Abstract

Optical autocorrelation accuracy was for the first time analyzed for the silicon waveguide based autocorrelators utilizing two-photon absorption (TPA) under various short pulse conditions by numerical simulation. As for autocorrelation operation in the sub-μm silicon p-i-n rib waveguides on the 220 nm SOI (silicon on insulator) wafers, the autocorrelation error of pulse width measurement gradually increases with the increase of the peak power for both Gaussian and hyperbolic secant pulses due to the influence of free-carrier absorption (FCA). For the same pulse type, the relative error is independent of the input pulse width; however different pulse type has different peak power dependency of the accuracy. It was verified that this thin rib waveguide has a TPA responsivity >60 times higher than the thick rib waveguides and the correct pulse width can be measured with a <1% relative error for characterizing ps/sub-ps short pulses of sub-watt peak powers by utilizing the silicon wire p-i-n waveguides as the autocorrelator detector.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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2015 (1)

2014 (1)

C. Monat, C. Grillet, M. Collins, A. Clark, J. Schroeder, C. Xiong, J. Li, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, B. J. Eggleton, and D. J. Moss, “Integrated optical auto-correlator based on third-harmonic generation in a silicon photonic crystal waveguide,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3246 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (1)

R. Hayakawa, N. Ishikura, H. C. Nguyen, and T. Baba, “Two-photon-absorption photodiodes in Si photonic-crystal slow-light waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(3), 031114 (2013).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

2005 (1)

D. Dimitropoulos, R. Jhaveri, R. Claps, J. C. S. Woo, and B. Jalali, “Lifetime of photogenerated carriers in silicon-on-insulator rib waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(7), 071115 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (3)

2002 (1)

T. K. Liang, H. K. Tsang, I. E. Day, J. Drake, A. P. Knights, and M. Asghari, “Silicon waveguide two-photon absorption detector at 1.5 μm wavelength for autocorrelation measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(7), 1323–1325 (2002).
[Crossref]

Asghari, M.

D. W. Zheng, B. T. Smith, and M. Asghari, “Improved efficiency Si-photonic attenuator,” Opt. Express 16(21), 16754–16765 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. K. Liang, H. K. Tsang, I. E. Day, J. Drake, A. P. Knights, and M. Asghari, “Silicon waveguide two-photon absorption detector at 1.5 μm wavelength for autocorrelation measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(7), 1323–1325 (2002).
[Crossref]

Baba, T.

R. Hayakawa, N. Ishikura, H. C. Nguyen, and T. Baba, “Two-photon-absorption photodiodes in Si photonic-crystal slow-light waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(3), 031114 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Kubo, D. Mori, and T. Baba, “Low-group-velocity and low-dispersion slow light in photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 32(20), 2981–2983 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Claps, R.

D. Dimitropoulos, R. Jhaveri, R. Claps, J. C. S. Woo, and B. Jalali, “Lifetime of photogenerated carriers in silicon-on-insulator rib waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(7), 071115 (2005).
[Crossref]

Clark, A.

C. Monat, C. Grillet, M. Collins, A. Clark, J. Schroeder, C. Xiong, J. Li, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, B. J. Eggleton, and D. J. Moss, “Integrated optical auto-correlator based on third-harmonic generation in a silicon photonic crystal waveguide,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3246 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cohen, O.

Collins, M.

C. Monat, C. Grillet, M. Collins, A. Clark, J. Schroeder, C. Xiong, J. Li, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, B. J. Eggleton, and D. J. Moss, “Integrated optical auto-correlator based on third-harmonic generation in a silicon photonic crystal waveguide,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3246 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Day, I. E.

T. K. Liang, H. K. Tsang, I. E. Day, J. Drake, A. P. Knights, and M. Asghari, “Silicon waveguide two-photon absorption detector at 1.5 μm wavelength for autocorrelation measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(7), 1323–1325 (2002).
[Crossref]

Dimitropoulos, D.

D. Dimitropoulos, R. Jhaveri, R. Claps, J. C. S. Woo, and B. Jalali, “Lifetime of photogenerated carriers in silicon-on-insulator rib waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(7), 071115 (2005).
[Crossref]

Drake, J.

T. K. Liang, H. K. Tsang, I. E. Day, J. Drake, A. P. Knights, and M. Asghari, “Silicon waveguide two-photon absorption detector at 1.5 μm wavelength for autocorrelation measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(7), 1323–1325 (2002).
[Crossref]

Eggleton, B. J.

C. Monat, C. Grillet, M. Collins, A. Clark, J. Schroeder, C. Xiong, J. Li, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, B. J. Eggleton, and D. J. Moss, “Integrated optical auto-correlator based on third-harmonic generation in a silicon photonic crystal waveguide,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3246 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Englund, D.

Gan, X.

Grillet, C.

C. Monat, C. Grillet, M. Collins, A. Clark, J. Schroeder, C. Xiong, J. Li, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, B. J. Eggleton, and D. J. Moss, “Integrated optical auto-correlator based on third-harmonic generation in a silicon photonic crystal waveguide,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3246 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hak, D.

Hatami, F.

Hayakawa, R.

R. Hayakawa, N. Ishikura, H. C. Nguyen, and T. Baba, “Two-photon-absorption photodiodes in Si photonic-crystal slow-light waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(3), 031114 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ishikura, N.

R. Hayakawa, N. Ishikura, H. C. Nguyen, and T. Baba, “Two-photon-absorption photodiodes in Si photonic-crystal slow-light waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(3), 031114 (2013).
[Crossref]

Jalali, B.

D. Dimitropoulos, R. Jhaveri, R. Claps, J. C. S. Woo, and B. Jalali, “Lifetime of photogenerated carriers in silicon-on-insulator rib waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(7), 071115 (2005).
[Crossref]

Jhaveri, R.

D. Dimitropoulos, R. Jhaveri, R. Claps, J. C. S. Woo, and B. Jalali, “Lifetime of photogenerated carriers in silicon-on-insulator rib waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(7), 071115 (2005).
[Crossref]

Knights, A. P.

T. K. Liang, H. K. Tsang, I. E. Day, J. Drake, A. P. Knights, and M. Asghari, “Silicon waveguide two-photon absorption detector at 1.5 μm wavelength for autocorrelation measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(7), 1323–1325 (2002).
[Crossref]

Krauss, T. F.

C. Monat, C. Grillet, M. Collins, A. Clark, J. Schroeder, C. Xiong, J. Li, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, B. J. Eggleton, and D. J. Moss, “Integrated optical auto-correlator based on third-harmonic generation in a silicon photonic crystal waveguide,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3246 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kubo, S.

Li, J.

C. Monat, C. Grillet, M. Collins, A. Clark, J. Schroeder, C. Xiong, J. Li, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, B. J. Eggleton, and D. J. Moss, “Integrated optical auto-correlator based on third-harmonic generation in a silicon photonic crystal waveguide,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3246 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liang, T. K.

T. K. Liang, H. K. Tsang, I. E. Day, J. Drake, A. P. Knights, and M. Asghari, “Silicon waveguide two-photon absorption detector at 1.5 μm wavelength for autocorrelation measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(7), 1323–1325 (2002).
[Crossref]

Liu, A.

Monat, C.

C. Monat, C. Grillet, M. Collins, A. Clark, J. Schroeder, C. Xiong, J. Li, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, B. J. Eggleton, and D. J. Moss, “Integrated optical auto-correlator based on third-harmonic generation in a silicon photonic crystal waveguide,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3246 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mori, D.

Moss, D. J.

C. Monat, C. Grillet, M. Collins, A. Clark, J. Schroeder, C. Xiong, J. Li, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, B. J. Eggleton, and D. J. Moss, “Integrated optical auto-correlator based on third-harmonic generation in a silicon photonic crystal waveguide,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3246 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nguyen, H. C.

R. Hayakawa, N. Ishikura, H. C. Nguyen, and T. Baba, “Two-photon-absorption photodiodes in Si photonic-crystal slow-light waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(3), 031114 (2013).
[Crossref]

O’Faolain, L.

C. Monat, C. Grillet, M. Collins, A. Clark, J. Schroeder, C. Xiong, J. Li, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, B. J. Eggleton, and D. J. Moss, “Integrated optical auto-correlator based on third-harmonic generation in a silicon photonic crystal waveguide,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3246 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Paniccia, M.

Quercioli, F.

Rappaport, N.

N. Tessler and N. Rappaport, “Excitation density dependence of photocurrent efficiency in low mobility semiconductors,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(2), 1083–1087 (2004).
[Crossref]

Rong, H.

Schroeder, J.

C. Monat, C. Grillet, M. Collins, A. Clark, J. Schroeder, C. Xiong, J. Li, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, B. J. Eggleton, and D. J. Moss, “Integrated optical auto-correlator based on third-harmonic generation in a silicon photonic crystal waveguide,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3246 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shiue, R. J.

Smith, B. T.

Tessler, N.

N. Tessler and N. Rappaport, “Excitation density dependence of photocurrent efficiency in low mobility semiconductors,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(2), 1083–1087 (2004).
[Crossref]

Tiribilli, B.

Tsang, H. K.

T. K. Liang, H. K. Tsang, I. E. Day, J. Drake, A. P. Knights, and M. Asghari, “Silicon waveguide two-photon absorption detector at 1.5 μm wavelength for autocorrelation measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(7), 1323–1325 (2002).
[Crossref]

Vassalli, M.

Woo, J. C. S.

D. Dimitropoulos, R. Jhaveri, R. Claps, J. C. S. Woo, and B. Jalali, “Lifetime of photogenerated carriers in silicon-on-insulator rib waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(7), 071115 (2005).
[Crossref]

Xiong, C.

C. Monat, C. Grillet, M. Collins, A. Clark, J. Schroeder, C. Xiong, J. Li, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, B. J. Eggleton, and D. J. Moss, “Integrated optical auto-correlator based on third-harmonic generation in a silicon photonic crystal waveguide,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3246 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yao, X.

Zheng, D. W.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

T. K. Liang, H. K. Tsang, I. E. Day, J. Drake, A. P. Knights, and M. Asghari, “Silicon waveguide two-photon absorption detector at 1.5 μm wavelength for autocorrelation measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(7), 1323–1325 (2002).
[Crossref]

R. Hayakawa, N. Ishikura, H. C. Nguyen, and T. Baba, “Two-photon-absorption photodiodes in Si photonic-crystal slow-light waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(3), 031114 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Dimitropoulos, R. Jhaveri, R. Claps, J. C. S. Woo, and B. Jalali, “Lifetime of photogenerated carriers in silicon-on-insulator rib waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(7), 071115 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

N. Tessler and N. Rappaport, “Excitation density dependence of photocurrent efficiency in low mobility semiconductors,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(2), 1083–1087 (2004).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (1)

C. Monat, C. Grillet, M. Collins, A. Clark, J. Schroeder, C. Xiong, J. Li, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, B. J. Eggleton, and D. J. Moss, “Integrated optical auto-correlator based on third-harmonic generation in a silicon photonic crystal waveguide,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3246 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (5)

S. M. Sze, Physics of Semiconductor Devices (2nd), John Wiley & Sons (1981), p46.

Optical Autocorrelation, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Optical_autocorrelation .

K. Yamada, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, H. Fukuda, H. Shinojima, and S. Itabashi, “Applications of Low-loss Silicon Photonic Wire Waveguides with Carrier Injection Structures,”Group IV Photonics, 4th IEEE International Conference on (2007), WP23.
[Crossref]

B. G. Lee, A. V. Rylyakov, W. M. J. Green, S. Assefa, C. W. Baks, R. Rimolo-Donadio, D. M. Kuchta, M. H. Khater, T. Barwicz, C. Reinholm, E. Kiewra, S. M. Shank, C. L. Schow, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Four- and eigth- port photonic switches monolithically integrated with digital CMOS Logic and driver circuits,” in Proceedings of OFC/NFOEC, paper PDP5C.3 (2013).

ModeSolver FemSIM, https://optics.synopsys.com/rsoft/rsoft-passive-device-femsim.html .

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Cross-section schematic of sub-μm silicon p-i-n waveguide. (b) Mode profile at λ = 1.55 μm, and (c) Wavelength dependent group index ng and dispersion parameter D. (d) Autocorrelation simulation schematic with a reverse-bias of 10 V and a device length of 1 mm.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Photocurrent versus the peak power characteristics at the repetition rate of 40 MHz. (b) Input and output pulse intensities for the thin (top) and thick (bottom) rib waveguides at the peak power of 7.5 W.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Autocorrelated current signal versus the delay time for a 2-ps Gaussian pulse. (b) Autocorrelated pulse width in (a) and the deconvoluted width in a relation of the peak power.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Deconvoluted full-width at half maximum (FWHM) versus the peak power for both Gaussian and hyperbolic secant pulses. Four input pulse widths are denoted. (b) Relative error (wdw0)/w0 for both Gaussian and hyperbolic secant pulses under different input pulse width. wd: deconvoluted width. w0: input pulse width.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

A eff = ( E 2 dA ) 2 E 4 dA
d I z,t dz =α I z,t β I z,t 2 σ N z,t I z,t
d N z,t dt = β I z,t 2 2ω N z,t τ dft
i( t )= β A eff I 2 dz 2ω

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