Abstract

In this paper, unique surface sensing property and enhanced sensitivity in microring resonator biosensors based on subwavelength grating (SWG) waveguides are studied and demonstrated. The SWG structure consists of periodic silicon pillars in the propagation direction with a subwavelength period. Effective sensing region in the SWG microring resonator includes not only the top and side of the waveguide, but also the space between the silicon pillars on the light propagation path. It leads to greatly increased sensitivity and a unique surface sensing property in contrast to common evanescent wave sensors: the surface sensitivity remains constantly high as the surface layer thickness grows. Microring resonator biosensors based on both SWG waveguides and conventional strip waveguides were compared side by side in surface sensing experiment and the enhanced surface sensing capability in SWG based microring resonator biosensors was demonstrated.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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2016 (4)

2015 (2)

V. Donzella, A. Sherwali, J. Flueckiger, S. M. Grist, S. T. Fard, and L. Chrostowski, “Design and fabrication of SOI micro-ring resonators based on sub-wavelength grating waveguides,” Opt. Express 23(4), 4791–4803 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yan, Y. Zou, S. Chakravarty, C. J. Yang, Z. Wang, N. Tang, D. Fan, and R. T. Chen, “Silicon on-chip bandpass filters for the multiplexing of high sensitivity photonic crystal microcavity biosensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(12), 121103 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (6)

Y. Zou, S. Chakravarty, D. N. Kwong, W.-C. Lai, X. Xu, X. Lin, A. Hosseini, and R. T. Chen, “Cavity-Waveguide Coupling Engineered High Sensitivity Silicon Photonic Crystal Microcavity Biosensors With High Yield,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 171–180 (2014).
[Crossref]

J.-W. Hoste, S. Werquin, T. Claes, and P. Bienstman, “Conformational analysis of proteins with a dual polarisation silicon microring,” Opt. Express 22(3), 2807–2820 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Zhang, A. W. Morales, R. Peterson, L. Tang, and J. Y. Ye, “Label-free detection of cardiac troponin I with a photonic crystal biosensor,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 58, 107–113 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Gonzalo Wangüemert-Pérez, P. Cheben, A. Ortega-Moñux, C. Alonso-Ramos, D. Pérez-Galacho, R. Halir, I. Molina-Fernández, D.-X. Xu, and J. H. Schmid, “Evanescent field waveguide sensing with subwavelength grating structures in silicon-on-insulator,” Opt. Lett. 39(15), 4442–4445 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. S. K. Gunda, M. Singh, L. Norman, K. Kaur, and S. K. Mitra, “Optimization and characterization of biomolecule immobilization on silicon substrates using (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES) and glutaraldehyde linker,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 305, 522–530 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. T. Fard, V. Donzella, S. A. Schmidt, J. Flueckiger, S. M. Grist, P. Talebi Fard, Y. Wu, R. J. Bojko, E. Kwok, N. A. F. Jaeger, D. M. Ratner, and L. Chrostowski, “Performance of ultra-thin SOI-based resonators for sensing applications,” Opt. Express 22(12), 14166–14179 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (4)

2012 (6)

C. Qiu, J. Chen, and Q. Xu, “Ultraprecise measurement of resonance shift for sensing applications,” Opt. Lett. 37(23), 5012–5014 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. S. McClellan, L. L. Domier, and R. C. Bailey, “Label-free virus detection using silicon photonic microring resonators,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 31(1), 388–392 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Wei, J. W. Mares, Y. Gao, D. Li, and S. M. Weiss, “Biomolecule kinetics measurements in flow cell integrated porous silicon waveguides,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(9), 1993–2003 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. C. C. Estevez, M. Alvarez, and L. M. M. Lechuga, “Integrated optical devices for lab-on-a-chip biosensing applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(4), 463–487 (2012).
[Crossref]

V. M. Passaro, C. Tullio, B. Troia, M. Notte, G. Giannoccaro, and F. Leonardis, “Recent Advances in Integrated Photonic Sensors,” Sensors 12, 15558–15598 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Vollmer, L. Yang, and S. Fainman, “Label-free detection with high-Q microcavities: A review of biosensing mechanisms for integrated devices,” Nanophotonics 1(3-4), 267–291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

A. A. Yanik, M. Huang, A. Artar, T.-Y. Chang, and H. Altug, “Integrated nanoplasmonic-nanofluidic biosensors with targeted delivery of analytes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(2), 021101 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-Free Biosensor Arrays Based on Silicon Ring Resonators and High-Speed Optical Scanning Instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 654–661 (2010).
[Crossref]

P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, A. Delâge, S. Janz, G. C. Aers, D.-X. Xu, A. Densmore, and T. J. Hall, “Subwavelength grating periodic structures in silicon-on-insulator: a new type of microphotonic waveguide,” Opt. Express 18(19), 20251–20262 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

T. Claes, J. G. Molera, K. De Vos, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Label-Free Biosensing With a Slot-Waveguide-Based Ring Resonator in Silicon on Insulator,” IEEE Photonics J. 1(3), 197–204 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

J. A. Howarter and J. P. Youngblood, “Optimization of Silica Silanization by 3-Aminopropyltriethoxysilane,” Langmuir 22(26), 11142–11147 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

J. Vörös, “The density and refractive index of adsorbing protein layers,” Biophys. J. 87(1), 553–561 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

C.-Y. Chao and L. J. Guo, “Biochemical sensors based on polymer microrings with sharp asymmetrical resonance,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(8), 1527 (2003).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

A. Subramanian, S. J. Kennel, P. I. Oden, K. B. Jacobson, J. Woodward, and M. J. Doktycz, “Comparison of techniques for enzyme immobilization on silicon supports,” Enzyme Microb. Technol. 24(1-2), 26–34 (1999).
[Crossref]

1934 (1)

L. F. Hoyt, “New Table of the Refractive Index of Pure Glycerol at 20°C,” Ind. Eng. Chem. 26(3), 329–332 (1934).
[Crossref]

Aers, G. C.

Alonso-Ramos, C.

Altug, H.

A. A. Yanik, M. Huang, A. Artar, T.-Y. Chang, and H. Altug, “Integrated nanoplasmonic-nanofluidic biosensors with targeted delivery of analytes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(2), 021101 (2010).
[Crossref]

Alvarez, M.

M. C. C. Estevez, M. Alvarez, and L. M. M. Lechuga, “Integrated optical devices for lab-on-a-chip biosensing applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(4), 463–487 (2012).
[Crossref]

Anker, J. N.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Artar, A.

A. A. Yanik, M. Huang, A. Artar, T.-Y. Chang, and H. Altug, “Integrated nanoplasmonic-nanofluidic biosensors with targeted delivery of analytes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(2), 021101 (2010).
[Crossref]

Baehr-Jones, T.

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-Free Biosensor Arrays Based on Silicon Ring Resonators and High-Speed Optical Scanning Instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 654–661 (2010).
[Crossref]

Baets, R.

T. Claes, J. G. Molera, K. De Vos, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Label-Free Biosensing With a Slot-Waveguide-Based Ring Resonator in Silicon on Insulator,” IEEE Photonics J. 1(3), 197–204 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bailey, R. C.

M. S. McClellan, L. L. Domier, and R. C. Bailey, “Label-free virus detection using silicon photonic microring resonators,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 31(1), 388–392 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-Free Biosensor Arrays Based on Silicon Ring Resonators and High-Speed Optical Scanning Instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 654–661 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bienstman, P.

J.-W. Hoste, S. Werquin, T. Claes, and P. Bienstman, “Conformational analysis of proteins with a dual polarisation silicon microring,” Opt. Express 22(3), 2807–2820 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Claes, J. G. Molera, K. De Vos, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Label-Free Biosensing With a Slot-Waveguide-Based Ring Resonator in Silicon on Insulator,” IEEE Photonics J. 1(3), 197–204 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bock, P. J.

Bojko, R. J.

Chakravarty, S.

H. Yan, Y. Zou, S. Chakravarty, C. J. Yang, Z. Wang, N. Tang, D. Fan, and R. T. Chen, “Silicon on-chip bandpass filters for the multiplexing of high sensitivity photonic crystal microcavity biosensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(12), 121103 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zou, S. Chakravarty, D. N. Kwong, W.-C. Lai, X. Xu, X. Lin, A. Hosseini, and R. T. Chen, “Cavity-Waveguide Coupling Engineered High Sensitivity Silicon Photonic Crystal Microcavity Biosensors With High Yield,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 171–180 (2014).
[Crossref]

W. C. Lai, S. Chakravarty, Y. Zou, Y. Guo, and R. T. Chen, “Slow light enhanced sensitivity of resonance modes in photonic crystal biosensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(4), 041111 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, T.-Y.

A. A. Yanik, M. Huang, A. Artar, T.-Y. Chang, and H. Altug, “Integrated nanoplasmonic-nanofluidic biosensors with targeted delivery of analytes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(2), 021101 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chao, C.-Y.

C.-Y. Chao and L. J. Guo, “Biochemical sensors based on polymer microrings with sharp asymmetrical resonance,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(8), 1527 (2003).
[Crossref]

Cheben, P.

Chen, J.

Chen, R. T.

Z. Wang, X. Xu, D. Fan, Y. Wang, and R. T. Chen, “High quality factor subwavelength grating waveguide micro-ring resonator based on trapezoidal silicon pillars,” Opt. Lett. 41(14), 3375–3378 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Wang, X. Xu, D. Fan, Y. Wang, H. Subbaraman, and R. T. Chen, “Geometrical tuning art for entirely subwavelength grating waveguide based integrated photonics circuits,” Sci. Rep. 6, 24106 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yan, Y. Zou, S. Chakravarty, C. J. Yang, Z. Wang, N. Tang, D. Fan, and R. T. Chen, “Silicon on-chip bandpass filters for the multiplexing of high sensitivity photonic crystal microcavity biosensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(12), 121103 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zou, S. Chakravarty, D. N. Kwong, W.-C. Lai, X. Xu, X. Lin, A. Hosseini, and R. T. Chen, “Cavity-Waveguide Coupling Engineered High Sensitivity Silicon Photonic Crystal Microcavity Biosensors With High Yield,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 171–180 (2014).
[Crossref]

W. C. Lai, S. Chakravarty, Y. Zou, Y. Guo, and R. T. Chen, “Slow light enhanced sensitivity of resonance modes in photonic crystal biosensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(4), 041111 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheung, K. C.

Chrostowski, L.

Claes, T.

J.-W. Hoste, S. Werquin, T. Claes, and P. Bienstman, “Conformational analysis of proteins with a dual polarisation silicon microring,” Opt. Express 22(3), 2807–2820 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Claes, J. G. Molera, K. De Vos, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Label-Free Biosensing With a Slot-Waveguide-Based Ring Resonator in Silicon on Insulator,” IEEE Photonics J. 1(3), 197–204 (2009).
[Crossref]

Clarke, N.

De Vos, K.

T. Claes, J. G. Molera, K. De Vos, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Label-Free Biosensing With a Slot-Waveguide-Based Ring Resonator in Silicon on Insulator,” IEEE Photonics J. 1(3), 197–204 (2009).
[Crossref]

Delâge, A.

Densmore, A.

Ding, H.

Doktycz, M. J.

A. Subramanian, S. J. Kennel, P. I. Oden, K. B. Jacobson, J. Woodward, and M. J. Doktycz, “Comparison of techniques for enzyme immobilization on silicon supports,” Enzyme Microb. Technol. 24(1-2), 26–34 (1999).
[Crossref]

Domier, L. L.

M. S. McClellan, L. L. Domier, and R. C. Bailey, “Label-free virus detection using silicon photonic microring resonators,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 31(1), 388–392 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Donzella, V.

Durán-Valdeiglesias, E.

Estevez, M. C. C.

M. C. C. Estevez, M. Alvarez, and L. M. M. Lechuga, “Integrated optical devices for lab-on-a-chip biosensing applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(4), 463–487 (2012).
[Crossref]

Fainman, S.

F. Vollmer, L. Yang, and S. Fainman, “Label-free detection with high-Q microcavities: A review of biosensing mechanisms for integrated devices,” Nanophotonics 1(3-4), 267–291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fan, D.

Z. Wang, X. Xu, D. Fan, Y. Wang, and R. T. Chen, “High quality factor subwavelength grating waveguide micro-ring resonator based on trapezoidal silicon pillars,” Opt. Lett. 41(14), 3375–3378 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Wang, X. Xu, D. Fan, Y. Wang, H. Subbaraman, and R. T. Chen, “Geometrical tuning art for entirely subwavelength grating waveguide based integrated photonics circuits,” Sci. Rep. 6, 24106 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yan, Y. Zou, S. Chakravarty, C. J. Yang, Z. Wang, N. Tang, D. Fan, and R. T. Chen, “Silicon on-chip bandpass filters for the multiplexing of high sensitivity photonic crystal microcavity biosensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(12), 121103 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fard, S. T.

Fédéli, J. M.

Flueckiger, J.

Gao, Y.

Giannoccaro, G.

V. M. Passaro, C. Tullio, B. Troia, M. Notte, G. Giannoccaro, and F. Leonardis, “Recent Advances in Integrated Photonic Sensors,” Sensors 12, 15558–15598 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gilmour, M.

Gleeson, M. A.

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-Free Biosensor Arrays Based on Silicon Ring Resonators and High-Speed Optical Scanning Instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 654–661 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gonzalo Wangüemert-Pérez, J.

Grist, S. M.

Gunda, N. S. K.

N. S. K. Gunda, M. Singh, L. Norman, K. Kaur, and S. K. Mitra, “Optimization and characterization of biomolecule immobilization on silicon substrates using (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES) and glutaraldehyde linker,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 305, 522–530 (2014).
[Crossref]

Gunn, L. C.

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-Free Biosensor Arrays Based on Silicon Ring Resonators and High-Speed Optical Scanning Instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 654–661 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gunn, W. G.

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-Free Biosensor Arrays Based on Silicon Ring Resonators and High-Speed Optical Scanning Instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 654–661 (2010).
[Crossref]

Guo, L. J.

C.-Y. Chao and L. J. Guo, “Biochemical sensors based on polymer microrings with sharp asymmetrical resonance,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(8), 1527 (2003).
[Crossref]

Guo, Y.

W. C. Lai, S. Chakravarty, Y. Zou, Y. Guo, and R. T. Chen, “Slow light enhanced sensitivity of resonance modes in photonic crystal biosensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(4), 041111 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Halir, R.

Hall, T. J.

Hall, W. P.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hochberg, M.

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-Free Biosensor Arrays Based on Silicon Ring Resonators and High-Speed Optical Scanning Instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 654–661 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hosseini, A.

Y. Zou, S. Chakravarty, D. N. Kwong, W.-C. Lai, X. Xu, X. Lin, A. Hosseini, and R. T. Chen, “Cavity-Waveguide Coupling Engineered High Sensitivity Silicon Photonic Crystal Microcavity Biosensors With High Yield,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 171–180 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hoste, J.-W.

Howarter, J. A.

J. A. Howarter and J. P. Youngblood, “Optimization of Silica Silanization by 3-Aminopropyltriethoxysilane,” Langmuir 22(26), 11142–11147 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hoyt, L. F.

L. F. Hoyt, “New Table of the Refractive Index of Pure Glycerol at 20°C,” Ind. Eng. Chem. 26(3), 329–332 (1934).
[Crossref]

Huang, M.

A. A. Yanik, M. Huang, A. Artar, T.-Y. Chang, and H. Altug, “Integrated nanoplasmonic-nanofluidic biosensors with targeted delivery of analytes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(2), 021101 (2010).
[Crossref]

Iqbal, M.

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-Free Biosensor Arrays Based on Silicon Ring Resonators and High-Speed Optical Scanning Instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 654–661 (2010).
[Crossref]

Jacobson, K. B.

A. Subramanian, S. J. Kennel, P. I. Oden, K. B. Jacobson, J. Woodward, and M. J. Doktycz, “Comparison of techniques for enzyme immobilization on silicon supports,” Enzyme Microb. Technol. 24(1-2), 26–34 (1999).
[Crossref]

Jaeger, N. A. F.

Janz, S.

Kaur, K.

N. S. K. Gunda, M. Singh, L. Norman, K. Kaur, and S. K. Mitra, “Optimization and characterization of biomolecule immobilization on silicon substrates using (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES) and glutaraldehyde linker,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 305, 522–530 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kennel, S. J.

A. Subramanian, S. J. Kennel, P. I. Oden, K. B. Jacobson, J. Woodward, and M. J. Doktycz, “Comparison of techniques for enzyme immobilization on silicon supports,” Enzyme Microb. Technol. 24(1-2), 26–34 (1999).
[Crossref]

Kirk, J. T.

Kwok, E.

Kwong, D. N.

Y. Zou, S. Chakravarty, D. N. Kwong, W.-C. Lai, X. Xu, X. Lin, A. Hosseini, and R. T. Chen, “Cavity-Waveguide Coupling Engineered High Sensitivity Silicon Photonic Crystal Microcavity Biosensors With High Yield,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 171–180 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lai, W. C.

W. C. Lai, S. Chakravarty, Y. Zou, Y. Guo, and R. T. Chen, “Slow light enhanced sensitivity of resonance modes in photonic crystal biosensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(4), 041111 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lai, W.-C.

Y. Zou, S. Chakravarty, D. N. Kwong, W.-C. Lai, X. Xu, X. Lin, A. Hosseini, and R. T. Chen, “Cavity-Waveguide Coupling Engineered High Sensitivity Silicon Photonic Crystal Microcavity Biosensors With High Yield,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 171–180 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lapointe, J.

Lechuga, L. M. M.

M. C. C. Estevez, M. Alvarez, and L. M. M. Lechuga, “Integrated optical devices for lab-on-a-chip biosensing applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(4), 463–487 (2012).
[Crossref]

Leonardis, F.

V. M. Passaro, C. Tullio, B. Troia, M. Notte, G. Giannoccaro, and F. Leonardis, “Recent Advances in Integrated Photonic Sensors,” Sensors 12, 15558–15598 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, D.

Liang, F.

Lin, X.

Y. Zou, S. Chakravarty, D. N. Kwong, W.-C. Lai, X. Xu, X. Lin, A. Hosseini, and R. T. Chen, “Cavity-Waveguide Coupling Engineered High Sensitivity Silicon Photonic Crystal Microcavity Biosensors With High Yield,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 171–180 (2014).
[Crossref]

Liu, Q. Y.

Logan, S. M.

Loncar, M.

Lopinski, G.

Lyandres, O.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ma, R.

Mackenzie, R.

Mares, J. W.

McClellan, M. S.

M. S. McClellan, L. L. Domier, and R. C. Bailey, “Label-free virus detection using silicon photonic microring resonators,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 31(1), 388–392 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McIntosh, H.

Mitra, S. K.

N. S. K. Gunda, M. Singh, L. Norman, K. Kaur, and S. K. Mitra, “Optimization and characterization of biomolecule immobilization on silicon substrates using (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES) and glutaraldehyde linker,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 305, 522–530 (2014).
[Crossref]

Molera, J. G.

T. Claes, J. G. Molera, K. De Vos, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Label-Free Biosensing With a Slot-Waveguide-Based Ring Resonator in Silicon on Insulator,” IEEE Photonics J. 1(3), 197–204 (2009).
[Crossref]

Molina-Fernández, I.

Molina-Fernández, Í.

Morales, A. W.

B. Zhang, A. W. Morales, R. Peterson, L. Tang, and J. Y. Ye, “Label-free detection of cardiac troponin I with a photonic crystal biosensor,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 58, 107–113 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mozenson, O.

Norman, L.

N. S. K. Gunda, M. Singh, L. Norman, K. Kaur, and S. K. Mitra, “Optimization and characterization of biomolecule immobilization on silicon substrates using (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES) and glutaraldehyde linker,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 305, 522–530 (2014).
[Crossref]

Notte, M.

V. M. Passaro, C. Tullio, B. Troia, M. Notte, G. Giannoccaro, and F. Leonardis, “Recent Advances in Integrated Photonic Sensors,” Sensors 12, 15558–15598 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Oden, P. I.

A. Subramanian, S. J. Kennel, P. I. Oden, K. B. Jacobson, J. Woodward, and M. J. Doktycz, “Comparison of techniques for enzyme immobilization on silicon supports,” Enzyme Microb. Technol. 24(1-2), 26–34 (1999).
[Crossref]

Ortega-Moñux, A.

Passaro, V. M.

V. M. Passaro, C. Tullio, B. Troia, M. Notte, G. Giannoccaro, and F. Leonardis, “Recent Advances in Integrated Photonic Sensors,” Sensors 12, 15558–15598 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Patel, P.

Pérez-Galacho, D.

Peterson, R.

B. Zhang, A. W. Morales, R. Peterson, L. Tang, and J. Y. Ye, “Label-free detection of cardiac troponin I with a photonic crystal biosensor,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 58, 107–113 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qiu, C.

Quan, Q.

Ratner, D. M.

Sabourin, N.

Sarmiento-Merenguel, J. D.

Schacht, E.

T. Claes, J. G. Molera, K. De Vos, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Label-Free Biosensing With a Slot-Waveguide-Based Ring Resonator in Silicon on Insulator,” IEEE Photonics J. 1(3), 197–204 (2009).
[Crossref]

Schmid, J. H.

Schmidt, S.

Schmidt, S. A.

Shah, N. C.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sherwali, A.

Shi, W.

Sinclair, W.

Singh, M.

N. S. K. Gunda, M. Singh, L. Norman, K. Kaur, and S. K. Mitra, “Optimization and characterization of biomolecule immobilization on silicon substrates using (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES) and glutaraldehyde linker,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 305, 522–530 (2014).
[Crossref]

Spaugh, B.

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-Free Biosensor Arrays Based on Silicon Ring Resonators and High-Speed Optical Scanning Instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 654–661 (2010).
[Crossref]

Subbaraman, H.

Z. Wang, X. Xu, D. Fan, Y. Wang, H. Subbaraman, and R. T. Chen, “Geometrical tuning art for entirely subwavelength grating waveguide based integrated photonics circuits,” Sci. Rep. 6, 24106 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Subramanian, A.

A. Subramanian, S. J. Kennel, P. I. Oden, K. B. Jacobson, J. Woodward, and M. J. Doktycz, “Comparison of techniques for enzyme immobilization on silicon supports,” Enzyme Microb. Technol. 24(1-2), 26–34 (1999).
[Crossref]

Sumetsky, M.

Tabor, H.

Talebi Fard, P.

Talebi Fard, S.

Tang, L.

B. Zhang, A. W. Morales, R. Peterson, L. Tang, and J. Y. Ye, “Label-free detection of cardiac troponin I with a photonic crystal biosensor,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 58, 107–113 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tang, N.

H. Yan, Y. Zou, S. Chakravarty, C. J. Yang, Z. Wang, N. Tang, D. Fan, and R. T. Chen, “Silicon on-chip bandpass filters for the multiplexing of high sensitivity photonic crystal microcavity biosensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(12), 121103 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Troia, B.

V. M. Passaro, C. Tullio, B. Troia, M. Notte, G. Giannoccaro, and F. Leonardis, “Recent Advances in Integrated Photonic Sensors,” Sensors 12, 15558–15598 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tullio, C.

V. M. Passaro, C. Tullio, B. Troia, M. Notte, G. Giannoccaro, and F. Leonardis, “Recent Advances in Integrated Photonic Sensors,” Sensors 12, 15558–15598 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tybor, F.

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-Free Biosensor Arrays Based on Silicon Ring Resonators and High-Speed Optical Scanning Instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 654–661 (2010).
[Crossref]

Vachon, M.

Van Duyne, R. P.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vollmer, F.

F. Vollmer, L. Yang, and S. Fainman, “Label-free detection with high-Q microcavities: A review of biosensing mechanisms for integrated devices,” Nanophotonics 1(3-4), 267–291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vörös, J.

J. Vörös, “The density and refractive index of adsorbing protein layers,” Biophys. J. 87(1), 553–561 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, S.

Wang, Y.

Z. Wang, X. Xu, D. Fan, Y. Wang, H. Subbaraman, and R. T. Chen, “Geometrical tuning art for entirely subwavelength grating waveguide based integrated photonics circuits,” Sci. Rep. 6, 24106 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Wang, X. Xu, D. Fan, Y. Wang, and R. T. Chen, “High quality factor subwavelength grating waveguide micro-ring resonator based on trapezoidal silicon pillars,” Opt. Lett. 41(14), 3375–3378 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Z.

Z. Wang, X. Xu, D. Fan, Y. Wang, H. Subbaraman, and R. T. Chen, “Geometrical tuning art for entirely subwavelength grating waveguide based integrated photonics circuits,” Sci. Rep. 6, 24106 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Wang, X. Xu, D. Fan, Y. Wang, and R. T. Chen, “High quality factor subwavelength grating waveguide micro-ring resonator based on trapezoidal silicon pillars,” Opt. Lett. 41(14), 3375–3378 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yan, Y. Zou, S. Chakravarty, C. J. Yang, Z. Wang, N. Tang, D. Fan, and R. T. Chen, “Silicon on-chip bandpass filters for the multiplexing of high sensitivity photonic crystal microcavity biosensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(12), 121103 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wangüemert-Pérez, J. G.

Wei, X.

Weiss, S. M.

Werquin, S.

Woodward, J.

A. Subramanian, S. J. Kennel, P. I. Oden, K. B. Jacobson, J. Woodward, and M. J. Doktycz, “Comparison of techniques for enzyme immobilization on silicon supports,” Enzyme Microb. Technol. 24(1-2), 26–34 (1999).
[Crossref]

Wu, Y.

Xu, D.-X.

Xu, Q.

Xu, X.

Z. Wang, X. Xu, D. Fan, Y. Wang, and R. T. Chen, “High quality factor subwavelength grating waveguide micro-ring resonator based on trapezoidal silicon pillars,” Opt. Lett. 41(14), 3375–3378 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Wang, X. Xu, D. Fan, Y. Wang, H. Subbaraman, and R. T. Chen, “Geometrical tuning art for entirely subwavelength grating waveguide based integrated photonics circuits,” Sci. Rep. 6, 24106 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zou, S. Chakravarty, D. N. Kwong, W.-C. Lai, X. Xu, X. Lin, A. Hosseini, and R. T. Chen, “Cavity-Waveguide Coupling Engineered High Sensitivity Silicon Photonic Crystal Microcavity Biosensors With High Yield,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 171–180 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yan, H.

H. Yan, Y. Zou, S. Chakravarty, C. J. Yang, Z. Wang, N. Tang, D. Fan, and R. T. Chen, “Silicon on-chip bandpass filters for the multiplexing of high sensitivity photonic crystal microcavity biosensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(12), 121103 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, C. J.

H. Yan, Y. Zou, S. Chakravarty, C. J. Yang, Z. Wang, N. Tang, D. Fan, and R. T. Chen, “Silicon on-chip bandpass filters for the multiplexing of high sensitivity photonic crystal microcavity biosensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(12), 121103 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, L.

F. Vollmer, L. Yang, and S. Fainman, “Label-free detection with high-Q microcavities: A review of biosensing mechanisms for integrated devices,” Nanophotonics 1(3-4), 267–291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yanik, A. A.

A. A. Yanik, M. Huang, A. Artar, T.-Y. Chang, and H. Altug, “Integrated nanoplasmonic-nanofluidic biosensors with targeted delivery of analytes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(2), 021101 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ye, J. Y.

B. Zhang, A. W. Morales, R. Peterson, L. Tang, and J. Y. Ye, “Label-free detection of cardiac troponin I with a photonic crystal biosensor,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 58, 107–113 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Youngblood, J. P.

J. A. Howarter and J. P. Youngblood, “Optimization of Silica Silanization by 3-Aminopropyltriethoxysilane,” Langmuir 22(26), 11142–11147 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, B.

B. Zhang, A. W. Morales, R. Peterson, L. Tang, and J. Y. Ye, “Label-free detection of cardiac troponin I with a photonic crystal biosensor,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 58, 107–113 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, D.

Zhao, J.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zou, Y.

H. Yan, Y. Zou, S. Chakravarty, C. J. Yang, Z. Wang, N. Tang, D. Fan, and R. T. Chen, “Silicon on-chip bandpass filters for the multiplexing of high sensitivity photonic crystal microcavity biosensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(12), 121103 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zou, S. Chakravarty, D. N. Kwong, W.-C. Lai, X. Xu, X. Lin, A. Hosseini, and R. T. Chen, “Cavity-Waveguide Coupling Engineered High Sensitivity Silicon Photonic Crystal Microcavity Biosensors With High Yield,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 171–180 (2014).
[Crossref]

W. C. Lai, S. Chakravarty, Y. Zou, Y. Guo, and R. T. Chen, “Slow light enhanced sensitivity of resonance modes in photonic crystal biosensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(4), 041111 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

A. A. Yanik, M. Huang, A. Artar, T.-Y. Chang, and H. Altug, “Integrated nanoplasmonic-nanofluidic biosensors with targeted delivery of analytes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(2), 021101 (2010).
[Crossref]

C.-Y. Chao and L. J. Guo, “Biochemical sensors based on polymer microrings with sharp asymmetrical resonance,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(8), 1527 (2003).
[Crossref]

W. C. Lai, S. Chakravarty, Y. Zou, Y. Guo, and R. T. Chen, “Slow light enhanced sensitivity of resonance modes in photonic crystal biosensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(4), 041111 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yan, Y. Zou, S. Chakravarty, C. J. Yang, Z. Wang, N. Tang, D. Fan, and R. T. Chen, “Silicon on-chip bandpass filters for the multiplexing of high sensitivity photonic crystal microcavity biosensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(12), 121103 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Surf. Sci. (1)

N. S. K. Gunda, M. Singh, L. Norman, K. Kaur, and S. K. Mitra, “Optimization and characterization of biomolecule immobilization on silicon substrates using (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES) and glutaraldehyde linker,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 305, 522–530 (2014).
[Crossref]

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

Biophys. J. (1)

J. Vörös, “The density and refractive index of adsorbing protein layers,” Biophys. J. 87(1), 553–561 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biosens. Bioelectron. (2)

M. S. McClellan, L. L. Domier, and R. C. Bailey, “Label-free virus detection using silicon photonic microring resonators,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 31(1), 388–392 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Zhang, A. W. Morales, R. Peterson, L. Tang, and J. Y. Ye, “Label-free detection of cardiac troponin I with a photonic crystal biosensor,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 58, 107–113 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Enzyme Microb. Technol. (1)

A. Subramanian, S. J. Kennel, P. I. Oden, K. B. Jacobson, J. Woodward, and M. J. Doktycz, “Comparison of techniques for enzyme immobilization on silicon supports,” Enzyme Microb. Technol. 24(1-2), 26–34 (1999).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-Free Biosensor Arrays Based on Silicon Ring Resonators and High-Speed Optical Scanning Instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 654–661 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. Zou, S. Chakravarty, D. N. Kwong, W.-C. Lai, X. Xu, X. Lin, A. Hosseini, and R. T. Chen, “Cavity-Waveguide Coupling Engineered High Sensitivity Silicon Photonic Crystal Microcavity Biosensors With High Yield,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 171–180 (2014).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics J. (1)

T. Claes, J. G. Molera, K. De Vos, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Label-Free Biosensing With a Slot-Waveguide-Based Ring Resonator in Silicon on Insulator,” IEEE Photonics J. 1(3), 197–204 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ind. Eng. Chem. (1)

L. F. Hoyt, “New Table of the Refractive Index of Pure Glycerol at 20°C,” Ind. Eng. Chem. 26(3), 329–332 (1934).
[Crossref]

Langmuir (1)

J. A. Howarter and J. P. Youngblood, “Optimization of Silica Silanization by 3-Aminopropyltriethoxysilane,” Langmuir 22(26), 11142–11147 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Laser Photonics Rev. (1)

M. C. C. Estevez, M. Alvarez, and L. M. M. Lechuga, “Integrated optical devices for lab-on-a-chip biosensing applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(4), 463–487 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nanophotonics (1)

F. Vollmer, L. Yang, and S. Fainman, “Label-free detection with high-Q microcavities: A review of biosensing mechanisms for integrated devices,” Nanophotonics 1(3-4), 267–291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (1)

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (8)

S. Janz, D.-X. Xu, M. Vachon, N. Sabourin, P. Cheben, H. McIntosh, H. Ding, S. Wang, J. H. Schmid, A. Delâge, J. Lapointe, A. Densmore, R. Ma, W. Sinclair, S. M. Logan, R. Mackenzie, Q. Y. Liu, D. Zhang, G. Lopinski, O. Mozenson, M. Gilmour, and H. Tabor, “Photonic wire biosensor microarray chip and instrumentation with application to serotyping of Escherichia coli isolates,” Opt. Express 21(4), 4623–4637 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J.-W. Hoste, S. Werquin, T. Claes, and P. Bienstman, “Conformational analysis of proteins with a dual polarisation silicon microring,” Opt. Express 22(3), 2807–2820 (2014).
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[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (1)

S. Schmidt, J. Flueckiger, W. Wu, S. M. Grist, S. Talebi Fard, V. Donzella, P. Khumwan, E. R. Thompson, Q. Wang, P. Kulik, X. Wang, A. Sherwali, J. Kirk, K. C. Cheung, L. Chrostowski, and D. Ratner, “Improving the performance of silicon photonic rings, disks, and Bragg gratings for use in label-free biosensing,” SPIE Proc. 9166, 91660M (2014).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic of the studied SWG microring resonator biosensor; (b) Top view of the coupling region (yellow rectangular in (a)); (c) Cross section view of the SWG waveguides (purple cut line in (a)).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Overlapping factors for different waveguide width and duty cycle combinations.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Electric field intensity distribution at different cross sections. (b), (c) and (d) correspond to the cut positions marked with 1, 2 and 3 in the schematic (a), respectively.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Schematic of the SWG structure covered by thin layers of silicon dioxide, chemicals and immobilized protein in water environment; (b) Comparing dneff/dt as the thickness of surface layer grows in SWG microring and conventional microring.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of the SWG microring resonator with its coupling region enlarged. (b) transmission spectrum of the fabricated SWG microring resonator; (c) Resonance wavelength shift during the bulk refractive index sensing test; (d) Resonance shift with respect to refractive index change. Linear fit shows a bulk sensitivity of 440.5 nm/RIU.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) Real time monitoring of the resonance shift in SWG microring biosensor during the biosensing experiment; Blue region indicate buffer washing steps and other steps are marked with the corresponding reagents used. Anti-SA: anti-streptavidin antibody, SA: streptavidin, bio-BSA: biotinylated BSA. (b) Resonance shift in both SWG microring and regular microring; insets show SEM images of both microrings; GLU: glutaraldehyde (c) Surface sensitivity with respect to estimated thickness in both SWG microring and regular microring.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Resonance wavelength shift in miRNA sensing experiment.

Equations (1)

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S s = Δ λ Δ t = λ n g ( n e f f t )

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