Abstract

Electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) is a pump-induced narrowband transparency window within an absorption line of the probe beam spectrum in an atomic system. In this paper we propose a way to bring together the all-dielectric metamaterials to have EIT-like effects and to optically tune the response by hybridizing them with a layer of a phase change material. We propose a design of the metamaterial based on Si nanoresonators that can support an EIT-like resonant response. On the top of the resonators we consider a thin layer of a chalcogenide phase change material, which we will use to tune the optical response. Our choice is Ge2Sb2Te5 (GST), since it has two stable phases at room temperature, namely amorphous and crystalline, between which it can be switched quickly, nonvolatively and reversibly, sustaining a large number of switching cycles. They differ in optical properties, while still having moderately low losses in telecom range. Since such dielectric resonators do not have non-radiative losses of metals around 1550nm, they can lead to a high-Q factor of the EIT-like response in this range. Firstly, we optimize the starting structure so that it gives an EIT-like response at 1550 nm when the GST layer is in the amorphous state. Our starting design uses glass as a substrate, but we also consider implementation in SOI technology. If we then switch the thin layer of GST to its crystalline phase, which has higher losses, the EIT-like response is red shifted, providing around 10:1 contrast at 1550nm. This reversible tuning can be done with an ns visible pulsed laser. We discuss the results of the simulation of the dielectric metasurface for different configurations and the tuning possibility.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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2016 (3)

2015 (2)

Q. Wang, E. T. F. Rogers, B. Gholipour, C. Wang, G. Yuan, J. Teng, and N. I. Zheludev, “Optically reconfigurable metasurfaces and photonic devices based on phase change materials,” Nat. Photonics 10(1), 60–65 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Yang, W. Wang, A. Boulesbaa, I. I. Kravchenko, D. P. Briggs, A. Puretzky, D. Geohegan, and J. Valentine, “Nonlinear Fano-Resonant Dielectric Metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 15(11), 7388–7393 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (5)

M. L. Brongersma, Y. Cui, and S. Fan, “Light management for photovoltaics using high-index nanostructures,” Nat. Mater. 13(5), 451–460 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Yang, I. I. Kravchenko, D. P. Briggs, and J. Valentine, “All-dielectric metasurface analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency,” Nat. Commun. 5, 5753 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Zou, M. Cryan, and M. Klemm, “Phase change material based tunable reflectarray for free-space optical inter/intra chip interconnects,” Opt. Express 22(20), 24142–24148 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. U. Michel, P. Zalden, D. N. Chigrin, M. Wuttig, A. M. Lindenberg, and T. Taubner, “Reversible Optical Switching of Infrared Antenna Resonances with Ultrathin Phase-Change Layers Using Femtosecond Laser Pulses,” ACS Photonics 1(9), 833–839 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Hosseini, C. D. Wright, and H. Bhaskaran, “An optoelectronic framework enabled by low-dimensional phase-change films,” Nature 511(7508), 206–211 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (5)

2012 (2)

A. I. Kuznetsov, A. E. Miroshnichenko, Y. H. Fu, J. Zhang, and B. Luk’yanchuk, “Magnetic light,” Sci. Rep. 2, 492 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Gu, R. Singh, X. Liu, X. Zhang, Y. Ma, S. Zhang, S. A. Maier, Z. Tian, A. K. Azad, H. T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Active control of electromagnetically induced transparency analogue in terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1151 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

2010 (3)

C. Monat, M. de Sterke, and B. J. Eggleton, “Slow light enhanced nonlinear optics in periodic structures,” J. Opt. 12(10), 104003 (2010).
[Crossref]

N. Liu, T. Weiss, M. Mesch, L. Langguth, U. Eigenthaler, M. Hirscher, C. Sönnichsen, and H. Giessen, “Planar Metamaterial Analogue of Electromagnetically Induced Transparency for Plasmonic Sensing,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1103–1107 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Zhang, S. Xiao, C. Jeppesen, A. Kristensen, and N. A. Mortensen, “Electromagnetically induced transparency in metamaterials at near-infrared frequency,” Opt. Express 18(16), 17187–17192 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (4)

N. Liu, L. Langguth, T. Weiss, J. Kästel, M. Fleischhauer, T. Pfau, and H. Giessen, “Plasmonic analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency at the Drude damping limit,” Nat. Mater. 8(9), 758–762 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Tassin, L. Zhang, T. Koschny, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Planar designs for electromagnetically induced transparency in metamaterials,” Opt. Express 17(7), 5595–5605 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Driscoll, H.-T. Kim, B.-G. Chae, B.-J. Kim, Y.-W. Lee, N. M. Jokerst, S. Palit, D. R. Smith, M. Di Ventra, and D. N. Basov, “Memory metamaterials,” Science 325(5947), 1518–1521 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. U. E. Rimini, R. De Bastiani, E. Carria, M. G. Grimaldi, G. Nicotra, C. Bongiorno, and C. Spinella, “Crystallization of sputtered-deposited and ion implanted amorhpous Ge2Sb2Te5 thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(12), 123502 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

S. Zhang, D. A. Genov, Y. Wang, M. Liu, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon-induced transparency in metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(4), 047401 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

X. Wang, D. H. Kwon, D. H. Werner, I. C. Khoo, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Tunable optical negative-index metamaterials employing anisotropic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 143122 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. Wuttig and N. Yamada, “Phase-change materials for rewriteable data storage,” Nat. Mater. 6(11), 824–832 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

L. V. Hau, S. E. Harris, Z. Dutton, and C. H. Behroozi, “Light speed reduction to 17 metres per second in an ultracold atomic gas,” Nature 397(6720), 594–598 (1999).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

S. E. Harris, J. E. Field, and A. Imamoglu, “Nonlinear optical processes using electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64(10), 1107–1110 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aizpurua, J.

Azad, A. K.

J. Gu, R. Singh, X. Liu, X. Zhang, Y. Ma, S. Zhang, S. A. Maier, Z. Tian, A. K. Azad, H. T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Active control of electromagnetically induced transparency analogue in terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1151 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Basov, D. N.

T. Driscoll, H.-T. Kim, B.-G. Chae, B.-J. Kim, Y.-W. Lee, N. M. Jokerst, S. Palit, D. R. Smith, M. Di Ventra, and D. N. Basov, “Memory metamaterials,” Science 325(5947), 1518–1521 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Behroozi, C. H.

L. V. Hau, S. E. Harris, Z. Dutton, and C. H. Behroozi, “Light speed reduction to 17 metres per second in an ultracold atomic gas,” Nature 397(6720), 594–598 (1999).
[Crossref]

Bhaskaran, H.

Bongiorno, C.

A. U. E. Rimini, R. De Bastiani, E. Carria, M. G. Grimaldi, G. Nicotra, C. Bongiorno, and C. Spinella, “Crystallization of sputtered-deposited and ion implanted amorhpous Ge2Sb2Te5 thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(12), 123502 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. M. Mio, G. D’Arrigo, E. Carria, C. Bongiorno, S. Rossini, C. Spinella, M. G. Grimaldi, and E. Rimini, “Manipulation of amorphous Ge2Sb2Te5 nano-structures in isolated and crystalline environment,” Proc. MRS1338, mrss11-1338-r06-08 (2011).

Boulesbaa, A.

Y. Yang, W. Wang, A. Boulesbaa, I. I. Kravchenko, D. P. Briggs, A. Puretzky, D. Geohegan, and J. Valentine, “Nonlinear Fano-Resonant Dielectric Metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 15(11), 7388–7393 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Briggs, D. P.

Y. Yang, W. Wang, A. Boulesbaa, I. I. Kravchenko, D. P. Briggs, A. Puretzky, D. Geohegan, and J. Valentine, “Nonlinear Fano-Resonant Dielectric Metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 15(11), 7388–7393 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Yang, I. I. Kravchenko, D. P. Briggs, and J. Valentine, “All-dielectric metasurface analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency,” Nat. Commun. 5, 5753 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brongersma, M. L.

M. L. Brongersma, Y. Cui, and S. Fan, “Light management for photovoltaics using high-index nanostructures,” Nat. Mater. 13(5), 451–460 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cao, T.

T. Cao, L. Zhang, R. E. Simpson, C. Wei, and M. J. Cryan, “Strongly tunable circular dichroism in gammadion chiral phase-change metamaterials,” Opt. Express 21(23), 27841–27851 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Cao, C. Wei, R. E. Simpson, L. Zhang, and M. J. Cryan, “Rapid phase transition of a phase-change metamaterial perfect absorber,” Opt. Express 3(8), 1101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Carria, E.

A. U. E. Rimini, R. De Bastiani, E. Carria, M. G. Grimaldi, G. Nicotra, C. Bongiorno, and C. Spinella, “Crystallization of sputtered-deposited and ion implanted amorhpous Ge2Sb2Te5 thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(12), 123502 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. M. Mio, G. D’Arrigo, E. Carria, C. Bongiorno, S. Rossini, C. Spinella, M. G. Grimaldi, and E. Rimini, “Manipulation of amorphous Ge2Sb2Te5 nano-structures in isolated and crystalline environment,” Proc. MRS1338, mrss11-1338-r06-08 (2011).

Carrillo, S. G.

Chae, B.-G.

T. Driscoll, H.-T. Kim, B.-G. Chae, B.-J. Kim, Y.-W. Lee, N. M. Jokerst, S. Palit, D. R. Smith, M. Di Ventra, and D. N. Basov, “Memory metamaterials,” Science 325(5947), 1518–1521 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chantada, L.

Chen, H. T.

J. Gu, R. Singh, X. Liu, X. Zhang, Y. Ma, S. Zhang, S. A. Maier, Z. Tian, A. K. Azad, H. T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Active control of electromagnetically induced transparency analogue in terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1151 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Y. G.

Chigrin, D. N.

A. U. Michel, P. Zalden, D. N. Chigrin, M. Wuttig, A. M. Lindenberg, and T. Taubner, “Reversible Optical Switching of Infrared Antenna Resonances with Ultrathin Phase-Change Layers Using Femtosecond Laser Pulses,” ACS Photonics 1(9), 833–839 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cryan, M.

Cryan, M. J.

Cui, Y.

M. L. Brongersma, Y. Cui, and S. Fan, “Light management for photovoltaics using high-index nanostructures,” Nat. Mater. 13(5), 451–460 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D’Arrigo, G.

A. M. Mio, G. D’Arrigo, E. Carria, C. Bongiorno, S. Rossini, C. Spinella, M. G. Grimaldi, and E. Rimini, “Manipulation of amorphous Ge2Sb2Te5 nano-structures in isolated and crystalline environment,” Proc. MRS1338, mrss11-1338-r06-08 (2011).

De Bastiani, R.

A. U. E. Rimini, R. De Bastiani, E. Carria, M. G. Grimaldi, G. Nicotra, C. Bongiorno, and C. Spinella, “Crystallization of sputtered-deposited and ion implanted amorhpous Ge2Sb2Te5 thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(12), 123502 (2009).
[Crossref]

de Sterke, M.

C. Monat, M. de Sterke, and B. J. Eggleton, “Slow light enhanced nonlinear optics in periodic structures,” J. Opt. 12(10), 104003 (2010).
[Crossref]

Di Ventra, M.

T. Driscoll, H.-T. Kim, B.-G. Chae, B.-J. Kim, Y.-W. Lee, N. M. Jokerst, S. Palit, D. R. Smith, M. Di Ventra, and D. N. Basov, “Memory metamaterials,” Science 325(5947), 1518–1521 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Driscoll, T.

T. Driscoll, H.-T. Kim, B.-G. Chae, B.-J. Kim, Y.-W. Lee, N. M. Jokerst, S. Palit, D. R. Smith, M. Di Ventra, and D. N. Basov, “Memory metamaterials,” Science 325(5947), 1518–1521 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dutton, Z.

L. V. Hau, S. E. Harris, Z. Dutton, and C. H. Behroozi, “Light speed reduction to 17 metres per second in an ultracold atomic gas,” Nature 397(6720), 594–598 (1999).
[Crossref]

Economou, E. N.

Eggleton, B. J.

C. Monat, M. de Sterke, and B. J. Eggleton, “Slow light enhanced nonlinear optics in periodic structures,” J. Opt. 12(10), 104003 (2010).
[Crossref]

Eigenthaler, U.

N. Liu, T. Weiss, M. Mesch, L. Langguth, U. Eigenthaler, M. Hirscher, C. Sönnichsen, and H. Giessen, “Planar Metamaterial Analogue of Electromagnetically Induced Transparency for Plasmonic Sensing,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1103–1107 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fan, S.

M. L. Brongersma, Y. Cui, and S. Fan, “Light management for photovoltaics using high-index nanostructures,” Nat. Mater. 13(5), 451–460 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Field, J. E.

S. E. Harris, J. E. Field, and A. Imamoglu, “Nonlinear optical processes using electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64(10), 1107–1110 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fleischhauer, M.

N. Liu, L. Langguth, T. Weiss, J. Kästel, M. Fleischhauer, T. Pfau, and H. Giessen, “Plasmonic analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency at the Drude damping limit,” Nat. Mater. 8(9), 758–762 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Froufe-Pérez, L. S.

Fu, Y. H.

A. I. Kuznetsov, A. E. Miroshnichenko, Y. H. Fu, J. Zhang, and B. Luk’yanchuk, “Magnetic light,” Sci. Rep. 2, 492 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

García-Etxarri, A.

Genov, D. A.

S. Zhang, D. A. Genov, Y. Wang, M. Liu, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon-induced transparency in metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(4), 047401 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Geohegan, D.

Y. Yang, W. Wang, A. Boulesbaa, I. I. Kravchenko, D. P. Briggs, A. Puretzky, D. Geohegan, and J. Valentine, “Nonlinear Fano-Resonant Dielectric Metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 15(11), 7388–7393 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gholipour, B.

A. Karvounis, B. Gholipour, K. F. MacDonald, and N. I. Zheludev, “All-dielectric phase-change reconfigurable metasurface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(5), 051103 (2016).
[Crossref]

Q. Wang, E. T. F. Rogers, B. Gholipour, C. Wang, G. Yuan, J. Teng, and N. I. Zheludev, “Optically reconfigurable metasurfaces and photonic devices based on phase change materials,” Nat. Photonics 10(1), 60–65 (2015).
[Crossref]

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J. Gu, R. Singh, X. Liu, X. Zhang, Y. Ma, S. Zhang, S. A. Maier, Z. Tian, A. K. Azad, H. T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Active control of electromagnetically induced transparency analogue in terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1151 (2012).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) A unit cell of the all-dielectric metamaterial made of bright and dark resonators. Pitches in both x and y directions are p, incoming electric field is oriented along y-axis, and k-vector is in –z direction. The distances between the adjacent nanoresonators are a and b. Inset: x-z cross section view of the metamaterial with tGST layer on the top of the resonators. (b) Dipole like bright collective mode whose geometrical properties are length L, width W and Si thickness t. (c) Dark collective mode whose geometrical properties are innder radius rin, width Wr and Si thickness t. (d) Sketch of the EIT-like metamaterial and the destructive interfering pathways. (e) Real refractive index of GST from [19]. (f) Imaginary refractive index of GST from [19].
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Transmission switching spectra between the amorphous and crystalline state of the thin GST layer. (b) The optimized CR at 1.55μm. The geometric parameters are p = 1046nm, L = 963nm, W = 156nm, Wr = 110nm, rin = 154nm, tGST = 17nm, a = 223nm and b = 102nm.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Electric field intensity at 1.55μm when the top GST is in the amorphous state. (b) Magnetic field intensity at 1.55μm when the top GST is in the amorphous state. (c) Electric field intensity at 1.55μm when the top GST is in the crystalline state. (d) Magnetic field intensity at 1.55μm when the top GST over the ring is in the crystalline state.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Influence of the SiO2 layer thickness when the metamaterial is produced in SOI technology. (a) Spectra dependence on tSiO2 when GST is in the amorphous state. (b) Spectra dependence on tSiO2 when GST is in the crystalline state. (c) Periodically changing transmission at 1.55μm as a function of tSiO2. (d) Periodically changing CR spectra as a function of tSiO2.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Scheme of the all-optical tuning. (b) Shorter wavelength absorption spectra of the metamaterial. (c) Results of the transient simulation for the crystallization. (d) Results of the transient simulation for the amorphization.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) Sketch of the structure in the case where GST layer is subsequently deposited after the EBL patterning. (b) Transmission spectra when GST is amorphous. (c) Absorption spectra when GST is amorphous. (d) Simulation of the crystallization.

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