Abstract

Polymer-dispersed liquid crystals (PDLCs) have attracted considerable attention for optical device applications in recent years. However, the high operating voltage of PDLCs limits their applications. This study reports a simple approach used for the first time to decrease the operating voltage of PDLCs by means of doping 3 μm-diameter silver-coated polystyrene microspheres (Ag-coated PSMSs) into PDLCs. Ag-coated PSMSs construct an induced electric field between each other when an external electric field is applied. This induced electric field can enhance the effective electric field so the operating voltage can be actively reduced from 77 V to 40 V. Such PDLCs also possess a high contrast ratio of >50 and a high on-state transmittance of ~73%. Therefore, PDLCs doped with Ag-coated PSMSs maintain a high contrast ratio and improve their electro-optical properties.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. S. S. Parab, M. K. Malik, and R. R. Deshmukh, “Dielectric relaxation and electro-optical switching behavior of nematic liquid crystal dispersed in poly(methyl methacrylate),” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 358(18-19), 2713–2722 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  24. C. K. Huang, C. Y. Chen, J. L. Han, C. C. Chen, M. D. Jiang, J. S. Hsu, C. H. Chan, and K. H. Hsieh, “Immobilization of silver nanoparticles on silica microspheres,” J. Nanopart. Res. 12(1), 199–207 (2010).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (2)

K. T. Cheng, P. Y. Lee, M. M. Qasim, C. K. Liu, W. F. Cheng, and T. D. Wilkinson, “Electrically switchable and permanently stable light scattering modes by dynamic fingerprint chiral textures,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(16), 10483–10493 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. C. Hsu, Y. X. Chen, H. W. Li, and J. S. Hsu, “Low switching voltage ZnO quantum dots doped polymer-dispersed liquid crystal film,” Opt. Express 24(7), 7063–7068 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (2)

M. R. Darla, S. Hegde, and S. Varghese, “Effect of BaTiO3 nanoparticle on electro-optical properties of polymer dispersed liquid crystal displays,” J. Crystallization Process Technol. 4(01), 60–63 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. R. Deshmukh and A. K. Jain, “The complete morphological, electro-optical and dielectric study of dichroic dye-doped polymer-dispersed liquid crystal,” Liq. Cryst. 41(7), 960–975 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

Y. Z. Gao, P. Song, T. T. Zhang, W. H. Yao, H. J. Ding, J. M. Xiao, S. Q. Zhu, H. Cao, and H. Yang, “Effects of a triethylamine catalyst on curing time and electro-optical properties of PDLC films,” Rsc. Adv. 3(45), 23533–23538 (2013).
[Crossref]

W. K. Lee, S. J. Hwang, M. J. Cho, H. G. Park, J. W. Han, S. Song, J. H. Jang, and D. S. Seo, “CIS-ZnS quantum dots for self-aligned liquid crystal molecules with superior electro-optic properties,” Nanoscale 5(1), 193–199 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. P. Wang, F. G. Meng, Y. J. Sun, and H. Yang, “Effect of surfactant-modified ZnS:Mn nanoparticles on the electro-optical properties of composite polymer-dispersed liquid crystal films,” Compos., Part B Eng. 45(1), 780–784 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (4)

S. S. Parab, M. K. Malik, and R. R. Deshmukh, “Dielectric relaxation and electro-optical switching behavior of nematic liquid crystal dispersed in poly(methyl methacrylate),” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 358(18-19), 2713–2722 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. T. Zhang, M. Kashima, M. Z. Zhang, F. Liu, P. Song, X. T. Zhao, C. H. Zhang, H. Cao, and H. Yang, “Effects of the functionality of epoxy monomer on the electro-optical properties of thermally-cured polymer dispersed liquid crystal films,” RSC Advances 2(5), 2144–2148 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. S. Ha, H. J. Kim, H. G. Park, and D. S. Seo, “Enhancement of electro-optic properties in liquid crystal devices via titanium nanoparticle doping,” Opt. Express 20(6), 6448–6455 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Y. Jung, H. J. Kim, S. Yang, Y. G. Kang, B. Y. Oh, H. G. Park, and D. S. Seo, “Enhanced electro-optical properties of Y2O3 (yttrium trioxide) nanoparticle-doped twisted nematic liquid crystal devices,” Liq. Cryst. 39(7), 789–793 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

M. Jamil, F. Ahmad, J. T. Rhee, and Y. J. Jeon, “Nanoparticle-doped polymer-dispersed liquid crystal display,” Curr. Sci. India 101, 1544–1552 (2011).

K. J. Yang and D. Y. Yoon, “Electro-optical characteristics of dye-doped polymer dispersed liquid crystals,” J. Ind. Eng. Chem. 17(3), 543–548 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (5)

S. W. Myoung, E.-H. Kim, and Y.-G. Jung, “Electrooptical properties and microstructure of polymer-dispersed liquid crystal doped with various reinforcing materials,” Thin Solid Films 519(5), 1558–1562 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. C. Sharma, “A review of the electro-optical properties and their modification by radiation in polymer-dispersed liquid crystals and thin films containing CdSe/ZnS quantum dots,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 168(1-3), 5–15 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Hinojosa and S. C. Sharma, “Effects of gold nanoparticles on electro-optical properties of a polymer-dispersed liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(8), 081114 (2010).
[Crossref]

C. K. Huang, C. Y. Chen, J. L. Han, C. C. Chen, M. D. Jiang, J. S. Hsu, C. H. Chan, and K. H. Hsieh, “Immobilization of silver nanoparticles on silica microspheres,” J. Nanopart. Res. 12(1), 199–207 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. J. Sung, Y. F. Ma, Y. F. Chau, and D. W. Huang, “Plasmon field enhancement in silver core-protruded silicon shell nanocylinder illuminated with light at 633 nm,” Appl. Opt. 49(32), 6295–6301 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

2007 (1)

O. V. Yaroshchuk and L. O. Dolgov, “Electro-optics and structure of polymer dispersed liquid crystals doped with nanoparticles of inorganic materials,” Opt. Mater. 29(8), 1097–1102 (2007).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

M. Mucha, “Polymer as an important component of blends and composites with liquid crystals,” Prog. Polym. Sci. 28(5), 837–873 (2003).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

J. B. Jackson and N. J. Halas, “Silver nanoshells: variations in morphologies and optical properties,” J. Phys. Chem. B 105(14), 2743–2746 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

M. MacChione, D. Cupelli, G. D. Filpo, F. P. Nicoletta, and G. Chidichimo, “Morphology and electro-optical properties of reverse mode polymer dispersed liquid crystals,” Liq. Cryst. 27(10), 1337–1341 (2000).
[Crossref]

1988 (1)

J. W. Doane, A. Golemme, J. L. West, J. B. Whitehead, and B. G. Wu, “Polymer dispersed liquid crystals for display application,” Mol. Cryst. Liquid Cryst. 165, 511–532 (1988).

Ahmad, F.

M. Jamil, F. Ahmad, J. T. Rhee, and Y. J. Jeon, “Nanoparticle-doped polymer-dispersed liquid crystal display,” Curr. Sci. India 101, 1544–1552 (2011).

Cao, H.

Y. Z. Gao, P. Song, T. T. Zhang, W. H. Yao, H. J. Ding, J. M. Xiao, S. Q. Zhu, H. Cao, and H. Yang, “Effects of a triethylamine catalyst on curing time and electro-optical properties of PDLC films,” Rsc. Adv. 3(45), 23533–23538 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. T. Zhang, M. Kashima, M. Z. Zhang, F. Liu, P. Song, X. T. Zhao, C. H. Zhang, H. Cao, and H. Yang, “Effects of the functionality of epoxy monomer on the electro-optical properties of thermally-cured polymer dispersed liquid crystal films,” RSC Advances 2(5), 2144–2148 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chan, C. H.

C. K. Huang, C. Y. Chen, J. L. Han, C. C. Chen, M. D. Jiang, J. S. Hsu, C. H. Chan, and K. H. Hsieh, “Immobilization of silver nanoparticles on silica microspheres,” J. Nanopart. Res. 12(1), 199–207 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chau, Y. F.

Chen, C. C.

C. K. Huang, C. Y. Chen, J. L. Han, C. C. Chen, M. D. Jiang, J. S. Hsu, C. H. Chan, and K. H. Hsieh, “Immobilization of silver nanoparticles on silica microspheres,” J. Nanopart. Res. 12(1), 199–207 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Y. G. Fuh, C. C. Chen, C. K. Liu, and K. T. Cheng, “Polarizer-free, electrically switchable and optically rewritable displays based on dye-doped polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Opt. Express 17(9), 7088–7094 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, C. Y.

C. K. Huang, C. Y. Chen, J. L. Han, C. C. Chen, M. D. Jiang, J. S. Hsu, C. H. Chan, and K. H. Hsieh, “Immobilization of silver nanoparticles on silica microspheres,” J. Nanopart. Res. 12(1), 199–207 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y. X.

Cheng, K. T.

K. T. Cheng, P. Y. Lee, M. M. Qasim, C. K. Liu, W. F. Cheng, and T. D. Wilkinson, “Electrically switchable and permanently stable light scattering modes by dynamic fingerprint chiral textures,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(16), 10483–10493 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Y. G. Fuh, C. C. Chen, C. K. Liu, and K. T. Cheng, “Polarizer-free, electrically switchable and optically rewritable displays based on dye-doped polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Opt. Express 17(9), 7088–7094 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheng, W. F.

K. T. Cheng, P. Y. Lee, M. M. Qasim, C. K. Liu, W. F. Cheng, and T. D. Wilkinson, “Electrically switchable and permanently stable light scattering modes by dynamic fingerprint chiral textures,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(16), 10483–10493 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chidichimo, G.

M. MacChione, D. Cupelli, G. D. Filpo, F. P. Nicoletta, and G. Chidichimo, “Morphology and electro-optical properties of reverse mode polymer dispersed liquid crystals,” Liq. Cryst. 27(10), 1337–1341 (2000).
[Crossref]

Cho, M. J.

W. K. Lee, S. J. Hwang, M. J. Cho, H. G. Park, J. W. Han, S. Song, J. H. Jang, and D. S. Seo, “CIS-ZnS quantum dots for self-aligned liquid crystal molecules with superior electro-optic properties,” Nanoscale 5(1), 193–199 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cupelli, D.

M. MacChione, D. Cupelli, G. D. Filpo, F. P. Nicoletta, and G. Chidichimo, “Morphology and electro-optical properties of reverse mode polymer dispersed liquid crystals,” Liq. Cryst. 27(10), 1337–1341 (2000).
[Crossref]

Darla, M. R.

M. R. Darla, S. Hegde, and S. Varghese, “Effect of BaTiO3 nanoparticle on electro-optical properties of polymer dispersed liquid crystal displays,” J. Crystallization Process Technol. 4(01), 60–63 (2014).
[Crossref]

Deshmukh, R. R.

R. R. Deshmukh and A. K. Jain, “The complete morphological, electro-optical and dielectric study of dichroic dye-doped polymer-dispersed liquid crystal,” Liq. Cryst. 41(7), 960–975 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. S. Parab, M. K. Malik, and R. R. Deshmukh, “Dielectric relaxation and electro-optical switching behavior of nematic liquid crystal dispersed in poly(methyl methacrylate),” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 358(18-19), 2713–2722 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ding, H. J.

Y. Z. Gao, P. Song, T. T. Zhang, W. H. Yao, H. J. Ding, J. M. Xiao, S. Q. Zhu, H. Cao, and H. Yang, “Effects of a triethylamine catalyst on curing time and electro-optical properties of PDLC films,” Rsc. Adv. 3(45), 23533–23538 (2013).
[Crossref]

Doane, J. W.

J. W. Doane, A. Golemme, J. L. West, J. B. Whitehead, and B. G. Wu, “Polymer dispersed liquid crystals for display application,” Mol. Cryst. Liquid Cryst. 165, 511–532 (1988).

Dolgov, L. O.

O. V. Yaroshchuk and L. O. Dolgov, “Electro-optics and structure of polymer dispersed liquid crystals doped with nanoparticles of inorganic materials,” Opt. Mater. 29(8), 1097–1102 (2007).
[Crossref]

Filpo, G. D.

M. MacChione, D. Cupelli, G. D. Filpo, F. P. Nicoletta, and G. Chidichimo, “Morphology and electro-optical properties of reverse mode polymer dispersed liquid crystals,” Liq. Cryst. 27(10), 1337–1341 (2000).
[Crossref]

Fuh, A. Y. G.

Gao, Y. Z.

Y. Z. Gao, P. Song, T. T. Zhang, W. H. Yao, H. J. Ding, J. M. Xiao, S. Q. Zhu, H. Cao, and H. Yang, “Effects of a triethylamine catalyst on curing time and electro-optical properties of PDLC films,” Rsc. Adv. 3(45), 23533–23538 (2013).
[Crossref]

Golemme, A.

J. W. Doane, A. Golemme, J. L. West, J. B. Whitehead, and B. G. Wu, “Polymer dispersed liquid crystals for display application,” Mol. Cryst. Liquid Cryst. 165, 511–532 (1988).

Ha, Y. S.

Halas, N. J.

J. B. Jackson and N. J. Halas, “Silver nanoshells: variations in morphologies and optical properties,” J. Phys. Chem. B 105(14), 2743–2746 (2001).
[Crossref]

Han, J. L.

C. K. Huang, C. Y. Chen, J. L. Han, C. C. Chen, M. D. Jiang, J. S. Hsu, C. H. Chan, and K. H. Hsieh, “Immobilization of silver nanoparticles on silica microspheres,” J. Nanopart. Res. 12(1), 199–207 (2010).
[Crossref]

Han, J. W.

W. K. Lee, S. J. Hwang, M. J. Cho, H. G. Park, J. W. Han, S. Song, J. H. Jang, and D. S. Seo, “CIS-ZnS quantum dots for self-aligned liquid crystal molecules with superior electro-optic properties,” Nanoscale 5(1), 193–199 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hegde, S.

M. R. Darla, S. Hegde, and S. Varghese, “Effect of BaTiO3 nanoparticle on electro-optical properties of polymer dispersed liquid crystal displays,” J. Crystallization Process Technol. 4(01), 60–63 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hinojosa, A.

A. Hinojosa and S. C. Sharma, “Effects of gold nanoparticles on electro-optical properties of a polymer-dispersed liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(8), 081114 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hsieh, K. H.

C. K. Huang, C. Y. Chen, J. L. Han, C. C. Chen, M. D. Jiang, J. S. Hsu, C. H. Chan, and K. H. Hsieh, “Immobilization of silver nanoparticles on silica microspheres,” J. Nanopart. Res. 12(1), 199–207 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hsu, C. C.

Hsu, J. S.

C. C. Hsu, Y. X. Chen, H. W. Li, and J. S. Hsu, “Low switching voltage ZnO quantum dots doped polymer-dispersed liquid crystal film,” Opt. Express 24(7), 7063–7068 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. K. Huang, C. Y. Chen, J. L. Han, C. C. Chen, M. D. Jiang, J. S. Hsu, C. H. Chan, and K. H. Hsieh, “Immobilization of silver nanoparticles on silica microspheres,” J. Nanopart. Res. 12(1), 199–207 (2010).
[Crossref]

Huang, C. K.

C. K. Huang, C. Y. Chen, J. L. Han, C. C. Chen, M. D. Jiang, J. S. Hsu, C. H. Chan, and K. H. Hsieh, “Immobilization of silver nanoparticles on silica microspheres,” J. Nanopart. Res. 12(1), 199–207 (2010).
[Crossref]

Huang, D. W.

Hwang, S. J.

W. K. Lee, S. J. Hwang, M. J. Cho, H. G. Park, J. W. Han, S. Song, J. H. Jang, and D. S. Seo, “CIS-ZnS quantum dots for self-aligned liquid crystal molecules with superior electro-optic properties,” Nanoscale 5(1), 193–199 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. C. Jeng, S. J. Hwang, and C. Y. Yang, “Tunable pretilt angles based on nanoparticles-doped planar liquid-crystal cells,” Opt. Lett. 34(4), 455–457 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jackson, J. B.

J. B. Jackson and N. J. Halas, “Silver nanoshells: variations in morphologies and optical properties,” J. Phys. Chem. B 105(14), 2743–2746 (2001).
[Crossref]

Jain, A. K.

R. R. Deshmukh and A. K. Jain, “The complete morphological, electro-optical and dielectric study of dichroic dye-doped polymer-dispersed liquid crystal,” Liq. Cryst. 41(7), 960–975 (2014).
[Crossref]

Jamil, M.

M. Jamil, F. Ahmad, J. T. Rhee, and Y. J. Jeon, “Nanoparticle-doped polymer-dispersed liquid crystal display,” Curr. Sci. India 101, 1544–1552 (2011).

Jang, J. H.

W. K. Lee, S. J. Hwang, M. J. Cho, H. G. Park, J. W. Han, S. Song, J. H. Jang, and D. S. Seo, “CIS-ZnS quantum dots for self-aligned liquid crystal molecules with superior electro-optic properties,” Nanoscale 5(1), 193–199 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jeng, S. C.

Jeon, Y. J.

M. Jamil, F. Ahmad, J. T. Rhee, and Y. J. Jeon, “Nanoparticle-doped polymer-dispersed liquid crystal display,” Curr. Sci. India 101, 1544–1552 (2011).

Jiang, M. D.

C. K. Huang, C. Y. Chen, J. L. Han, C. C. Chen, M. D. Jiang, J. S. Hsu, C. H. Chan, and K. H. Hsieh, “Immobilization of silver nanoparticles on silica microspheres,” J. Nanopart. Res. 12(1), 199–207 (2010).
[Crossref]

Jung, H. Y.

H. Y. Jung, H. J. Kim, S. Yang, Y. G. Kang, B. Y. Oh, H. G. Park, and D. S. Seo, “Enhanced electro-optical properties of Y2O3 (yttrium trioxide) nanoparticle-doped twisted nematic liquid crystal devices,” Liq. Cryst. 39(7), 789–793 (2012).
[Crossref]

Jung, Y.-G.

S. W. Myoung, E.-H. Kim, and Y.-G. Jung, “Electrooptical properties and microstructure of polymer-dispersed liquid crystal doped with various reinforcing materials,” Thin Solid Films 519(5), 1558–1562 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kang, Y. G.

H. Y. Jung, H. J. Kim, S. Yang, Y. G. Kang, B. Y. Oh, H. G. Park, and D. S. Seo, “Enhanced electro-optical properties of Y2O3 (yttrium trioxide) nanoparticle-doped twisted nematic liquid crystal devices,” Liq. Cryst. 39(7), 789–793 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kashima, M.

T. T. Zhang, M. Kashima, M. Z. Zhang, F. Liu, P. Song, X. T. Zhao, C. H. Zhang, H. Cao, and H. Yang, “Effects of the functionality of epoxy monomer on the electro-optical properties of thermally-cured polymer dispersed liquid crystal films,” RSC Advances 2(5), 2144–2148 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kim, E.-H.

S. W. Myoung, E.-H. Kim, and Y.-G. Jung, “Electrooptical properties and microstructure of polymer-dispersed liquid crystal doped with various reinforcing materials,” Thin Solid Films 519(5), 1558–1562 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kim, H. J.

H. Y. Jung, H. J. Kim, S. Yang, Y. G. Kang, B. Y. Oh, H. G. Park, and D. S. Seo, “Enhanced electro-optical properties of Y2O3 (yttrium trioxide) nanoparticle-doped twisted nematic liquid crystal devices,” Liq. Cryst. 39(7), 789–793 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. S. Ha, H. J. Kim, H. G. Park, and D. S. Seo, “Enhancement of electro-optic properties in liquid crystal devices via titanium nanoparticle doping,” Opt. Express 20(6), 6448–6455 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, P. Y.

K. T. Cheng, P. Y. Lee, M. M. Qasim, C. K. Liu, W. F. Cheng, and T. D. Wilkinson, “Electrically switchable and permanently stable light scattering modes by dynamic fingerprint chiral textures,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(16), 10483–10493 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, W. K.

W. K. Lee, S. J. Hwang, M. J. Cho, H. G. Park, J. W. Han, S. Song, J. H. Jang, and D. S. Seo, “CIS-ZnS quantum dots for self-aligned liquid crystal molecules with superior electro-optic properties,” Nanoscale 5(1), 193–199 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, H. W.

Liu, C. K.

K. T. Cheng, P. Y. Lee, M. M. Qasim, C. K. Liu, W. F. Cheng, and T. D. Wilkinson, “Electrically switchable and permanently stable light scattering modes by dynamic fingerprint chiral textures,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(16), 10483–10493 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Y. G. Fuh, C. C. Chen, C. K. Liu, and K. T. Cheng, “Polarizer-free, electrically switchable and optically rewritable displays based on dye-doped polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Opt. Express 17(9), 7088–7094 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, F.

T. T. Zhang, M. Kashima, M. Z. Zhang, F. Liu, P. Song, X. T. Zhao, C. H. Zhang, H. Cao, and H. Yang, “Effects of the functionality of epoxy monomer on the electro-optical properties of thermally-cured polymer dispersed liquid crystal films,” RSC Advances 2(5), 2144–2148 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ma, Y. F.

MacChione, M.

M. MacChione, D. Cupelli, G. D. Filpo, F. P. Nicoletta, and G. Chidichimo, “Morphology and electro-optical properties of reverse mode polymer dispersed liquid crystals,” Liq. Cryst. 27(10), 1337–1341 (2000).
[Crossref]

Malik, M. K.

S. S. Parab, M. K. Malik, and R. R. Deshmukh, “Dielectric relaxation and electro-optical switching behavior of nematic liquid crystal dispersed in poly(methyl methacrylate),” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 358(18-19), 2713–2722 (2012).
[Crossref]

Meng, F. G.

L. P. Wang, F. G. Meng, Y. J. Sun, and H. Yang, “Effect of surfactant-modified ZnS:Mn nanoparticles on the electro-optical properties of composite polymer-dispersed liquid crystal films,” Compos., Part B Eng. 45(1), 780–784 (2013).
[Crossref]

Mucha, M.

M. Mucha, “Polymer as an important component of blends and composites with liquid crystals,” Prog. Polym. Sci. 28(5), 837–873 (2003).
[Crossref]

Myoung, S. W.

S. W. Myoung, E.-H. Kim, and Y.-G. Jung, “Electrooptical properties and microstructure of polymer-dispersed liquid crystal doped with various reinforcing materials,” Thin Solid Films 519(5), 1558–1562 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nicoletta, F. P.

M. MacChione, D. Cupelli, G. D. Filpo, F. P. Nicoletta, and G. Chidichimo, “Morphology and electro-optical properties of reverse mode polymer dispersed liquid crystals,” Liq. Cryst. 27(10), 1337–1341 (2000).
[Crossref]

Oh, B. Y.

H. Y. Jung, H. J. Kim, S. Yang, Y. G. Kang, B. Y. Oh, H. G. Park, and D. S. Seo, “Enhanced electro-optical properties of Y2O3 (yttrium trioxide) nanoparticle-doped twisted nematic liquid crystal devices,” Liq. Cryst. 39(7), 789–793 (2012).
[Crossref]

Parab, S. S.

S. S. Parab, M. K. Malik, and R. R. Deshmukh, “Dielectric relaxation and electro-optical switching behavior of nematic liquid crystal dispersed in poly(methyl methacrylate),” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 358(18-19), 2713–2722 (2012).
[Crossref]

Park, H. G.

W. K. Lee, S. J. Hwang, M. J. Cho, H. G. Park, J. W. Han, S. Song, J. H. Jang, and D. S. Seo, “CIS-ZnS quantum dots for self-aligned liquid crystal molecules with superior electro-optic properties,” Nanoscale 5(1), 193–199 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Y. Jung, H. J. Kim, S. Yang, Y. G. Kang, B. Y. Oh, H. G. Park, and D. S. Seo, “Enhanced electro-optical properties of Y2O3 (yttrium trioxide) nanoparticle-doped twisted nematic liquid crystal devices,” Liq. Cryst. 39(7), 789–793 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. S. Ha, H. J. Kim, H. G. Park, and D. S. Seo, “Enhancement of electro-optic properties in liquid crystal devices via titanium nanoparticle doping,” Opt. Express 20(6), 6448–6455 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qasim, M. M.

K. T. Cheng, P. Y. Lee, M. M. Qasim, C. K. Liu, W. F. Cheng, and T. D. Wilkinson, “Electrically switchable and permanently stable light scattering modes by dynamic fingerprint chiral textures,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(16), 10483–10493 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rhee, J. T.

M. Jamil, F. Ahmad, J. T. Rhee, and Y. J. Jeon, “Nanoparticle-doped polymer-dispersed liquid crystal display,” Curr. Sci. India 101, 1544–1552 (2011).

Seo, D. S.

W. K. Lee, S. J. Hwang, M. J. Cho, H. G. Park, J. W. Han, S. Song, J. H. Jang, and D. S. Seo, “CIS-ZnS quantum dots for self-aligned liquid crystal molecules with superior electro-optic properties,” Nanoscale 5(1), 193–199 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Y. Jung, H. J. Kim, S. Yang, Y. G. Kang, B. Y. Oh, H. G. Park, and D. S. Seo, “Enhanced electro-optical properties of Y2O3 (yttrium trioxide) nanoparticle-doped twisted nematic liquid crystal devices,” Liq. Cryst. 39(7), 789–793 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. S. Ha, H. J. Kim, H. G. Park, and D. S. Seo, “Enhancement of electro-optic properties in liquid crystal devices via titanium nanoparticle doping,” Opt. Express 20(6), 6448–6455 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sharma, S. C.

A. Hinojosa and S. C. Sharma, “Effects of gold nanoparticles on electro-optical properties of a polymer-dispersed liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(8), 081114 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. C. Sharma, “A review of the electro-optical properties and their modification by radiation in polymer-dispersed liquid crystals and thin films containing CdSe/ZnS quantum dots,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 168(1-3), 5–15 (2010).
[Crossref]

Song, P.

Y. Z. Gao, P. Song, T. T. Zhang, W. H. Yao, H. J. Ding, J. M. Xiao, S. Q. Zhu, H. Cao, and H. Yang, “Effects of a triethylamine catalyst on curing time and electro-optical properties of PDLC films,” Rsc. Adv. 3(45), 23533–23538 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. T. Zhang, M. Kashima, M. Z. Zhang, F. Liu, P. Song, X. T. Zhao, C. H. Zhang, H. Cao, and H. Yang, “Effects of the functionality of epoxy monomer on the electro-optical properties of thermally-cured polymer dispersed liquid crystal films,” RSC Advances 2(5), 2144–2148 (2012).
[Crossref]

Song, S.

W. K. Lee, S. J. Hwang, M. J. Cho, H. G. Park, J. W. Han, S. Song, J. H. Jang, and D. S. Seo, “CIS-ZnS quantum dots for self-aligned liquid crystal molecules with superior electro-optic properties,” Nanoscale 5(1), 193–199 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sun, Y. J.

L. P. Wang, F. G. Meng, Y. J. Sun, and H. Yang, “Effect of surfactant-modified ZnS:Mn nanoparticles on the electro-optical properties of composite polymer-dispersed liquid crystal films,” Compos., Part B Eng. 45(1), 780–784 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sung, M. J.

Varghese, S.

M. R. Darla, S. Hegde, and S. Varghese, “Effect of BaTiO3 nanoparticle on electro-optical properties of polymer dispersed liquid crystal displays,” J. Crystallization Process Technol. 4(01), 60–63 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, L. P.

L. P. Wang, F. G. Meng, Y. J. Sun, and H. Yang, “Effect of surfactant-modified ZnS:Mn nanoparticles on the electro-optical properties of composite polymer-dispersed liquid crystal films,” Compos., Part B Eng. 45(1), 780–784 (2013).
[Crossref]

West, J. L.

J. W. Doane, A. Golemme, J. L. West, J. B. Whitehead, and B. G. Wu, “Polymer dispersed liquid crystals for display application,” Mol. Cryst. Liquid Cryst. 165, 511–532 (1988).

Whitehead, J. B.

J. W. Doane, A. Golemme, J. L. West, J. B. Whitehead, and B. G. Wu, “Polymer dispersed liquid crystals for display application,” Mol. Cryst. Liquid Cryst. 165, 511–532 (1988).

Wilkinson, T. D.

K. T. Cheng, P. Y. Lee, M. M. Qasim, C. K. Liu, W. F. Cheng, and T. D. Wilkinson, “Electrically switchable and permanently stable light scattering modes by dynamic fingerprint chiral textures,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(16), 10483–10493 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, B. G.

J. W. Doane, A. Golemme, J. L. West, J. B. Whitehead, and B. G. Wu, “Polymer dispersed liquid crystals for display application,” Mol. Cryst. Liquid Cryst. 165, 511–532 (1988).

Xiao, J. M.

Y. Z. Gao, P. Song, T. T. Zhang, W. H. Yao, H. J. Ding, J. M. Xiao, S. Q. Zhu, H. Cao, and H. Yang, “Effects of a triethylamine catalyst on curing time and electro-optical properties of PDLC films,” Rsc. Adv. 3(45), 23533–23538 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yang, C. Y.

Yang, H.

Y. Z. Gao, P. Song, T. T. Zhang, W. H. Yao, H. J. Ding, J. M. Xiao, S. Q. Zhu, H. Cao, and H. Yang, “Effects of a triethylamine catalyst on curing time and electro-optical properties of PDLC films,” Rsc. Adv. 3(45), 23533–23538 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. P. Wang, F. G. Meng, Y. J. Sun, and H. Yang, “Effect of surfactant-modified ZnS:Mn nanoparticles on the electro-optical properties of composite polymer-dispersed liquid crystal films,” Compos., Part B Eng. 45(1), 780–784 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. T. Zhang, M. Kashima, M. Z. Zhang, F. Liu, P. Song, X. T. Zhao, C. H. Zhang, H. Cao, and H. Yang, “Effects of the functionality of epoxy monomer on the electro-optical properties of thermally-cured polymer dispersed liquid crystal films,” RSC Advances 2(5), 2144–2148 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yang, K. J.

K. J. Yang and D. Y. Yoon, “Electro-optical characteristics of dye-doped polymer dispersed liquid crystals,” J. Ind. Eng. Chem. 17(3), 543–548 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yang, S.

H. Y. Jung, H. J. Kim, S. Yang, Y. G. Kang, B. Y. Oh, H. G. Park, and D. S. Seo, “Enhanced electro-optical properties of Y2O3 (yttrium trioxide) nanoparticle-doped twisted nematic liquid crystal devices,” Liq. Cryst. 39(7), 789–793 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yao, W. H.

Y. Z. Gao, P. Song, T. T. Zhang, W. H. Yao, H. J. Ding, J. M. Xiao, S. Q. Zhu, H. Cao, and H. Yang, “Effects of a triethylamine catalyst on curing time and electro-optical properties of PDLC films,” Rsc. Adv. 3(45), 23533–23538 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yaroshchuk, O. V.

O. V. Yaroshchuk and L. O. Dolgov, “Electro-optics and structure of polymer dispersed liquid crystals doped with nanoparticles of inorganic materials,” Opt. Mater. 29(8), 1097–1102 (2007).
[Crossref]

Yoon, D. Y.

K. J. Yang and D. Y. Yoon, “Electro-optical characteristics of dye-doped polymer dispersed liquid crystals,” J. Ind. Eng. Chem. 17(3), 543–548 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhang, C. H.

T. T. Zhang, M. Kashima, M. Z. Zhang, F. Liu, P. Song, X. T. Zhao, C. H. Zhang, H. Cao, and H. Yang, “Effects of the functionality of epoxy monomer on the electro-optical properties of thermally-cured polymer dispersed liquid crystal films,” RSC Advances 2(5), 2144–2148 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhang, M. Z.

T. T. Zhang, M. Kashima, M. Z. Zhang, F. Liu, P. Song, X. T. Zhao, C. H. Zhang, H. Cao, and H. Yang, “Effects of the functionality of epoxy monomer on the electro-optical properties of thermally-cured polymer dispersed liquid crystal films,” RSC Advances 2(5), 2144–2148 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhang, T. T.

Y. Z. Gao, P. Song, T. T. Zhang, W. H. Yao, H. J. Ding, J. M. Xiao, S. Q. Zhu, H. Cao, and H. Yang, “Effects of a triethylamine catalyst on curing time and electro-optical properties of PDLC films,” Rsc. Adv. 3(45), 23533–23538 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. T. Zhang, M. Kashima, M. Z. Zhang, F. Liu, P. Song, X. T. Zhao, C. H. Zhang, H. Cao, and H. Yang, “Effects of the functionality of epoxy monomer on the electro-optical properties of thermally-cured polymer dispersed liquid crystal films,” RSC Advances 2(5), 2144–2148 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhao, X. T.

T. T. Zhang, M. Kashima, M. Z. Zhang, F. Liu, P. Song, X. T. Zhao, C. H. Zhang, H. Cao, and H. Yang, “Effects of the functionality of epoxy monomer on the electro-optical properties of thermally-cured polymer dispersed liquid crystal films,” RSC Advances 2(5), 2144–2148 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhu, S. Q.

Y. Z. Gao, P. Song, T. T. Zhang, W. H. Yao, H. J. Ding, J. M. Xiao, S. Q. Zhu, H. Cao, and H. Yang, “Effects of a triethylamine catalyst on curing time and electro-optical properties of PDLC films,” Rsc. Adv. 3(45), 23533–23538 (2013).
[Crossref]

ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces (1)

K. T. Cheng, P. Y. Lee, M. M. Qasim, C. K. Liu, W. F. Cheng, and T. D. Wilkinson, “Electrically switchable and permanently stable light scattering modes by dynamic fingerprint chiral textures,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(16), 10483–10493 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

A. Hinojosa and S. C. Sharma, “Effects of gold nanoparticles on electro-optical properties of a polymer-dispersed liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(8), 081114 (2010).
[Crossref]

Compos., Part B Eng. (1)

L. P. Wang, F. G. Meng, Y. J. Sun, and H. Yang, “Effect of surfactant-modified ZnS:Mn nanoparticles on the electro-optical properties of composite polymer-dispersed liquid crystal films,” Compos., Part B Eng. 45(1), 780–784 (2013).
[Crossref]

Curr. Sci. India (1)

M. Jamil, F. Ahmad, J. T. Rhee, and Y. J. Jeon, “Nanoparticle-doped polymer-dispersed liquid crystal display,” Curr. Sci. India 101, 1544–1552 (2011).

J. Crystallization Process Technol. (1)

M. R. Darla, S. Hegde, and S. Varghese, “Effect of BaTiO3 nanoparticle on electro-optical properties of polymer dispersed liquid crystal displays,” J. Crystallization Process Technol. 4(01), 60–63 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Ind. Eng. Chem. (1)

K. J. Yang and D. Y. Yoon, “Electro-optical characteristics of dye-doped polymer dispersed liquid crystals,” J. Ind. Eng. Chem. 17(3), 543–548 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Nanopart. Res. (1)

C. K. Huang, C. Y. Chen, J. L. Han, C. C. Chen, M. D. Jiang, J. S. Hsu, C. H. Chan, and K. H. Hsieh, “Immobilization of silver nanoparticles on silica microspheres,” J. Nanopart. Res. 12(1), 199–207 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (1)

S. S. Parab, M. K. Malik, and R. R. Deshmukh, “Dielectric relaxation and electro-optical switching behavior of nematic liquid crystal dispersed in poly(methyl methacrylate),” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 358(18-19), 2713–2722 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Chem. B (1)

J. B. Jackson and N. J. Halas, “Silver nanoshells: variations in morphologies and optical properties,” J. Phys. Chem. B 105(14), 2743–2746 (2001).
[Crossref]

Liq. Cryst. (3)

H. Y. Jung, H. J. Kim, S. Yang, Y. G. Kang, B. Y. Oh, H. G. Park, and D. S. Seo, “Enhanced electro-optical properties of Y2O3 (yttrium trioxide) nanoparticle-doped twisted nematic liquid crystal devices,” Liq. Cryst. 39(7), 789–793 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. R. Deshmukh and A. K. Jain, “The complete morphological, electro-optical and dielectric study of dichroic dye-doped polymer-dispersed liquid crystal,” Liq. Cryst. 41(7), 960–975 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. MacChione, D. Cupelli, G. D. Filpo, F. P. Nicoletta, and G. Chidichimo, “Morphology and electro-optical properties of reverse mode polymer dispersed liquid crystals,” Liq. Cryst. 27(10), 1337–1341 (2000).
[Crossref]

Mater. Sci. Eng. B (1)

S. C. Sharma, “A review of the electro-optical properties and their modification by radiation in polymer-dispersed liquid crystals and thin films containing CdSe/ZnS quantum dots,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 168(1-3), 5–15 (2010).
[Crossref]

Mol. Cryst. Liquid Cryst. (1)

J. W. Doane, A. Golemme, J. L. West, J. B. Whitehead, and B. G. Wu, “Polymer dispersed liquid crystals for display application,” Mol. Cryst. Liquid Cryst. 165, 511–532 (1988).

Nanoscale (1)

W. K. Lee, S. J. Hwang, M. J. Cho, H. G. Park, J. W. Han, S. Song, J. H. Jang, and D. S. Seo, “CIS-ZnS quantum dots for self-aligned liquid crystal molecules with superior electro-optic properties,” Nanoscale 5(1), 193–199 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Mater. (1)

O. V. Yaroshchuk and L. O. Dolgov, “Electro-optics and structure of polymer dispersed liquid crystals doped with nanoparticles of inorganic materials,” Opt. Mater. 29(8), 1097–1102 (2007).
[Crossref]

Prog. Polym. Sci. (1)

M. Mucha, “Polymer as an important component of blends and composites with liquid crystals,” Prog. Polym. Sci. 28(5), 837–873 (2003).
[Crossref]

RSC Advances (1)

T. T. Zhang, M. Kashima, M. Z. Zhang, F. Liu, P. Song, X. T. Zhao, C. H. Zhang, H. Cao, and H. Yang, “Effects of the functionality of epoxy monomer on the electro-optical properties of thermally-cured polymer dispersed liquid crystal films,” RSC Advances 2(5), 2144–2148 (2012).
[Crossref]

Rsc. Adv. (1)

Y. Z. Gao, P. Song, T. T. Zhang, W. H. Yao, H. J. Ding, J. M. Xiao, S. Q. Zhu, H. Cao, and H. Yang, “Effects of a triethylamine catalyst on curing time and electro-optical properties of PDLC films,” Rsc. Adv. 3(45), 23533–23538 (2013).
[Crossref]

Thin Solid Films (1)

S. W. Myoung, E.-H. Kim, and Y.-G. Jung, “Electrooptical properties and microstructure of polymer-dispersed liquid crystal doped with various reinforcing materials,” Thin Solid Films 519(5), 1558–1562 (2010).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

V. K. Thakur and M. R. Kessler, Liquid Crystalline Polymers: Volume 2–Processing and Applications (Springer, 2015).

J. W. Caruthers, “On Rayleigh and Mie scattering,” Proc. Meetings Acoustics 14, 070001 (2012).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Experimental setups for measuring transmission versus applied voltage curves.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 T–V curves for the PDLC films containing the various samples.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 SEM images of (a) PSMSs and (b) Ag-coated PSMSs.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 T–V curves for the PDLC films without (black) and with (red) 5 wt% Ag-coated PSMSs (E7/polymer = 70/30).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Images of the Ag-coated PSMSs (5 wt%) doped PDLC at (a) scattering off-state (0 V). (b) transparent on-state (40 V).
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Schematics of the theoretical analysis of induced electric field in Ag-coated PSMSs doped PDLCs.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Electro-optical properties of PDLC samples A–E with various concentrations of LC (E7) and prepolymer.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

V( R,θ )=( A 1 R+ B 1 R 2 )cosθ.
E = a R ^ E 0 [ 1+2 ( a R ) 3 ]cosθ a θ ^ E 0 [ 1 ( a R ) 3 ]sinθ , Ra. 
σ( θ )= ε 0 V R | R=a = ε 0 E 0 ( 1+2 a 3 R 3 )cosθ | R=a =3 ε 0 E 0 cosθ.
E= V d .

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