Abstract

Based on the rolling shutter effect of the complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) image sensor, bright and dark fringes can be observed in each received frame. By demodulating the bright and dark fringes, the visible light communication (VLC) data logic can be retrieved. However, demodulating the bright and dark fringes is challenging as there is a high data fluctuation and large extinction ratio (ER) variation in each frame due. Hence proper thresholding scheme is needed. In this work, we propose and compare experimentally three thresholding schemes; including third-order polynomial curve fitting, iterative scheme and quick adaptive scheme. The evaluation of these three thresholding schemes is performed.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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Corrections

28 January 2016: A correction was made to the author affiliations.


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References

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  1. H. H. Lu, Y. P. Lin, P. Y. Wu, C. Y. Chen, M. C. Chen, and T. W. Jhang, “A multiple-input-multiple-output visible light communication system based on VCSELs and spatial light modulators,” Opt. Express 22(3), 3468–3474 (2014).
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  5. C. H. Yeh, Y. L. Liu, and C. W. Chow, “Real-time white-light phosphor-LED visible light communication (VLC) with compact size,” Opt. Express 21(22), 26192–26197 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  8. I. Takai, S. Ito, K. Yasutomi, K. Kagawa, M. Andoh, and S. Kawahito, “LED and CMOS image sensor based optical wireless communication system for automotive applications,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(5), 6801418 (2013).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  10. C. W. Chow, C. Y. Chen, and S. H. Chen, “Visible light communication using mobile-phone camera with data rate higher than frame rate,” Opt. Express 23(20), 26080–26085 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. C. W. Chow, C. Y. Chen, and S. H. Chen, “Enhancement of signal performance in LED visible light communications using mobile phone camera,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(5), 7903607 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  12. R. C. Gonzalez and R. E. Woods, Digital Image Processing (Pearson, 2002).
  13. P. D. Wellner, “Adaptive thresholding for the digital desk,” Tech. Rep. EPC-93–110, 1993.
  14. E. E. Richman, “Requirements for lighting levels,” ( https://www.wbdg.org/pdfs/usace_lightinglevels.pdf ).

2015 (3)

2014 (3)

H. H. Lu, Y. P. Lin, P. Y. Wu, C. Y. Chen, M. C. Chen, and T. W. Jhang, “A multiple-input-multiple-output visible light communication system based on VCSELs and spatial light modulators,” Opt. Express 22(3), 3468–3474 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Wu, H. Wang, and C. H. Youn, “Visible light communications for 5G wireless networking systems: from fixed to mobile communications,” IEEE Netw. 28(6), 41–45 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. H. Chang, C. Y. Li, H. H. Lu, C. Y. Lin, J. H. Chen, Z. W. Wan, and C. J. Cheng, “A 100-Gb/s multiple-input multiple-output visible laser light communication system,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(24), 4723–4729 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

I. Takai, S. Ito, K. Yasutomi, K. Kagawa, M. Andoh, and S. Kawahito, “LED and CMOS image sensor based optical wireless communication system for automotive applications,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(5), 6801418 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. H. Yeh, Y. L. Liu, and C. W. Chow, “Real-time white-light phosphor-LED visible light communication (VLC) with compact size,” Opt. Express 21(22), 26192–26197 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

2008 (1)

H. Le-Minh, D. O’Brien, G. Faulkner, L. Zeng, K. Lee, D. Jung, and Y. Oh, “High-speed visible light communications using multiple-resonant equalization,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(14), 1243–1245 (2008).
[Crossref]

Andoh, M.

I. Takai, S. Ito, K. Yasutomi, K. Kagawa, M. Andoh, and S. Kawahito, “LED and CMOS image sensor based optical wireless communication system for automotive applications,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(5), 6801418 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chang, C. H.

C. H. Chang, C. Y. Li, H. H. Lu, C. Y. Lin, J. H. Chen, Z. W. Wan, and C. J. Cheng, “A 100-Gb/s multiple-input multiple-output visible laser light communication system,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(24), 4723–4729 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, C. Y.

Chen, J.

Chen, J. H.

C. H. Chang, C. Y. Li, H. H. Lu, C. Y. Lin, J. H. Chen, Z. W. Wan, and C. J. Cheng, “A 100-Gb/s multiple-input multiple-output visible laser light communication system,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(24), 4723–4729 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, M. C.

Chen, S. H.

C. W. Chow, C. Y. Chen, and S. H. Chen, “Visible light communication using mobile-phone camera with data rate higher than frame rate,” Opt. Express 23(20), 26080–26085 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. W. Chow, C. Y. Chen, and S. H. Chen, “Enhancement of signal performance in LED visible light communications using mobile phone camera,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(5), 7903607 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, W.

Cheng, C. J.

C. H. Chang, C. Y. Li, H. H. Lu, C. Y. Lin, J. H. Chen, Z. W. Wan, and C. J. Cheng, “A 100-Gb/s multiple-input multiple-output visible laser light communication system,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(24), 4723–4729 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chi, Y. C.

Chow, C. W.

Durán Retamal, J. R.

Faulkner, G.

H. Le-Minh, D. O’Brien, G. Faulkner, L. Zeng, K. Lee, D. Jung, and Y. Oh, “High-speed visible light communications using multiple-resonant equalization,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(14), 1243–1245 (2008).
[Crossref]

He, J. H.

Ito, S.

I. Takai, S. Ito, K. Yasutomi, K. Kagawa, M. Andoh, and S. Kawahito, “LED and CMOS image sensor based optical wireless communication system for automotive applications,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(5), 6801418 (2013).
[Crossref]

Janjua, B.

Jhang, T. W.

Ji, P.

P. Ji, H. M. Tsai, C. Wang, and F. Liu, “Vehicular visible light communications with LED taillight and rolling shutter camera,” Proc. IEEE Vehicular Tech. Conf., 2014.
[Crossref]

Jung, D.

H. Le-Minh, D. O’Brien, G. Faulkner, L. Zeng, K. Lee, D. Jung, and Y. Oh, “High-speed visible light communications using multiple-resonant equalization,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(14), 1243–1245 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kagawa, K.

I. Takai, S. Ito, K. Yasutomi, K. Kagawa, M. Andoh, and S. Kawahito, “LED and CMOS image sensor based optical wireless communication system for automotive applications,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(5), 6801418 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kawahito, S.

I. Takai, S. Ito, K. Yasutomi, K. Kagawa, M. Andoh, and S. Kawahito, “LED and CMOS image sensor based optical wireless communication system for automotive applications,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(5), 6801418 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kuo, H. C.

Lee, K.

H. Le-Minh, D. O’Brien, G. Faulkner, L. Zeng, K. Lee, D. Jung, and Y. Oh, “High-speed visible light communications using multiple-resonant equalization,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(14), 1243–1245 (2008).
[Crossref]

Le-Minh, H.

H. Le-Minh, D. O’Brien, G. Faulkner, L. Zeng, K. Lee, D. Jung, and Y. Oh, “High-speed visible light communications using multiple-resonant equalization,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(14), 1243–1245 (2008).
[Crossref]

Li, C. Y.

C. H. Chang, C. Y. Li, H. H. Lu, C. Y. Lin, J. H. Chen, Z. W. Wan, and C. J. Cheng, “A 100-Gb/s multiple-input multiple-output visible laser light communication system,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(24), 4723–4729 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lin, C. Y.

C. H. Chang, C. Y. Li, H. H. Lu, C. Y. Lin, J. H. Chen, Z. W. Wan, and C. J. Cheng, “A 100-Gb/s multiple-input multiple-output visible laser light communication system,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(24), 4723–4729 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lin, G. R.

Lin, Y. P.

Liu, F.

P. Ji, H. M. Tsai, C. Wang, and F. Liu, “Vehicular visible light communications with LED taillight and rolling shutter camera,” Proc. IEEE Vehicular Tech. Conf., 2014.
[Crossref]

Liu, Y. L.

Lu, H. H.

H. H. Lu, Y. P. Lin, P. Y. Wu, C. Y. Chen, M. C. Chen, and T. W. Jhang, “A multiple-input-multiple-output visible light communication system based on VCSELs and spatial light modulators,” Opt. Express 22(3), 3468–3474 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. H. Chang, C. Y. Li, H. H. Lu, C. Y. Lin, J. H. Chen, Z. W. Wan, and C. J. Cheng, “A 100-Gb/s multiple-input multiple-output visible laser light communication system,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(24), 4723–4729 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ng, T. K.

O’Brien, D.

H. Le-Minh, D. O’Brien, G. Faulkner, L. Zeng, K. Lee, D. Jung, and Y. Oh, “High-speed visible light communications using multiple-resonant equalization,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(14), 1243–1245 (2008).
[Crossref]

Oh, Y.

H. Le-Minh, D. O’Brien, G. Faulkner, L. Zeng, K. Lee, D. Jung, and Y. Oh, “High-speed visible light communications using multiple-resonant equalization,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(14), 1243–1245 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ooi, B. S.

Oubei, H. M.

Takai, I.

I. Takai, S. Ito, K. Yasutomi, K. Kagawa, M. Andoh, and S. Kawahito, “LED and CMOS image sensor based optical wireless communication system for automotive applications,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(5), 6801418 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tsai, C. T.

Tsai, H. M.

P. Ji, H. M. Tsai, C. Wang, and F. Liu, “Vehicular visible light communications with LED taillight and rolling shutter camera,” Proc. IEEE Vehicular Tech. Conf., 2014.
[Crossref]

Wan, Z. W.

C. H. Chang, C. Y. Li, H. H. Lu, C. Y. Lin, J. H. Chen, Z. W. Wan, and C. J. Cheng, “A 100-Gb/s multiple-input multiple-output visible laser light communication system,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(24), 4723–4729 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, C.

P. Ji, H. M. Tsai, C. Wang, and F. Liu, “Vehicular visible light communications with LED taillight and rolling shutter camera,” Proc. IEEE Vehicular Tech. Conf., 2014.
[Crossref]

Wang, H.

S. Wu, H. Wang, and C. H. Youn, “Visible light communications for 5G wireless networking systems: from fixed to mobile communications,” IEEE Netw. 28(6), 41–45 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, H. Y.

Wang, Z.

Wu, P. Y.

Wu, S.

S. Wu, H. Wang, and C. H. Youn, “Visible light communications for 5G wireless networking systems: from fixed to mobile communications,” IEEE Netw. 28(6), 41–45 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yasutomi, K.

I. Takai, S. Ito, K. Yasutomi, K. Kagawa, M. Andoh, and S. Kawahito, “LED and CMOS image sensor based optical wireless communication system for automotive applications,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(5), 6801418 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yeh, C. H.

Youn, C. H.

S. Wu, H. Wang, and C. H. Youn, “Visible light communications for 5G wireless networking systems: from fixed to mobile communications,” IEEE Netw. 28(6), 41–45 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yu, C.

Zeng, L.

H. Le-Minh, D. O’Brien, G. Faulkner, L. Zeng, K. Lee, D. Jung, and Y. Oh, “High-speed visible light communications using multiple-resonant equalization,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(14), 1243–1245 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zhong, W. D.

IEEE Netw. (1)

S. Wu, H. Wang, and C. H. Youn, “Visible light communications for 5G wireless networking systems: from fixed to mobile communications,” IEEE Netw. 28(6), 41–45 (2014).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics J. (2)

I. Takai, S. Ito, K. Yasutomi, K. Kagawa, M. Andoh, and S. Kawahito, “LED and CMOS image sensor based optical wireless communication system for automotive applications,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(5), 6801418 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. W. Chow, C. Y. Chen, and S. H. Chen, “Enhancement of signal performance in LED visible light communications using mobile phone camera,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(5), 7903607 (2015).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

H. Le-Minh, D. O’Brien, G. Faulkner, L. Zeng, K. Lee, D. Jung, and Y. Oh, “High-speed visible light communications using multiple-resonant equalization,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(14), 1243–1245 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

C. H. Chang, C. Y. Li, H. H. Lu, C. Y. Lin, J. H. Chen, Z. W. Wan, and C. J. Cheng, “A 100-Gb/s multiple-input multiple-output visible laser light communication system,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(24), 4723–4729 (2014).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (5)

Other (4)

P. Ji, H. M. Tsai, C. Wang, and F. Liu, “Vehicular visible light communications with LED taillight and rolling shutter camera,” Proc. IEEE Vehicular Tech. Conf., 2014.
[Crossref]

R. C. Gonzalez and R. E. Woods, Digital Image Processing (Pearson, 2002).

P. D. Wellner, “Adaptive thresholding for the digital desk,” Tech. Rep. EPC-93–110, 1993.

E. E. Richman, “Requirements for lighting levels,” ( https://www.wbdg.org/pdfs/usace_lightinglevels.pdf ).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) A proof-of-concept experimental setup of the VLC using mobile-phone CMOS image sensor, inset: an image frame captured by the CMOS image sensor; (b) the CMOS rolling shutter effect showing the overlap of pixel row and the processing time.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Experimental grayscale values with (a) third order polynomial thresholding, (b), (c) iterative thresholding with 10 and 48 sections, and (d) quick adaptive thresholding (s = 60) for comparison.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) BER of iterative thresholding using different number of sections, showing the optimum is 8 sections, (b) BER of quick adaptive thresholding using different number of pixels s, showing the optimum is s = 60; and (c) BER of the third-order polynomial thresholding, iterative scheme (using 8 sections), quick adaptive scheme (s = 60), and the scheme reported in [11] are compared.

Equations (8)

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f ( x i ; a 0 , a 1 , a 2 , a 3 ) = a 0 + a 1 x i + a 2 x i 2 + a 3 x i 3
[ y i f ( x i ) ] 2
E ( a 0 , a 1 , a 2 , a 3 ) = i = 1 480 [ y i f ( x i ) ] 2 = i = 1 480 [ y i ( a 0 + a 1 x i + a 2 x i 2 + a 3 x i 3 ) ] 2
T = i = 1 20 y i 20
{ y i R 1 , y i T y i R 2 , y i < T
T k = U 1 + U 2 2
f s ( i ) = n = 0 s 1 y i n
T = r n = 0 s 1 ( 1 1 s ) n y i n / n = 0 s 1 ( 1 1 s ) n

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