Abstract

We study plasmonic properties of highly doped InP in the mid-infrared (IR) range. InP was grown by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) with the growth conditions optimized to achieve high free electron concentrations by doping with silicon. The permittivity of the grown material was found by fitting the calculated infrared reflectance spectra to the measured ones. The retrieved permittivity was then used to simulate surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) propagation on flat and structured surfaces, and the simulation results were verified in direct experiments. SPPs at the top and bottom interfaces of the grown epilayer were excited by the prism coupling. A high-index Ge hemispherical prism provides efficient coupling conditions of SPPs on flat surfaces and facilitates acquiring their dispersion diagrams. We observed diffraction into symmetry-prohibited diffraction orders stimulated by the excitation of surface plasmon-polaritons in a periodically structured epilayer. Characterization shows good agreement between the theory and experimental results and confirms that highly doped InP is an effective plasmonic material aiming it for applications in the mid-IR wavelength range.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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2016 (2)

J. D. Caldwell, I. Vurgaftman, J. G. Tischler, O. J. Glembocki, J. C. Owrutsky, and T. L. Reinecke, “Atomic-scale photonic hybrids for mid-infrared and terahertz nanophotonics,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 11(1), 9–15 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. S. Kuznetsov, P. Schäfer, W. John, D. Prasai, S. Sadofev, and S. Kalusniak, “Enabling novel functionality in heavily doped ZnO:Ga by nanostructuring: an efficient plasmonic refractive index sensor,” Nanotechnology 27(2), 02LT02 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (6)

D. Rodrigo, O. Limaj, D. Janner, D. Etezadi, F. J. García de Abajo, V. Pruneri, and H. Altug, “Mid-infrared plasmonic biosensing with graphene,” Science 349(6244), 165–168 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zhong, S. D. Malagari, T. Hamilton, and D. Wasserman, “Review of mid-infrared plasmonic materials,” J. Nanophotonics 9(1), 093791 (2015).
[Crossref]

E. Sachet, C. T. Shelton, J. S. Harris, B. E. Gaddy, D. L. Irving, S. Curtarolo, B. F. Donovan, P. E. Hopkins, P. A. Sharma, A. L. Sharma, J. Ihlefeld, S. Franzen, and J. P. Maria, “Dysprosium-doped cadmium oxide as a gateway material for mid-infrared plasmonics,” Nat. Mater. 14(4), 414–420 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Biagioni, J. Frigerio, A. Samarelli, K. Gallacher, L. Baldassarre, E. Sakat, E. Calandrini, R. W. Millar, V. Giliberti, G. Isella, D. J. Paul, and M. Ortolani, “Group-IV midinfrared plasmonics,” J. Nanophotonics 9(1), 093789 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Cada, D. Blazek, J. Pistora, K. Postava, and P. Siroky, “Theoretical and experimental study of plasmonic effects in heavily doped gallium arsenide and indium phosphide,” Opt. Mater. Express 5(2), 340–352 (2015).
[Crossref]

I. Avrutsky, C. W. Smith, J. W. Cleary, and J. R. Hendrickson, “Resonant diffraction into symmetry-prohibited orders of metal gratings,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 51(12), 6600209 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

S. Law, R. Liu, and D. Wasserman, “Doped semiconductors with band-edge plasma frequencies,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 32(5), 052601 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Boltasseva, “Empowering plasmonics and metamaterials technology with new material platforms,” MRS Bull. 39(5), 461–468 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. M. Ma, S. Ota, Y. Li, S. Yang, and X. Zhang, “Explosives detection in a lasing plasmon nanocavity,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(8), 600–604 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (5)

S. Law, V. Podolskiy, and D. Wasserman, “Towards nano-scale photonics with micro-scale photons: The opportunities and challenges of mid-infrared plasmonics,” Nanophotonics 2(2), 103–130 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. V. Naik, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Boltasseva, “Alternative plasmonic materials: beyond gold and silver,” Adv. Mater. 25(24), 3264–3294 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Streyer, S. Law, G. Rooney, T. Jacobs, and D. Wasserman, “Strong absorption and selective emission from engineered metals with dielectric coatings,” Opt. Express 21(7), 9113–9122 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Law, L. Yu, A. Rosenberg, and D. Wasserman, “All-semiconductor plasmonic nanoantennas for infrared sensing,” Nano Lett. 13(9), 4569–4574 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zhong, P. B. Dongmo, L. Gong, S. Law, B. Chase, D. Wasserman, and J. M. O. Zide, “Degenerately doped InGaBiAs:Si as a highly conductive and transparent contact material in the infrared range,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(8), 1197–1204 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (4)

V. N’Tsame Guilengui, L. Cerutti, J. B. Rodriguez, E. Tournié, and T. Taliercio, “Localized surface plasmon resonances in highly doped semiconductors nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(16), 161113 (2012).
[Crossref]

I. Epstein, I. Dolev, D. Bar-Lev, and A. Arie, “Plasmon-enhanced Bragg diffraction,” Phys. Rev. B 86(20), 205122 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Law, D. C. Adams, A. M. Taylor, and D. Wasserman, “Mid-infrared designer metals,” Opt. Express 20(11), 12155–12165 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. N. Grigorenko, M. Polini, and K. S. Novoselov, “Graphene plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics 6(11), 749–758 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

K. Anglin, T. Ribaudo, D. C. Adams, X. Qian, W. D. Goodhue, S. Dooley, E. A. Shaner, and D. Wasserman, “Voltage-controlled active mid-infrared plasmonic devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(12), 123103 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Shahzad, G. Medhi, R. E. Peale, W. R. Buchwald, J. W. Cleary, R. Soref, G. D. Boreman, and O. Edwards, “Infrared surface plasmons on heavily doped silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(12), 123105 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. C. Ginn, R. L. Jarecki, E. A. Shaner, and P. S. Davids, “Infrared plasmons on heavily-doped silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(4), 043110 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

P. R. West, S. Ishii, G. V. Naik, N. K. Emani, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Boltasseva, “Searching for better plasmonic materials,” Laser Photonics Rev. 4(6), 795–808 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 205–213 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Homola, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors for detection of chemical and biological species,” Chem. Rev. 108(2), 462–493 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Planar metal plasmon waveguides: frequency-dependent dispersion, propagation, localization, and loss beyond the free electron model,” Phys. Rev. B 72(7), 075405 (2005).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

D. J. Bergman and M. I. Stockman, “Surface plasmon amplification by stimulated emission of radiation: quantum generation of coherent surface plasmons in nanosystems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(2), 027402 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

J. B. Pendry, “Negative refraction makes a perfect lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(18), 3966–3969 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

I. J. Hodgkinson, S. Kassam, and Q. H. Wu, “Eigenequations and compact algorithms for bulk and layered anisotropic optical media: reflection and refraction at a crystal-crystal interface,” J. Comput. Phys. 133(1), 75–83 (1997).
[Crossref]

1980 (1)

W. Walukiewicz, J. Lagowski, L. Jastrzebski, P. Rava, M. Lichtensteiger, C. H. Gatos, and H. C. Gatos, “Electron mobility and free‐carrier absorption in InP; determination of the compensation ratio,” J. Appl. Phys. 51(5), 2659–2668 (1980).
[Crossref]

1971 (1)

C. J. Gabriel and A. Nedoluha, “Transmittance and reflectance of systems of thin and thick layers,” Opt. Acta (Lond.) 18(6), 415–423 (1971).
[Crossref]

1941 (1)

Adams, D. C.

S. Law, D. C. Adams, A. M. Taylor, and D. Wasserman, “Mid-infrared designer metals,” Opt. Express 20(11), 12155–12165 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Anglin, T. Ribaudo, D. C. Adams, X. Qian, W. D. Goodhue, S. Dooley, E. A. Shaner, and D. Wasserman, “Voltage-controlled active mid-infrared plasmonic devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(12), 123103 (2011).
[Crossref]

Altug, H.

D. Rodrigo, O. Limaj, D. Janner, D. Etezadi, F. J. García de Abajo, V. Pruneri, and H. Altug, “Mid-infrared plasmonic biosensing with graphene,” Science 349(6244), 165–168 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anglin, K.

K. Anglin, T. Ribaudo, D. C. Adams, X. Qian, W. D. Goodhue, S. Dooley, E. A. Shaner, and D. Wasserman, “Voltage-controlled active mid-infrared plasmonic devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(12), 123103 (2011).
[Crossref]

Anker, J. N.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arie, A.

I. Epstein, I. Dolev, D. Bar-Lev, and A. Arie, “Plasmon-enhanced Bragg diffraction,” Phys. Rev. B 86(20), 205122 (2012).
[Crossref]

Aryaee Panah, M. E.

M. E. Aryaee Panah, S. Xiao, A. V. Lavrinenko, and E. S. Semenova, “Overcoming doping limits in MOVPE grown n-doped InP for plasmonic applications,” in 16th European Workshop on Metalorganic Vapour Phase Epitaxy (2015).

Atwater, H. A.

H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 205–213 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Planar metal plasmon waveguides: frequency-dependent dispersion, propagation, localization, and loss beyond the free electron model,” Phys. Rev. B 72(7), 075405 (2005).
[Crossref]

Avrutsky, I.

I. Avrutsky, C. W. Smith, J. W. Cleary, and J. R. Hendrickson, “Resonant diffraction into symmetry-prohibited orders of metal gratings,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 51(12), 6600209 (2015).
[Crossref]

Baldassarre, L.

P. Biagioni, J. Frigerio, A. Samarelli, K. Gallacher, L. Baldassarre, E. Sakat, E. Calandrini, R. W. Millar, V. Giliberti, G. Isella, D. J. Paul, and M. Ortolani, “Group-IV midinfrared plasmonics,” J. Nanophotonics 9(1), 093789 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bar-Lev, D.

I. Epstein, I. Dolev, D. Bar-Lev, and A. Arie, “Plasmon-enhanced Bragg diffraction,” Phys. Rev. B 86(20), 205122 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bergman, D. J.

D. J. Bergman and M. I. Stockman, “Surface plasmon amplification by stimulated emission of radiation: quantum generation of coherent surface plasmons in nanosystems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(2), 027402 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biagioni, P.

P. Biagioni, J. Frigerio, A. Samarelli, K. Gallacher, L. Baldassarre, E. Sakat, E. Calandrini, R. W. Millar, V. Giliberti, G. Isella, D. J. Paul, and M. Ortolani, “Group-IV midinfrared plasmonics,” J. Nanophotonics 9(1), 093789 (2015).
[Crossref]

Blazek, D.

Boltasseva, A.

A. Boltasseva, “Empowering plasmonics and metamaterials technology with new material platforms,” MRS Bull. 39(5), 461–468 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. V. Naik, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Boltasseva, “Alternative plasmonic materials: beyond gold and silver,” Adv. Mater. 25(24), 3264–3294 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. R. West, S. Ishii, G. V. Naik, N. K. Emani, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Boltasseva, “Searching for better plasmonic materials,” Laser Photonics Rev. 4(6), 795–808 (2010).
[Crossref]

Boreman, G. D.

M. Shahzad, G. Medhi, R. E. Peale, W. R. Buchwald, J. W. Cleary, R. Soref, G. D. Boreman, and O. Edwards, “Infrared surface plasmons on heavily doped silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(12), 123105 (2011).
[Crossref]

Buchwald, W. R.

M. Shahzad, G. Medhi, R. E. Peale, W. R. Buchwald, J. W. Cleary, R. Soref, G. D. Boreman, and O. Edwards, “Infrared surface plasmons on heavily doped silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(12), 123105 (2011).
[Crossref]

Cada, M.

Calandrini, E.

P. Biagioni, J. Frigerio, A. Samarelli, K. Gallacher, L. Baldassarre, E. Sakat, E. Calandrini, R. W. Millar, V. Giliberti, G. Isella, D. J. Paul, and M. Ortolani, “Group-IV midinfrared plasmonics,” J. Nanophotonics 9(1), 093789 (2015).
[Crossref]

Caldwell, J. D.

J. D. Caldwell, I. Vurgaftman, J. G. Tischler, O. J. Glembocki, J. C. Owrutsky, and T. L. Reinecke, “Atomic-scale photonic hybrids for mid-infrared and terahertz nanophotonics,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 11(1), 9–15 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cerutti, L.

V. N’Tsame Guilengui, L. Cerutti, J. B. Rodriguez, E. Tournié, and T. Taliercio, “Localized surface plasmon resonances in highly doped semiconductors nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(16), 161113 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chase, B.

Cleary, J. W.

I. Avrutsky, C. W. Smith, J. W. Cleary, and J. R. Hendrickson, “Resonant diffraction into symmetry-prohibited orders of metal gratings,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 51(12), 6600209 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Shahzad, G. Medhi, R. E. Peale, W. R. Buchwald, J. W. Cleary, R. Soref, G. D. Boreman, and O. Edwards, “Infrared surface plasmons on heavily doped silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(12), 123105 (2011).
[Crossref]

Curtarolo, S.

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J. C. Ginn, R. L. Jarecki, E. A. Shaner, and P. S. Davids, “Infrared plasmons on heavily-doped silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(4), 043110 (2011).
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Donovan, B. F.

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M. Shahzad, G. Medhi, R. E. Peale, W. R. Buchwald, J. W. Cleary, R. Soref, G. D. Boreman, and O. Edwards, “Infrared surface plasmons on heavily doped silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(12), 123105 (2011).
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D. Rodrigo, O. Limaj, D. Janner, D. Etezadi, F. J. García de Abajo, V. Pruneri, and H. Altug, “Mid-infrared plasmonic biosensing with graphene,” Science 349(6244), 165–168 (2015).
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C. J. Gabriel and A. Nedoluha, “Transmittance and reflectance of systems of thin and thick layers,” Opt. Acta (Lond.) 18(6), 415–423 (1971).
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E. Sachet, C. T. Shelton, J. S. Harris, B. E. Gaddy, D. L. Irving, S. Curtarolo, B. F. Donovan, P. E. Hopkins, P. A. Sharma, A. L. Sharma, J. Ihlefeld, S. Franzen, and J. P. Maria, “Dysprosium-doped cadmium oxide as a gateway material for mid-infrared plasmonics,” Nat. Mater. 14(4), 414–420 (2015).
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D. Rodrigo, O. Limaj, D. Janner, D. Etezadi, F. J. García de Abajo, V. Pruneri, and H. Altug, “Mid-infrared plasmonic biosensing with graphene,” Science 349(6244), 165–168 (2015).
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W. Walukiewicz, J. Lagowski, L. Jastrzebski, P. Rava, M. Lichtensteiger, C. H. Gatos, and H. C. Gatos, “Electron mobility and free‐carrier absorption in InP; determination of the compensation ratio,” J. Appl. Phys. 51(5), 2659–2668 (1980).
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W. Walukiewicz, J. Lagowski, L. Jastrzebski, P. Rava, M. Lichtensteiger, C. H. Gatos, and H. C. Gatos, “Electron mobility and free‐carrier absorption in InP; determination of the compensation ratio,” J. Appl. Phys. 51(5), 2659–2668 (1980).
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P. Biagioni, J. Frigerio, A. Samarelli, K. Gallacher, L. Baldassarre, E. Sakat, E. Calandrini, R. W. Millar, V. Giliberti, G. Isella, D. J. Paul, and M. Ortolani, “Group-IV midinfrared plasmonics,” J. Nanophotonics 9(1), 093789 (2015).
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J. C. Ginn, R. L. Jarecki, E. A. Shaner, and P. S. Davids, “Infrared plasmons on heavily-doped silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(4), 043110 (2011).
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J. D. Caldwell, I. Vurgaftman, J. G. Tischler, O. J. Glembocki, J. C. Owrutsky, and T. L. Reinecke, “Atomic-scale photonic hybrids for mid-infrared and terahertz nanophotonics,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 11(1), 9–15 (2016).
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Goodhue, W. D.

K. Anglin, T. Ribaudo, D. C. Adams, X. Qian, W. D. Goodhue, S. Dooley, E. A. Shaner, and D. Wasserman, “Voltage-controlled active mid-infrared plasmonic devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(12), 123103 (2011).
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A. N. Grigorenko, M. Polini, and K. S. Novoselov, “Graphene plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics 6(11), 749–758 (2012).
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J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
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E. Sachet, C. T. Shelton, J. S. Harris, B. E. Gaddy, D. L. Irving, S. Curtarolo, B. F. Donovan, P. E. Hopkins, P. A. Sharma, A. L. Sharma, J. Ihlefeld, S. Franzen, and J. P. Maria, “Dysprosium-doped cadmium oxide as a gateway material for mid-infrared plasmonics,” Nat. Mater. 14(4), 414–420 (2015).
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E. Sachet, C. T. Shelton, J. S. Harris, B. E. Gaddy, D. L. Irving, S. Curtarolo, B. F. Donovan, P. E. Hopkins, P. A. Sharma, A. L. Sharma, J. Ihlefeld, S. Franzen, and J. P. Maria, “Dysprosium-doped cadmium oxide as a gateway material for mid-infrared plasmonics,” Nat. Mater. 14(4), 414–420 (2015).
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P. Biagioni, J. Frigerio, A. Samarelli, K. Gallacher, L. Baldassarre, E. Sakat, E. Calandrini, R. W. Millar, V. Giliberti, G. Isella, D. J. Paul, and M. Ortolani, “Group-IV midinfrared plasmonics,” J. Nanophotonics 9(1), 093789 (2015).
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Janner, D.

D. Rodrigo, O. Limaj, D. Janner, D. Etezadi, F. J. García de Abajo, V. Pruneri, and H. Altug, “Mid-infrared plasmonic biosensing with graphene,” Science 349(6244), 165–168 (2015).
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J. C. Ginn, R. L. Jarecki, E. A. Shaner, and P. S. Davids, “Infrared plasmons on heavily-doped silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(4), 043110 (2011).
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T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
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R. M. Ma, S. Ota, Y. Li, S. Yang, and X. Zhang, “Explosives detection in a lasing plasmon nanocavity,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(8), 600–604 (2014).
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W. Walukiewicz, J. Lagowski, L. Jastrzebski, P. Rava, M. Lichtensteiger, C. H. Gatos, and H. C. Gatos, “Electron mobility and free‐carrier absorption in InP; determination of the compensation ratio,” J. Appl. Phys. 51(5), 2659–2668 (1980).
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D. Rodrigo, O. Limaj, D. Janner, D. Etezadi, F. J. García de Abajo, V. Pruneri, and H. Altug, “Mid-infrared plasmonic biosensing with graphene,” Science 349(6244), 165–168 (2015).
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S. Law, R. Liu, and D. Wasserman, “Doped semiconductors with band-edge plasma frequencies,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 32(5), 052601 (2014).
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J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
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R. M. Ma, S. Ota, Y. Li, S. Yang, and X. Zhang, “Explosives detection in a lasing plasmon nanocavity,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(8), 600–604 (2014).
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Y. Zhong, S. D. Malagari, T. Hamilton, and D. Wasserman, “Review of mid-infrared plasmonic materials,” J. Nanophotonics 9(1), 093791 (2015).
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E. Sachet, C. T. Shelton, J. S. Harris, B. E. Gaddy, D. L. Irving, S. Curtarolo, B. F. Donovan, P. E. Hopkins, P. A. Sharma, A. L. Sharma, J. Ihlefeld, S. Franzen, and J. P. Maria, “Dysprosium-doped cadmium oxide as a gateway material for mid-infrared plasmonics,” Nat. Mater. 14(4), 414–420 (2015).
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M. Shahzad, G. Medhi, R. E. Peale, W. R. Buchwald, J. W. Cleary, R. Soref, G. D. Boreman, and O. Edwards, “Infrared surface plasmons on heavily doped silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(12), 123105 (2011).
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P. Biagioni, J. Frigerio, A. Samarelli, K. Gallacher, L. Baldassarre, E. Sakat, E. Calandrini, R. W. Millar, V. Giliberti, G. Isella, D. J. Paul, and M. Ortolani, “Group-IV midinfrared plasmonics,” J. Nanophotonics 9(1), 093789 (2015).
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C. J. Gabriel and A. Nedoluha, “Transmittance and reflectance of systems of thin and thick layers,” Opt. Acta (Lond.) 18(6), 415–423 (1971).
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A. N. Grigorenko, M. Polini, and K. S. Novoselov, “Graphene plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics 6(11), 749–758 (2012).
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P. Biagioni, J. Frigerio, A. Samarelli, K. Gallacher, L. Baldassarre, E. Sakat, E. Calandrini, R. W. Millar, V. Giliberti, G. Isella, D. J. Paul, and M. Ortolani, “Group-IV midinfrared plasmonics,” J. Nanophotonics 9(1), 093789 (2015).
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J. D. Caldwell, I. Vurgaftman, J. G. Tischler, O. J. Glembocki, J. C. Owrutsky, and T. L. Reinecke, “Atomic-scale photonic hybrids for mid-infrared and terahertz nanophotonics,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 11(1), 9–15 (2016).
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Paul, D. J.

P. Biagioni, J. Frigerio, A. Samarelli, K. Gallacher, L. Baldassarre, E. Sakat, E. Calandrini, R. W. Millar, V. Giliberti, G. Isella, D. J. Paul, and M. Ortolani, “Group-IV midinfrared plasmonics,” J. Nanophotonics 9(1), 093789 (2015).
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M. Shahzad, G. Medhi, R. E. Peale, W. R. Buchwald, J. W. Cleary, R. Soref, G. D. Boreman, and O. Edwards, “Infrared surface plasmons on heavily doped silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(12), 123105 (2011).
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A. N. Grigorenko, M. Polini, and K. S. Novoselov, “Graphene plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics 6(11), 749–758 (2012).
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Prasai, D.

A. S. Kuznetsov, P. Schäfer, W. John, D. Prasai, S. Sadofev, and S. Kalusniak, “Enabling novel functionality in heavily doped ZnO:Ga by nanostructuring: an efficient plasmonic refractive index sensor,” Nanotechnology 27(2), 02LT02 (2016).
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D. Rodrigo, O. Limaj, D. Janner, D. Etezadi, F. J. García de Abajo, V. Pruneri, and H. Altug, “Mid-infrared plasmonic biosensing with graphene,” Science 349(6244), 165–168 (2015).
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Qian, X.

K. Anglin, T. Ribaudo, D. C. Adams, X. Qian, W. D. Goodhue, S. Dooley, E. A. Shaner, and D. Wasserman, “Voltage-controlled active mid-infrared plasmonic devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(12), 123103 (2011).
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W. Walukiewicz, J. Lagowski, L. Jastrzebski, P. Rava, M. Lichtensteiger, C. H. Gatos, and H. C. Gatos, “Electron mobility and free‐carrier absorption in InP; determination of the compensation ratio,” J. Appl. Phys. 51(5), 2659–2668 (1980).
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J. D. Caldwell, I. Vurgaftman, J. G. Tischler, O. J. Glembocki, J. C. Owrutsky, and T. L. Reinecke, “Atomic-scale photonic hybrids for mid-infrared and terahertz nanophotonics,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 11(1), 9–15 (2016).
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K. Anglin, T. Ribaudo, D. C. Adams, X. Qian, W. D. Goodhue, S. Dooley, E. A. Shaner, and D. Wasserman, “Voltage-controlled active mid-infrared plasmonic devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(12), 123103 (2011).
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Rodriguez, J. B.

V. N’Tsame Guilengui, L. Cerutti, J. B. Rodriguez, E. Tournié, and T. Taliercio, “Localized surface plasmon resonances in highly doped semiconductors nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(16), 161113 (2012).
[Crossref]

Rooney, G.

Rosenberg, A.

S. Law, L. Yu, A. Rosenberg, and D. Wasserman, “All-semiconductor plasmonic nanoantennas for infrared sensing,” Nano Lett. 13(9), 4569–4574 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sachet, E.

E. Sachet, C. T. Shelton, J. S. Harris, B. E. Gaddy, D. L. Irving, S. Curtarolo, B. F. Donovan, P. E. Hopkins, P. A. Sharma, A. L. Sharma, J. Ihlefeld, S. Franzen, and J. P. Maria, “Dysprosium-doped cadmium oxide as a gateway material for mid-infrared plasmonics,” Nat. Mater. 14(4), 414–420 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sadofev, S.

A. S. Kuznetsov, P. Schäfer, W. John, D. Prasai, S. Sadofev, and S. Kalusniak, “Enabling novel functionality in heavily doped ZnO:Ga by nanostructuring: an efficient plasmonic refractive index sensor,” Nanotechnology 27(2), 02LT02 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sakat, E.

P. Biagioni, J. Frigerio, A. Samarelli, K. Gallacher, L. Baldassarre, E. Sakat, E. Calandrini, R. W. Millar, V. Giliberti, G. Isella, D. J. Paul, and M. Ortolani, “Group-IV midinfrared plasmonics,” J. Nanophotonics 9(1), 093789 (2015).
[Crossref]

Samarelli, A.

P. Biagioni, J. Frigerio, A. Samarelli, K. Gallacher, L. Baldassarre, E. Sakat, E. Calandrini, R. W. Millar, V. Giliberti, G. Isella, D. J. Paul, and M. Ortolani, “Group-IV midinfrared plasmonics,” J. Nanophotonics 9(1), 093789 (2015).
[Crossref]

Schäfer, P.

A. S. Kuznetsov, P. Schäfer, W. John, D. Prasai, S. Sadofev, and S. Kalusniak, “Enabling novel functionality in heavily doped ZnO:Ga by nanostructuring: an efficient plasmonic refractive index sensor,” Nanotechnology 27(2), 02LT02 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Semenova, E. S.

M. E. Aryaee Panah, S. Xiao, A. V. Lavrinenko, and E. S. Semenova, “Overcoming doping limits in MOVPE grown n-doped InP for plasmonic applications,” in 16th European Workshop on Metalorganic Vapour Phase Epitaxy (2015).

Shah, N. C.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shahzad, M.

M. Shahzad, G. Medhi, R. E. Peale, W. R. Buchwald, J. W. Cleary, R. Soref, G. D. Boreman, and O. Edwards, “Infrared surface plasmons on heavily doped silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(12), 123105 (2011).
[Crossref]

Shalaev, V. M.

G. V. Naik, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Boltasseva, “Alternative plasmonic materials: beyond gold and silver,” Adv. Mater. 25(24), 3264–3294 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. R. West, S. Ishii, G. V. Naik, N. K. Emani, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Boltasseva, “Searching for better plasmonic materials,” Laser Photonics Rev. 4(6), 795–808 (2010).
[Crossref]

Shaner, E. A.

K. Anglin, T. Ribaudo, D. C. Adams, X. Qian, W. D. Goodhue, S. Dooley, E. A. Shaner, and D. Wasserman, “Voltage-controlled active mid-infrared plasmonic devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(12), 123103 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. C. Ginn, R. L. Jarecki, E. A. Shaner, and P. S. Davids, “Infrared plasmons on heavily-doped silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(4), 043110 (2011).
[Crossref]

Sharma, A. L.

E. Sachet, C. T. Shelton, J. S. Harris, B. E. Gaddy, D. L. Irving, S. Curtarolo, B. F. Donovan, P. E. Hopkins, P. A. Sharma, A. L. Sharma, J. Ihlefeld, S. Franzen, and J. P. Maria, “Dysprosium-doped cadmium oxide as a gateway material for mid-infrared plasmonics,” Nat. Mater. 14(4), 414–420 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sharma, P. A.

E. Sachet, C. T. Shelton, J. S. Harris, B. E. Gaddy, D. L. Irving, S. Curtarolo, B. F. Donovan, P. E. Hopkins, P. A. Sharma, A. L. Sharma, J. Ihlefeld, S. Franzen, and J. P. Maria, “Dysprosium-doped cadmium oxide as a gateway material for mid-infrared plasmonics,” Nat. Mater. 14(4), 414–420 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shelton, C. T.

E. Sachet, C. T. Shelton, J. S. Harris, B. E. Gaddy, D. L. Irving, S. Curtarolo, B. F. Donovan, P. E. Hopkins, P. A. Sharma, A. L. Sharma, J. Ihlefeld, S. Franzen, and J. P. Maria, “Dysprosium-doped cadmium oxide as a gateway material for mid-infrared plasmonics,” Nat. Mater. 14(4), 414–420 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Siroky, P.

Smith, C. W.

I. Avrutsky, C. W. Smith, J. W. Cleary, and J. R. Hendrickson, “Resonant diffraction into symmetry-prohibited orders of metal gratings,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 51(12), 6600209 (2015).
[Crossref]

Soref, R.

M. Shahzad, G. Medhi, R. E. Peale, W. R. Buchwald, J. W. Cleary, R. Soref, G. D. Boreman, and O. Edwards, “Infrared surface plasmons on heavily doped silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(12), 123105 (2011).
[Crossref]

Stockman, M. I.

D. J. Bergman and M. I. Stockman, “Surface plasmon amplification by stimulated emission of radiation: quantum generation of coherent surface plasmons in nanosystems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(2), 027402 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Streyer, W.

Sweatlock, L. A.

J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Planar metal plasmon waveguides: frequency-dependent dispersion, propagation, localization, and loss beyond the free electron model,” Phys. Rev. B 72(7), 075405 (2005).
[Crossref]

Taliercio, T.

V. N’Tsame Guilengui, L. Cerutti, J. B. Rodriguez, E. Tournié, and T. Taliercio, “Localized surface plasmon resonances in highly doped semiconductors nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(16), 161113 (2012).
[Crossref]

Taylor, A. M.

Thio, T.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[Crossref]

Tischler, J. G.

J. D. Caldwell, I. Vurgaftman, J. G. Tischler, O. J. Glembocki, J. C. Owrutsky, and T. L. Reinecke, “Atomic-scale photonic hybrids for mid-infrared and terahertz nanophotonics,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 11(1), 9–15 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tournié, E.

V. N’Tsame Guilengui, L. Cerutti, J. B. Rodriguez, E. Tournié, and T. Taliercio, “Localized surface plasmon resonances in highly doped semiconductors nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(16), 161113 (2012).
[Crossref]

Van Duyne, R. P.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vurgaftman, I.

J. D. Caldwell, I. Vurgaftman, J. G. Tischler, O. J. Glembocki, J. C. Owrutsky, and T. L. Reinecke, “Atomic-scale photonic hybrids for mid-infrared and terahertz nanophotonics,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 11(1), 9–15 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Walukiewicz, W.

W. Walukiewicz, J. Lagowski, L. Jastrzebski, P. Rava, M. Lichtensteiger, C. H. Gatos, and H. C. Gatos, “Electron mobility and free‐carrier absorption in InP; determination of the compensation ratio,” J. Appl. Phys. 51(5), 2659–2668 (1980).
[Crossref]

Wasserman, D.

Y. Zhong, S. D. Malagari, T. Hamilton, and D. Wasserman, “Review of mid-infrared plasmonic materials,” J. Nanophotonics 9(1), 093791 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Law, R. Liu, and D. Wasserman, “Doped semiconductors with band-edge plasma frequencies,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 32(5), 052601 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Law, L. Yu, A. Rosenberg, and D. Wasserman, “All-semiconductor plasmonic nanoantennas for infrared sensing,” Nano Lett. 13(9), 4569–4574 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Law, V. Podolskiy, and D. Wasserman, “Towards nano-scale photonics with micro-scale photons: The opportunities and challenges of mid-infrared plasmonics,” Nanophotonics 2(2), 103–130 (2013).
[Crossref]

W. Streyer, S. Law, G. Rooney, T. Jacobs, and D. Wasserman, “Strong absorption and selective emission from engineered metals with dielectric coatings,” Opt. Express 21(7), 9113–9122 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zhong, P. B. Dongmo, L. Gong, S. Law, B. Chase, D. Wasserman, and J. M. O. Zide, “Degenerately doped InGaBiAs:Si as a highly conductive and transparent contact material in the infrared range,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(8), 1197–1204 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Law, D. C. Adams, A. M. Taylor, and D. Wasserman, “Mid-infrared designer metals,” Opt. Express 20(11), 12155–12165 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Anglin, T. Ribaudo, D. C. Adams, X. Qian, W. D. Goodhue, S. Dooley, E. A. Shaner, and D. Wasserman, “Voltage-controlled active mid-infrared plasmonic devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(12), 123103 (2011).
[Crossref]

West, P. R.

P. R. West, S. Ishii, G. V. Naik, N. K. Emani, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Boltasseva, “Searching for better plasmonic materials,” Laser Photonics Rev. 4(6), 795–808 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wolff, P. A.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[Crossref]

Wu, Q. H.

I. J. Hodgkinson, S. Kassam, and Q. H. Wu, “Eigenequations and compact algorithms for bulk and layered anisotropic optical media: reflection and refraction at a crystal-crystal interface,” J. Comput. Phys. 133(1), 75–83 (1997).
[Crossref]

Xiao, S.

M. E. Aryaee Panah, S. Xiao, A. V. Lavrinenko, and E. S. Semenova, “Overcoming doping limits in MOVPE grown n-doped InP for plasmonic applications,” in 16th European Workshop on Metalorganic Vapour Phase Epitaxy (2015).

Xu, X. G.

Ch. Giesen, X. G. Xu, R. Hovel, M. Heuken, and K. Heime, “Silicon doping of InP grown by MOVPE using tertiarybutylphosphine,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials (1997), pp. 47–50.
[Crossref]

Yang, S.

R. M. Ma, S. Ota, Y. Li, S. Yang, and X. Zhang, “Explosives detection in a lasing plasmon nanocavity,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(8), 600–604 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, L.

S. Law, L. Yu, A. Rosenberg, and D. Wasserman, “All-semiconductor plasmonic nanoantennas for infrared sensing,” Nano Lett. 13(9), 4569–4574 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

R. M. Ma, S. Ota, Y. Li, S. Yang, and X. Zhang, “Explosives detection in a lasing plasmon nanocavity,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(8), 600–604 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, J.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhong, Y.

Zide, J. M. O.

Adv. Mater. (1)

G. V. Naik, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Boltasseva, “Alternative plasmonic materials: beyond gold and silver,” Adv. Mater. 25(24), 3264–3294 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

V. N’Tsame Guilengui, L. Cerutti, J. B. Rodriguez, E. Tournié, and T. Taliercio, “Localized surface plasmon resonances in highly doped semiconductors nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(16), 161113 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chem. Rev. (1)

J. Homola, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors for detection of chemical and biological species,” Chem. Rev. 108(2), 462–493 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

I. Avrutsky, C. W. Smith, J. W. Cleary, and J. R. Hendrickson, “Resonant diffraction into symmetry-prohibited orders of metal gratings,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 51(12), 6600209 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (4)

K. Anglin, T. Ribaudo, D. C. Adams, X. Qian, W. D. Goodhue, S. Dooley, E. A. Shaner, and D. Wasserman, “Voltage-controlled active mid-infrared plasmonic devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(12), 123103 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Shahzad, G. Medhi, R. E. Peale, W. R. Buchwald, J. W. Cleary, R. Soref, G. D. Boreman, and O. Edwards, “Infrared surface plasmons on heavily doped silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(12), 123105 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. C. Ginn, R. L. Jarecki, E. A. Shaner, and P. S. Davids, “Infrared plasmons on heavily-doped silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(4), 043110 (2011).
[Crossref]

W. Walukiewicz, J. Lagowski, L. Jastrzebski, P. Rava, M. Lichtensteiger, C. H. Gatos, and H. C. Gatos, “Electron mobility and free‐carrier absorption in InP; determination of the compensation ratio,” J. Appl. Phys. 51(5), 2659–2668 (1980).
[Crossref]

J. Comput. Phys. (1)

I. J. Hodgkinson, S. Kassam, and Q. H. Wu, “Eigenequations and compact algorithms for bulk and layered anisotropic optical media: reflection and refraction at a crystal-crystal interface,” J. Comput. Phys. 133(1), 75–83 (1997).
[Crossref]

J. Nanophotonics (2)

Y. Zhong, S. D. Malagari, T. Hamilton, and D. Wasserman, “Review of mid-infrared plasmonic materials,” J. Nanophotonics 9(1), 093791 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Biagioni, J. Frigerio, A. Samarelli, K. Gallacher, L. Baldassarre, E. Sakat, E. Calandrini, R. W. Millar, V. Giliberti, G. Isella, D. J. Paul, and M. Ortolani, “Group-IV midinfrared plasmonics,” J. Nanophotonics 9(1), 093789 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (1)

S. Law, R. Liu, and D. Wasserman, “Doped semiconductors with band-edge plasma frequencies,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 32(5), 052601 (2014).
[Crossref]

Laser Photonics Rev. (1)

P. R. West, S. Ishii, G. V. Naik, N. K. Emani, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Boltasseva, “Searching for better plasmonic materials,” Laser Photonics Rev. 4(6), 795–808 (2010).
[Crossref]

MRS Bull. (1)

A. Boltasseva, “Empowering plasmonics and metamaterials technology with new material platforms,” MRS Bull. 39(5), 461–468 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (1)

S. Law, L. Yu, A. Rosenberg, and D. Wasserman, “All-semiconductor plasmonic nanoantennas for infrared sensing,” Nano Lett. 13(9), 4569–4574 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nanophotonics (1)

S. Law, V. Podolskiy, and D. Wasserman, “Towards nano-scale photonics with micro-scale photons: The opportunities and challenges of mid-infrared plasmonics,” Nanophotonics 2(2), 103–130 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nanotechnology (1)

A. S. Kuznetsov, P. Schäfer, W. John, D. Prasai, S. Sadofev, and S. Kalusniak, “Enabling novel functionality in heavily doped ZnO:Ga by nanostructuring: an efficient plasmonic refractive index sensor,” Nanotechnology 27(2), 02LT02 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (3)

H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 205–213 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Sachet, C. T. Shelton, J. S. Harris, B. E. Gaddy, D. L. Irving, S. Curtarolo, B. F. Donovan, P. E. Hopkins, P. A. Sharma, A. L. Sharma, J. Ihlefeld, S. Franzen, and J. P. Maria, “Dysprosium-doped cadmium oxide as a gateway material for mid-infrared plasmonics,” Nat. Mater. 14(4), 414–420 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Nanotechnol. (2)

J. D. Caldwell, I. Vurgaftman, J. G. Tischler, O. J. Glembocki, J. C. Owrutsky, and T. L. Reinecke, “Atomic-scale photonic hybrids for mid-infrared and terahertz nanophotonics,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 11(1), 9–15 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. M. Ma, S. Ota, Y. Li, S. Yang, and X. Zhang, “Explosives detection in a lasing plasmon nanocavity,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(8), 600–604 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

A. N. Grigorenko, M. Polini, and K. S. Novoselov, “Graphene plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics 6(11), 749–758 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[Crossref]

Opt. Acta (Lond.) (1)

C. J. Gabriel and A. Nedoluha, “Transmittance and reflectance of systems of thin and thick layers,” Opt. Acta (Lond.) 18(6), 415–423 (1971).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Mater. Express (2)

Phys. Rev. B (2)

J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Planar metal plasmon waveguides: frequency-dependent dispersion, propagation, localization, and loss beyond the free electron model,” Phys. Rev. B 72(7), 075405 (2005).
[Crossref]

I. Epstein, I. Dolev, D. Bar-Lev, and A. Arie, “Plasmon-enhanced Bragg diffraction,” Phys. Rev. B 86(20), 205122 (2012).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

D. J. Bergman and M. I. Stockman, “Surface plasmon amplification by stimulated emission of radiation: quantum generation of coherent surface plasmons in nanosystems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(2), 027402 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, “Negative refraction makes a perfect lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(18), 3966–3969 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (1)

D. Rodrigo, O. Limaj, D. Janner, D. Etezadi, F. J. García de Abajo, V. Pruneri, and H. Altug, “Mid-infrared plasmonic biosensing with graphene,” Science 349(6244), 165–168 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (6)

S. A. Maier, Plasmonics: Fundamentals and Applications (Springer, 2007).

M. Sánchez-López, I. Moreno, and A. Martínez-García, “Teaching diffraction gratings by means of a phasor analysis,” in Proceedings of Education and Training in Optics and Photonics (2009), pp. 1–12.

W. H. Press, B. P. Flannery, S. A. Teukolsky, and W. T. Vetterling, Numerical Recipes (Cambridge University, 1986).

Ch. Giesen, X. G. Xu, R. Hovel, M. Heuken, and K. Heime, “Silicon doping of InP grown by MOVPE using tertiarybutylphosphine,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials (1997), pp. 47–50.
[Crossref]

M. E. Aryaee Panah, S. Xiao, A. V. Lavrinenko, and E. S. Semenova, “Overcoming doping limits in MOVPE grown n-doped InP for plasmonic applications,” in 16th European Workshop on Metalorganic Vapour Phase Epitaxy (2015).

COMSOL Multiphysics® v. 5.0. www.comsol.com . COMSOL AB, Stockholm, Sweden.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Measured (dotted) and fitted (solid) reflectance spectra from bare substrates (left) and grown samples (right)

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Real and (b) imaginary parts of the permittivities, (c) real and (d) imaginary parts of refractive indices of sample 1 (blue solid lines), 2 (blue dashed lines), substrate of the sample 1 (red solid lines) and the substrate of the sample 2 (red dashed lines) from Table 2.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Real and (b) imaginary part of the permittivities of InP:Si (sample 1) from Table 2 as well as n- ( λ p =4.47 µm) and p-doped Si ( λ p =5.75 µm) [22], n-InSb ( λ p =6.84 µm and λ p =10.21 µm) [33], and n-InAs with λ p =8.5 µm and λ p =10.1 µm [34]. (c) propagation length, L p , (d) localization, δ spp , (e) figure of merit, Re ( ε ) 2 /Im( ε ) and (f) figure of merit, L p / δ spp in comparison with other doped semiconductors.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Illustration of Ge prism/Air gap/InP:Si/InP:S substrate structure with air gap of 400 nm and 400 nm thick InP:Si layer. (b) Simulated and (c) measured reflectance from the structure under consideration. In (b), the dispersion of plasmons supported at the air gap/InP:Si interface (blue diamond) and those at the InP:Si/InP:S substrate interface (red circle) are shown to clarify the origin of two plasmons.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

SEM image of the fabricated grating structure, inset: simulated electric field map for θ in = 32 .

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Experimental and (b) simulated reflectance map from the grating

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Mode 0 reflection from the grating. θ in = θ out = 32 (b) mode −2 reflection from the grating. θ in = 32 and θ out = 5 .

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Optimized growth conditions of the samples

Tables Icon

Table 2 Fitted parameters of the D-L dielectric function

Equations (10)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ε( ω )= ε ( 1 ω p 2 ω 2 +iωγ )+ j S j ω f,j 2 ω f,j 2 ω 2 iω Γ j .
k spp = k 0 ε m ε d ε m + ε d
L p = ( 2Im[ k spp ] ) 1 .
δ d/m = ( 2π k spp 2 ε d/m k 0 2 ) 1 .
FOM 1 = L p / δ spp
FOM 2 =Re ( ε ) 2 /Im( ε )
k out =m k g k in ,
k spp =n k g + k in
k out =m k g k spp
k out =( mn ) k g k in ,

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