Abstract

Precise spectral and colorimetric simulations in commercial ray tracing software require realistic light source models, which provide spectral information as a function of angle and spatial dimension. We describe and validate a general workflow to create hyperspectral LED models as a linear combination of spectral models. The workflow only requires user defined precisions and rayfiles obtained with different optical filters. The rayfiles are transformed into histogram based models, whose precision is evaluated by normalized cross-correlation values of their intensity distributions in the near-, mid- and far field. Additionally, the concept is evaluated with a spatial and spectral well defined test device.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
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References

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. C. Li, Z. Zhang, W. Chen, Z. Hu, X. Tang, W. Hu, K. SunC, -Y. Lin, X. Liu, and W. Chen, “Highly pure green light emission of perovskite CsPbBr3 quantum dots and their application for green light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 24(13), 15071–15078 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. C. C. Sun, C. Y. Chen, C. C. Chen, C. Y. Chiu, Y. N. Peng, Y. H. Wang, T. H. Yang, T. Y. Chung, and C. Y. Chung, “High uniformity in angular correlated-color-temperature distribution of white LEDs from 2800K to 6500K,” Opt. Express 20(6), 6622–6630 (2012).
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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  26. J. Audenaert, G. Durinck, F. B. Leloup, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “Simulating the spatial luminance distribution of planar light sources by sampling of ray files,” Opt. Express 21(20), 24099–24111 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  27. S. Häring, Erweiterung des Simulationsprozesses von Lichtfeldern für die virtuelle Leuchtenentwicklung im Automobilbau (Universitätsbibliothek Ilmenau, 2009).
  28. T.-C. Lu and C.-Y. Chang, “A survey of vq codebook generation,” JIHMSP, 1(3), 190–203(2010).

2016 (5)

2015 (4)

2013 (2)

2012 (2)

2011 (1)

R. Rykowski, “Spectral ray tracing from near field goniophotometer measurements,” Light. Eng. 19(1), 23–29 (2011).

2010 (1)

T.-C. Lu and C.-Y. Chang, “A survey of vq codebook generation,” JIHMSP, 1(3), 190–203(2010).

2007 (1)

I. Ashdown and M. Salsbury, “A near-field goniospectroradiometer for LED measurements,” Proc. SPIE 6342, 634215 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

1993 (1)

I. Ashdown, “Near-field photometry: a new approach,” J. Illum. Eng. Soc. 22(1), 163–180 (1993).
[Crossref]

Adelson, E.

E. Adelson and J. Bergen, “The plenoptic function and the elements of early vision,” in “Computational Models of Visual Processing,” M. Landy and J.A. Movshon, eds. (MIT, 1991).

Ashdown, I.

I. Ashdown and M. Salsbury, “A near-field goniospectroradiometer for LED measurements,” Proc. SPIE 6342, 634215 (2007).
[Crossref]

I. Ashdown, “Near-field photometry: a new approach,” J. Illum. Eng. Soc. 22(1), 163–180 (1993).
[Crossref]

Audenaert, J.

Baumgart, J.

T.-S. Bonenberger, J. Baumgart, and C. Neumann, “Angular and spatial color mixing using mixing rods with the geometry of a chaotic-dispersive billiard system,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 5(2), 157–165 (2016).

Benitez, P.

S. Sorgato, R. Mohedano, J- Chaves, A. Cvetkovic, M- Hernández, P. Benitez, J. C-Miñano, H. Thienpont, and F. Duerr, “Efficient color mixing through étendue conservation using freeform optics,” Proc. SPIE 9572, 95720G (2015).
[Crossref]

Bergen, J.

E. Adelson and J. Bergen, “The plenoptic function and the elements of early vision,” in “Computational Models of Visual Processing,” M. Landy and J.A. Movshon, eds. (MIT, 1991).

Binhai, Y.

Bleumers, J.

Bonenberger, T.-S.

T.-S. Bonenberger, J. Baumgart, and C. Neumann, “Angular and spatial color mixing using mixing rods with the geometry of a chaotic-dispersive billiard system,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 5(2), 157–165 (2016).

Bredemeier, K.

M. López, K. Bredemeier, N. Rohrbeck, C. Véron, F. Schmidt, and A. Sperling, “LED near-field goniophotometer at PTB,” Metrologia 49(2), 141–145 (2012).
[Crossref]

Burden, R. L.

R. L. Burden and J. D. Faires, Numerical Analysis, 9th Edition (Brooks/Cole, 2011).

Chang, C.-Y.

T.-C. Lu and C.-Y. Chang, “A survey of vq codebook generation,” JIHMSP, 1(3), 190–203(2010).

Chaves, J-

S. Sorgato, R. Mohedano, J- Chaves, A. Cvetkovic, M- Hernández, P. Benitez, J. C-Miñano, H. Thienpont, and F. Duerr, “Efficient color mixing through étendue conservation using freeform optics,” Proc. SPIE 9572, 95720G (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, B.-S.

Chen, C. C.

Chen, C. H.

H.-Y. Lin, Z.-T. Ye, C.-C. Lin, K.-J. Chen, H.-H. Tu, H. M. Chen, C. H. Chen, and H. C. Kuo, “Improvement of light quality by ZrO2 film of chip on glass structure white LED,” Opt. Express. 24(2), A341–A349 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, C. Y.

Chen, H. M.

H.-Y. Lin, Z.-T. Ye, C.-C. Lin, K.-J. Chen, H.-H. Tu, H. M. Chen, C. H. Chen, and H. C. Kuo, “Improvement of light quality by ZrO2 film of chip on glass structure white LED,” Opt. Express. 24(2), A341–A349 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, K.-J.

H.-Y. Lin, Z.-T. Ye, C.-C. Lin, K.-J. Chen, H.-H. Tu, H. M. Chen, C. H. Chen, and H. C. Kuo, “Improvement of light quality by ZrO2 film of chip on glass structure white LED,” Opt. Express. 24(2), A341–A349 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, W.

Chiu, C. Y.

Chung, C. Y.

Chung, T. Y.

Cieszynski, W.

W. Cieszyński, J. Reiner, and M. Wójcik, “Advanced Light Sources with rays for rendering engines,” in Proceedings of the International Light Simulation Symposium ILSIS, (Steinbeis-Edition, 2012) pp. 25–42.

C-Miñano, J.

S. Sorgato, R. Mohedano, J- Chaves, A. Cvetkovic, M- Hernández, P. Benitez, J. C-Miñano, H. Thienpont, and F. Duerr, “Efficient color mixing through étendue conservation using freeform optics,” Proc. SPIE 9572, 95720G (2015).
[Crossref]

Cvetkovic, A.

S. Sorgato, R. Mohedano, J- Chaves, A. Cvetkovic, M- Hernández, P. Benitez, J. C-Miñano, H. Thienpont, and F. Duerr, “Efficient color mixing through étendue conservation using freeform optics,” Proc. SPIE 9572, 95720G (2015).
[Crossref]

da Silva, E. A. B.

L. Lovisolo and E. A. B. da Silva, “Uniform distribution of points on a hyper-sphere with applications to vector bit-plane encoding,” in Proceedings of IEE conference - Vision, Image and Signal Processing 2001, 148(3), pp. 187–193.

Deconinck, G.

Duerr, F.

S. Sorgato, R. Mohedano, J- Chaves, A. Cvetkovic, M- Hernández, P. Benitez, J. C-Miñano, H. Thienpont, and F. Duerr, “Efficient color mixing through étendue conservation using freeform optics,” Proc. SPIE 9572, 95720G (2015).
[Crossref]

Durinck, G.

Dürr, R.

R. Dürr and U. Streppel, “Rayfiles for non-sequential raytracing,” in Proceedings of the International Light Simulation Symposium ILSIS, (Steinbeis-Edition, 2012) pp. 11–24.

Faires, J. D.

R. L. Burden and J. D. Faires, Numerical Analysis, 9th Edition (Brooks/Cole, 2011).

Guanwei, L.

Hanselaer, P.

Hansen, D.

D. Hansen, S. Paul, and V. Schumacher, “LED Measurement to Obtain Polychromatic Raydata and their Value for Simulations,” in Proceedings of the LED Professional Symposium 2012, (Luger Research, 2012), pp. 112–119.

Häring, S.

S. Häring, Erweiterung des Simulationsprozesses von Lichtfeldern für die virtuelle Leuchtenentwicklung im Automobilbau (Universitätsbibliothek Ilmenau, 2009).

Hernández, M-

S. Sorgato, R. Mohedano, J- Chaves, A. Cvetkovic, M- Hernández, P. Benitez, J. C-Miñano, H. Thienpont, and F. Duerr, “Efficient color mixing through étendue conservation using freeform optics,” Proc. SPIE 9572, 95720G (2015).
[Crossref]

Hu, W.

Hu, Z.

Huang, S.-H.

Jacobs, V.

Kaihang, C.

Krüger, U.

Kuo, H. C.

H.-Y. Lin, Z.-T. Ye, C.-C. Lin, K.-J. Chen, H.-H. Tu, H. M. Chen, C. H. Chen, and H. C. Kuo, “Improvement of light quality by ZrO2 film of chip on glass structure white LED,” Opt. Express. 24(2), A341–A349 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, T.-X.

Lee, Y.-L.

Leloup, F. B.

Li, C.

Li, H.

Lin, C.-C.

H.-Y. Lin, Z.-T. Ye, C.-C. Lin, K.-J. Chen, H.-H. Tu, H. M. Chen, C. H. Chen, and H. C. Kuo, “Improvement of light quality by ZrO2 film of chip on glass structure white LED,” Opt. Express. 24(2), A341–A349 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, C.-Y.

Lin, H.-Y.

H.-Y. Lin, Z.-T. Ye, C.-C. Lin, K.-J. Chen, H.-H. Tu, H. M. Chen, C. H. Chen, and H. C. Kuo, “Improvement of light quality by ZrO2 film of chip on glass structure white LED,” Opt. Express. 24(2), A341–A349 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, -Y.

Liu, P.

Liu, X.

López, M.

M. López, K. Bredemeier, N. Rohrbeck, C. Véron, F. Schmidt, and A. Sperling, “LED near-field goniophotometer at PTB,” Metrologia 49(2), 141–145 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lovisolo, L.

L. Lovisolo and E. A. B. da Silva, “Uniform distribution of points on a hyper-sphere with applications to vector bit-plane encoding,” in Proceedings of IEE conference - Vision, Image and Signal Processing 2001, 148(3), pp. 187–193.

Lu, T.-C.

T.-C. Lu and C.-Y. Chang, “A survey of vq codebook generation,” JIHMSP, 1(3), 190–203(2010).

Lu, T.-L.

Ma, S.-H.

Mohedano, R.

S. Sorgato, R. Mohedano, J- Chaves, A. Cvetkovic, M- Hernández, P. Benitez, J. C-Miñano, H. Thienpont, and F. Duerr, “Efficient color mixing through étendue conservation using freeform optics,” Proc. SPIE 9572, 95720G (2015).
[Crossref]

Neumann, C.

T.-S. Bonenberger, J. Baumgart, and C. Neumann, “Angular and spatial color mixing using mixing rods with the geometry of a chaotic-dispersive billiard system,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 5(2), 157–165 (2016).

I. Rotscholl, K. Trampert, U. Krüger, M. Perner, F. Schmidt, and C. Neumann, “Determination of tailored filter sets to create rayfiles including spatial and angular resolved spectral information,” Opt. Express 23(23), 29543–29554 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ni, C.-C.

Paul, S.

D. Hansen, S. Paul, and V. Schumacher, “LED Measurement to Obtain Polychromatic Raydata and their Value for Simulations,” in Proceedings of the LED Professional Symposium 2012, (Luger Research, 2012), pp. 112–119.

Peng, Y. N.

Perner, M.

Reiner, J.

W. Cieszyński, J. Reiner, and M. Wójcik, “Advanced Light Sources with rays for rendering engines,” in Proceedings of the International Light Simulation Symposium ILSIS, (Steinbeis-Edition, 2012) pp. 25–42.

Rohrbeck, N.

M. López, K. Bredemeier, N. Rohrbeck, C. Véron, F. Schmidt, and A. Sperling, “LED near-field goniophotometer at PTB,” Metrologia 49(2), 141–145 (2012).
[Crossref]

Rombauts, P.

Rotscholl, I.

Rykowski, R.

R. Rykowski, “Spectral ray tracing from near field goniophotometer measurements,” Light. Eng. 19(1), 23–29 (2011).

Salsbury, M.

I. Ashdown and M. Salsbury, “A near-field goniospectroradiometer for LED measurements,” Proc. SPIE 6342, 634215 (2007).
[Crossref]

Schmidt, F.

Schumacher, V.

D. Hansen, S. Paul, and V. Schumacher, “LED Measurement to Obtain Polychromatic Raydata and their Value for Simulations,” in Proceedings of the LED Professional Symposium 2012, (Luger Research, 2012), pp. 112–119.

Shudong, Y.

Sorgato, S.

S. Sorgato, R. Mohedano, J- Chaves, A. Cvetkovic, M- Hernández, P. Benitez, J. C-Miñano, H. Thienpont, and F. Duerr, “Efficient color mixing through étendue conservation using freeform optics,” Proc. SPIE 9572, 95720G (2015).
[Crossref]

Sperling, A.

M. López, K. Bredemeier, N. Rohrbeck, C. Véron, F. Schmidt, and A. Sperling, “LED near-field goniophotometer at PTB,” Metrologia 49(2), 141–145 (2012).
[Crossref]

Streppel, U.

R. Dürr and U. Streppel, “Rayfiles for non-sequential raytracing,” in Proceedings of the International Light Simulation Symposium ILSIS, (Steinbeis-Edition, 2012) pp. 11–24.

Sun, C. C.

Sun, C.-C.

SunC, K.

Tang, X.

Thienpont, H.

S. Sorgato, R. Mohedano, J- Chaves, A. Cvetkovic, M- Hernández, P. Benitez, J. C-Miñano, H. Thienpont, and F. Duerr, “Efficient color mixing through étendue conservation using freeform optics,” Proc. SPIE 9572, 95720G (2015).
[Crossref]

Trampert, K.

Tu, H.-H.

H.-Y. Lin, Z.-T. Ye, C.-C. Lin, K.-J. Chen, H.-H. Tu, H. M. Chen, C. H. Chen, and H. C. Kuo, “Improvement of light quality by ZrO2 film of chip on glass structure white LED,” Opt. Express. 24(2), A341–A349 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Véron, C.

M. López, K. Bredemeier, N. Rohrbeck, C. Véron, F. Schmidt, and A. Sperling, “LED near-field goniophotometer at PTB,” Metrologia 49(2), 141–145 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wang, H.

Wang, Y. H.

Wójcik, M.

W. Cieszyński, J. Reiner, and M. Wójcik, “Advanced Light Sources with rays for rendering engines,” in Proceedings of the International Light Simulation Symposium ILSIS, (Steinbeis-Edition, 2012) pp. 25–42.

Wu, R.

Yang, T. H.

Yang, Y.

Ye, Z.-T.

H.-Y. Lin, Z.-T. Ye, C.-C. Lin, K.-J. Chen, H.-H. Tu, H. M. Chen, C. H. Chen, and H. C. Kuo, “Improvement of light quality by ZrO2 film of chip on glass structure white LED,” Opt. Express. 24(2), A341–A349 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ying, S.-P.

Yong, T.

Zhang, Y.

Zhang, Z.

Zheng, Z.

Zongtao, L.

Adv. Opt. Technol. (1)

T.-S. Bonenberger, J. Baumgart, and C. Neumann, “Angular and spatial color mixing using mixing rods with the geometry of a chaotic-dispersive billiard system,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 5(2), 157–165 (2016).

Appl. Opt. (2)

J. Illum. Eng. Soc. (1)

I. Ashdown, “Near-field photometry: a new approach,” J. Illum. Eng. Soc. 22(1), 163–180 (1993).
[Crossref]

JIHMSP (1)

T.-C. Lu and C.-Y. Chang, “A survey of vq codebook generation,” JIHMSP, 1(3), 190–203(2010).

Light. Eng. (1)

R. Rykowski, “Spectral ray tracing from near field goniophotometer measurements,” Light. Eng. 19(1), 23–29 (2011).

Metrologia (1)

M. López, K. Bredemeier, N. Rohrbeck, C. Véron, F. Schmidt, and A. Sperling, “LED near-field goniophotometer at PTB,” Metrologia 49(2), 141–145 (2012).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (6)

C. C. Sun, C. Y. Chen, C. C. Chen, C. Y. Chiu, Y. N. Peng, Y. H. Wang, T. H. Yang, T. Y. Chung, and C. Y. Chung, “High uniformity in angular correlated-color-temperature distribution of white LEDs from 2800K to 6500K,” Opt. Express 20(6), 6622–6630 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Audenaert, G. Durinck, F. B. Leloup, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “Simulating the spatial luminance distribution of planar light sources by sampling of ray files,” Opt. Express 21(20), 24099–24111 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Jacobs, J. Audenaert, J. Bleumers, G. Durinck, P. Rombauts, and P. Hanselaer, “Rayfiles including spectral and colorimetric information,” Opt. Express 23(7), A361–A370 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Rotscholl, K. Trampert, U. Krüger, M. Perner, F. Schmidt, and C. Neumann, “Determination of tailored filter sets to create rayfiles including spatial and angular resolved spectral information,” Opt. Express 23(23), 29543–29554 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T.-X. Lee, T.-L. Lu, and B.-S. Chen, “Combining near-field hyperspectral imaging and far-field spectral-angular distribution to develop mid-field white LED optical models with spatial color deviation,” Opt. Express 24(14), A1094–A1106 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Li, Z. Zhang, W. Chen, Z. Hu, X. Tang, W. Hu, K. SunC, -Y. Lin, X. Liu, and W. Chen, “Highly pure green light emission of perovskite CsPbBr3 quantum dots and their application for green light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 24(13), 15071–15078 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express. (1)

H.-Y. Lin, Z.-T. Ye, C.-C. Lin, K.-J. Chen, H.-H. Tu, H. M. Chen, C. H. Chen, and H. C. Kuo, “Improvement of light quality by ZrO2 film of chip on glass structure white LED,” Opt. Express. 24(2), A341–A349 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Photon. Res. (1)

Proc. SPIE (2)

I. Ashdown and M. Salsbury, “A near-field goniospectroradiometer for LED measurements,” Proc. SPIE 6342, 634215 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. Sorgato, R. Mohedano, J- Chaves, A. Cvetkovic, M- Hernández, P. Benitez, J. C-Miñano, H. Thienpont, and F. Duerr, “Efficient color mixing through étendue conservation using freeform optics,” Proc. SPIE 9572, 95720G (2015).
[Crossref]

Other (10)

E. Adelson and J. Bergen, “The plenoptic function and the elements of early vision,” in “Computational Models of Visual Processing,” M. Landy and J.A. Movshon, eds. (MIT, 1991).

R. Dürr and U. Streppel, “Rayfiles for non-sequential raytracing,” in Proceedings of the International Light Simulation Symposium ILSIS, (Steinbeis-Edition, 2012) pp. 11–24.

OSRAM Opto Semiconductors application note, “Importing rayfiles of LEDs from OSRAM Opto Semiconductors,” (OSRAM Opto Semiconductors, 2013), http:\\www.osram-os.com\Graphics\XPic5\00165120_0.pdf , (accessed, July, 2015).

D. Hansen, S. Paul, and V. Schumacher, “LED Measurement to Obtain Polychromatic Raydata and their Value for Simulations,” in Proceedings of the LED Professional Symposium 2012, (Luger Research, 2012), pp. 112–119.

M. Deserno, “How to generate equidistributed points on the surface of a sphere,” (Max-Planck-Institut für Polymerforschung, 2004), https:\\www.cmu.edu\biolphys\deserno\pdf\sphere_equi.pdf , (accessed, December, 2015).

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Visualization of the workflow to create spectral rayfiles, adapted from [19]

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Normalized basis spectra of well known test RGB-LED and normalized measured filter transmission spectra used to create the rayfiles.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Spectral and spatial well known RGB-LED: (a) Photographic image. (b)–(d) Normalized irradiance of measured rayfiles M1M3 in the LED plane. (b) M1 τ 1 = x ¯ s h o r t ( λ ). (c) M2 τ 2 = x ¯ l o n g ( λ ). (d) M3 τ3 = v(λ).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Concept to perform the calculation with rayfiles.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Visualization of the model creation process: The left hand side shows the determination of the spatial histogram and the right hand side indicates the generation of the angular model, which consists of NVoron different angular histograms.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Visualization of the overall model: The envelope of the hemisphere is separated in NVoron spatial areas each covering a relative angular distributions for all included starting points.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Estimating the precision of the light source models.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Trade off between model precision NCC (normalized cross-correlation) and artifacts as amount of negative/false positive amplitudes Q for the green LED model as normalized irridiance in the LED plane.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Normalized irridiance in the LED plane for all spectral LED models before and after the nearest neighbor calculation for NCC = 0.9998 and Qfinal = Qstart/1000.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Workflow of the model creation and calculation process including the determination of NVoron, Nangular and Nspatial by the precision parameters.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Influence of the calculation success x on the NCC with original rayfiles containing (a) 106 rays (b) 10 × 106 rays.

Equations (8)

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R ( X , Y , Z , ϕ , ϑ , λ ) = i = 1 n A i ( X , Y , Z , ϕ , ϑ ) × S i ( λ ) .
[ M 1 M n ] = [ τ 1 ( λ ) S 1 ( λ ) τ sys ( λ ) d λ τ 1 ( λ ) S n ( λ ) τ sys ( λ ) d λ τ n ( λ ) S 1 ( λ ) τ sys ( λ ) d λ τ n ( λ ) S n ( λ ) τ sys ( λ ) d λ ] M S τ [ A 1 A n ] .
[ 1 1 ] = M S τ [ 1 1 ]
[ A 1 A n ] = M S τ 1 [ N 1 0 0 N n ] 1 [ M 1 M n ]
M ( X , Y , ϕ , ϑ ) = M spatial ( X , Y ) × M angular ( V o r o n ( X , Y ) , ϕ , ϑ )
N C C i , R = ϕ , ϑ ( I i , R ( ϕ , ϑ ) I ¯ i , R ) ( J i , R ( ϕ , ϑ ) J ¯ i , R ) ϕ , ϑ ( I i , R ( ϕ , ϑ ) I ¯ i , R ) 2 ϕ , ϑ ( J i , R ( ϕ , ϑ ) J ¯ i , R ) 2
Q ( A ) = Σ | A | Σ | A | + Σ | A + | A A A < 0 A + A A 0
Q ( x ) = | a | x b ( | a | | a | x ) + | a | x = | a | x ( b | a | + 2 | a | ) x 1

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