Abstract

We demonstrate a strained Si0.91Ge0.09-based carrier-injection Mach-Zehnder (MZ) optical modulator using the enhanced plasma dispersion effect in strained SiGe through mass modulation for the first time. The SiGe modulator has an injection current of 1.47 mA for a phase shift of π which is lower than that for a Si modulator. Also, it is expected that the injection current can be further reduced by increasing the strain and Ge fraction, enabling operation at an injection current of less than 1 mA. As an example of the dynamic characteristics, 10 Gbps modulation with clear eye opening was obtained by the pre-emphasis method.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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2015 (1)

2014 (3)

Y. Kim, M. Takenaka, T. Osada, M. Hata, and S. Takagi, “Fabrication and evaluation of propagation loss of Si/SiGe/Si photonic-wire waveguides for Si based optical modulator,” Thin Solid Films 557, 342–345 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, X. Zheng, D. Feng, J. Lexau, J. F. Buckwalter, H. D. Thacker, F. Liu, Y. Luo, E. Chang, P. Amberg, I. Shubin, S. S. Djordjevic, J. H. Lee, S. Lin, H. Liang, A. Abed, R. Shafiiha, K. Raj, R. Ho, M. Asghari, and J. E. Cunningham, “A low-power, high-speed, 9-channel germanium-silicon electro-absorption modulator array integrated with digital CMOS driver and wavelength multiplexer,” Opt. Express 22(10), 12289–12295 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Kim, M. Takenaka, T. Osada, M. Hata, and S. Takagi, “Strain-induced enhancement of plasma dispersion effect and free-carrier absorption in SiGe optical modulators,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4683 (2014).
[PubMed]

2013 (2)

J. Fujikata, M. Miura, M. Noguchi, D. Okamoto, T. Horikawa, and Y. Arakawa, “Si Waveguide-Integrated Metal–Semiconductor–Metal and p–i–n-Type Ge Photodiodes Using Si-Capping Layer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52(4S), 04CG10 (2013).

J. F. Ding, R. Q. Ji, L. Zhang, and L. Yang, “Electro-optical response analysis of a 40 Gb/s silicon Mach-Zehnder optical modulator,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(14), 2434–2440 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (4)

M. Takenaka and S. Takagi, “Strain engineering of plasma dispersion effect for SiGe optical modulators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 48(1), 8–16 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ding, Y. Liu, A. Ayazi, T. Pinguet, N. C. Harris, M. Streshinsky, P. Lee, Y. Zhang, A. E. J. Lim, T. Y. Liow, S. H. G. Teo, G. Q. Lo, and M. Hochberg, “Ultralow drive voltage silicon traveling-wave modulator,” Opt. Express 20(11), 12014–12020 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J. M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. F. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Liu, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Double-layer graphene optical modulator,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1482–1485 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Y. Gardes, D. J. Thomson, N. G. Emerson, and G. T. Reed, “40 Gb/s silicon photonics modulator for TE and TM polarisations,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11804–11814 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

2009 (2)

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high-speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43, 51–52 (2009).

J. Van Campenhout, W. M. J. Green, S. Assefa, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Low-power, 2 x 2 silicon electro-optic switch with 110-nm bandwidth for broadband reconfigurable optical networks,” Opt. Express 17(26), 24020–24029 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[Crossref]

G. R. Zhou, M. W. Geis, S. J. Spector, F. Gan, M. E. Grein, R. T. Schulein, J. S. Orcutt, J. U. Yoon, D. M. Lennon, T. M. Lyszczarz, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Käertner, “Effect of carrier lifetime on forward-biased silicon Mach-Zehnder modulators,” Opt. Express 16(8), 5218–5226 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

2005 (2)

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1985 (1)

D. V. Lang, R. People, J. C. Bean, and A. M. Sergent, “Measurement of the band gap of GexSi1-x/Si strainedlayer heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 47(12), 1333–1335 (1985).
[Crossref]

Abed, A.

Alic, N.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J. M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. F. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[Crossref]

Amberg, P.

Arakawa, Y.

J. Fujikata, M. Miura, M. Noguchi, D. Okamoto, T. Horikawa, and Y. Arakawa, “Si Waveguide-Integrated Metal–Semiconductor–Metal and p–i–n-Type Ge Photodiodes Using Si-Capping Layer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52(4S), 04CG10 (2013).

Asghari, M.

Assefa, S.

Ayazi, A.

Baehr-Jones, T.

Basak, J.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high-speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43, 51–52 (2009).

Beals, M.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bean, J. C.

D. V. Lang, R. People, J. C. Bean, and A. M. Sergent, “Measurement of the band gap of GexSi1-x/Si strainedlayer heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 47(12), 1333–1335 (1985).
[Crossref]

Bernardis, S.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[Crossref]

Buckwalter, J. F.

Chang, E.

Cheng, J.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chetrit, Y.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high-speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43, 51–52 (2009).

Cohen, R.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high-speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43, 51–52 (2009).

Cunningham, J. E.

Ding, J. F.

Ding, R.

Djordjevic, S. S.

Dong, P.

Emerson, N. G.

Fedeli, J. M.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J. M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. F. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[Crossref]

Feng, D.

Fujikata, J.

Y. Kim, J. Fujikata, S. Takahashi, M. Takenaka, and S. Takagi, “Demonstration of record-low injection-current variable optical attenuator based on strained SiGe with optimized lateral pin junction,” Opt. Express 23(9), 12354–12361 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Fujikata, M. Miura, M. Noguchi, D. Okamoto, T. Horikawa, and Y. Arakawa, “Si Waveguide-Integrated Metal–Semiconductor–Metal and p–i–n-Type Ge Photodiodes Using Si-Capping Layer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52(4S), 04CG10 (2013).

Gan, F.

Gardes, F. Y.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J. M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. F. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[Crossref]

F. Y. Gardes, D. J. Thomson, N. G. Emerson, and G. T. Reed, “40 Gb/s silicon photonics modulator for TE and TM polarisations,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11804–11814 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ge, Y.

Y. H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Geis, M. W.

Geng, B.

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Green, W. M. J.

Grein, M. E.

Harris, J. S.

Y. H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Harris, N. C.

Hata, M.

Y. Kim, M. Takenaka, T. Osada, M. Hata, and S. Takagi, “Strain-induced enhancement of plasma dispersion effect and free-carrier absorption in SiGe optical modulators,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4683 (2014).
[PubMed]

Y. Kim, M. Takenaka, T. Osada, M. Hata, and S. Takagi, “Fabrication and evaluation of propagation loss of Si/SiGe/Si photonic-wire waveguides for Si based optical modulator,” Thin Solid Films 557, 342–345 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ho, R.

Hochberg, M.

Horikawa, T.

J. Fujikata, M. Miura, M. Noguchi, D. Okamoto, T. Horikawa, and Y. Arakawa, “Si Waveguide-Integrated Metal–Semiconductor–Metal and p–i–n-Type Ge Photodiodes Using Si-Capping Layer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52(4S), 04CG10 (2013).

Hu, Y. F.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J. M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. F. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ippen, E. P.

Izhaky, N.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high-speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43, 51–52 (2009).

Ji, R. Q.

Ju, L.

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Käertner, F. X.

Kamins, T. I.

Y. H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, Y.

Y. Kim, J. Fujikata, S. Takahashi, M. Takenaka, and S. Takagi, “Demonstration of record-low injection-current variable optical attenuator based on strained SiGe with optimized lateral pin junction,” Opt. Express 23(9), 12354–12361 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Kim, M. Takenaka, T. Osada, M. Hata, and S. Takagi, “Strain-induced enhancement of plasma dispersion effect and free-carrier absorption in SiGe optical modulators,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4683 (2014).
[PubMed]

Y. Kim, M. Takenaka, T. Osada, M. Hata, and S. Takagi, “Fabrication and evaluation of propagation loss of Si/SiGe/Si photonic-wire waveguides for Si based optical modulator,” Thin Solid Films 557, 342–345 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kimerling, L. C.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[Crossref]

Krishnamoorthy, A. V.

Kuo, B. P. P.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J. M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. F. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kuo, Y. H.

Y. H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lang, D. V.

D. V. Lang, R. People, J. C. Bean, and A. M. Sergent, “Measurement of the band gap of GexSi1-x/Si strainedlayer heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 47(12), 1333–1335 (1985).
[Crossref]

Lee, J. H.

Lee, P.

Lee, Y. K.

Y. H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lennon, D. M.

Lexau, J.

Li, G.

Liang, H.

Liao, L.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high-speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43, 51–52 (2009).

Liao, S.

Lim, A. E. J.

Lin, S.

Liow, T. Y.

Lipson, M.

Liu, A.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high-speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43, 51–52 (2009).

Liu, F.

Liu, J.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[Crossref]

Liu, M.

M. Liu, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Double-layer graphene optical modulator,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1482–1485 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, Y.

Lo, G. Q.

Luo, Y.

Lyszczarz, T. M.

Manipatruni, S.

Mashanovich, G.

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[Crossref]

Mashanovich, G. Z.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J. M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. F. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[Crossref]

Michel, J.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[Crossref]

Miller, D. A. B.

Y. H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Miura, M.

J. Fujikata, M. Miura, M. Noguchi, D. Okamoto, T. Horikawa, and Y. Arakawa, “Si Waveguide-Integrated Metal–Semiconductor–Metal and p–i–n-Type Ge Photodiodes Using Si-Capping Layer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52(4S), 04CG10 (2013).

Myslivets, E.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J. M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. F. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
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Nguyen, H.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high-speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43, 51–52 (2009).

Noguchi, M.

J. Fujikata, M. Miura, M. Noguchi, D. Okamoto, T. Horikawa, and Y. Arakawa, “Si Waveguide-Integrated Metal–Semiconductor–Metal and p–i–n-Type Ge Photodiodes Using Si-Capping Layer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52(4S), 04CG10 (2013).

Okamoto, D.

J. Fujikata, M. Miura, M. Noguchi, D. Okamoto, T. Horikawa, and Y. Arakawa, “Si Waveguide-Integrated Metal–Semiconductor–Metal and p–i–n-Type Ge Photodiodes Using Si-Capping Layer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52(4S), 04CG10 (2013).

Orcutt, J. S.

Osada, T.

Y. Kim, M. Takenaka, T. Osada, M. Hata, and S. Takagi, “Fabrication and evaluation of propagation loss of Si/SiGe/Si photonic-wire waveguides for Si based optical modulator,” Thin Solid Films 557, 342–345 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Kim, M. Takenaka, T. Osada, M. Hata, and S. Takagi, “Strain-induced enhancement of plasma dispersion effect and free-carrier absorption in SiGe optical modulators,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4683 (2014).
[PubMed]

Paniccia, M.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high-speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43, 51–52 (2009).

People, R.

D. V. Lang, R. People, J. C. Bean, and A. M. Sergent, “Measurement of the band gap of GexSi1-x/Si strainedlayer heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 47(12), 1333–1335 (1985).
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Pinguet, T.

Pomerene, A.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[Crossref]

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Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Radic, S.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J. M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. F. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[Crossref]

Raj, K.

Reed, G. T.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J. M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. F. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[Crossref]

F. Y. Gardes, D. J. Thomson, N. G. Emerson, and G. T. Reed, “40 Gb/s silicon photonics modulator for TE and TM polarisations,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11804–11814 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ren, S.

Y. H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rooks, M. J.

Roth, J. E.

Y. H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rubin, D.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high-speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43, 51–52 (2009).

Schmidt, B.

Schulein, R. T.

Sekaric, L.

Sergent, A. M.

D. V. Lang, R. People, J. C. Bean, and A. M. Sergent, “Measurement of the band gap of GexSi1-x/Si strainedlayer heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 47(12), 1333–1335 (1985).
[Crossref]

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Shakya, J.

Shubin, I.

Spector, S. J.

Streshinsky, M.

Sun, R.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[Crossref]

Takagi, S.

Y. Kim, J. Fujikata, S. Takahashi, M. Takenaka, and S. Takagi, “Demonstration of record-low injection-current variable optical attenuator based on strained SiGe with optimized lateral pin junction,” Opt. Express 23(9), 12354–12361 (2015).
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Y. Kim, M. Takenaka, T. Osada, M. Hata, and S. Takagi, “Fabrication and evaluation of propagation loss of Si/SiGe/Si photonic-wire waveguides for Si based optical modulator,” Thin Solid Films 557, 342–345 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Kim, M. Takenaka, T. Osada, M. Hata, and S. Takagi, “Strain-induced enhancement of plasma dispersion effect and free-carrier absorption in SiGe optical modulators,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4683 (2014).
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M. Takenaka and S. Takagi, “Strain engineering of plasma dispersion effect for SiGe optical modulators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 48(1), 8–16 (2012).
[Crossref]

Takahashi, S.

Takenaka, M.

Y. Kim, J. Fujikata, S. Takahashi, M. Takenaka, and S. Takagi, “Demonstration of record-low injection-current variable optical attenuator based on strained SiGe with optimized lateral pin junction,” Opt. Express 23(9), 12354–12361 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Kim, M. Takenaka, T. Osada, M. Hata, and S. Takagi, “Fabrication and evaluation of propagation loss of Si/SiGe/Si photonic-wire waveguides for Si based optical modulator,” Thin Solid Films 557, 342–345 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Kim, M. Takenaka, T. Osada, M. Hata, and S. Takagi, “Strain-induced enhancement of plasma dispersion effect and free-carrier absorption in SiGe optical modulators,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4683 (2014).
[PubMed]

M. Takenaka and S. Takagi, “Strain engineering of plasma dispersion effect for SiGe optical modulators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 48(1), 8–16 (2012).
[Crossref]

Teo, S. H. G.

Thacker, H. D.

Thomson, D. J.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J. M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. F. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[Crossref]

F. Y. Gardes, D. J. Thomson, N. G. Emerson, and G. T. Reed, “40 Gb/s silicon photonics modulator for TE and TM polarisations,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11804–11814 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ulin-Avila, E.

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Van Campenhout, J.

Vlasov, Y. A.

Wang, F.

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, Q.

Yang, L.

Yin, X.

M. Liu, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Double-layer graphene optical modulator,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1482–1485 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yoon, J. U.

Zentgraf, T.

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
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Zhang, L.

Zhang, X.

M. Liu, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Double-layer graphene optical modulator,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1482–1485 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y.

Zheng, X.

Zhou, G. R.

Zlatanovic, S.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J. M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. F. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

D. V. Lang, R. People, J. C. Bean, and A. M. Sergent, “Measurement of the band gap of GexSi1-x/Si strainedlayer heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 47(12), 1333–1335 (1985).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (1)

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high-speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43, 51–52 (2009).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Takenaka and S. Takagi, “Strain engineering of plasma dispersion effect for SiGe optical modulators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 48(1), 8–16 (2012).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J. M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. F. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J. Fujikata, M. Miura, M. Noguchi, D. Okamoto, T. Horikawa, and Y. Arakawa, “Si Waveguide-Integrated Metal–Semiconductor–Metal and p–i–n-Type Ge Photodiodes Using Si-Capping Layer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52(4S), 04CG10 (2013).

Nano Lett. (1)

M. Liu, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Double-layer graphene optical modulator,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1482–1485 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (2)

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[Crossref]

Nature (3)

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (9)

F. Y. Gardes, D. J. Thomson, N. G. Emerson, and G. T. Reed, “40 Gb/s silicon photonics modulator for TE and TM polarisations,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11804–11814 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. M. J. Green, M. J. Rooks, L. Sekaric, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Ultra-compact, low RF power, 10 Gb/s silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” Opt. Express 15(25), 17106–17113 (2007).
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A. V. Krishnamoorthy, X. Zheng, D. Feng, J. Lexau, J. F. Buckwalter, H. D. Thacker, F. Liu, Y. Luo, E. Chang, P. Amberg, I. Shubin, S. S. Djordjevic, J. H. Lee, S. Lin, H. Liang, A. Abed, R. Shafiiha, K. Raj, R. Ho, M. Asghari, and J. E. Cunningham, “A low-power, high-speed, 9-channel germanium-silicon electro-absorption modulator array integrated with digital CMOS driver and wavelength multiplexer,” Opt. Express 22(10), 12289–12295 (2014).
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T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ding, Y. Liu, A. Ayazi, T. Pinguet, N. C. Harris, M. Streshinsky, P. Lee, Y. Zhang, A. E. J. Lim, T. Y. Liow, S. H. G. Teo, G. Q. Lo, and M. Hochberg, “Ultralow drive voltage silicon traveling-wave modulator,” Opt. Express 20(11), 12014–12020 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Kim, J. Fujikata, S. Takahashi, M. Takenaka, and S. Takagi, “Demonstration of record-low injection-current variable optical attenuator based on strained SiGe with optimized lateral pin junction,” Opt. Express 23(9), 12354–12361 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Dong, S. Liao, H. Liang, R. Shafiiha, D. Feng, G. Li, X. Zheng, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “Submilliwatt, ultrafast and broadband electro-optic silicon switches,” Opt. Express 18(24), 25225–25231 (2010).
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G. R. Zhou, M. W. Geis, S. J. Spector, F. Gan, M. E. Grein, R. T. Schulein, J. S. Orcutt, J. U. Yoon, D. M. Lennon, T. M. Lyszczarz, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Käertner, “Effect of carrier lifetime on forward-biased silicon Mach-Zehnder modulators,” Opt. Express 16(8), 5218–5226 (2008).
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J. Van Campenhout, W. M. J. Green, S. Assefa, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Low-power, 2 x 2 silicon electro-optic switch with 110-nm bandwidth for broadband reconfigurable optical networks,” Opt. Express 17(26), 24020–24029 (2009).
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Q. Xu, S. Manipatruni, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, “12.5 Gbit/s carrier-injection-based silicon micro-ring silicon modulators,” Opt. Express 15(2), 430–436 (2007).
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Sci. Rep. (1)

Y. Kim, M. Takenaka, T. Osada, M. Hata, and S. Takagi, “Strain-induced enhancement of plasma dispersion effect and free-carrier absorption in SiGe optical modulators,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4683 (2014).
[PubMed]

Thin Solid Films (1)

Y. Kim, M. Takenaka, T. Osada, M. Hata, and S. Takagi, “Fabrication and evaluation of propagation loss of Si/SiGe/Si photonic-wire waveguides for Si based optical modulator,” Thin Solid Films 557, 342–345 (2014).
[Crossref]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Device structure of the phase shifter in the carrier-injection SiGe MZ modulator, (b) simulation result for change in effective refractive index as a function of injected current density with Ge fractions from 0.0 to 0.3 when the phase-shifter length is 250 μm, and (c) current density required for a phase shift of π (left axis) and its enhancement factor (right axis) as a function of Ge fraction.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Optical microscopy image of the SiGe asymmetric MZ modulator, (b) tilted SEM image of the device, (c) well-defined 1 × 2 MMI coupler, and (d) bent Si/SiGe/Si waveguide.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 I-V characteristics of the lateral p-i-n junctions in the Si and SiGe devices on (a) logarithmic and (b) linear scales.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Measured transmission spectra with injection currents of 0 mA and 2 mA in (a) Si and (b) SiGe asymmetric MZ modulators.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Extracted phase shift as a function of injection current for Si and SiGe asymmetric MZ modulators, and (b) benchmark injection currents for a phase shift of π as a function of phase-shifter length.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) Measurement setup used to obtain dynamic characteristics of SiGe modulator, and (b) eye pattern of SiGe MZ modulator at 10 Gbps.

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