. R. Freeman, N. Jukam, J. Madéo, P. Cavalié, R. Rungsawang, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, S. S. Dhillon, and J. Tignon, “Mode-locking of a terahertz laser by direct phase synchronization,” Opt. Express 20(19), 20855–20862 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Xu, R. Colombelli, S. P. Khanna, A. Belarouci, X. Letartre, L. Li, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Efficient power extraction in surface-emitting semiconductor lasers using graded photonic heterostructures,” Nat. Commun. 3, 952 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Barbieri, M. Ravaro, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, C. Manquest, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Coherent sampling of active mode-locked terahertz quantum cascade lasers and frequency synthesis,” Nat. Photonics 5(5), 306–313 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. A. Belkin, J. A. Fan, S. Hormoz, F. Capasso, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, A. G. Davies, and E. H. Linfield, “Terahertz quantum cascade lasers with copper metal-metal waveguides operating up to 178 K,” Opt. Express 16(5), 3242–3248 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Gellie, W. Maineult, A. Andronico, G. Leo, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, Y. Chassagneux, J. R. Coudevylle, R. Colombelli, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Effect of transverse mode structure on the far field pattern of metal-metal terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(12), 124513 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. A. Fan, M. A. Belkin, F. Capasso, S. Khanna, M. Lachab, A. G. Davies, and E. H. Linfield, “Surface emitting terahertz quantum cascade laser with a double-metal waveguide,” Opt. Express 14(24), 11672–11680 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, H. C.

Madéo, J.

Maineult, W.

W. Maineult, P. Gellie, A. Andronico, P. Filloux, G. Leo, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, E. Peytavit, T. Akalin, J.-F. Lampin, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Metal-metal terahertz quantum cascade laser with micro-transverse-electromagnetic-horn antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(18), 183508 (2008).
[Crossref]

P. Gellie, W. Maineult, A. Andronico, G. Leo, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, Y. Chassagneux, J. R. Coudevylle, R. Colombelli, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Effect of transverse mode structure on the far field pattern of metal-metal terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(12), 124513 (2008).
[Crossref]

Mangeney, J.

Manquest, C.

S. Barbieri, M. Ravaro, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, C. Manquest, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Coherent sampling of active mode-locked terahertz quantum cascade lasers and frequency synthesis,” Nat. Photonics 5(5), 306–313 (2011).
[Crossref]

Marcadet, X.

D. Oustinov, N. Jukam, R. Rungsawang, J. Madéo, S. Barbieri, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, X. Marcadet, J. Tignon, and S. Dhillon, “Phase seeding of a terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Commun. 1(6), 69 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mátyás, A.

Maussang, K.

Maysonnave, J.

Moumdji, S.

Nordquist, C.

M. C. Wanke, C. Nordquist, C. L. Arrington, A. M. Rowen, A. D. Grine, E. A. Shaner, and M. Lee, “Integration of terahertz quantum cascade lasers with lithographically micromachined waveguides,” in 33rd International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter and Terahertz Waves (2008), pp. 15–19.
[Crossref]

Oustinov, D.

D. Oustinov, N. Jukam, R. Rungsawang, J. Madéo, S. Barbieri, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, X. Marcadet, J. Tignon, and S. Dhillon, “Phase seeding of a terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Commun. 1(6), 69 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Peytavit, E.

W. Maineult, P. Gellie, A. Andronico, P. Filloux, G. Leo, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, E. Peytavit, T. Akalin, J.-F. Lampin, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Metal-metal terahertz quantum cascade laser with micro-transverse-electromagnetic-horn antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(18), 183508 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ravaro, M.

S. Barbieri, M. Ravaro, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, C. Manquest, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Coherent sampling of active mode-locked terahertz quantum cascade lasers and frequency synthesis,” Nat. Photonics 5(5), 306–313 (2011).
[Crossref]

Reno, J.

D. Burghoff, T.-Y. Kao, D. Ban, A. W. M. Lee, Q. Hu, and J. Reno, “A terahertz pulse emitter monolithically integrated with a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(6), 061112 (2011).
[Crossref]

Reno, J. L.

D. Burghoff, T.-Y. Kao, N. Han, C. W. I. Chan, X. Cai, Y. Yang, D. J. Hayton, J.-R. Gao, J. L. Reno, and Q. Hu, “Terahertz laser frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 8(6), 462–467 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ritchie, D. A.

A. Brewer, J. R. Freeman, P. Cavalié, J. Maysonnave, J. Tignon, S. S. Dhillon, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Coherent detection of metal-metal terahertz quantum cascade lasers with improved emission characteristics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(8), 081107 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. R. Freeman, J. Maysonnave, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, J. Tignon, and S. S. Dhillon, “Electric field sampling of modelocked pulses from a quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Express 21(13), 16162–16169 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Xu, R. Colombelli, S. P. Khanna, A. Belarouci, X. Letartre, L. Li, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Efficient power extraction in surface-emitting semiconductor lasers using graded photonic heterostructures,” Nat. Commun. 3, 952 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Maysonnave, K. Maussang, J. R. Freeman, N. Jukam, J. Madéo, P. Cavalié, R. Rungsawang, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, S. S. Dhillon, and J. Tignon, “Mode-locking of a terahertz laser by direct phase synchronization,” Opt. Express 20(19), 20855–20862 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Maineult, P. Gellie, A. Andronico, P. Filloux, G. Leo, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, E. Peytavit, T. Akalin, J.-F. Lampin, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Metal-metal terahertz quantum cascade laser with micro-transverse-electromagnetic-horn antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(18), 183508 (2008).
[Crossref]

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Röben, B.

Rossi, F.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rowen, A. M.

M. C. Wanke, C. Nordquist, C. L. Arrington, A. M. Rowen, A. D. Grine, E. A. Shaner, and M. Lee, “Integration of terahertz quantum cascade lasers with lithographically micromachined waveguides,” in 33rd International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter and Terahertz Waves (2008), pp. 15–19.
[Crossref]

Rungsawang, R.

Santarelli, G.

S. Barbieri, M. Ravaro, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, C. Manquest, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Coherent sampling of active mode-locked terahertz quantum cascade lasers and frequency synthesis,” Nat. Photonics 5(5), 306–313 (2011).
[Crossref]

Scalari, G.

M. I. Amanti, M. Fischer, G. Scalari, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Low-divergence single-mode terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Photonics 3(10), 586–590 (2009).
[Crossref]

Schrottke, L.

Shaner, E. A.

M. C. Wanke, C. Nordquist, C. L. Arrington, A. M. Rowen, A. D. Grine, E. A. Shaner, and M. Lee, “Integration of terahertz quantum cascade lasers with lithographically micromachined waveguides,” in 33rd International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter and Terahertz Waves (2008), pp. 15–19.
[Crossref]

Sharma, R.

Sirtori, C.

S. Barbieri, M. Ravaro, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, C. Manquest, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Coherent sampling of active mode-locked terahertz quantum cascade lasers and frequency synthesis,” Nat. Photonics 5(5), 306–313 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. Oustinov, N. Jukam, R. Rungsawang, J. Madéo, S. Barbieri, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, X. Marcadet, J. Tignon, and S. Dhillon, “Phase seeding of a terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Commun. 1(6), 69 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Maineult, P. Gellie, A. Andronico, P. Filloux, G. Leo, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, E. Peytavit, T. Akalin, J.-F. Lampin, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Metal-metal terahertz quantum cascade laser with micro-transverse-electromagnetic-horn antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(18), 183508 (2008).
[Crossref]

P. Gellie, W. Maineult, A. Andronico, G. Leo, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, Y. Chassagneux, J. R. Coudevylle, R. Colombelli, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Effect of transverse mode structure on the far field pattern of metal-metal terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(12), 124513 (2008).
[Crossref]

Tahraoui, A.

Tignon, J.

Tredicucci, A.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Valavanis, A.

L. Li, L. Chen, J. Zhu, J. Freeman, P. Dean, A. Valavanis, A. G. Davies, and E. H. Linfield, “Terahertz quantum cascade lasers with> 1 W output powers,” Electron. Lett. 50(4), 309–311 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, F.

Wanke, M. C.

M. C. Wanke, C. Nordquist, C. L. Arrington, A. M. Rowen, A. D. Grine, E. A. Shaner, and M. Lee, “Integration of terahertz quantum cascade lasers with lithographically micromachined waveguides,” in 33rd International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter and Terahertz Waves (2008), pp. 15–19.
[Crossref]

Wasilewski, Z. R.

Wienold, M.

Xu, G.

G. Xu, R. Colombelli, S. P. Khanna, A. Belarouci, X. Letartre, L. Li, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Efficient power extraction in surface-emitting semiconductor lasers using graded photonic heterostructures,” Nat. Commun. 3, 952 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, Y.

D. Burghoff, T.-Y. Kao, N. Han, C. W. I. Chan, X. Cai, Y. Yang, D. J. Hayton, J.-R. Gao, J. L. Reno, and Q. Hu, “Terahertz laser frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 8(6), 462–467 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhu, J.

L. Li, L. Chen, J. Zhu, J. Freeman, P. Dean, A. Valavanis, A. G. Davies, and E. H. Linfield, “Terahertz quantum cascade lasers with> 1 W output powers,” Electron. Lett. 50(4), 309–311 (2014).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

W. Maineult, P. Gellie, A. Andronico, P. Filloux, G. Leo, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, E. Peytavit, T. Akalin, J.-F. Lampin, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Metal-metal terahertz quantum cascade laser with micro-transverse-electromagnetic-horn antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(18), 183508 (2008).
[Crossref]

D. Burghoff, T.-Y. Kao, D. Ban, A. W. M. Lee, Q. Hu, and J. Reno, “A terahertz pulse emitter monolithically integrated with a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(6), 061112 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Brewer, J. R. Freeman, P. Cavalié, J. Maysonnave, J. Tignon, S. S. Dhillon, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Coherent detection of metal-metal terahertz quantum cascade lasers with improved emission characteristics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(8), 081107 (2014).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (1)

L. Li, L. Chen, J. Zhu, J. Freeman, P. Dean, A. Valavanis, A. G. Davies, and E. H. Linfield, “Terahertz quantum cascade lasers with> 1 W output powers,” Electron. Lett. 50(4), 309–311 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

P. Gellie, W. Maineult, A. Andronico, G. Leo, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, Y. Chassagneux, J. R. Coudevylle, R. Colombelli, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Effect of transverse mode structure on the far field pattern of metal-metal terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(12), 124513 (2008).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (2)

G. Xu, R. Colombelli, S. P. Khanna, A. Belarouci, X. Letartre, L. Li, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Efficient power extraction in surface-emitting semiconductor lasers using graded photonic heterostructures,” Nat. Commun. 3, 952 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Oustinov, N. Jukam, R. Rungsawang, J. Madéo, S. Barbieri, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, X. Marcadet, J. Tignon, and S. Dhillon, “Phase seeding of a terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Commun. 1(6), 69 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (3)

M. I. Amanti, M. Fischer, G. Scalari, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Low-divergence single-mode terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Photonics 3(10), 586–590 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. Barbieri, M. Ravaro, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, C. Manquest, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Coherent sampling of active mode-locked terahertz quantum cascade lasers and frequency synthesis,” Nat. Photonics 5(5), 306–313 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. Burghoff, T.-Y. Kao, N. Han, C. W. I. Chan, X. Cai, Y. Yang, D. J. Hayton, J.-R. Gao, J. L. Reno, and Q. Hu, “Terahertz laser frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 8(6), 462–467 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
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Opt. Express (6)

J. A. Fan, M. A. Belkin, F. Capasso, S. Khanna, M. Lachab, A. G. Davies, and E. H. Linfield, “Surface emitting terahertz quantum cascade laser with a double-metal waveguide,” Opt. Express 14(24), 11672–11680 (2006).
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M. A. Belkin, J. A. Fan, S. Hormoz, F. Capasso, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, A. G. Davies, and E. H. Linfield, “Terahertz quantum cascade lasers with copper metal-metal waveguides operating up to 178 K,” Opt. Express 16(5), 3242–3248 (2008).
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S. Fathololoumi, E. Dupont, C. W. I. Chan, Z. R. Wasilewski, S. R. Laframboise, D. Ban, A. Mátyás, C. Jirauschek, Q. Hu, and H. C. Liu, “Terahertz quantum cascade lasers operating up to ∼ 200 K with optimized oscillator strength and improved injection tunneling,” Opt. Express 20(4), 3866–3876 (2012).
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J. Maysonnave, K. Maussang, J. R. Freeman, N. Jukam, J. Madéo, P. Cavalié, R. Rungsawang, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, S. S. Dhillon, and J. Tignon, “Mode-locking of a terahertz laser by direct phase synchronization,” Opt. Express 20(19), 20855–20862 (2012).
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J. R. Freeman, J. Maysonnave, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, J. Tignon, and S. S. Dhillon, “Electric field sampling of modelocked pulses from a quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Express 21(13), 16162–16169 (2013).
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M. Wienold, B. Röben, L. Schrottke, R. Sharma, A. Tahraoui, K. Biermann, and H. T. Grahn, “High-temperature, continuous-wave operation of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers with metal-metal waveguides and third-order distributed feedback,” Opt. Express 22(3), 3334–3348 (2014).
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Optica (1)

Other (2)

M. C. Wanke, C. Nordquist, C. L. Arrington, A. M. Rowen, A. D. Grine, E. A. Shaner, and M. Lee, “Integration of terahertz quantum cascade lasers with lithographically micromachined waveguides,” in 33rd International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter and Terahertz Waves (2008), pp. 15–19.
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F. Hyo and J. Eom, Electromagnetic Wave Theory for Boundary-Value Problems: An Advanced Course on Analytical Methode (Springer, 2004), Ch. 3.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of metal-metal THz QCLs with ~150-µm-long triangle horn structures at each end of the QCL cavity. (b) SEM image of a horn structure on one end of the QCL. (c) The L-I-V curves at 77 K pre- and post-FIB milling of horn structures.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Modal simulations of the fundamental TM00 (top) and second order mode TM01 (bottom) for a 40-µm-width metal-metal QCL. (b) The figure of merit, Γ/α, as a function of QCL ridge width for the fundamental TM00 (black) and second order mode TM01 (red).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Simulated (right) and measured (left) far-field patterns of metal-metal THz QCLs with different waveguide structures. (a) 3-mm-long 40-µm-wide metal-metal THz QCL with 150-µm-long PHS. (b) 3-mm-long 80-µm-wide metal-metal THz QCL with 150-µm-long PHS. (c) 2-mm-long 60-µm-wide metal-metal THz QCL without any planar horn structure. The measurements were all taken at 77 K.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Simulated far field profiles at 2.4 THz, 2.65 THz and 2.9 THz for QCL with central emission frequency of ~2.7 THz with a PHS of length 150 µm. (b) The measured spectrum taken at 10K showing a broadband response.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Simulated (right) and measured (left) far-field patterns of a 3-mm-long 80-µm-wide metal-metal THz QCLs with a 250-µm-long inverse planar horn structures. The measurements were all taken at 77 K.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Mesh used in air-field and QCL ridge to determine the far field emitted from the QCL. (b) Example of simulated far field projected on the air-sphere.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Top view of QCL showing transverse modes excited by a TM0,0 excitation on the right side of the ridge for 3-mm-long cavities with 150-µm-long planar triangle structures on the top metal layer on both facets. (a) Ridge width = 40 µm. (b) Ridge width = 60 µm. (c) Ridge width = 80 µm.

Equations (3)

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β= k 2 -( k x 2 + k y 2 ) = ω 2 n 2 με( k x 2 + k y 2 )
( k x 2 + k y 2 )< ω 2 n 2 με ( πm a ) 2 + ( πl b ) 2 < ω 2 n 2 με
m< ωan π με =2a nf με = 2an λ

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