Abstract

There are considerable demands for accurate atmospheric correction of satellite observations of the sea surface or subsurface signal. Surface and sub-surface reflection under “clear” atmospheric conditions can be used to study atmospheric correction for the simplest possible situation. Here “clear” sky means a cloud-free atmosphere with sufficiently small aerosol particles. The “clear” aerosol concept is defined according to the spectral dependence of the scattering cross section on particle size. A 5-year combined CALIPSO and AMSR-E data set was used to derive the aerosol optical depth (AOD) from the lidar signal reflected from the sea surface. Compared with the traditional lidar-retrieved AOD, which relies on lidar backscattering measurements and an assumed lidar ratio, the AOD retrieved through the surface reflectance method depends on both scattering and absorption because it is based on two-way attenuation of the lidar signal transmitted to and then reflected from the surface. The results show that the clear sky AOD derived from the surface signal agrees with the clear sky AOD available in the CALIPSO level 2 database in the westerly wind belt located in the southern hemisphere, but yields significantly higher aerosol loadings in the tropics and in the northern hemisphere.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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2016 (1)

W. Junkermann, B. Vogel, and M. Bangert, “Ultrafine particles over Germany - an aerial survey,” Tellus B,  68, 29250 (2016)
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

T. J. Thorsen and Q. Fu, “Calipso-inferred aerosol direct radiative effects: Bias estimates using ground-based raman lidars,” J. Geophys. Res.: Atm. 120(23), 12209–12220 (2015).

W. Junkermann and J. M. Hacker, “Ultrafine particles over Eastern Australia: an airborne survey,” Tellus B,  67, 25308 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

X. Lu, Y. Hu, C. Trepte, S. Zeng, and J. H. Churnside, “Ocean subsurface studies with the calipso spaceborne lidar,” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 119(7), 4305–4317 (2014)
[Crossref]

J. Huang, T. Wang, W. Wang, Z. Li, and H. Yan, “Climate effects of dust aerosols over east asian arid and semiarid regions,” J. Geophys. Res.: Atm. 119(19), 11398–11416 (2014).

2012 (3)

P. Hwang, “Foam and roughness effects on passive microwave remote sensing of the ocean,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 50(8), 2978–29852012
[Crossref]

B. R. Bzdek, M. R. Pennington, and M. V. Johnston, “Single particle chemical analysis of ambient ultrafine aerosol: A review,” Journal of Aerosol Science 52, 109–120 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. L. Schuster, M. Vaughan, D. MacDonnell, W. Su, D. Winker, O. Dubovik, T. Lapyonok, and C. Trepte, “Comparison of calipso aerosol optical depth retrievals to aeronet measurements, and a climatology for the lidar ratio of dust,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 12, 11641–11697 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

2009 (5)

A. H. Omar, D. M. Winker, M. A. Vaughan, Y. Hu, C. R. Trepte, R. A. Ferrare, K.-P. Lee, C. A. Hostetler, C. Kittaka, R. R. Rogers, R. E. Kuehn, and Z. Liu, “The CALIPSO Automated Aerosol Classification and Lidar Ratio Selection Algorithm,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 26(10), 1994–2014 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. Prieto-Blanco, P. R. J. North, M. J. Barnsley, and N. Fox, “Satellite-driven modelling of Net Primary Productivity (NPP): Theoretical analysis,” Remote Sens. Environ. 113(1), 137–147 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Moosmüller, R. K. Chakrabarty, and W. P. Arnott, “Aerosol light absorption and its measurement: A review,” J. Quant. Spect. Radiat. Transf. 110(10), 844–878 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. M. Winker, M. A. Vaughan, A. Omar, Y. Hu, K. A. Powell, Z. Liu, W. H. Hunt, and S. A. Young, “Overview of the CALIPSO mission and CALIOP data processing algorithms,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 26(11), 2310–2323 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. Hu, D. Winker, M. Vaughan, B. Lin, A. Omar, C. Trepte, D. Flittner, P. Yang, S. L. Nasiri, B. Baum, R. Holz, W. Sun, Z. Liu, Z. Wang, S. Young, K. Stamnes, J. Huang, and R. Kuehn, “CALIPSO/CALIOP cloud phase discrimination algorithm,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 26(11), 2293–2309 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (3)

J. Huang, P. Minnis, B. Chen, Z. Huang, Z. Liu, Q. Zhao, Y. Yi, and J. K. Ayers, “Long-range transport and vertical structure of Asian dust from CALIPSO and surface measurements during PACDEX,” J. Geophys. Res.:Atm. 113(D23), 1–13 (2008).
[Crossref]

D. Josset, J. Pelon, A. Protat, and C. Flamant, “New approach to determine aerosol optical depth from combined CALIPSO and CloudSat ocean surface echoes,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 35(10), L10805 (2008)
[Crossref]

Y. Hu, K. Stamnes, M. Vaughan, J. Pelon, C. Weimer, D. Wu, M. Cisewski, W. Sun, P. Yang, B. Lin, A. Omar, D. Flittner, C. Hostetler, C. Trepte, D. Winker, G. Gibson, and M. Santa-Maria, “Sea surface wind speed estimation from space-based lidar measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8(13), 3593–3601 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (3)

T. Shi and N. Cressie, “Global statistical analysis of misr aerosol data: a massive data product from nasa’s terra satellite,” Environmetrics 18(7), 665–680 (2007).
[Crossref]

Y. Hu, “Depolarization ratio-effective lidar ratio relation: Theoretical basis for space lidar cloud phase discrimination,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 34(11), 1–4 (2007).
[Crossref]

Y. Hu, M. Vaughan, Z. Liu, B. Lin, P. Yang, D. Flittner, B. Hunt, R. Kuehn, J. Huang, D. Wu, S. Rodier, K. Powell, C. Trepte, and D. Winker, “The depolarization - attenuated backscatter relation: CALIPSO lidar measurements vs. theory,” Opt. Express 15(9), 5327–5332 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

2004 (1)

A. H. Omar, D. Winker, and J. Won, “Aerosol models for the CALIPSO lidar inversion algorithms,” Proc. SPIE 5240, 153–164 (2004).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

W. A. Hoppel, G. M. Frick, and J. W. Fitzgerald, “Surface source function for sea-salt aerosol and aerosol dry deposition to the ocean surface,” J. Geophys. Res.: Atm. 107(D19), 2156–2202 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

R. B. Miles, W. R. Lempert, and J. N. Forkey, “Laser rayleigh scattering,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12(5), R33 (2001)
[Crossref]

1998 (2)

B. van Ginneken, M. Stavridi, and J. J. Koenderink, “Diffuse and specular reflectance from rough surfaces,” Appl. Opt. 37(1), 130–139 (1998).
[Crossref]

S. A. Ackerman, K. I. Strabala, W. P. Menzel, R. A. Frey, C. C. Moeller, and L. E. Gumley, “Discriminating clear sky from clouds with modis,” J. Geophys. Res. 103(D24), 32–141 (1998).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

1994 (1)

1990 (1)

J. Wu, “Mean square slopes of the wind-disturbed water surface, their magnitude, directionality, and composition,” Radio Science 25(1), 37–48 (1990).
[Crossref]

1988 (1)

R. W. Saunders and K. T. Kriebel, “An improved method for detecting clear sky and cloudy radiances from avhrr data,” Int. J. of Remote Sensing 9(1), 123–150 (1988).
[Crossref]

1980 (1)

1974 (1)

D. B. Ross and V. Cardone, “Observations of oceanic whitecaps and their relation to remote measurements of surface wind speed,” J. Geophys. Res. 79(3), 444–452 (1974).
[Crossref]

1972 (1)

F. G. Fernald, B. M. Herman, and J. A. Reagan, “Determination of Aerosol Height Distributions by Lidar,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 11(3), 482–489 (1972)
[Crossref]

1968 (1)

D. Barrick, “Rough surface scattering based on the specular point theory,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 16(4), 449–454 (1968).
[Crossref]

1954 (1)

Ackerman, S. A.

S. A. Ackerman, K. I. Strabala, W. P. Menzel, R. A. Frey, C. C. Moeller, and L. E. Gumley, “Discriminating clear sky from clouds with modis,” J. Geophys. Res. 103(D24), 32–141 (1998).
[Crossref]

Arnott, W. P.

H. Moosmüller, R. K. Chakrabarty, and W. P. Arnott, “Aerosol light absorption and its measurement: A review,” J. Quant. Spect. Radiat. Transf. 110(10), 844–878 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ayers, J. K.

J. Huang, P. Minnis, B. Chen, Z. Huang, Z. Liu, Q. Zhao, Y. Yi, and J. K. Ayers, “Long-range transport and vertical structure of Asian dust from CALIPSO and surface measurements during PACDEX,” J. Geophys. Res.:Atm. 113(D23), 1–13 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bangert, M.

W. Junkermann, B. Vogel, and M. Bangert, “Ultrafine particles over Germany - an aerial survey,” Tellus B,  68, 29250 (2016)
[Crossref]

Barnsley, M. J.

A. Prieto-Blanco, P. R. J. North, M. J. Barnsley, and N. Fox, “Satellite-driven modelling of Net Primary Productivity (NPP): Theoretical analysis,” Remote Sens. Environ. 113(1), 137–147 (2009).
[Crossref]

Barrick, D.

D. Barrick, “Rough surface scattering based on the specular point theory,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 16(4), 449–454 (1968).
[Crossref]

Baum, B.

Y. Hu, D. Winker, M. Vaughan, B. Lin, A. Omar, C. Trepte, D. Flittner, P. Yang, S. L. Nasiri, B. Baum, R. Holz, W. Sun, Z. Liu, Z. Wang, S. Young, K. Stamnes, J. Huang, and R. Kuehn, “CALIPSO/CALIOP cloud phase discrimination algorithm,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 26(11), 2293–2309 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bissonnette, L.

Bucholtz, A.

Bzdek, B. R.

B. R. Bzdek, M. R. Pennington, and M. V. Johnston, “Single particle chemical analysis of ambient ultrafine aerosol: A review,” Journal of Aerosol Science 52, 109–120 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cardone, V.

D. B. Ross and V. Cardone, “Observations of oceanic whitecaps and their relation to remote measurements of surface wind speed,” J. Geophys. Res. 79(3), 444–452 (1974).
[Crossref]

Chakrabarty, R. K.

H. Moosmüller, R. K. Chakrabarty, and W. P. Arnott, “Aerosol light absorption and its measurement: A review,” J. Quant. Spect. Radiat. Transf. 110(10), 844–878 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chami, M.

Chen, B.

J. Huang, P. Minnis, B. Chen, Z. Huang, Z. Liu, Q. Zhao, Y. Yi, and J. K. Ayers, “Long-range transport and vertical structure of Asian dust from CALIPSO and surface measurements during PACDEX,” J. Geophys. Res.:Atm. 113(D23), 1–13 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chin, M.

M. Chin, R. A. Kahn, L. A. Remer, H. Yu, D. Rind, and G. Feigold, “Atmospheric aerosol properties and climate impacts,” U.S. Climate Change Science Program Synthesis and Assessment Product, (2009).

Churnside, J. H.

X. Lu, Y. Hu, C. Trepte, S. Zeng, and J. H. Churnside, “Ocean subsurface studies with the calipso spaceborne lidar,” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 119(7), 4305–4317 (2014)
[Crossref]

Cisewski, M.

Y. Hu, K. Stamnes, M. Vaughan, J. Pelon, C. Weimer, D. Wu, M. Cisewski, W. Sun, P. Yang, B. Lin, A. Omar, D. Flittner, C. Hostetler, C. Trepte, D. Winker, G. Gibson, and M. Santa-Maria, “Sea surface wind speed estimation from space-based lidar measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8(13), 3593–3601 (2008).
[Crossref]

Cox, C.

Cressie, N.

T. Shi and N. Cressie, “Global statistical analysis of misr aerosol data: a massive data product from nasa’s terra satellite,” Environmetrics 18(7), 665–680 (2007).
[Crossref]

Deschamps, P. Y.

Dubovik, O.

G. L. Schuster, M. Vaughan, D. MacDonnell, W. Su, D. Winker, O. Dubovik, T. Lapyonok, and C. Trepte, “Comparison of calipso aerosol optical depth retrievals to aeronet measurements, and a climatology for the lidar ratio of dust,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 12, 11641–11697 (2012).
[Crossref]

Feigold, G.

M. Chin, R. A. Kahn, L. A. Remer, H. Yu, D. Rind, and G. Feigold, “Atmospheric aerosol properties and climate impacts,” U.S. Climate Change Science Program Synthesis and Assessment Product, (2009).

Fernald, F. G.

F. G. Fernald, B. M. Herman, and J. A. Reagan, “Determination of Aerosol Height Distributions by Lidar,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 11(3), 482–489 (1972)
[Crossref]

Ferrare, R. A.

A. H. Omar, D. M. Winker, M. A. Vaughan, Y. Hu, C. R. Trepte, R. A. Ferrare, K.-P. Lee, C. A. Hostetler, C. Kittaka, R. R. Rogers, R. E. Kuehn, and Z. Liu, “The CALIPSO Automated Aerosol Classification and Lidar Ratio Selection Algorithm,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 26(10), 1994–2014 (2009).
[Crossref]

Fitzgerald, J. W.

W. A. Hoppel, G. M. Frick, and J. W. Fitzgerald, “Surface source function for sea-salt aerosol and aerosol dry deposition to the ocean surface,” J. Geophys. Res.: Atm. 107(D19), 2156–2202 (2002).
[Crossref]

Flamant, C.

D. Josset, J. Pelon, A. Protat, and C. Flamant, “New approach to determine aerosol optical depth from combined CALIPSO and CloudSat ocean surface echoes,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 35(10), L10805 (2008)
[Crossref]

Flittner, D.

Y. Hu, D. Winker, M. Vaughan, B. Lin, A. Omar, C. Trepte, D. Flittner, P. Yang, S. L. Nasiri, B. Baum, R. Holz, W. Sun, Z. Liu, Z. Wang, S. Young, K. Stamnes, J. Huang, and R. Kuehn, “CALIPSO/CALIOP cloud phase discrimination algorithm,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 26(11), 2293–2309 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. Hu, K. Stamnes, M. Vaughan, J. Pelon, C. Weimer, D. Wu, M. Cisewski, W. Sun, P. Yang, B. Lin, A. Omar, D. Flittner, C. Hostetler, C. Trepte, D. Winker, G. Gibson, and M. Santa-Maria, “Sea surface wind speed estimation from space-based lidar measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8(13), 3593–3601 (2008).
[Crossref]

Y. Hu, M. Vaughan, Z. Liu, B. Lin, P. Yang, D. Flittner, B. Hunt, R. Kuehn, J. Huang, D. Wu, S. Rodier, K. Powell, C. Trepte, and D. Winker, “The depolarization - attenuated backscatter relation: CALIPSO lidar measurements vs. theory,” Opt. Express 15(9), 5327–5332 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Forkey, J. N.

R. B. Miles, W. R. Lempert, and J. N. Forkey, “Laser rayleigh scattering,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12(5), R33 (2001)
[Crossref]

Fox, N.

A. Prieto-Blanco, P. R. J. North, M. J. Barnsley, and N. Fox, “Satellite-driven modelling of Net Primary Productivity (NPP): Theoretical analysis,” Remote Sens. Environ. 113(1), 137–147 (2009).
[Crossref]

Frey, R. A.

S. A. Ackerman, K. I. Strabala, W. P. Menzel, R. A. Frey, C. C. Moeller, and L. E. Gumley, “Discriminating clear sky from clouds with modis,” J. Geophys. Res. 103(D24), 32–141 (1998).
[Crossref]

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W. A. Hoppel, G. M. Frick, and J. W. Fitzgerald, “Surface source function for sea-salt aerosol and aerosol dry deposition to the ocean surface,” J. Geophys. Res.: Atm. 107(D19), 2156–2202 (2002).
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T. J. Thorsen and Q. Fu, “Calipso-inferred aerosol direct radiative effects: Bias estimates using ground-based raman lidars,” J. Geophys. Res.: Atm. 120(23), 12209–12220 (2015).

Gibson, G.

Y. Hu, K. Stamnes, M. Vaughan, J. Pelon, C. Weimer, D. Wu, M. Cisewski, W. Sun, P. Yang, B. Lin, A. Omar, D. Flittner, C. Hostetler, C. Trepte, D. Winker, G. Gibson, and M. Santa-Maria, “Sea surface wind speed estimation from space-based lidar measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8(13), 3593–3601 (2008).
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Gumley, L. E.

S. A. Ackerman, K. I. Strabala, W. P. Menzel, R. A. Frey, C. C. Moeller, and L. E. Gumley, “Discriminating clear sky from clouds with modis,” J. Geophys. Res. 103(D24), 32–141 (1998).
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W. Junkermann and J. M. Hacker, “Ultrafine particles over Eastern Australia: an airborne survey,” Tellus B,  67, 25308 (2015).
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Herman, B. M.

F. G. Fernald, B. M. Herman, and J. A. Reagan, “Determination of Aerosol Height Distributions by Lidar,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 11(3), 482–489 (1972)
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Holz, R.

Y. Hu, D. Winker, M. Vaughan, B. Lin, A. Omar, C. Trepte, D. Flittner, P. Yang, S. L. Nasiri, B. Baum, R. Holz, W. Sun, Z. Liu, Z. Wang, S. Young, K. Stamnes, J. Huang, and R. Kuehn, “CALIPSO/CALIOP cloud phase discrimination algorithm,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 26(11), 2293–2309 (2009).
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Hoppel, W. A.

W. A. Hoppel, G. M. Frick, and J. W. Fitzgerald, “Surface source function for sea-salt aerosol and aerosol dry deposition to the ocean surface,” J. Geophys. Res.: Atm. 107(D19), 2156–2202 (2002).
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Hostetler, C.

Y. Hu, K. Stamnes, M. Vaughan, J. Pelon, C. Weimer, D. Wu, M. Cisewski, W. Sun, P. Yang, B. Lin, A. Omar, D. Flittner, C. Hostetler, C. Trepte, D. Winker, G. Gibson, and M. Santa-Maria, “Sea surface wind speed estimation from space-based lidar measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8(13), 3593–3601 (2008).
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C. Hostetler, Z. Liu, and J. Reagan, “CALIOP Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document Calibration and Level 1 Data Products,” NASA Langley Research Center Document PC-SCI-201 (April) (2006).

Hostetler, C. A.

A. H. Omar, D. M. Winker, M. A. Vaughan, Y. Hu, C. R. Trepte, R. A. Ferrare, K.-P. Lee, C. A. Hostetler, C. Kittaka, R. R. Rogers, R. E. Kuehn, and Z. Liu, “The CALIPSO Automated Aerosol Classification and Lidar Ratio Selection Algorithm,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 26(10), 1994–2014 (2009).
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Hu, Y.

X. Lu, Y. Hu, C. Trepte, S. Zeng, and J. H. Churnside, “Ocean subsurface studies with the calipso spaceborne lidar,” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 119(7), 4305–4317 (2014)
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Y. Hu, D. Winker, M. Vaughan, B. Lin, A. Omar, C. Trepte, D. Flittner, P. Yang, S. L. Nasiri, B. Baum, R. Holz, W. Sun, Z. Liu, Z. Wang, S. Young, K. Stamnes, J. Huang, and R. Kuehn, “CALIPSO/CALIOP cloud phase discrimination algorithm,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 26(11), 2293–2309 (2009).
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D. M. Winker, M. A. Vaughan, A. Omar, Y. Hu, K. A. Powell, Z. Liu, W. H. Hunt, and S. A. Young, “Overview of the CALIPSO mission and CALIOP data processing algorithms,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 26(11), 2310–2323 (2009).
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A. H. Omar, D. M. Winker, M. A. Vaughan, Y. Hu, C. R. Trepte, R. A. Ferrare, K.-P. Lee, C. A. Hostetler, C. Kittaka, R. R. Rogers, R. E. Kuehn, and Z. Liu, “The CALIPSO Automated Aerosol Classification and Lidar Ratio Selection Algorithm,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 26(10), 1994–2014 (2009).
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Y. Hu, K. Stamnes, M. Vaughan, J. Pelon, C. Weimer, D. Wu, M. Cisewski, W. Sun, P. Yang, B. Lin, A. Omar, D. Flittner, C. Hostetler, C. Trepte, D. Winker, G. Gibson, and M. Santa-Maria, “Sea surface wind speed estimation from space-based lidar measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8(13), 3593–3601 (2008).
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Y. Hu, M. Vaughan, Z. Liu, B. Lin, P. Yang, D. Flittner, B. Hunt, R. Kuehn, J. Huang, D. Wu, S. Rodier, K. Powell, C. Trepte, and D. Winker, “The depolarization - attenuated backscatter relation: CALIPSO lidar measurements vs. theory,” Opt. Express 15(9), 5327–5332 (2007).
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Y. Hu, Z. Liu, D. Winker, M. Vaughan, V. Noel, L. Bissonnette, G. Roy, and M. McGill, “Simple relation between lidar multiple scattering and depolarization for water clouds,” Opt. Lett. 31(12), 1809–1811 (2006).
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Huang, J.

J. Huang, T. Wang, W. Wang, Z. Li, and H. Yan, “Climate effects of dust aerosols over east asian arid and semiarid regions,” J. Geophys. Res.: Atm. 119(19), 11398–11416 (2014).

Y. Hu, D. Winker, M. Vaughan, B. Lin, A. Omar, C. Trepte, D. Flittner, P. Yang, S. L. Nasiri, B. Baum, R. Holz, W. Sun, Z. Liu, Z. Wang, S. Young, K. Stamnes, J. Huang, and R. Kuehn, “CALIPSO/CALIOP cloud phase discrimination algorithm,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 26(11), 2293–2309 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Huang, P. Minnis, B. Chen, Z. Huang, Z. Liu, Q. Zhao, Y. Yi, and J. K. Ayers, “Long-range transport and vertical structure of Asian dust from CALIPSO and surface measurements during PACDEX,” J. Geophys. Res.:Atm. 113(D23), 1–13 (2008).
[Crossref]

Y. Hu, M. Vaughan, Z. Liu, B. Lin, P. Yang, D. Flittner, B. Hunt, R. Kuehn, J. Huang, D. Wu, S. Rodier, K. Powell, C. Trepte, and D. Winker, “The depolarization - attenuated backscatter relation: CALIPSO lidar measurements vs. theory,” Opt. Express 15(9), 5327–5332 (2007).
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J. Huang, P. Minnis, B. Chen, Z. Huang, Z. Liu, Q. Zhao, Y. Yi, and J. K. Ayers, “Long-range transport and vertical structure of Asian dust from CALIPSO and surface measurements during PACDEX,” J. Geophys. Res.:Atm. 113(D23), 1–13 (2008).
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Hunt, B.

Hunt, W. H.

D. M. Winker, M. A. Vaughan, A. Omar, Y. Hu, K. A. Powell, Z. Liu, W. H. Hunt, and S. A. Young, “Overview of the CALIPSO mission and CALIOP data processing algorithms,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 26(11), 2310–2323 (2009).
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P. Hwang, “Foam and roughness effects on passive microwave remote sensing of the ocean,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 50(8), 2978–29852012
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B. R. Bzdek, M. R. Pennington, and M. V. Johnston, “Single particle chemical analysis of ambient ultrafine aerosol: A review,” Journal of Aerosol Science 52, 109–120 (2012).
[Crossref]

Josset, D.

D. Josset, J. Pelon, A. Protat, and C. Flamant, “New approach to determine aerosol optical depth from combined CALIPSO and CloudSat ocean surface echoes,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 35(10), L10805 (2008)
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D. Josset, “Determination of aerosol optical properties using ocean reflectance,” SPIE Newsroom, 2–4. (2009)

Junkermann, W.

W. Junkermann, B. Vogel, and M. Bangert, “Ultrafine particles over Germany - an aerial survey,” Tellus B,  68, 29250 (2016)
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W. Junkermann and J. M. Hacker, “Ultrafine particles over Eastern Australia: an airborne survey,” Tellus B,  67, 25308 (2015).
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Kahn, R. A.

M. Chin, R. A. Kahn, L. A. Remer, H. Yu, D. Rind, and G. Feigold, “Atmospheric aerosol properties and climate impacts,” U.S. Climate Change Science Program Synthesis and Assessment Product, (2009).

Kittaka, C.

A. H. Omar, D. M. Winker, M. A. Vaughan, Y. Hu, C. R. Trepte, R. A. Ferrare, K.-P. Lee, C. A. Hostetler, C. Kittaka, R. R. Rogers, R. E. Kuehn, and Z. Liu, “The CALIPSO Automated Aerosol Classification and Lidar Ratio Selection Algorithm,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 26(10), 1994–2014 (2009).
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Koenderink, J. J.

Kriebel, K. T.

R. W. Saunders and K. T. Kriebel, “An improved method for detecting clear sky and cloudy radiances from avhrr data,” Int. J. of Remote Sensing 9(1), 123–150 (1988).
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Kuehn, R.

Y. Hu, D. Winker, M. Vaughan, B. Lin, A. Omar, C. Trepte, D. Flittner, P. Yang, S. L. Nasiri, B. Baum, R. Holz, W. Sun, Z. Liu, Z. Wang, S. Young, K. Stamnes, J. Huang, and R. Kuehn, “CALIPSO/CALIOP cloud phase discrimination algorithm,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 26(11), 2293–2309 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. Hu, M. Vaughan, Z. Liu, B. Lin, P. Yang, D. Flittner, B. Hunt, R. Kuehn, J. Huang, D. Wu, S. Rodier, K. Powell, C. Trepte, and D. Winker, “The depolarization - attenuated backscatter relation: CALIPSO lidar measurements vs. theory,” Opt. Express 15(9), 5327–5332 (2007).
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Kuehn, R. E.

A. H. Omar, D. M. Winker, M. A. Vaughan, Y. Hu, C. R. Trepte, R. A. Ferrare, K.-P. Lee, C. A. Hostetler, C. Kittaka, R. R. Rogers, R. E. Kuehn, and Z. Liu, “The CALIPSO Automated Aerosol Classification and Lidar Ratio Selection Algorithm,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 26(10), 1994–2014 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lapyonok, T.

G. L. Schuster, M. Vaughan, D. MacDonnell, W. Su, D. Winker, O. Dubovik, T. Lapyonok, and C. Trepte, “Comparison of calipso aerosol optical depth retrievals to aeronet measurements, and a climatology for the lidar ratio of dust,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 12, 11641–11697 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lee, K.-P.

A. H. Omar, D. M. Winker, M. A. Vaughan, Y. Hu, C. R. Trepte, R. A. Ferrare, K.-P. Lee, C. A. Hostetler, C. Kittaka, R. R. Rogers, R. E. Kuehn, and Z. Liu, “The CALIPSO Automated Aerosol Classification and Lidar Ratio Selection Algorithm,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 26(10), 1994–2014 (2009).
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Lempert, W. R.

R. B. Miles, W. R. Lempert, and J. N. Forkey, “Laser rayleigh scattering,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12(5), R33 (2001)
[Crossref]

Li, Z.

J. Huang, T. Wang, W. Wang, Z. Li, and H. Yan, “Climate effects of dust aerosols over east asian arid and semiarid regions,” J. Geophys. Res.: Atm. 119(19), 11398–11416 (2014).

Lin, B.

Y. Hu, D. Winker, M. Vaughan, B. Lin, A. Omar, C. Trepte, D. Flittner, P. Yang, S. L. Nasiri, B. Baum, R. Holz, W. Sun, Z. Liu, Z. Wang, S. Young, K. Stamnes, J. Huang, and R. Kuehn, “CALIPSO/CALIOP cloud phase discrimination algorithm,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 26(11), 2293–2309 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. Hu, K. Stamnes, M. Vaughan, J. Pelon, C. Weimer, D. Wu, M. Cisewski, W. Sun, P. Yang, B. Lin, A. Omar, D. Flittner, C. Hostetler, C. Trepte, D. Winker, G. Gibson, and M. Santa-Maria, “Sea surface wind speed estimation from space-based lidar measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8(13), 3593–3601 (2008).
[Crossref]

Y. Hu, M. Vaughan, Z. Liu, B. Lin, P. Yang, D. Flittner, B. Hunt, R. Kuehn, J. Huang, D. Wu, S. Rodier, K. Powell, C. Trepte, and D. Winker, “The depolarization - attenuated backscatter relation: CALIPSO lidar measurements vs. theory,” Opt. Express 15(9), 5327–5332 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, Z.

A. H. Omar, D. M. Winker, M. A. Vaughan, Y. Hu, C. R. Trepte, R. A. Ferrare, K.-P. Lee, C. A. Hostetler, C. Kittaka, R. R. Rogers, R. E. Kuehn, and Z. Liu, “The CALIPSO Automated Aerosol Classification and Lidar Ratio Selection Algorithm,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 26(10), 1994–2014 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. M. Winker, M. A. Vaughan, A. Omar, Y. Hu, K. A. Powell, Z. Liu, W. H. Hunt, and S. A. Young, “Overview of the CALIPSO mission and CALIOP data processing algorithms,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 26(11), 2310–2323 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. Hu, D. Winker, M. Vaughan, B. Lin, A. Omar, C. Trepte, D. Flittner, P. Yang, S. L. Nasiri, B. Baum, R. Holz, W. Sun, Z. Liu, Z. Wang, S. Young, K. Stamnes, J. Huang, and R. Kuehn, “CALIPSO/CALIOP cloud phase discrimination algorithm,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 26(11), 2293–2309 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Huang, P. Minnis, B. Chen, Z. Huang, Z. Liu, Q. Zhao, Y. Yi, and J. K. Ayers, “Long-range transport and vertical structure of Asian dust from CALIPSO and surface measurements during PACDEX,” J. Geophys. Res.:Atm. 113(D23), 1–13 (2008).
[Crossref]

Y. Hu, M. Vaughan, Z. Liu, B. Lin, P. Yang, D. Flittner, B. Hunt, R. Kuehn, J. Huang, D. Wu, S. Rodier, K. Powell, C. Trepte, and D. Winker, “The depolarization - attenuated backscatter relation: CALIPSO lidar measurements vs. theory,” Opt. Express 15(9), 5327–5332 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Hu, Z. Liu, D. Winker, M. Vaughan, V. Noel, L. Bissonnette, G. Roy, and M. McGill, “Simple relation between lidar multiple scattering and depolarization for water clouds,” Opt. Lett. 31(12), 1809–1811 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Hostetler, Z. Liu, and J. Reagan, “CALIOP Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document Calibration and Level 1 Data Products,” NASA Langley Research Center Document PC-SCI-201 (April) (2006).

Lu, X.

X. Lu, Y. Hu, C. Trepte, S. Zeng, and J. H. Churnside, “Ocean subsurface studies with the calipso spaceborne lidar,” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 119(7), 4305–4317 (2014)
[Crossref]

MacDonnell, D.

G. L. Schuster, M. Vaughan, D. MacDonnell, W. Su, D. Winker, O. Dubovik, T. Lapyonok, and C. Trepte, “Comparison of calipso aerosol optical depth retrievals to aeronet measurements, and a climatology for the lidar ratio of dust,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 12, 11641–11697 (2012).
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S. R. Massel, Ocean Waves Breaking and Marine Aerosol Fluxes (Springer, 2007)

McGill, M.

Menzel, W. P.

S. A. Ackerman, K. I. Strabala, W. P. Menzel, R. A. Frey, C. C. Moeller, and L. E. Gumley, “Discriminating clear sky from clouds with modis,” J. Geophys. Res. 103(D24), 32–141 (1998).
[Crossref]

Miles, R. B.

R. B. Miles, W. R. Lempert, and J. N. Forkey, “Laser rayleigh scattering,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12(5), R33 (2001)
[Crossref]

Minnis, P.

J. Huang, P. Minnis, B. Chen, Z. Huang, Z. Liu, Q. Zhao, Y. Yi, and J. K. Ayers, “Long-range transport and vertical structure of Asian dust from CALIPSO and surface measurements during PACDEX,” J. Geophys. Res.:Atm. 113(D23), 1–13 (2008).
[Crossref]

Moeller, C. C.

S. A. Ackerman, K. I. Strabala, W. P. Menzel, R. A. Frey, C. C. Moeller, and L. E. Gumley, “Discriminating clear sky from clouds with modis,” J. Geophys. Res. 103(D24), 32–141 (1998).
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H. Moosmüller, R. K. Chakrabarty, and W. P. Arnott, “Aerosol light absorption and its measurement: A review,” J. Quant. Spect. Radiat. Transf. 110(10), 844–878 (2009).
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Nasiri, S. L.

Y. Hu, D. Winker, M. Vaughan, B. Lin, A. Omar, C. Trepte, D. Flittner, P. Yang, S. L. Nasiri, B. Baum, R. Holz, W. Sun, Z. Liu, Z. Wang, S. Young, K. Stamnes, J. Huang, and R. Kuehn, “CALIPSO/CALIOP cloud phase discrimination algorithm,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 26(11), 2293–2309 (2009).
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Noel, V.

North, P. R. J.

A. Prieto-Blanco, P. R. J. North, M. J. Barnsley, and N. Fox, “Satellite-driven modelling of Net Primary Productivity (NPP): Theoretical analysis,” Remote Sens. Environ. 113(1), 137–147 (2009).
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Omar, A.

D. M. Winker, M. A. Vaughan, A. Omar, Y. Hu, K. A. Powell, Z. Liu, W. H. Hunt, and S. A. Young, “Overview of the CALIPSO mission and CALIOP data processing algorithms,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 26(11), 2310–2323 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. Hu, D. Winker, M. Vaughan, B. Lin, A. Omar, C. Trepte, D. Flittner, P. Yang, S. L. Nasiri, B. Baum, R. Holz, W. Sun, Z. Liu, Z. Wang, S. Young, K. Stamnes, J. Huang, and R. Kuehn, “CALIPSO/CALIOP cloud phase discrimination algorithm,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 26(11), 2293–2309 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. Hu, K. Stamnes, M. Vaughan, J. Pelon, C. Weimer, D. Wu, M. Cisewski, W. Sun, P. Yang, B. Lin, A. Omar, D. Flittner, C. Hostetler, C. Trepte, D. Winker, G. Gibson, and M. Santa-Maria, “Sea surface wind speed estimation from space-based lidar measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8(13), 3593–3601 (2008).
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Omar, A. H.

A. H. Omar, D. M. Winker, M. A. Vaughan, Y. Hu, C. R. Trepte, R. A. Ferrare, K.-P. Lee, C. A. Hostetler, C. Kittaka, R. R. Rogers, R. E. Kuehn, and Z. Liu, “The CALIPSO Automated Aerosol Classification and Lidar Ratio Selection Algorithm,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 26(10), 1994–2014 (2009).
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D. Josset, J. Pelon, A. Protat, and C. Flamant, “New approach to determine aerosol optical depth from combined CALIPSO and CloudSat ocean surface echoes,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 35(10), L10805 (2008)
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Y. Hu, K. Stamnes, M. Vaughan, J. Pelon, C. Weimer, D. Wu, M. Cisewski, W. Sun, P. Yang, B. Lin, A. Omar, D. Flittner, C. Hostetler, C. Trepte, D. Winker, G. Gibson, and M. Santa-Maria, “Sea surface wind speed estimation from space-based lidar measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8(13), 3593–3601 (2008).
[Crossref]

Pennington, M. R.

B. R. Bzdek, M. R. Pennington, and M. V. Johnston, “Single particle chemical analysis of ambient ultrafine aerosol: A review,” Journal of Aerosol Science 52, 109–120 (2012).
[Crossref]

Powell, K.

Powell, K. A.

D. M. Winker, M. A. Vaughan, A. Omar, Y. Hu, K. A. Powell, Z. Liu, W. H. Hunt, and S. A. Young, “Overview of the CALIPSO mission and CALIOP data processing algorithms,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 26(11), 2310–2323 (2009).
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Prieto-Blanco, A.

A. Prieto-Blanco, P. R. J. North, M. J. Barnsley, and N. Fox, “Satellite-driven modelling of Net Primary Productivity (NPP): Theoretical analysis,” Remote Sens. Environ. 113(1), 137–147 (2009).
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Protat, A.

D. Josset, J. Pelon, A. Protat, and C. Flamant, “New approach to determine aerosol optical depth from combined CALIPSO and CloudSat ocean surface echoes,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 35(10), L10805 (2008)
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Reagan, J.

C. Hostetler, Z. Liu, and J. Reagan, “CALIOP Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document Calibration and Level 1 Data Products,” NASA Langley Research Center Document PC-SCI-201 (April) (2006).

Reagan, J. A.

F. G. Fernald, B. M. Herman, and J. A. Reagan, “Determination of Aerosol Height Distributions by Lidar,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 11(3), 482–489 (1972)
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M. Chin, R. A. Kahn, L. A. Remer, H. Yu, D. Rind, and G. Feigold, “Atmospheric aerosol properties and climate impacts,” U.S. Climate Change Science Program Synthesis and Assessment Product, (2009).

Rind, D.

M. Chin, R. A. Kahn, L. A. Remer, H. Yu, D. Rind, and G. Feigold, “Atmospheric aerosol properties and climate impacts,” U.S. Climate Change Science Program Synthesis and Assessment Product, (2009).

Rodier, S.

Rogers, R. R.

A. H. Omar, D. M. Winker, M. A. Vaughan, Y. Hu, C. R. Trepte, R. A. Ferrare, K.-P. Lee, C. A. Hostetler, C. Kittaka, R. R. Rogers, R. E. Kuehn, and Z. Liu, “The CALIPSO Automated Aerosol Classification and Lidar Ratio Selection Algorithm,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 26(10), 1994–2014 (2009).
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Santa-Maria, M.

Y. Hu, K. Stamnes, M. Vaughan, J. Pelon, C. Weimer, D. Wu, M. Cisewski, W. Sun, P. Yang, B. Lin, A. Omar, D. Flittner, C. Hostetler, C. Trepte, D. Winker, G. Gibson, and M. Santa-Maria, “Sea surface wind speed estimation from space-based lidar measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8(13), 3593–3601 (2008).
[Crossref]

Saunders, R. W.

R. W. Saunders and K. T. Kriebel, “An improved method for detecting clear sky and cloudy radiances from avhrr data,” Int. J. of Remote Sensing 9(1), 123–150 (1988).
[Crossref]

Schuster, G. L.

G. L. Schuster, M. Vaughan, D. MacDonnell, W. Su, D. Winker, O. Dubovik, T. Lapyonok, and C. Trepte, “Comparison of calipso aerosol optical depth retrievals to aeronet measurements, and a climatology for the lidar ratio of dust,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 12, 11641–11697 (2012).
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Y. Hu, D. Winker, M. Vaughan, B. Lin, A. Omar, C. Trepte, D. Flittner, P. Yang, S. L. Nasiri, B. Baum, R. Holz, W. Sun, Z. Liu, Z. Wang, S. Young, K. Stamnes, J. Huang, and R. Kuehn, “CALIPSO/CALIOP cloud phase discrimination algorithm,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 26(11), 2293–2309 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. Hu, K. Stamnes, M. Vaughan, J. Pelon, C. Weimer, D. Wu, M. Cisewski, W. Sun, P. Yang, B. Lin, A. Omar, D. Flittner, C. Hostetler, C. Trepte, D. Winker, G. Gibson, and M. Santa-Maria, “Sea surface wind speed estimation from space-based lidar measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8(13), 3593–3601 (2008).
[Crossref]

K. Stamnes and J. J. Stamnes, Radiative Transfer in Coupled Environmental Systems: An Introduction to Forward and Inverse Modeling (Wiley-VCH, 2015).
[Crossref]

Stavridi, M.

Steinmetz, F.

Strabala, K. I.

S. A. Ackerman, K. I. Strabala, W. P. Menzel, R. A. Frey, C. C. Moeller, and L. E. Gumley, “Discriminating clear sky from clouds with modis,” J. Geophys. Res. 103(D24), 32–141 (1998).
[Crossref]

Su, W.

G. L. Schuster, M. Vaughan, D. MacDonnell, W. Su, D. Winker, O. Dubovik, T. Lapyonok, and C. Trepte, “Comparison of calipso aerosol optical depth retrievals to aeronet measurements, and a climatology for the lidar ratio of dust,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 12, 11641–11697 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sun, W.

Y. Hu, D. Winker, M. Vaughan, B. Lin, A. Omar, C. Trepte, D. Flittner, P. Yang, S. L. Nasiri, B. Baum, R. Holz, W. Sun, Z. Liu, Z. Wang, S. Young, K. Stamnes, J. Huang, and R. Kuehn, “CALIPSO/CALIOP cloud phase discrimination algorithm,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 26(11), 2293–2309 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. Hu, K. Stamnes, M. Vaughan, J. Pelon, C. Weimer, D. Wu, M. Cisewski, W. Sun, P. Yang, B. Lin, A. Omar, D. Flittner, C. Hostetler, C. Trepte, D. Winker, G. Gibson, and M. Santa-Maria, “Sea surface wind speed estimation from space-based lidar measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8(13), 3593–3601 (2008).
[Crossref]

Thorsen, T. J.

T. J. Thorsen and Q. Fu, “Calipso-inferred aerosol direct radiative effects: Bias estimates using ground-based raman lidars,” J. Geophys. Res.: Atm. 120(23), 12209–12220 (2015).

Trepte, C.

X. Lu, Y. Hu, C. Trepte, S. Zeng, and J. H. Churnside, “Ocean subsurface studies with the calipso spaceborne lidar,” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 119(7), 4305–4317 (2014)
[Crossref]

G. L. Schuster, M. Vaughan, D. MacDonnell, W. Su, D. Winker, O. Dubovik, T. Lapyonok, and C. Trepte, “Comparison of calipso aerosol optical depth retrievals to aeronet measurements, and a climatology for the lidar ratio of dust,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 12, 11641–11697 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Hu, D. Winker, M. Vaughan, B. Lin, A. Omar, C. Trepte, D. Flittner, P. Yang, S. L. Nasiri, B. Baum, R. Holz, W. Sun, Z. Liu, Z. Wang, S. Young, K. Stamnes, J. Huang, and R. Kuehn, “CALIPSO/CALIOP cloud phase discrimination algorithm,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 26(11), 2293–2309 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. Hu, K. Stamnes, M. Vaughan, J. Pelon, C. Weimer, D. Wu, M. Cisewski, W. Sun, P. Yang, B. Lin, A. Omar, D. Flittner, C. Hostetler, C. Trepte, D. Winker, G. Gibson, and M. Santa-Maria, “Sea surface wind speed estimation from space-based lidar measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8(13), 3593–3601 (2008).
[Crossref]

Y. Hu, M. Vaughan, Z. Liu, B. Lin, P. Yang, D. Flittner, B. Hunt, R. Kuehn, J. Huang, D. Wu, S. Rodier, K. Powell, C. Trepte, and D. Winker, “The depolarization - attenuated backscatter relation: CALIPSO lidar measurements vs. theory,” Opt. Express 15(9), 5327–5332 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Trepte, C. R.

A. H. Omar, D. M. Winker, M. A. Vaughan, Y. Hu, C. R. Trepte, R. A. Ferrare, K.-P. Lee, C. A. Hostetler, C. Kittaka, R. R. Rogers, R. E. Kuehn, and Z. Liu, “The CALIPSO Automated Aerosol Classification and Lidar Ratio Selection Algorithm,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 26(10), 1994–2014 (2009).
[Crossref]

van Ginneken, B.

Vaughan, M.

G. L. Schuster, M. Vaughan, D. MacDonnell, W. Su, D. Winker, O. Dubovik, T. Lapyonok, and C. Trepte, “Comparison of calipso aerosol optical depth retrievals to aeronet measurements, and a climatology for the lidar ratio of dust,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 12, 11641–11697 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Hu, D. Winker, M. Vaughan, B. Lin, A. Omar, C. Trepte, D. Flittner, P. Yang, S. L. Nasiri, B. Baum, R. Holz, W. Sun, Z. Liu, Z. Wang, S. Young, K. Stamnes, J. Huang, and R. Kuehn, “CALIPSO/CALIOP cloud phase discrimination algorithm,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 26(11), 2293–2309 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. Hu, K. Stamnes, M. Vaughan, J. Pelon, C. Weimer, D. Wu, M. Cisewski, W. Sun, P. Yang, B. Lin, A. Omar, D. Flittner, C. Hostetler, C. Trepte, D. Winker, G. Gibson, and M. Santa-Maria, “Sea surface wind speed estimation from space-based lidar measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8(13), 3593–3601 (2008).
[Crossref]

Y. Hu, M. Vaughan, Z. Liu, B. Lin, P. Yang, D. Flittner, B. Hunt, R. Kuehn, J. Huang, D. Wu, S. Rodier, K. Powell, C. Trepte, and D. Winker, “The depolarization - attenuated backscatter relation: CALIPSO lidar measurements vs. theory,” Opt. Express 15(9), 5327–5332 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Hu, Z. Liu, D. Winker, M. Vaughan, V. Noel, L. Bissonnette, G. Roy, and M. McGill, “Simple relation between lidar multiple scattering and depolarization for water clouds,” Opt. Lett. 31(12), 1809–1811 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vaughan, M. A.

A. H. Omar, D. M. Winker, M. A. Vaughan, Y. Hu, C. R. Trepte, R. A. Ferrare, K.-P. Lee, C. A. Hostetler, C. Kittaka, R. R. Rogers, R. E. Kuehn, and Z. Liu, “The CALIPSO Automated Aerosol Classification and Lidar Ratio Selection Algorithm,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 26(10), 1994–2014 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. M. Winker, M. A. Vaughan, A. Omar, Y. Hu, K. A. Powell, Z. Liu, W. H. Hunt, and S. A. Young, “Overview of the CALIPSO mission and CALIOP data processing algorithms,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 26(11), 2310–2323 (2009).
[Crossref]

Vogel, B.

W. Junkermann, B. Vogel, and M. Bangert, “Ultrafine particles over Germany - an aerial survey,” Tellus B,  68, 29250 (2016)
[Crossref]

Wang, M.

Wang, T.

J. Huang, T. Wang, W. Wang, Z. Li, and H. Yan, “Climate effects of dust aerosols over east asian arid and semiarid regions,” J. Geophys. Res.: Atm. 119(19), 11398–11416 (2014).

Wang, W.

J. Huang, T. Wang, W. Wang, Z. Li, and H. Yan, “Climate effects of dust aerosols over east asian arid and semiarid regions,” J. Geophys. Res.: Atm. 119(19), 11398–11416 (2014).

Wang, Z.

Y. Hu, D. Winker, M. Vaughan, B. Lin, A. Omar, C. Trepte, D. Flittner, P. Yang, S. L. Nasiri, B. Baum, R. Holz, W. Sun, Z. Liu, Z. Wang, S. Young, K. Stamnes, J. Huang, and R. Kuehn, “CALIPSO/CALIOP cloud phase discrimination algorithm,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 26(11), 2293–2309 (2009).
[Crossref]

Weimer, C.

Y. Hu, K. Stamnes, M. Vaughan, J. Pelon, C. Weimer, D. Wu, M. Cisewski, W. Sun, P. Yang, B. Lin, A. Omar, D. Flittner, C. Hostetler, C. Trepte, D. Winker, G. Gibson, and M. Santa-Maria, “Sea surface wind speed estimation from space-based lidar measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8(13), 3593–3601 (2008).
[Crossref]

Winker, D.

G. L. Schuster, M. Vaughan, D. MacDonnell, W. Su, D. Winker, O. Dubovik, T. Lapyonok, and C. Trepte, “Comparison of calipso aerosol optical depth retrievals to aeronet measurements, and a climatology for the lidar ratio of dust,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 12, 11641–11697 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Hu, D. Winker, M. Vaughan, B. Lin, A. Omar, C. Trepte, D. Flittner, P. Yang, S. L. Nasiri, B. Baum, R. Holz, W. Sun, Z. Liu, Z. Wang, S. Young, K. Stamnes, J. Huang, and R. Kuehn, “CALIPSO/CALIOP cloud phase discrimination algorithm,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 26(11), 2293–2309 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. Hu, K. Stamnes, M. Vaughan, J. Pelon, C. Weimer, D. Wu, M. Cisewski, W. Sun, P. Yang, B. Lin, A. Omar, D. Flittner, C. Hostetler, C. Trepte, D. Winker, G. Gibson, and M. Santa-Maria, “Sea surface wind speed estimation from space-based lidar measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8(13), 3593–3601 (2008).
[Crossref]

Y. Hu, M. Vaughan, Z. Liu, B. Lin, P. Yang, D. Flittner, B. Hunt, R. Kuehn, J. Huang, D. Wu, S. Rodier, K. Powell, C. Trepte, and D. Winker, “The depolarization - attenuated backscatter relation: CALIPSO lidar measurements vs. theory,” Opt. Express 15(9), 5327–5332 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Hu, Z. Liu, D. Winker, M. Vaughan, V. Noel, L. Bissonnette, G. Roy, and M. McGill, “Simple relation between lidar multiple scattering and depolarization for water clouds,” Opt. Lett. 31(12), 1809–1811 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. H. Omar, D. Winker, and J. Won, “Aerosol models for the CALIPSO lidar inversion algorithms,” Proc. SPIE 5240, 153–164 (2004).
[Crossref]

Winker, D. M.

A. H. Omar, D. M. Winker, M. A. Vaughan, Y. Hu, C. R. Trepte, R. A. Ferrare, K.-P. Lee, C. A. Hostetler, C. Kittaka, R. R. Rogers, R. E. Kuehn, and Z. Liu, “The CALIPSO Automated Aerosol Classification and Lidar Ratio Selection Algorithm,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 26(10), 1994–2014 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. M. Winker, M. A. Vaughan, A. Omar, Y. Hu, K. A. Powell, Z. Liu, W. H. Hunt, and S. A. Young, “Overview of the CALIPSO mission and CALIOP data processing algorithms,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 26(11), 2310–2323 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wiscombe, W.

Won, J.

A. H. Omar, D. Winker, and J. Won, “Aerosol models for the CALIPSO lidar inversion algorithms,” Proc. SPIE 5240, 153–164 (2004).
[Crossref]

Wu, D.

Y. Hu, K. Stamnes, M. Vaughan, J. Pelon, C. Weimer, D. Wu, M. Cisewski, W. Sun, P. Yang, B. Lin, A. Omar, D. Flittner, C. Hostetler, C. Trepte, D. Winker, G. Gibson, and M. Santa-Maria, “Sea surface wind speed estimation from space-based lidar measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8(13), 3593–3601 (2008).
[Crossref]

Y. Hu, M. Vaughan, Z. Liu, B. Lin, P. Yang, D. Flittner, B. Hunt, R. Kuehn, J. Huang, D. Wu, S. Rodier, K. Powell, C. Trepte, and D. Winker, “The depolarization - attenuated backscatter relation: CALIPSO lidar measurements vs. theory,” Opt. Express 15(9), 5327–5332 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, J.

J. Wu, “Mean square slopes of the wind-disturbed water surface, their magnitude, directionality, and composition,” Radio Science 25(1), 37–48 (1990).
[Crossref]

Yan, H.

J. Huang, T. Wang, W. Wang, Z. Li, and H. Yan, “Climate effects of dust aerosols over east asian arid and semiarid regions,” J. Geophys. Res.: Atm. 119(19), 11398–11416 (2014).

Yang, P.

Y. Hu, D. Winker, M. Vaughan, B. Lin, A. Omar, C. Trepte, D. Flittner, P. Yang, S. L. Nasiri, B. Baum, R. Holz, W. Sun, Z. Liu, Z. Wang, S. Young, K. Stamnes, J. Huang, and R. Kuehn, “CALIPSO/CALIOP cloud phase discrimination algorithm,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 26(11), 2293–2309 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. Hu, K. Stamnes, M. Vaughan, J. Pelon, C. Weimer, D. Wu, M. Cisewski, W. Sun, P. Yang, B. Lin, A. Omar, D. Flittner, C. Hostetler, C. Trepte, D. Winker, G. Gibson, and M. Santa-Maria, “Sea surface wind speed estimation from space-based lidar measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8(13), 3593–3601 (2008).
[Crossref]

Y. Hu, M. Vaughan, Z. Liu, B. Lin, P. Yang, D. Flittner, B. Hunt, R. Kuehn, J. Huang, D. Wu, S. Rodier, K. Powell, C. Trepte, and D. Winker, “The depolarization - attenuated backscatter relation: CALIPSO lidar measurements vs. theory,” Opt. Express 15(9), 5327–5332 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yi, Y.

J. Huang, P. Minnis, B. Chen, Z. Huang, Z. Liu, Q. Zhao, Y. Yi, and J. K. Ayers, “Long-range transport and vertical structure of Asian dust from CALIPSO and surface measurements during PACDEX,” J. Geophys. Res.:Atm. 113(D23), 1–13 (2008).
[Crossref]

Young, S.

Y. Hu, D. Winker, M. Vaughan, B. Lin, A. Omar, C. Trepte, D. Flittner, P. Yang, S. L. Nasiri, B. Baum, R. Holz, W. Sun, Z. Liu, Z. Wang, S. Young, K. Stamnes, J. Huang, and R. Kuehn, “CALIPSO/CALIOP cloud phase discrimination algorithm,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 26(11), 2293–2309 (2009).
[Crossref]

Young, S. A.

D. M. Winker, M. A. Vaughan, A. Omar, Y. Hu, K. A. Powell, Z. Liu, W. H. Hunt, and S. A. Young, “Overview of the CALIPSO mission and CALIOP data processing algorithms,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 26(11), 2310–2323 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yu, H.

M. Chin, R. A. Kahn, L. A. Remer, H. Yu, D. Rind, and G. Feigold, “Atmospheric aerosol properties and climate impacts,” U.S. Climate Change Science Program Synthesis and Assessment Product, (2009).

Zeng, S.

X. Lu, Y. Hu, C. Trepte, S. Zeng, and J. H. Churnside, “Ocean subsurface studies with the calipso spaceborne lidar,” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 119(7), 4305–4317 (2014)
[Crossref]

Zhao, Q.

J. Huang, P. Minnis, B. Chen, Z. Huang, Z. Liu, Q. Zhao, Y. Yi, and J. K. Ayers, “Long-range transport and vertical structure of Asian dust from CALIPSO and surface measurements during PACDEX,” J. Geophys. Res.:Atm. 113(D23), 1–13 (2008).
[Crossref]

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Y. Hu, K. Stamnes, M. Vaughan, J. Pelon, C. Weimer, D. Wu, M. Cisewski, W. Sun, P. Yang, B. Lin, A. Omar, D. Flittner, C. Hostetler, C. Trepte, D. Winker, G. Gibson, and M. Santa-Maria, “Sea surface wind speed estimation from space-based lidar measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8(13), 3593–3601 (2008).
[Crossref]

G. L. Schuster, M. Vaughan, D. MacDonnell, W. Su, D. Winker, O. Dubovik, T. Lapyonok, and C. Trepte, “Comparison of calipso aerosol optical depth retrievals to aeronet measurements, and a climatology for the lidar ratio of dust,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 12, 11641–11697 (2012).
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A. H. Omar, D. M. Winker, M. A. Vaughan, Y. Hu, C. R. Trepte, R. A. Ferrare, K.-P. Lee, C. A. Hostetler, C. Kittaka, R. R. Rogers, R. E. Kuehn, and Z. Liu, “The CALIPSO Automated Aerosol Classification and Lidar Ratio Selection Algorithm,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 26(10), 1994–2014 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. M. Winker, M. A. Vaughan, A. Omar, Y. Hu, K. A. Powell, Z. Liu, W. H. Hunt, and S. A. Young, “Overview of the CALIPSO mission and CALIOP data processing algorithms,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 26(11), 2310–2323 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. Hu, D. Winker, M. Vaughan, B. Lin, A. Omar, C. Trepte, D. Flittner, P. Yang, S. L. Nasiri, B. Baum, R. Holz, W. Sun, Z. Liu, Z. Wang, S. Young, K. Stamnes, J. Huang, and R. Kuehn, “CALIPSO/CALIOP cloud phase discrimination algorithm,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 26(11), 2293–2309 (2009).
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S. A. Ackerman, K. I. Strabala, W. P. Menzel, R. A. Frey, C. C. Moeller, and L. E. Gumley, “Discriminating clear sky from clouds with modis,” J. Geophys. Res. 103(D24), 32–141 (1998).
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[Crossref]

T. J. Thorsen and Q. Fu, “Calipso-inferred aerosol direct radiative effects: Bias estimates using ground-based raman lidars,” J. Geophys. Res.: Atm. 120(23), 12209–12220 (2015).

J. Huang, T. Wang, W. Wang, Z. Li, and H. Yan, “Climate effects of dust aerosols over east asian arid and semiarid regions,” J. Geophys. Res.: Atm. 119(19), 11398–11416 (2014).

J. Geophys. Res.:Atm. (1)

J. Huang, P. Minnis, B. Chen, Z. Huang, Z. Liu, Q. Zhao, Y. Yi, and J. K. Ayers, “Long-range transport and vertical structure of Asian dust from CALIPSO and surface measurements during PACDEX,” J. Geophys. Res.:Atm. 113(D23), 1–13 (2008).
[Crossref]

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A. H. Omar, D. Winker, and J. Won, “Aerosol models for the CALIPSO lidar inversion algorithms,” Proc. SPIE 5240, 153–164 (2004).
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W. Junkermann and J. M. Hacker, “Ultrafine particles over Eastern Australia: an airborne survey,” Tellus B,  67, 25308 (2015).
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W. Junkermann, B. Vogel, and M. Bangert, “Ultrafine particles over Germany - an aerial survey,” Tellus B,  68, 29250 (2016)
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M. Chin, R. A. Kahn, L. A. Remer, H. Yu, D. Rind, and G. Feigold, “Atmospheric aerosol properties and climate impacts,” U.S. Climate Change Science Program Synthesis and Assessment Product, (2009).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Scatter plot of the Integrated Atmosphere Return (IAR, x-axis) and AOD (y-axis) at 532 nm. The colors are log10 [number of occurrence]. The correlation coefficient between them is 0.51 on a 95% confidence interval.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Atmospheric equivalent color ratio (ECR) for nighttime observations. The cases used in this statistical study is the “clear” sky atmosphere (see text for definition). The y-axis represents the frequency of occurrence. The broken vertical line gives the location of the normal distribution with the smallest peak value of 0.22. The solid vertical line indicates the truncation at 0.4. The ECR distribution is a superposition of several normal distributions of different particle sizes. For IAR532 values larger than 0.02 (blue color), the ECR peaks close to 1. For IAR532 values in between 0.015 and 0.02 (yellow color), the ECR is centered at 0.6. If we select a IAR532 threshold of 0.015 (green color), most small particles with a small peak ECR value will be included. The unit of IAR532 is sr−1.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The global distribution of the atmospheric Equivalent Color Ratio (ECR) of the selected “clear” sky conditions. The average is made on a 2° (latitude) by 4° (in longitude) grid box over the 5-year dataset.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Behavior of the Δ(σ) term in the Gram-Charlier distribution according to Eq. 16. The x-axis is the inverse of the standard deviation of the slope distribution, and the y-axis is Δ(σ). The observations are represented in colors. The color bar values are the occurrence probability of the observation in absolute numbers in 10n.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Scatter plot of the surface backscatter signal. The x-axis is the backscatter deduced from CALIOP observations, and the y-axis is the estimated surface backscatter inferred from theory. The left panels are based on a 1-D Gaussian distribution (Δ(σ) = 0). The right panels are based on the Gram-Charlier distribution (Δ(σ) ≠, 0). The top panels are for the 532 nm channel and the bottom panels are for the 1064 nm channel. The color bar values are the occurrence probability of the observation in absolute numbers in 10n.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Global distribution of the clear sky AOD distribution for the 532 nm channel. The color represents the AOD value. Top panel: the AOD based on the surface signal according to Eq. 7. Bottom panel: AOD obtained from the CALIPSO level 2 product. The average is made on a 2° (latitude) by 4° (in longitude) grid box over the 5-year dataset.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Global distribution of the clear sky AOD distribution for the 1064 nm channel. The color represents the AOD value. Top panel: the AOD based on the surface signal according to Eq. 8. Bottom panel: AOD obtained from the CALIPSO level 2 product. The average is made on a 2° (latitude) by 4° (in longitude) grid box over the 5-year dataset.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 The histogram distribution of the Standard Deviation (Std.) of the clear AOD from surface method at the 532 nm channel. The Std. is calculated on each grid box of the global distribution.

Equations (19)

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P ( r , λ ) = 1 r 2 E 0 G C β ( r , λ ) exp [ 2 0 r σ ( r , λ ) d r ]
T 2 = exp [ 2 0 r σ ( r , λ ) d r ] exp ( 2 ( τ o + τ m + τ a ) )
E C R = I A R 1064 I A R 532
E C R = i β i 1064 exp ( 2 τ i 1064 ) i β i 532 exp ( 2 τ i 532 )
σ ( λ ) = 24 π 3 ( n s 2 1 ) 2 λ 4 N s ( n s 2 + 2 ) 2 6 + 3 ρ n 6 7 ρ n [ km 1 ]
γ = C γ exp ( 2 ( τ o + τ m + τ a ) ) C γ T 2
τ 532 , a = 0.5 log ( γ 532 γ U , 532 ) τ m τ o
τ 1064 , a = 0.5 log ( γ 1064 γ U , 1064 )
P ( tan θ , σ ) d tan θ = 1 π σ 2 exp ( tan 2 θ σ 2 ) d tan θ
γ = ρ 4 π σ 2 cos 4 θ exp ( tan 2 θ σ 2 )
σ 2 0.003 + 0.00512 U
σ 2 = 0.0146 U , ( U < 7 m / s )
σ 2 = 0.003 + 0.00512 U , ( 7 U < 13.3 m / s )
σ 2 = 0.138 log 10 U 0.084 , ( U 13.3 m / s ) .
γ U = ρ 4 π σ 2 cos 4 θ exp ( tan 2 θ σ 2 ) ( 1 + Δ ( σ ) )
Δ ( σ ) = 0.0002 1 σ 4 + 0.0076 1 σ 3 0.1008 1 σ 2 + 0.4780 1 σ 0.8232 .
P ( z x , z y ) = 1 2 π σ x σ y exp [ 1 2 ( z x 2 σ x 2 + z y 2 σ y 2 ) ] { 1 1 2 C 21 ( ξ 2 1 ) 1 6 C 03 ( η 3 3 η ) + 1 24 C 40 ( ξ 4 6 ξ 2 + 3 ) + 1 4 C 22 ( ξ 2 1 ) ( η 2 1 ) + 1 24 C 04 ( η 4 6 η 2 + 3 ) }
P ( z x , z y ) = 1 2 π σ x σ y exp [ 1 2 ( z x 2 σ x 2 + z y 2 σ y 2 ) ] .
P ( tan θ ) = 1 π σ 2 exp [ tan 2 θ σ 2 ] ( 1 + Δ ( σ ) )

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