Abstract

This study aims to investigate the white perception of mobile display devices under dark-adapted and chromatic-adapted conditions. The white perception was modeled with error ellipses and bivariate Gaussian distributions. The dark-adapted white encompassed a rather large area centered around 7300 K, slightly above the Planckian locus. The chromatic-adapted whites were highly dependent on the ambient illuminant, and were not parallel to the Planckian locus. Combined, the white region encompassing 6179 to 7479 K in correlated color temperature and −0.0038 to 0.0144 in Duv was suggested. The results of this study are expected to be the basis for enhanced white appearance on mobile display devices.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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2016 (1)

2015 (3)

2014 (3)

K. Choi and H. J. Suk, “User-preferred color temperature adjustment for smartphone display under varying illuminants,” Opt. Eng. 53(6), 061708 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Chauhan, E. Perales, K. Xiao, E. Hird, D. Karatzas, and S. Wuerger, “The achromatic locus: effect of navigation direction in color space,” J. Vis. 14(1), 25 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. G. Kevin, D. Geert, and H. Peter, “Chromaticity of unique white in object mode,” Opt. Express 22(21), 25830–25841 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (1)

M. Rea and J. Freyssinier, “White lighting,” Color Res. Appl. 38(2), 82–92 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

2011 (1)

K. Smet, W. R. Ryckaert, M. R. Pointer, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “Colour appearance rating of familiar real objects,” Color Res. Appl. 36(3), 192–200 (2011).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

N. Katoh, K. Nakabayashi, M. Ito, and S. Ohno, “Effect of ambient light on the color appearance of softcopy images: Mixed chromatic adaptation for self-luminous displays,” J. Electron. Imaging 7(4), 794–806 (1998).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

J. Walraven and J. S. Werner, “The invariance of unique white; a possible implication for normalizing cone action spectra,” Vision Res. 31(12), 2185–2193 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1975 (2)

R. Hunt and L. Winter, “Colour adaptation in picture-viewing situations,” J. Phot. Sci. 23(3), 112–116 (1975).

Å. S. Stenius, “Optimal colors and luminous fluorescence of bluish whites,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65(2), 213–216 (1975).
[Crossref]

1970 (1)

1951 (1)

1948 (1)

1933 (1)

1921 (1)

Cai, J.

Chauhan, T.

T. Chauhan, E. Perales, K. Xiao, E. Hird, D. Karatzas, and S. Wuerger, “The achromatic locus: effect of navigation direction in color space,” J. Vis. 14(1), 25 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choi, K.

K. Choi and H. J. Suk, “A comparative study of psychophysical judgment of color reproductions on mobile displays between Europeans and Asians,” Proc. SPIE 9395, 93950T (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Choi and H. J. Suk, “User-preferred color temperature adjustment for smartphone display under varying illuminants,” Opt. Eng. 53(6), 061708 (2014).
[Crossref]

Deconinck, G.

K. A. Smet, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “Chromaticity of unique white in illumination mode,” Opt. Express 23(10), 12488–12495 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Smet, W. Ryckaert, M. R. Pointer, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “A memory colour quality metric for white light sources,” Energy Build. 49, 216–225 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. Smet, W. R. Ryckaert, M. R. Pointer, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “Colour appearance rating of familiar real objects,” Color Res. Appl. 36(3), 192–200 (2011).
[Crossref]

Fein, M.

Y. Ohno and M. Fein, “Vision experiment on white light chromaticity for lighting,” in Proceedings of the CIE 2014 Lighting Quality and Energy Efficiency (CIE, 2013), pp. 192–199.

Feng, X.

Freyssinier, J.

M. Rea and J. Freyssinier, “White lighting,” Color Res. Appl. 38(2), 82–92 (2013).
[Crossref]

Geert, D.

Han, Q.

Hanselaer, P.

K. A. Smet, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “Chromaticity of unique white in illumination mode,” Opt. Express 23(10), 12488–12495 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Smet, W. Ryckaert, M. R. Pointer, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “A memory colour quality metric for white light sources,” Energy Build. 49, 216–225 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. Smet, W. R. Ryckaert, M. R. Pointer, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “Colour appearance rating of familiar real objects,” Color Res. Appl. 36(3), 192–200 (2011).
[Crossref]

Helson, H.

Hird, E.

T. Chauhan, E. Perales, K. Xiao, E. Hird, D. Karatzas, and S. Wuerger, “The achromatic locus: effect of navigation direction in color space,” J. Vis. 14(1), 25 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Honjyo, K.

Hsieh, Y. F.

Huang, T. W.

Hunt, R.

R. Hunt and L. Winter, “Colour adaptation in picture-viewing situations,” J. Phot. Sci. 23(3), 112–116 (1975).

Hurvich, L. M.

Ito, M.

N. Katoh, K. Nakabayashi, M. Ito, and S. Ohno, “Effect of ambient light on the color appearance of softcopy images: Mixed chromatic adaptation for self-luminous displays,” J. Electron. Imaging 7(4), 794–806 (1998).
[Crossref]

Jameson, D.

Karatzas, D.

T. Chauhan, E. Perales, K. Xiao, E. Hird, D. Karatzas, and S. Wuerger, “The achromatic locus: effect of navigation direction in color space,” J. Vis. 14(1), 25 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Katoh, N.

N. Katoh, K. Nakabayashi, M. Ito, and S. Ohno, “Effect of ambient light on the color appearance of softcopy images: Mixed chromatic adaptation for self-luminous displays,” J. Electron. Imaging 7(4), 794–806 (1998).
[Crossref]

Kevin, A. G.

Lee, C. C.

Michels, W. C.

Muthu, S.

S. Muthu, F. J. Schuurmans, and M. D. Pashley, “Red, green, and blue LED based white light generation: issues and control,” in Proceedings of the Industry Applications Conference (IEEE, 2002), pp. 327–333.
[Crossref]

Nakabayashi, K.

N. Katoh, K. Nakabayashi, M. Ito, and S. Ohno, “Effect of ambient light on the color appearance of softcopy images: Mixed chromatic adaptation for self-luminous displays,” J. Electron. Imaging 7(4), 794–806 (1998).
[Crossref]

Nonaka, M.

Ohno, S.

N. Katoh, K. Nakabayashi, M. Ito, and S. Ohno, “Effect of ambient light on the color appearance of softcopy images: Mixed chromatic adaptation for self-luminous displays,” J. Electron. Imaging 7(4), 794–806 (1998).
[Crossref]

Ohno, Y.

Y. Ohno and M. Fein, “Vision experiment on white light chromaticity for lighting,” in Proceedings of the CIE 2014 Lighting Quality and Energy Efficiency (CIE, 2013), pp. 192–199.

Ou-Yang, M.

Pashley, M. D.

S. Muthu, F. J. Schuurmans, and M. D. Pashley, “Red, green, and blue LED based white light generation: issues and control,” in Proceedings of the Industry Applications Conference (IEEE, 2002), pp. 327–333.
[Crossref]

Perales, E.

T. Chauhan, E. Perales, K. Xiao, E. Hird, D. Karatzas, and S. Wuerger, “The achromatic locus: effect of navigation direction in color space,” J. Vis. 14(1), 25 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Peter, H.

Pointer, M. R.

K. Smet, W. Ryckaert, M. R. Pointer, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “A memory colour quality metric for white light sources,” Energy Build. 49, 216–225 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. Smet, W. R. Ryckaert, M. R. Pointer, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “Colour appearance rating of familiar real objects,” Color Res. Appl. 36(3), 192–200 (2011).
[Crossref]

Priest, I. G.

Rea, M.

M. Rea and J. Freyssinier, “White lighting,” Color Res. Appl. 38(2), 82–92 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ryckaert, W.

K. Smet, W. Ryckaert, M. R. Pointer, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “A memory colour quality metric for white light sources,” Energy Build. 49, 216–225 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ryckaert, W. R.

K. Smet, W. R. Ryckaert, M. R. Pointer, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “Colour appearance rating of familiar real objects,” Color Res. Appl. 36(3), 192–200 (2011).
[Crossref]

Schuurmans, F. J.

S. Muthu, F. J. Schuurmans, and M. D. Pashley, “Red, green, and blue LED based white light generation: issues and control,” in Proceedings of the Industry Applications Conference (IEEE, 2002), pp. 327–333.
[Crossref]

Smet, K.

K. Smet, W. Ryckaert, M. R. Pointer, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “A memory colour quality metric for white light sources,” Energy Build. 49, 216–225 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. Smet, W. R. Ryckaert, M. R. Pointer, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “Colour appearance rating of familiar real objects,” Color Res. Appl. 36(3), 192–200 (2011).
[Crossref]

Smet, K. A.

Stenius, Å. S.

Suk, H. J.

K. Choi and H. J. Suk, “A comparative study of psychophysical judgment of color reproductions on mobile displays between Europeans and Asians,” Proc. SPIE 9395, 93950T (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Choi and H. J. Suk, “User-preferred color temperature adjustment for smartphone display under varying illuminants,” Opt. Eng. 53(6), 061708 (2014).
[Crossref]

Walraven, J.

J. Walraven and J. S. Werner, “The invariance of unique white; a possible implication for normalizing cone action spectra,” Vision Res. 31(12), 2185–2193 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Q.

Werner, J. S.

J. Walraven and J. S. Werner, “The invariance of unique white; a possible implication for normalizing cone action spectra,” Vision Res. 31(12), 2185–2193 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Winter, L.

R. Hunt and L. Winter, “Colour adaptation in picture-viewing situations,” J. Phot. Sci. 23(3), 112–116 (1975).

Wuerger, S.

T. Chauhan, E. Perales, K. Xiao, E. Hird, D. Karatzas, and S. Wuerger, “The achromatic locus: effect of navigation direction in color space,” J. Vis. 14(1), 25 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xiao, K.

T. Chauhan, E. Perales, K. Xiao, E. Hird, D. Karatzas, and S. Wuerger, “The achromatic locus: effect of navigation direction in color space,” J. Vis. 14(1), 25 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, H.

Xu, W.

Zhang, S.

Chin. Opt. Lett. (1)

Color Res. Appl. (2)

K. Smet, W. R. Ryckaert, M. R. Pointer, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “Colour appearance rating of familiar real objects,” Color Res. Appl. 36(3), 192–200 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Rea and J. Freyssinier, “White lighting,” Color Res. Appl. 38(2), 82–92 (2013).
[Crossref]

Energy Build. (1)

K. Smet, W. Ryckaert, M. R. Pointer, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “A memory colour quality metric for white light sources,” Energy Build. 49, 216–225 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Electron. Imaging (1)

N. Katoh, K. Nakabayashi, M. Ito, and S. Ohno, “Effect of ambient light on the color appearance of softcopy images: Mixed chromatic adaptation for self-luminous displays,” J. Electron. Imaging 7(4), 794–806 (1998).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (6)

J. Phot. Sci. (1)

R. Hunt and L. Winter, “Colour adaptation in picture-viewing situations,” J. Phot. Sci. 23(3), 112–116 (1975).

J. Vis. (1)

T. Chauhan, E. Perales, K. Xiao, E. Hird, D. Karatzas, and S. Wuerger, “The achromatic locus: effect of navigation direction in color space,” J. Vis. 14(1), 25 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Eng. (1)

K. Choi and H. J. Suk, “User-preferred color temperature adjustment for smartphone display under varying illuminants,” Opt. Eng. 53(6), 061708 (2014).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (4)

Proc. SPIE (1)

K. Choi and H. J. Suk, “A comparative study of psychophysical judgment of color reproductions on mobile displays between Europeans and Asians,” Proc. SPIE 9395, 93950T (2015).
[Crossref]

Vision Res. (1)

J. Walraven and J. S. Werner, “The invariance of unique white; a possible implication for normalizing cone action spectra,” Vision Res. 31(12), 2185–2193 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (12)

ISO, “Lighting of indoor work places,” ISO 8995: 2002 (International Organization for Standardization, 2002).

S. Muthu, F. J. Schuurmans, and M. D. Pashley, “Red, green, and blue LED based white light generation: issues and control,” in Proceedings of the Industry Applications Conference (IEEE, 2002), pp. 327–333.
[Crossref]

M. D. Fairchild, Color Appearance Models (John Wiley & Sons, 2013).

G. Sharma and R. Bala, Digital Color Imaging Handbook (CRC, 2002).

B. Silverstone, M. A. Lang, B. Rosenthal, and E. E. Faye, The Lighthouse Handbook on Vision Impairment and Vision Rehabilitation (Oxford University, 2000).

ISO, “Ergonomics of the thermal environment,” ISO 7730: 2005 (International Organization for Standardization, 2005).

K. Plataniotis and A. N. Venetsanopoulos, Color Image Processing and Applications (Springer, 2000).

M. Langford and E. Bilissi, Langford's Advanced Photography (Taylor & Francis, 2011).

A. Van Hurkman, Color Correction Handbook: Professional Techniques for Video and Cinema (Pearson Education, 2013).

ANSI, “American national standard for electric lamps–Specifications for the chromaticity of solid state lighting (SSL) products,” ANSI C78.377–2015 (American National Standard Institute, 2015).

Y. Ohno and M. Fein, “Vision experiment on white light chromaticity for lighting,” in Proceedings of the CIE 2014 Lighting Quality and Energy Efficiency (CIE, 2013), pp. 192–199.

CIE, “Colours of light signals,” CIE S 004/E-2001 (International Commission on Illumination, 2001).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) A reading article composed of black texts on a white background; (b) a total of 96 chromaticity points at 15 different CCTs and at seven different Duv levels in the CIE 1976 u’ v’ chromaticity.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental environment with a viewing distance of approximately 30 cm. The measured illuminance at the subject’s position was less than 1 lux when the tablet computer was turned off. The participants were instructed to put on achromatic, grayish gloves.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Bivariate Gaussian distribution and its elliptical contours, as obtained by fitting the full data set in the CIE 1976 u’ v’ chromaticity. The mean ratings for each chromaticity point are also shown as dots to visualize the goodness of fit.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The one-standard-deviation error ellipse and the 50% bivariate Gaussian ellipse are plotted as dashed and solid lines, respectively. The centers of the two respective ellipses are marked with a circle and a cross. The ANSI C78.377 and CIE S 004 are also shown, along with the Planckian and daylight loci.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Experimental room equipped with an LED luminous ceiling; (b) spectral power distributions of the 11 lightings used in the experiments at each CCT condition.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The experimental data were compared with the corresponding data predicted by CIECAM02. The centers of error ellipses and bivariate Gaussian distributions are plotted with hollow and filled triangles, respectively. The ambient illuminants and CIECAM02 predictions are marked with circles and crosses.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

50% bivariate Gaussian ellipses fitted for 2540 K lighting plotted as a dashed line with a circle center, and 19280 K lighting plotted as a solid line with a cross center. The ANSI C78.377 and CIE S 004 are also shown, along with the Planckian and daylight loci.

Tables (6)

Tables Icon

Table 1 The average CCT (K), luminance (cd/m2), and x, y, u’, and v’ values at each CCT group

Tables Icon

Table 2 The size of the major and minor axis, the center, the angle of rotation, and the area of ellipse

Tables Icon

Table 3 Fitting parameters a1-6 of the bivariate Gaussian distribution, and the u’, v’, CCT, and Duv of the center

Tables Icon

Table 4 The CCT (K), illuminance (lux), Duv, u’, v’, and color-rendering index (CRI) of the 11 lightings

Tables Icon

Table 5 The size of the major and minor axes, the center, the angle of rotation, and the area of each ellipse

Tables Icon

Table 6 Fitting parameters a1-6 and the u’, v’, CCT, and Duv of the center of each bivariate Gaussian distribution

Equations (1)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

S whiteness = a 6 e 0.5[ a 1 ( u a 3 ) 2 + a 2 ( v a 4 ) 2 +2 a 5 ( u a 3 )( v a 4 )] ,

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