Abstract

A simple and ultra-compact integrated optical vortex beam receiver device is presented. The device is based on the coupling between the optical vortex modes and whispering gallery modes in a micro-ring resonator via embedded angular gratings, which provides the selective reception of optical vortex modes with definitive total angular momentum (summation of spin and orbital angular momentum) through the phase matching condition in the coupling process. Experimental characterization confirms the correct detection of the total angular momentum carried by the vortex beams incident on the device. In addition, photonic spin-controlled unidirectional excitation of whispering-gallery modes in the ring receiver is also observed, and utilized to differentiate between left- and right-circular polarizations and therefore unambiguously identify the orbital angular momentum of incident light. Such characteristics provide an effective mode-selective receiver for the eigen-modes in orbital angular momentum fiber transmission where the circularly polarized OAM modes can be used as data communications channels in multiplexed communications or as photonic states in quantum information applications.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (2)

N. Zhang, K. Cicek, J. Zhu, S. Li, H. Li, M. Sorel, X. Cai, and S. Yu, “Manipulating optical vortices using integrated photonics,” Front. Optoelectron. 9(2), 194–205 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Wang, P. Vaity, S. Chatigny, Y. Messaddeq, L. A. Rusch, and S. LaRochelle, “Orbital-angular-momentum polarization mode dispersion in optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(8), 1661–1671 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (5)

P. Vaity and L. Rusch, “Perfect vortex beam: Fourier transformation of a Bessel beam,” Opt. Lett. 40(4), 597–600 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Y. Bliokh and F. Nori, “Transverse and longitudinal angular momenta of light,” Phys. Rep. 592, 1–38 (2015).
[Crossref]

N. Zhao, X. Li, G. Li, and J. M. Kahn, “Capacity limits of spatially multiplexed free-space communication,” Nat. Photonics 9(12), 822–826 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Huang, G. Milione, M. P. J. Lavery, G. Xie, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, T. An Nguyen, D. A. Nolan, M.-J. Li, M. Tur, R. R. Alfano, and A. E. Willner, “Mode division multiplexing using an orbital angular momentum mode sorter and MIMO-DSP over a graded-index few-mode optical fibre,” Sci. Rep. 5, 14931 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (6)

Y. Yan, G. Xie, M. P. J. Lavery, H. Huang, N. Ahmed, C. Bao, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, L. Li, Z. Zhao, A. F. Molisch, M. Tur, M. J. Padgett, and A. E. Willner, “High-capacity millimetre-wave communications with orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4876 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Petersen, J. Volz, and A. Rauschenbeutel, “Chiral nanophotonic waveguide interface based on spin-orbit interaction of light,” Science 346(6205), 67–71 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Strain, X. Cai, J. Wang, J. Zhu, D. B. Phillips, L. Chen, M. Lopez-Garcia, J. L. O’Brien, M. G. Thompson, M. Sorel, and S. Yu, “Fast electrical switching of orbital angular momentum modes using ultra-compact integrated vortex emitters,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4856 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Guan, R. P. Scott, C. Qin, N. K. Fontaine, T. Su, C. Ferrari, M. Cappuzzo, F. Klemens, B. Keller, M. Earnshaw, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Free-space coherent optical communication with orbital angular, momentum multiplexing/demultiplexing using a hybrid 3D photonic integrated circuit,” Opt. Express 22(1), 145–156 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Huang, Y. Ren, G. Xie, Y. Yan, Y. Yue, N. Ahmed, M. P. J. Lavery, M. J. Padgett, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Tunable orbital angular momentum mode filter based on optical geometric transformation,” Opt. Lett. 39(6), 1689–1692 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Zhu, Y. Chen, Y. Zhang, X. Cai, and S. Yu, “Spin and orbital angular momentum and their conversion in cylindrical vector vortices,” Opt. Lett. 39(15), 4435–4438 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (5)

J. Zhu, X. Cai, Y. Chen, and S. Yu, “Theoretical model for angular grating-based integrated optical vortex beam emitters,” Opt. Lett. 38(8), 1343–1345 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. A. Schulz, T. Machula, E. Karimi, and R. W. Boyd, “Integrated multi vector vortex beam generator,” Opt. Express 21(13), 16130–16141 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Richardson, J. Fini, and L. E. Nelson, “Space-division multiplexing in optical fibres,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 354–362 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Koenig, D. Lopez-Diaz, J. Antes, F. Boes, R. Henneberger, A. Leuther, A. Tessmann, R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, R. Palmer, T. Zwick, C. Koos, W. Freude, O. Ambacher, J. Leuthold, and I. Kallfass, “Wireless sub-THz communication system with high data rate,” Nat. Photonics 7(12), 977–981 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (4)

F. Tamburini, E. Mari, A. Sponselli, F. Romanato, B. Thidé, A. Bianchini, L. Palmieri, and C. G. Someda, “Encoding many channels on the same frequency through radio vorticity: first experimental test,” New J. Phys. 14(3), 033001 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

X. Cai, J. Wang, M. J. Strain, B. Johnson-Morris, J. Zhu, M. Sorel, J. L. O’Brien, M. G. Thompson, and S. Yu, “Integrated compact optical vortex beam emitters,” Science 338(6105), 363–366 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Zhang, X. Feng, and Y. Huang, “Encoding and decoding of orbital angular momentum for wireless optical interconnects on chip,” Opt. Express 20(24), 26986–26995 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

A. M. Yao and M. J. Padgett, “Orbital angular momentum: origins, behavior and applications,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 3(2), 161–204 (2011).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

J. T. Barreiro, T. Wei, and P. G. Kwiat, “Beating the channel capacity limit for linear photonic superdense coding,” Nat. Phys. 4(4), 282–286 (2008).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

R. Zambrini and S. M. Barnett, “Quasi-intrinsic angular momentum and the measurement of its spectrum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(11), 113901 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

T. Ohgane, T. Nishimura, and Y. Ogawa, “Applications of space division multiplexing and those performance in a MIMO channel,” IEICE Trans. Commun. E88-B(5), 1843–1851 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. H. Shapiro, S. Guha, and B. I. Erkmen, “Ultimate channel capacity of free-space optical communications,” J. Opt. Netw. 4(8), 501–516 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

2002 (3)

S. Chavez-Cerda, M. J. Padgett, I. Allison, G. H. C. New, J. C. Gutierrez-Vega, A. T. O’Neil, I. MacVicar, and J. Courtial, “Holographic generation and orbital angular momentum of high-order Mathieu beams,” J. Opt. B 4(2), 52–57 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. Leach, M. J. Padgett, S. M. Barnett, S. Franke-Arnold, and J. Courtial, “Measuring the orbital angular momentum of a single photon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(25), 257901 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. T. O’Neil, I. MacVicar, L. Allen, and M. J. Padgett, “Intrinsic and extrinsic nature of the orbital angular momentum of a light beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(5), 053601 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

A. Mair, A. Vaziri, G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement of the orbital angular momentum states of photons,” Nature 412(6844), 313–316 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45(11), 8185–8189 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ahmed, N.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Huang, G. Milione, M. P. J. Lavery, G. Xie, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, T. An Nguyen, D. A. Nolan, M.-J. Li, M. Tur, R. R. Alfano, and A. E. Willner, “Mode division multiplexing using an orbital angular momentum mode sorter and MIMO-DSP over a graded-index few-mode optical fibre,” Sci. Rep. 5, 14931 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Yan, G. Xie, M. P. J. Lavery, H. Huang, N. Ahmed, C. Bao, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, L. Li, Z. Zhao, A. F. Molisch, M. Tur, M. J. Padgett, and A. E. Willner, “High-capacity millimetre-wave communications with orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4876 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Huang, Y. Ren, G. Xie, Y. Yan, Y. Yue, N. Ahmed, M. P. J. Lavery, M. J. Padgett, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Tunable orbital angular momentum mode filter based on optical geometric transformation,” Opt. Lett. 39(6), 1689–1692 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Alfano, R. R.

H. Huang, G. Milione, M. P. J. Lavery, G. Xie, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, T. An Nguyen, D. A. Nolan, M.-J. Li, M. Tur, R. R. Alfano, and A. E. Willner, “Mode division multiplexing using an orbital angular momentum mode sorter and MIMO-DSP over a graded-index few-mode optical fibre,” Sci. Rep. 5, 14931 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Allen, L.

A. T. O’Neil, I. MacVicar, L. Allen, and M. J. Padgett, “Intrinsic and extrinsic nature of the orbital angular momentum of a light beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(5), 053601 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45(11), 8185–8189 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Allison, I.

S. Chavez-Cerda, M. J. Padgett, I. Allison, G. H. C. New, J. C. Gutierrez-Vega, A. T. O’Neil, I. MacVicar, and J. Courtial, “Holographic generation and orbital angular momentum of high-order Mathieu beams,” J. Opt. B 4(2), 52–57 (2002).
[Crossref]

Ambacher, O.

S. Koenig, D. Lopez-Diaz, J. Antes, F. Boes, R. Henneberger, A. Leuther, A. Tessmann, R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, R. Palmer, T. Zwick, C. Koos, W. Freude, O. Ambacher, J. Leuthold, and I. Kallfass, “Wireless sub-THz communication system with high data rate,” Nat. Photonics 7(12), 977–981 (2013).
[Crossref]

An Nguyen, T.

H. Huang, G. Milione, M. P. J. Lavery, G. Xie, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, T. An Nguyen, D. A. Nolan, M.-J. Li, M. Tur, R. R. Alfano, and A. E. Willner, “Mode division multiplexing using an orbital angular momentum mode sorter and MIMO-DSP over a graded-index few-mode optical fibre,” Sci. Rep. 5, 14931 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Antes, J.

S. Koenig, D. Lopez-Diaz, J. Antes, F. Boes, R. Henneberger, A. Leuther, A. Tessmann, R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, R. Palmer, T. Zwick, C. Koos, W. Freude, O. Ambacher, J. Leuthold, and I. Kallfass, “Wireless sub-THz communication system with high data rate,” Nat. Photonics 7(12), 977–981 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ashrafi, N.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ashrafi, S.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bao, C.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Yan, G. Xie, M. P. J. Lavery, H. Huang, N. Ahmed, C. Bao, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, L. Li, Z. Zhao, A. F. Molisch, M. Tur, M. J. Padgett, and A. E. Willner, “High-capacity millimetre-wave communications with orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4876 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barnett, S.

Barnett, S. M.

R. Zambrini and S. M. Barnett, “Quasi-intrinsic angular momentum and the measurement of its spectrum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(11), 113901 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Leach, M. J. Padgett, S. M. Barnett, S. Franke-Arnold, and J. Courtial, “Measuring the orbital angular momentum of a single photon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(25), 257901 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barreiro, J. T.

J. T. Barreiro, T. Wei, and P. G. Kwiat, “Beating the channel capacity limit for linear photonic superdense coding,” Nat. Phys. 4(4), 282–286 (2008).
[Crossref]

Beijersbergen, M. W.

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45(11), 8185–8189 (1992).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic of the angular-grating based integrated optical vortex beam receiver, and the spiral phase front shown as the incident optical vortex carrying OAM. (b) Schematic of this receiver operating in the emitter mode.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 A typical emission spectral response from a R = 14.5 μm device. The topological charges of the emitted vortices are marked red/blue if CW/CCW WGMs are excited with light injected from the Port B/A. The characteristic split peaks in the center indicating the l TC =0 output [20].
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Normalized intensity of received TAM charge from Port A ( l A ) in case of (a) LCP and (b) RCP incident beams carrying seven different OAM charges l i .
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Microscopic picture of the device with R = 14.5 μm. (b) Emission spectrum and the topological charges at each resonant wavelength. (c) Experimental setup for receiver characterization. SLM: spatial light modulator, BS: beam splitter, QWP: quarter wave plate, LP: linear polarizer, OL: objective lens, DUT: device under test, TL: tunable laser, PD: photo detector, CM: infrared camera, SMF: single-mode fiber, PC: polarization controller, EDFA: Erbium-doped fiber amplifier. Insets: (i) phase pattern for the generation of perfect vortex of l i =+3 ; (ii) intensity profile of the perfect vortex beam incident on the DUT; (iii) near-field intensity distribution of the DUT when it operates as an emitter with light seeded from the Port A.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Received spectra of three RCP vortices of different charges when detecting from the Port A: (a) l i =+3 , (b) l i =+4 , (c) l i =+5 .

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Normalized received power (dB) from Port A with incident LCP and RCP OAM beams.

Equations (4)

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l TC =psign(p)q
p CW = l TC q
p CCW = l TC +q
l i = l A,B σ i

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