Abstract

Ultra-high intensity (> 1018 W/cm2), femtosecond (~30 fs) laser induced fast electron transport in a transparent dielectric has been studied for two laser systems having three orders of magnitude different peak to pedestal intensity contrast, using ultrafast time-resolved shadowgraphy. Use of a 400 nm femtosecond pulse as a probe enables the exclusive visualization of the dynamics of highest density electrons (> 7 × 1021 cm−3) observed so far. High picosecond contrast (~109) results in greater coupling of peak laser energy to the plasma electrons, enabling long (~1 mm), collimated (divergence angle ~2°) transport of fast electrons inside the dielectric medium at relativistic speeds (~0.66c). In comparison, the laser system with a contrast of ~106 has a large pre-plasma, limiting the coupling of laser energy to the solid and yielding limited fast electron injection into the dielectric. In the lower contrast case, bulk of the electrons expand as a cloud inside the medium with an order of magnitude lower speed than that of the fast electrons obtained with the high contrast laser. The expansion speed of the plasma towards vacuum is similar for the two contrasts.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. J. P. Freidberg, R. W. Mitchell, R. L. Morse, and L. I. Rudsinski, “Resonant absorption of laser light by plasma targets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 28(13), 795–799 (1972).
    [Crossref]
  18. M. Grimes, A. Rundquist, Y. S. Lee, and M. Downer, “Experimental identification of “Vacuum Heating” at femtosecond-laser-irradiated metal surfaces,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(20), 4010–4013 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  19. P. Mulser, D. Bauer, and H. Ruhl, “Collisionless laser-energy conversion by anharmonic resonance,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(22), 225002 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. M. Manclossi, J. J. Santos, D. Batani, J. Faure, A. Debayle, V. T. Tikhonchuk, and V. Malka, “Study of ultraintense laser-produced fast-electron propagation and filamentation in insulator and metal foil targets by optical emission diagnostics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(12), 125002 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. A. Debayle and V. T. Tikhonchuk, “Target ionization by a high current relativistic monoenergetic electron beam,” Phys. Plasmas 14(7), 073104 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  22. Y. Yu, L. Jiang, Q. Cao, B. Xia, Q. Wang, and Y. Lu, “Pump-probe imaging of the fs-ps-ns dynamics during femtosecond laser Bessel beam drilling in PMMA,” Opt. Express 23(25), 32728–32735 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. E. G. Gamaly, “The physics of ultra-short laser interaction with solids at non-relativistic intensities,” Phys. Rep. 508(4-5), 91–243 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  24. L. Gremillet, F. Amiranoff, S. Baton, J.-C. Gauthier, M. Koenig, E. Martinolli, F. Pisani, G. Bonnaud, C. Lebourg, C. Rousseaux, C. Toupin, A. Antonicci, D. Batani, A. Bernardinello, T. Hall, D. Scott, P. Norreys, H. Bandulet, and H. Pépin, “Time-resolved observation of ultrahigh intensity laser-produced electron jets propagating through transparent solid targets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(24), 5015–5018 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  25. A. Debayle and V. T. Tikhonchuk, ““Filamentation instability of a fast electron beam in a dielectric target,” Phys. Rev. E - Stat. Nonlinear,” Soft Matter Phys. 78, 066404 (2008).
  26. J. R. Davies, “Alfven limit in fast ignition,” Phys. Rev. E 69, 065402 (2004).
  27. S. I. Krasheninnikov, A. V. Kim, B. K. Frolov, and R. Stephens, “Intense electron beam propagation through insulators: Ionization front structure and stability,” Phys. Plasmas 12(7), 073105 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  28. V. T. Tikhonchuk, “Interaction of a beam of fast electrons with solids,” Phys. Plasmas 9(4), 1416–1420 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  29. J. S. Green, V. M. Ovchinnikov, R. G. Evans, K. U. Akli, H. Azechi, F. N. Beg, C. Bellei, R. R. Freeman, H. Habara, R. Heathcote, M. H. Key, J. A. King, K. L. Lancaster, N. C. Lopes, T. Ma, A. J. MacKinnon, K. Markey, A. McPhee, Z. Najmudin, P. Nilson, R. Onofrei, R. Stephens, K. Takeda, K. A. Tanaka, W. Theobald, T. Tanimoto, J. Waugh, L. Van Woerkom, N. C. Woolsey, M. Zepf, J. R. Davies, and P. A. Norreys, “Effect of laser intensity on fast-electron-beam divergence in solid-density plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(1), 015003 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  30. H. Habara, K. Ohta, K. A. Tanaka, G. R. Kumar, M. Krishnamurthy, S. Kahaly, S. Mondal, M. K. Bhuyan, R. Rajeev, and J. Zheng, “Measurements of high energy density electrons via observation of Cherenkov radiation,” Phys. Plasmas 17(5), 056306 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  31. H. Habara, K. Ohta, K. A. Tanaka, G. R. Kumar, M. Krishnamurthy, S. Kahaly, S. Mondal, M. K. Bhuyan, R. Rajeev, and J. Zheng, “Direct, absolute, and in situ measurement of fast electron transport via Cherenkov emission,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(5), 055001 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  32. G. Chatterjee, P. K. Singh, S. Ahmed, A. P. L. Robinson, A. D. Lad, S. Mondal, V. Narayanan, I. Srivastava, N. Koratkar, J. Pasley, A. K. Sood, and G. R. Kumar, “Macroscopic transport of mega-ampere electron currents in aligned carbon-nanotube arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(23), 235005 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (2)

P. K. Singh, Y. Q. Cui, A. Adak, A. D. Lad, G. Chatterjee, P. Brijesh, Z. M. Sheng, and G. R. Kumar, “Contrasting levels of absorption of intense femtosecond laser pulses by solids,” Sci. Rep. 5, 17870 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Yu, L. Jiang, Q. Cao, B. Xia, Q. Wang, and Y. Lu, “Pump-probe imaging of the fs-ps-ns dynamics during femtosecond laser Bessel beam drilling in PMMA,” Opt. Express 23(25), 32728–32735 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (1)

F. Baffigi, G. Cristoforetti, L. Fulgentini, A. Giulietti, P. Koester, L. Labate, and L. A. Gizzi, “X-ray conversion of ultra-short laser pulses on a solid sample: Role of electron waves excited in the pre-plasma,” Phys. Plasmas 21(7), 072108 (2014).
[Crossref]

2012 (4)

G. S. Sarkisov, V. V. Ivanov, P. Leblanc, Y. Sentoku, K. Yates, P. Wiewior, O. Chalyy, A. Astanovitskiy, V. Y. Bychenkov, D. Jobe, and R. B. Spielman, “Propagation of a laser-driven relativistic electron beam inside a solid dielectric,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 86(3), 036412 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Kumar Singh, G. Chatterjee, A. D. Lad, A. Adak, S. Ahmed, M. Khorasaninejad, M. M. Adachi, K. S. Karim, S. S. Saini, A. K. Sood, and G. Ravindra Kumar, “Efficient generation and guiding of megaampere relativistic electron current by silicon nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(24), 244104 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Mondal, V. Narayanan, W. J. Ding, A. D. Lad, B. Hao, S. Ahmad, W. M. Wang, Z. M. Sheng, S. Sengupta, P. Kaw, A. Das, and G. R. Kumar, “Direct observation of turbulent magnetic fields in hot, dense laser produced plasmas,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(21), 8011–8015 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Chatterjee, P. K. Singh, S. Ahmed, A. P. L. Robinson, A. D. Lad, S. Mondal, V. Narayanan, I. Srivastava, N. Koratkar, J. Pasley, A. K. Sood, and G. R. Kumar, “Macroscopic transport of mega-ampere electron currents in aligned carbon-nanotube arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(23), 235005 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

E. G. Gamaly, “The physics of ultra-short laser interaction with solids at non-relativistic intensities,” Phys. Rep. 508(4-5), 91–243 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

H. Habara, K. Ohta, K. A. Tanaka, G. R. Kumar, M. Krishnamurthy, S. Kahaly, S. Mondal, M. K. Bhuyan, R. Rajeev, and J. Zheng, “Measurements of high energy density electrons via observation of Cherenkov radiation,” Phys. Plasmas 17(5), 056306 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Habara, K. Ohta, K. A. Tanaka, G. R. Kumar, M. Krishnamurthy, S. Kahaly, S. Mondal, M. K. Bhuyan, R. Rajeev, and J. Zheng, “Direct, absolute, and in situ measurement of fast electron transport via Cherenkov emission,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(5), 055001 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

A. L. Lei, K. A. Tanaka, R. Kodama, K. Adumi, H. Habara, Y. Kitagawa, K. Kondo, T. Matsuoka, T. Tanimoto, T. Yabuuchi, K. Mima, K. Nagai, H. Nagatomo, T. Norimatsu, K. Sawai, K. Suzuki, W. Yu, H. Xu, X. Q. Yang, L. H. Cao, H. B. Cai, Y. Sentoku, A. Pukhov, R. Kumar, R. Snavely, R. Freeman, M. Yu, and J. Zheng, “Study of ultraintense laser propagation in overdense plasmas for fast ignition,” Phys. Plasmas 16(5), 056307 (2009).
[Crossref]

G. R. Kumar, “Intense, ultrashort light and dense, hot matter,” Pramana J. Phys. 73(1), 113–155 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (5)

Y. Ping, R. Shepherd, B. F. Lasinski, M. Tabak, H. Chen, H. K. Chung, K. B. Fournier, S. B. Hansen, A. Kemp, D. A. Liedahl, K. Widmann, S. C. Wilks, W. Rozmus, and M. Sherlock, “Absorption of short laser pulses on solid targets in the ultrarelativistic regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(8), 085004 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Cerchez, R. Jung, J. Osterholz, T. Toncian, O. Willi, P. Mulser, and H. Ruhl, “Absorption of ultrashort laser pulses in strongly overdense targets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(24), 245001 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Mulser, D. Bauer, and H. Ruhl, “Collisionless laser-energy conversion by anharmonic resonance,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(22), 225002 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. S. Green, V. M. Ovchinnikov, R. G. Evans, K. U. Akli, H. Azechi, F. N. Beg, C. Bellei, R. R. Freeman, H. Habara, R. Heathcote, M. H. Key, J. A. King, K. L. Lancaster, N. C. Lopes, T. Ma, A. J. MacKinnon, K. Markey, A. McPhee, Z. Najmudin, P. Nilson, R. Onofrei, R. Stephens, K. Takeda, K. A. Tanaka, W. Theobald, T. Tanimoto, J. Waugh, L. Van Woerkom, N. C. Woolsey, M. Zepf, J. R. Davies, and P. A. Norreys, “Effect of laser intensity on fast-electron-beam divergence in solid-density plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(1), 015003 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Debayle and V. T. Tikhonchuk, ““Filamentation instability of a fast electron beam in a dielectric target,” Phys. Rev. E - Stat. Nonlinear,” Soft Matter Phys. 78, 066404 (2008).

2007 (2)

A. Debayle and V. T. Tikhonchuk, “Target ionization by a high current relativistic monoenergetic electron beam,” Phys. Plasmas 14(7), 073104 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. Thaury, F. Quéré, J.-P. Geindre, A. Levy, T. Ceccotti, P. Monot, M. Bougeard, F. Réau, P. D’Oliveira, P. Audebert, R. Marjoribanks, and P. Martin, “Plasma mirrors for ultrahigh-intensity optics,” Nat. Phys. 3(6), 424–429 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

M. Manclossi, J. J. Santos, D. Batani, J. Faure, A. Debayle, V. T. Tikhonchuk, and V. Malka, “Study of ultraintense laser-produced fast-electron propagation and filamentation in insulator and metal foil targets by optical emission diagnostics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(12), 125002 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

S. I. Krasheninnikov, A. V. Kim, B. K. Frolov, and R. Stephens, “Intense electron beam propagation through insulators: Ionization front structure and stability,” Phys. Plasmas 12(7), 073105 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

J. R. Davies, “Alfven limit in fast ignition,” Phys. Rev. E 69, 065402 (2004).

U. Wagner, M. Tatarakis, A. Gopal, F. N. Beg, E. L. Clark, A. E. Dangor, R. G. Evans, M. G. Haines, S. P. D. Mangles, P. A. Norreys, M. S. Wei, M. Zepf, and K. Krushelnick, “Laboratory measurements of 0.7 GG magnetic fields generated during high-intensity laser interactions with dense plasmas,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 70(2), 026401 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

D. Y. Tzou, J. K. Chen, and J. E. Beraun, ““Hot-electron blast induced by ultrashort-pulsed lasers in layered media,” Int,” J. Heat Mass Transf. 45(16), 3369–3382 (2002).
[Crossref]

V. T. Tikhonchuk, “Interaction of a beam of fast electrons with solids,” Phys. Plasmas 9(4), 1416–1420 (2002).
[Crossref]

1999 (2)

M. Grimes, A. Rundquist, Y. S. Lee, and M. Downer, “Experimental identification of “Vacuum Heating” at femtosecond-laser-irradiated metal surfaces,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(20), 4010–4013 (1999).
[Crossref]

L. Gremillet, F. Amiranoff, S. Baton, J.-C. Gauthier, M. Koenig, E. Martinolli, F. Pisani, G. Bonnaud, C. Lebourg, C. Rousseaux, C. Toupin, A. Antonicci, D. Batani, A. Bernardinello, T. Hall, D. Scott, P. Norreys, H. Bandulet, and H. Pépin, “Time-resolved observation of ultrahigh intensity laser-produced electron jets propagating through transparent solid targets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(24), 5015–5018 (1999).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

A. R. Bell, J. R. Davies, S. Guerin, and H. Ruhl, “Fast-electron transport in high-intensity short-pulse laser–solid experiments,” Plasma Phys. Contr. Fusion 39(5), 653–659 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

G. Malka and J. L. Miquel, “Experimental confirmation of ponderomotive-force electrons produced by an ultrarelativistic laser pulse on a solid target,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77(1), 75–78 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, M. D. Rosen, and R. W. Falcone, “Ultrafast X-ray pulses from laser-produced plasmas,” Science 251(4993), 531–536 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1972 (1)

J. P. Freidberg, R. W. Mitchell, R. L. Morse, and L. I. Rudsinski, “Resonant absorption of laser light by plasma targets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 28(13), 795–799 (1972).
[Crossref]

Adachi, M. M.

P. Kumar Singh, G. Chatterjee, A. D. Lad, A. Adak, S. Ahmed, M. Khorasaninejad, M. M. Adachi, K. S. Karim, S. S. Saini, A. K. Sood, and G. Ravindra Kumar, “Efficient generation and guiding of megaampere relativistic electron current by silicon nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(24), 244104 (2012).
[Crossref]

Adak, A.

P. K. Singh, Y. Q. Cui, A. Adak, A. D. Lad, G. Chatterjee, P. Brijesh, Z. M. Sheng, and G. R. Kumar, “Contrasting levels of absorption of intense femtosecond laser pulses by solids,” Sci. Rep. 5, 17870 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Kumar Singh, G. Chatterjee, A. D. Lad, A. Adak, S. Ahmed, M. Khorasaninejad, M. M. Adachi, K. S. Karim, S. S. Saini, A. K. Sood, and G. Ravindra Kumar, “Efficient generation and guiding of megaampere relativistic electron current by silicon nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(24), 244104 (2012).
[Crossref]

Adumi, K.

A. L. Lei, K. A. Tanaka, R. Kodama, K. Adumi, H. Habara, Y. Kitagawa, K. Kondo, T. Matsuoka, T. Tanimoto, T. Yabuuchi, K. Mima, K. Nagai, H. Nagatomo, T. Norimatsu, K. Sawai, K. Suzuki, W. Yu, H. Xu, X. Q. Yang, L. H. Cao, H. B. Cai, Y. Sentoku, A. Pukhov, R. Kumar, R. Snavely, R. Freeman, M. Yu, and J. Zheng, “Study of ultraintense laser propagation in overdense plasmas for fast ignition,” Phys. Plasmas 16(5), 056307 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ahmad, S.

S. Mondal, V. Narayanan, W. J. Ding, A. D. Lad, B. Hao, S. Ahmad, W. M. Wang, Z. M. Sheng, S. Sengupta, P. Kaw, A. Das, and G. R. Kumar, “Direct observation of turbulent magnetic fields in hot, dense laser produced plasmas,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(21), 8011–8015 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ahmed, S.

P. Kumar Singh, G. Chatterjee, A. D. Lad, A. Adak, S. Ahmed, M. Khorasaninejad, M. M. Adachi, K. S. Karim, S. S. Saini, A. K. Sood, and G. Ravindra Kumar, “Efficient generation and guiding of megaampere relativistic electron current by silicon nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(24), 244104 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Chatterjee, P. K. Singh, S. Ahmed, A. P. L. Robinson, A. D. Lad, S. Mondal, V. Narayanan, I. Srivastava, N. Koratkar, J. Pasley, A. K. Sood, and G. R. Kumar, “Macroscopic transport of mega-ampere electron currents in aligned carbon-nanotube arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(23), 235005 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Akli, K. U.

J. S. Green, V. M. Ovchinnikov, R. G. Evans, K. U. Akli, H. Azechi, F. N. Beg, C. Bellei, R. R. Freeman, H. Habara, R. Heathcote, M. H. Key, J. A. King, K. L. Lancaster, N. C. Lopes, T. Ma, A. J. MacKinnon, K. Markey, A. McPhee, Z. Najmudin, P. Nilson, R. Onofrei, R. Stephens, K. Takeda, K. A. Tanaka, W. Theobald, T. Tanimoto, J. Waugh, L. Van Woerkom, N. C. Woolsey, M. Zepf, J. R. Davies, and P. A. Norreys, “Effect of laser intensity on fast-electron-beam divergence in solid-density plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(1), 015003 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Amiranoff, F.

L. Gremillet, F. Amiranoff, S. Baton, J.-C. Gauthier, M. Koenig, E. Martinolli, F. Pisani, G. Bonnaud, C. Lebourg, C. Rousseaux, C. Toupin, A. Antonicci, D. Batani, A. Bernardinello, T. Hall, D. Scott, P. Norreys, H. Bandulet, and H. Pépin, “Time-resolved observation of ultrahigh intensity laser-produced electron jets propagating through transparent solid targets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(24), 5015–5018 (1999).
[Crossref]

Antonicci, A.

L. Gremillet, F. Amiranoff, S. Baton, J.-C. Gauthier, M. Koenig, E. Martinolli, F. Pisani, G. Bonnaud, C. Lebourg, C. Rousseaux, C. Toupin, A. Antonicci, D. Batani, A. Bernardinello, T. Hall, D. Scott, P. Norreys, H. Bandulet, and H. Pépin, “Time-resolved observation of ultrahigh intensity laser-produced electron jets propagating through transparent solid targets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(24), 5015–5018 (1999).
[Crossref]

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Y. Ping, R. Shepherd, B. F. Lasinski, M. Tabak, H. Chen, H. K. Chung, K. B. Fournier, S. B. Hansen, A. Kemp, D. A. Liedahl, K. Widmann, S. C. Wilks, W. Rozmus, and M. Sherlock, “Absorption of short laser pulses on solid targets in the ultrarelativistic regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(8), 085004 (2008).
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F. Baffigi, G. Cristoforetti, L. Fulgentini, A. Giulietti, P. Koester, L. Labate, and L. A. Gizzi, “X-ray conversion of ultra-short laser pulses on a solid sample: Role of electron waves excited in the pre-plasma,” Phys. Plasmas 21(7), 072108 (2014).
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P. K. Singh, Y. Q. Cui, A. Adak, A. D. Lad, G. Chatterjee, P. Brijesh, Z. M. Sheng, and G. R. Kumar, “Contrasting levels of absorption of intense femtosecond laser pulses by solids,” Sci. Rep. 5, 17870 (2015).
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C. Thaury, F. Quéré, J.-P. Geindre, A. Levy, T. Ceccotti, P. Monot, M. Bougeard, F. Réau, P. D’Oliveira, P. Audebert, R. Marjoribanks, and P. Martin, “Plasma mirrors for ultrahigh-intensity optics,” Nat. Phys. 3(6), 424–429 (2007).
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Gopal, A.

U. Wagner, M. Tatarakis, A. Gopal, F. N. Beg, E. L. Clark, A. E. Dangor, R. G. Evans, M. G. Haines, S. P. D. Mangles, P. A. Norreys, M. S. Wei, M. Zepf, and K. Krushelnick, “Laboratory measurements of 0.7 GG magnetic fields generated during high-intensity laser interactions with dense plasmas,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 70(2), 026401 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Green, J. S.

J. S. Green, V. M. Ovchinnikov, R. G. Evans, K. U. Akli, H. Azechi, F. N. Beg, C. Bellei, R. R. Freeman, H. Habara, R. Heathcote, M. H. Key, J. A. King, K. L. Lancaster, N. C. Lopes, T. Ma, A. J. MacKinnon, K. Markey, A. McPhee, Z. Najmudin, P. Nilson, R. Onofrei, R. Stephens, K. Takeda, K. A. Tanaka, W. Theobald, T. Tanimoto, J. Waugh, L. Van Woerkom, N. C. Woolsey, M. Zepf, J. R. Davies, and P. A. Norreys, “Effect of laser intensity on fast-electron-beam divergence in solid-density plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(1), 015003 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gremillet, L.

L. Gremillet, F. Amiranoff, S. Baton, J.-C. Gauthier, M. Koenig, E. Martinolli, F. Pisani, G. Bonnaud, C. Lebourg, C. Rousseaux, C. Toupin, A. Antonicci, D. Batani, A. Bernardinello, T. Hall, D. Scott, P. Norreys, H. Bandulet, and H. Pépin, “Time-resolved observation of ultrahigh intensity laser-produced electron jets propagating through transparent solid targets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(24), 5015–5018 (1999).
[Crossref]

Grimes, M.

M. Grimes, A. Rundquist, Y. S. Lee, and M. Downer, “Experimental identification of “Vacuum Heating” at femtosecond-laser-irradiated metal surfaces,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(20), 4010–4013 (1999).
[Crossref]

Guerin, S.

A. R. Bell, J. R. Davies, S. Guerin, and H. Ruhl, “Fast-electron transport in high-intensity short-pulse laser–solid experiments,” Plasma Phys. Contr. Fusion 39(5), 653–659 (1997).
[Crossref]

Habara, H.

H. Habara, K. Ohta, K. A. Tanaka, G. R. Kumar, M. Krishnamurthy, S. Kahaly, S. Mondal, M. K. Bhuyan, R. Rajeev, and J. Zheng, “Measurements of high energy density electrons via observation of Cherenkov radiation,” Phys. Plasmas 17(5), 056306 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Habara, K. Ohta, K. A. Tanaka, G. R. Kumar, M. Krishnamurthy, S. Kahaly, S. Mondal, M. K. Bhuyan, R. Rajeev, and J. Zheng, “Direct, absolute, and in situ measurement of fast electron transport via Cherenkov emission,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(5), 055001 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. L. Lei, K. A. Tanaka, R. Kodama, K. Adumi, H. Habara, Y. Kitagawa, K. Kondo, T. Matsuoka, T. Tanimoto, T. Yabuuchi, K. Mima, K. Nagai, H. Nagatomo, T. Norimatsu, K. Sawai, K. Suzuki, W. Yu, H. Xu, X. Q. Yang, L. H. Cao, H. B. Cai, Y. Sentoku, A. Pukhov, R. Kumar, R. Snavely, R. Freeman, M. Yu, and J. Zheng, “Study of ultraintense laser propagation in overdense plasmas for fast ignition,” Phys. Plasmas 16(5), 056307 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. S. Green, V. M. Ovchinnikov, R. G. Evans, K. U. Akli, H. Azechi, F. N. Beg, C. Bellei, R. R. Freeman, H. Habara, R. Heathcote, M. H. Key, J. A. King, K. L. Lancaster, N. C. Lopes, T. Ma, A. J. MacKinnon, K. Markey, A. McPhee, Z. Najmudin, P. Nilson, R. Onofrei, R. Stephens, K. Takeda, K. A. Tanaka, W. Theobald, T. Tanimoto, J. Waugh, L. Van Woerkom, N. C. Woolsey, M. Zepf, J. R. Davies, and P. A. Norreys, “Effect of laser intensity on fast-electron-beam divergence in solid-density plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(1), 015003 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Haines, M. G.

U. Wagner, M. Tatarakis, A. Gopal, F. N. Beg, E. L. Clark, A. E. Dangor, R. G. Evans, M. G. Haines, S. P. D. Mangles, P. A. Norreys, M. S. Wei, M. Zepf, and K. Krushelnick, “Laboratory measurements of 0.7 GG magnetic fields generated during high-intensity laser interactions with dense plasmas,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 70(2), 026401 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hall, T.

L. Gremillet, F. Amiranoff, S. Baton, J.-C. Gauthier, M. Koenig, E. Martinolli, F. Pisani, G. Bonnaud, C. Lebourg, C. Rousseaux, C. Toupin, A. Antonicci, D. Batani, A. Bernardinello, T. Hall, D. Scott, P. Norreys, H. Bandulet, and H. Pépin, “Time-resolved observation of ultrahigh intensity laser-produced electron jets propagating through transparent solid targets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(24), 5015–5018 (1999).
[Crossref]

Hansen, S. B.

Y. Ping, R. Shepherd, B. F. Lasinski, M. Tabak, H. Chen, H. K. Chung, K. B. Fournier, S. B. Hansen, A. Kemp, D. A. Liedahl, K. Widmann, S. C. Wilks, W. Rozmus, and M. Sherlock, “Absorption of short laser pulses on solid targets in the ultrarelativistic regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(8), 085004 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hao, B.

S. Mondal, V. Narayanan, W. J. Ding, A. D. Lad, B. Hao, S. Ahmad, W. M. Wang, Z. M. Sheng, S. Sengupta, P. Kaw, A. Das, and G. R. Kumar, “Direct observation of turbulent magnetic fields in hot, dense laser produced plasmas,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(21), 8011–8015 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Heathcote, R.

J. S. Green, V. M. Ovchinnikov, R. G. Evans, K. U. Akli, H. Azechi, F. N. Beg, C. Bellei, R. R. Freeman, H. Habara, R. Heathcote, M. H. Key, J. A. King, K. L. Lancaster, N. C. Lopes, T. Ma, A. J. MacKinnon, K. Markey, A. McPhee, Z. Najmudin, P. Nilson, R. Onofrei, R. Stephens, K. Takeda, K. A. Tanaka, W. Theobald, T. Tanimoto, J. Waugh, L. Van Woerkom, N. C. Woolsey, M. Zepf, J. R. Davies, and P. A. Norreys, “Effect of laser intensity on fast-electron-beam divergence in solid-density plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(1), 015003 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ivanov, V. V.

G. S. Sarkisov, V. V. Ivanov, P. Leblanc, Y. Sentoku, K. Yates, P. Wiewior, O. Chalyy, A. Astanovitskiy, V. Y. Bychenkov, D. Jobe, and R. B. Spielman, “Propagation of a laser-driven relativistic electron beam inside a solid dielectric,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 86(3), 036412 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jiang, L.

Jobe, D.

G. S. Sarkisov, V. V. Ivanov, P. Leblanc, Y. Sentoku, K. Yates, P. Wiewior, O. Chalyy, A. Astanovitskiy, V. Y. Bychenkov, D. Jobe, and R. B. Spielman, “Propagation of a laser-driven relativistic electron beam inside a solid dielectric,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 86(3), 036412 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jung, R.

M. Cerchez, R. Jung, J. Osterholz, T. Toncian, O. Willi, P. Mulser, and H. Ruhl, “Absorption of ultrashort laser pulses in strongly overdense targets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(24), 245001 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kahaly, S.

H. Habara, K. Ohta, K. A. Tanaka, G. R. Kumar, M. Krishnamurthy, S. Kahaly, S. Mondal, M. K. Bhuyan, R. Rajeev, and J. Zheng, “Measurements of high energy density electrons via observation of Cherenkov radiation,” Phys. Plasmas 17(5), 056306 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Habara, K. Ohta, K. A. Tanaka, G. R. Kumar, M. Krishnamurthy, S. Kahaly, S. Mondal, M. K. Bhuyan, R. Rajeev, and J. Zheng, “Direct, absolute, and in situ measurement of fast electron transport via Cherenkov emission,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(5), 055001 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kapteyn, H. C.

M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, M. D. Rosen, and R. W. Falcone, “Ultrafast X-ray pulses from laser-produced plasmas,” Science 251(4993), 531–536 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Karim, K. S.

P. Kumar Singh, G. Chatterjee, A. D. Lad, A. Adak, S. Ahmed, M. Khorasaninejad, M. M. Adachi, K. S. Karim, S. S. Saini, A. K. Sood, and G. Ravindra Kumar, “Efficient generation and guiding of megaampere relativistic electron current by silicon nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(24), 244104 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kaw, P.

S. Mondal, V. Narayanan, W. J. Ding, A. D. Lad, B. Hao, S. Ahmad, W. M. Wang, Z. M. Sheng, S. Sengupta, P. Kaw, A. Das, and G. R. Kumar, “Direct observation of turbulent magnetic fields in hot, dense laser produced plasmas,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(21), 8011–8015 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kemp, A.

Y. Ping, R. Shepherd, B. F. Lasinski, M. Tabak, H. Chen, H. K. Chung, K. B. Fournier, S. B. Hansen, A. Kemp, D. A. Liedahl, K. Widmann, S. C. Wilks, W. Rozmus, and M. Sherlock, “Absorption of short laser pulses on solid targets in the ultrarelativistic regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(8), 085004 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Key, M. H.

J. S. Green, V. M. Ovchinnikov, R. G. Evans, K. U. Akli, H. Azechi, F. N. Beg, C. Bellei, R. R. Freeman, H. Habara, R. Heathcote, M. H. Key, J. A. King, K. L. Lancaster, N. C. Lopes, T. Ma, A. J. MacKinnon, K. Markey, A. McPhee, Z. Najmudin, P. Nilson, R. Onofrei, R. Stephens, K. Takeda, K. A. Tanaka, W. Theobald, T. Tanimoto, J. Waugh, L. Van Woerkom, N. C. Woolsey, M. Zepf, J. R. Davies, and P. A. Norreys, “Effect of laser intensity on fast-electron-beam divergence in solid-density plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(1), 015003 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Khorasaninejad, M.

P. Kumar Singh, G. Chatterjee, A. D. Lad, A. Adak, S. Ahmed, M. Khorasaninejad, M. M. Adachi, K. S. Karim, S. S. Saini, A. K. Sood, and G. Ravindra Kumar, “Efficient generation and guiding of megaampere relativistic electron current by silicon nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(24), 244104 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kim, A. V.

S. I. Krasheninnikov, A. V. Kim, B. K. Frolov, and R. Stephens, “Intense electron beam propagation through insulators: Ionization front structure and stability,” Phys. Plasmas 12(7), 073105 (2005).
[Crossref]

King, J. A.

J. S. Green, V. M. Ovchinnikov, R. G. Evans, K. U. Akli, H. Azechi, F. N. Beg, C. Bellei, R. R. Freeman, H. Habara, R. Heathcote, M. H. Key, J. A. King, K. L. Lancaster, N. C. Lopes, T. Ma, A. J. MacKinnon, K. Markey, A. McPhee, Z. Najmudin, P. Nilson, R. Onofrei, R. Stephens, K. Takeda, K. A. Tanaka, W. Theobald, T. Tanimoto, J. Waugh, L. Van Woerkom, N. C. Woolsey, M. Zepf, J. R. Davies, and P. A. Norreys, “Effect of laser intensity on fast-electron-beam divergence in solid-density plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(1), 015003 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kitagawa, Y.

A. L. Lei, K. A. Tanaka, R. Kodama, K. Adumi, H. Habara, Y. Kitagawa, K. Kondo, T. Matsuoka, T. Tanimoto, T. Yabuuchi, K. Mima, K. Nagai, H. Nagatomo, T. Norimatsu, K. Sawai, K. Suzuki, W. Yu, H. Xu, X. Q. Yang, L. H. Cao, H. B. Cai, Y. Sentoku, A. Pukhov, R. Kumar, R. Snavely, R. Freeman, M. Yu, and J. Zheng, “Study of ultraintense laser propagation in overdense plasmas for fast ignition,” Phys. Plasmas 16(5), 056307 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kodama, R.

A. L. Lei, K. A. Tanaka, R. Kodama, K. Adumi, H. Habara, Y. Kitagawa, K. Kondo, T. Matsuoka, T. Tanimoto, T. Yabuuchi, K. Mima, K. Nagai, H. Nagatomo, T. Norimatsu, K. Sawai, K. Suzuki, W. Yu, H. Xu, X. Q. Yang, L. H. Cao, H. B. Cai, Y. Sentoku, A. Pukhov, R. Kumar, R. Snavely, R. Freeman, M. Yu, and J. Zheng, “Study of ultraintense laser propagation in overdense plasmas for fast ignition,” Phys. Plasmas 16(5), 056307 (2009).
[Crossref]

Koenig, M.

L. Gremillet, F. Amiranoff, S. Baton, J.-C. Gauthier, M. Koenig, E. Martinolli, F. Pisani, G. Bonnaud, C. Lebourg, C. Rousseaux, C. Toupin, A. Antonicci, D. Batani, A. Bernardinello, T. Hall, D. Scott, P. Norreys, H. Bandulet, and H. Pépin, “Time-resolved observation of ultrahigh intensity laser-produced electron jets propagating through transparent solid targets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(24), 5015–5018 (1999).
[Crossref]

Koester, P.

F. Baffigi, G. Cristoforetti, L. Fulgentini, A. Giulietti, P. Koester, L. Labate, and L. A. Gizzi, “X-ray conversion of ultra-short laser pulses on a solid sample: Role of electron waves excited in the pre-plasma,” Phys. Plasmas 21(7), 072108 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kondo, K.

A. L. Lei, K. A. Tanaka, R. Kodama, K. Adumi, H. Habara, Y. Kitagawa, K. Kondo, T. Matsuoka, T. Tanimoto, T. Yabuuchi, K. Mima, K. Nagai, H. Nagatomo, T. Norimatsu, K. Sawai, K. Suzuki, W. Yu, H. Xu, X. Q. Yang, L. H. Cao, H. B. Cai, Y. Sentoku, A. Pukhov, R. Kumar, R. Snavely, R. Freeman, M. Yu, and J. Zheng, “Study of ultraintense laser propagation in overdense plasmas for fast ignition,” Phys. Plasmas 16(5), 056307 (2009).
[Crossref]

Koratkar, N.

G. Chatterjee, P. K. Singh, S. Ahmed, A. P. L. Robinson, A. D. Lad, S. Mondal, V. Narayanan, I. Srivastava, N. Koratkar, J. Pasley, A. K. Sood, and G. R. Kumar, “Macroscopic transport of mega-ampere electron currents in aligned carbon-nanotube arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(23), 235005 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Krasheninnikov, S. I.

S. I. Krasheninnikov, A. V. Kim, B. K. Frolov, and R. Stephens, “Intense electron beam propagation through insulators: Ionization front structure and stability,” Phys. Plasmas 12(7), 073105 (2005).
[Crossref]

Krishnamurthy, M.

H. Habara, K. Ohta, K. A. Tanaka, G. R. Kumar, M. Krishnamurthy, S. Kahaly, S. Mondal, M. K. Bhuyan, R. Rajeev, and J. Zheng, “Measurements of high energy density electrons via observation of Cherenkov radiation,” Phys. Plasmas 17(5), 056306 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Habara, K. Ohta, K. A. Tanaka, G. R. Kumar, M. Krishnamurthy, S. Kahaly, S. Mondal, M. K. Bhuyan, R. Rajeev, and J. Zheng, “Direct, absolute, and in situ measurement of fast electron transport via Cherenkov emission,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(5), 055001 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Krushelnick, K.

U. Wagner, M. Tatarakis, A. Gopal, F. N. Beg, E. L. Clark, A. E. Dangor, R. G. Evans, M. G. Haines, S. P. D. Mangles, P. A. Norreys, M. S. Wei, M. Zepf, and K. Krushelnick, “Laboratory measurements of 0.7 GG magnetic fields generated during high-intensity laser interactions with dense plasmas,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 70(2), 026401 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kumar, G. R.

P. K. Singh, Y. Q. Cui, A. Adak, A. D. Lad, G. Chatterjee, P. Brijesh, Z. M. Sheng, and G. R. Kumar, “Contrasting levels of absorption of intense femtosecond laser pulses by solids,” Sci. Rep. 5, 17870 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Mondal, V. Narayanan, W. J. Ding, A. D. Lad, B. Hao, S. Ahmad, W. M. Wang, Z. M. Sheng, S. Sengupta, P. Kaw, A. Das, and G. R. Kumar, “Direct observation of turbulent magnetic fields in hot, dense laser produced plasmas,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(21), 8011–8015 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Chatterjee, P. K. Singh, S. Ahmed, A. P. L. Robinson, A. D. Lad, S. Mondal, V. Narayanan, I. Srivastava, N. Koratkar, J. Pasley, A. K. Sood, and G. R. Kumar, “Macroscopic transport of mega-ampere electron currents in aligned carbon-nanotube arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(23), 235005 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Habara, K. Ohta, K. A. Tanaka, G. R. Kumar, M. Krishnamurthy, S. Kahaly, S. Mondal, M. K. Bhuyan, R. Rajeev, and J. Zheng, “Direct, absolute, and in situ measurement of fast electron transport via Cherenkov emission,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(5), 055001 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Habara, K. Ohta, K. A. Tanaka, G. R. Kumar, M. Krishnamurthy, S. Kahaly, S. Mondal, M. K. Bhuyan, R. Rajeev, and J. Zheng, “Measurements of high energy density electrons via observation of Cherenkov radiation,” Phys. Plasmas 17(5), 056306 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. R. Kumar, “Intense, ultrashort light and dense, hot matter,” Pramana J. Phys. 73(1), 113–155 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kumar, R.

A. L. Lei, K. A. Tanaka, R. Kodama, K. Adumi, H. Habara, Y. Kitagawa, K. Kondo, T. Matsuoka, T. Tanimoto, T. Yabuuchi, K. Mima, K. Nagai, H. Nagatomo, T. Norimatsu, K. Sawai, K. Suzuki, W. Yu, H. Xu, X. Q. Yang, L. H. Cao, H. B. Cai, Y. Sentoku, A. Pukhov, R. Kumar, R. Snavely, R. Freeman, M. Yu, and J. Zheng, “Study of ultraintense laser propagation in overdense plasmas for fast ignition,” Phys. Plasmas 16(5), 056307 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kumar Singh, P.

P. Kumar Singh, G. Chatterjee, A. D. Lad, A. Adak, S. Ahmed, M. Khorasaninejad, M. M. Adachi, K. S. Karim, S. S. Saini, A. K. Sood, and G. Ravindra Kumar, “Efficient generation and guiding of megaampere relativistic electron current by silicon nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(24), 244104 (2012).
[Crossref]

Labate, L.

F. Baffigi, G. Cristoforetti, L. Fulgentini, A. Giulietti, P. Koester, L. Labate, and L. A. Gizzi, “X-ray conversion of ultra-short laser pulses on a solid sample: Role of electron waves excited in the pre-plasma,” Phys. Plasmas 21(7), 072108 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lad, A. D.

P. K. Singh, Y. Q. Cui, A. Adak, A. D. Lad, G. Chatterjee, P. Brijesh, Z. M. Sheng, and G. R. Kumar, “Contrasting levels of absorption of intense femtosecond laser pulses by solids,” Sci. Rep. 5, 17870 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Kumar Singh, G. Chatterjee, A. D. Lad, A. Adak, S. Ahmed, M. Khorasaninejad, M. M. Adachi, K. S. Karim, S. S. Saini, A. K. Sood, and G. Ravindra Kumar, “Efficient generation and guiding of megaampere relativistic electron current by silicon nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(24), 244104 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Mondal, V. Narayanan, W. J. Ding, A. D. Lad, B. Hao, S. Ahmad, W. M. Wang, Z. M. Sheng, S. Sengupta, P. Kaw, A. Das, and G. R. Kumar, “Direct observation of turbulent magnetic fields in hot, dense laser produced plasmas,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(21), 8011–8015 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Chatterjee, P. K. Singh, S. Ahmed, A. P. L. Robinson, A. D. Lad, S. Mondal, V. Narayanan, I. Srivastava, N. Koratkar, J. Pasley, A. K. Sood, and G. R. Kumar, “Macroscopic transport of mega-ampere electron currents in aligned carbon-nanotube arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(23), 235005 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lancaster, K. L.

J. S. Green, V. M. Ovchinnikov, R. G. Evans, K. U. Akli, H. Azechi, F. N. Beg, C. Bellei, R. R. Freeman, H. Habara, R. Heathcote, M. H. Key, J. A. King, K. L. Lancaster, N. C. Lopes, T. Ma, A. J. MacKinnon, K. Markey, A. McPhee, Z. Najmudin, P. Nilson, R. Onofrei, R. Stephens, K. Takeda, K. A. Tanaka, W. Theobald, T. Tanimoto, J. Waugh, L. Van Woerkom, N. C. Woolsey, M. Zepf, J. R. Davies, and P. A. Norreys, “Effect of laser intensity on fast-electron-beam divergence in solid-density plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(1), 015003 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lasinski, B. F.

Y. Ping, R. Shepherd, B. F. Lasinski, M. Tabak, H. Chen, H. K. Chung, K. B. Fournier, S. B. Hansen, A. Kemp, D. A. Liedahl, K. Widmann, S. C. Wilks, W. Rozmus, and M. Sherlock, “Absorption of short laser pulses on solid targets in the ultrarelativistic regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(8), 085004 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leblanc, P.

G. S. Sarkisov, V. V. Ivanov, P. Leblanc, Y. Sentoku, K. Yates, P. Wiewior, O. Chalyy, A. Astanovitskiy, V. Y. Bychenkov, D. Jobe, and R. B. Spielman, “Propagation of a laser-driven relativistic electron beam inside a solid dielectric,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 86(3), 036412 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lebourg, C.

L. Gremillet, F. Amiranoff, S. Baton, J.-C. Gauthier, M. Koenig, E. Martinolli, F. Pisani, G. Bonnaud, C. Lebourg, C. Rousseaux, C. Toupin, A. Antonicci, D. Batani, A. Bernardinello, T. Hall, D. Scott, P. Norreys, H. Bandulet, and H. Pépin, “Time-resolved observation of ultrahigh intensity laser-produced electron jets propagating through transparent solid targets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(24), 5015–5018 (1999).
[Crossref]

Lee, Y. S.

M. Grimes, A. Rundquist, Y. S. Lee, and M. Downer, “Experimental identification of “Vacuum Heating” at femtosecond-laser-irradiated metal surfaces,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(20), 4010–4013 (1999).
[Crossref]

Lei, A. L.

A. L. Lei, K. A. Tanaka, R. Kodama, K. Adumi, H. Habara, Y. Kitagawa, K. Kondo, T. Matsuoka, T. Tanimoto, T. Yabuuchi, K. Mima, K. Nagai, H. Nagatomo, T. Norimatsu, K. Sawai, K. Suzuki, W. Yu, H. Xu, X. Q. Yang, L. H. Cao, H. B. Cai, Y. Sentoku, A. Pukhov, R. Kumar, R. Snavely, R. Freeman, M. Yu, and J. Zheng, “Study of ultraintense laser propagation in overdense plasmas for fast ignition,” Phys. Plasmas 16(5), 056307 (2009).
[Crossref]

Levy, A.

C. Thaury, F. Quéré, J.-P. Geindre, A. Levy, T. Ceccotti, P. Monot, M. Bougeard, F. Réau, P. D’Oliveira, P. Audebert, R. Marjoribanks, and P. Martin, “Plasma mirrors for ultrahigh-intensity optics,” Nat. Phys. 3(6), 424–429 (2007).
[Crossref]

Liedahl, D. A.

Y. Ping, R. Shepherd, B. F. Lasinski, M. Tabak, H. Chen, H. K. Chung, K. B. Fournier, S. B. Hansen, A. Kemp, D. A. Liedahl, K. Widmann, S. C. Wilks, W. Rozmus, and M. Sherlock, “Absorption of short laser pulses on solid targets in the ultrarelativistic regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(8), 085004 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lopes, N. C.

J. S. Green, V. M. Ovchinnikov, R. G. Evans, K. U. Akli, H. Azechi, F. N. Beg, C. Bellei, R. R. Freeman, H. Habara, R. Heathcote, M. H. Key, J. A. King, K. L. Lancaster, N. C. Lopes, T. Ma, A. J. MacKinnon, K. Markey, A. McPhee, Z. Najmudin, P. Nilson, R. Onofrei, R. Stephens, K. Takeda, K. A. Tanaka, W. Theobald, T. Tanimoto, J. Waugh, L. Van Woerkom, N. C. Woolsey, M. Zepf, J. R. Davies, and P. A. Norreys, “Effect of laser intensity on fast-electron-beam divergence in solid-density plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(1), 015003 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lu, Y.

Ma, T.

J. S. Green, V. M. Ovchinnikov, R. G. Evans, K. U. Akli, H. Azechi, F. N. Beg, C. Bellei, R. R. Freeman, H. Habara, R. Heathcote, M. H. Key, J. A. King, K. L. Lancaster, N. C. Lopes, T. Ma, A. J. MacKinnon, K. Markey, A. McPhee, Z. Najmudin, P. Nilson, R. Onofrei, R. Stephens, K. Takeda, K. A. Tanaka, W. Theobald, T. Tanimoto, J. Waugh, L. Van Woerkom, N. C. Woolsey, M. Zepf, J. R. Davies, and P. A. Norreys, “Effect of laser intensity on fast-electron-beam divergence in solid-density plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(1), 015003 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

MacKinnon, A. J.

J. S. Green, V. M. Ovchinnikov, R. G. Evans, K. U. Akli, H. Azechi, F. N. Beg, C. Bellei, R. R. Freeman, H. Habara, R. Heathcote, M. H. Key, J. A. King, K. L. Lancaster, N. C. Lopes, T. Ma, A. J. MacKinnon, K. Markey, A. McPhee, Z. Najmudin, P. Nilson, R. Onofrei, R. Stephens, K. Takeda, K. A. Tanaka, W. Theobald, T. Tanimoto, J. Waugh, L. Van Woerkom, N. C. Woolsey, M. Zepf, J. R. Davies, and P. A. Norreys, “Effect of laser intensity on fast-electron-beam divergence in solid-density plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(1), 015003 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Malka, G.

G. Malka and J. L. Miquel, “Experimental confirmation of ponderomotive-force electrons produced by an ultrarelativistic laser pulse on a solid target,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77(1), 75–78 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Malka, V.

M. Manclossi, J. J. Santos, D. Batani, J. Faure, A. Debayle, V. T. Tikhonchuk, and V. Malka, “Study of ultraintense laser-produced fast-electron propagation and filamentation in insulator and metal foil targets by optical emission diagnostics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(12), 125002 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Manclossi, M.

M. Manclossi, J. J. Santos, D. Batani, J. Faure, A. Debayle, V. T. Tikhonchuk, and V. Malka, “Study of ultraintense laser-produced fast-electron propagation and filamentation in insulator and metal foil targets by optical emission diagnostics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(12), 125002 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mangles, S. P. D.

U. Wagner, M. Tatarakis, A. Gopal, F. N. Beg, E. L. Clark, A. E. Dangor, R. G. Evans, M. G. Haines, S. P. D. Mangles, P. A. Norreys, M. S. Wei, M. Zepf, and K. Krushelnick, “Laboratory measurements of 0.7 GG magnetic fields generated during high-intensity laser interactions with dense plasmas,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 70(2), 026401 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Marjoribanks, R.

C. Thaury, F. Quéré, J.-P. Geindre, A. Levy, T. Ceccotti, P. Monot, M. Bougeard, F. Réau, P. D’Oliveira, P. Audebert, R. Marjoribanks, and P. Martin, “Plasma mirrors for ultrahigh-intensity optics,” Nat. Phys. 3(6), 424–429 (2007).
[Crossref]

Markey, K.

J. S. Green, V. M. Ovchinnikov, R. G. Evans, K. U. Akli, H. Azechi, F. N. Beg, C. Bellei, R. R. Freeman, H. Habara, R. Heathcote, M. H. Key, J. A. King, K. L. Lancaster, N. C. Lopes, T. Ma, A. J. MacKinnon, K. Markey, A. McPhee, Z. Najmudin, P. Nilson, R. Onofrei, R. Stephens, K. Takeda, K. A. Tanaka, W. Theobald, T. Tanimoto, J. Waugh, L. Van Woerkom, N. C. Woolsey, M. Zepf, J. R. Davies, and P. A. Norreys, “Effect of laser intensity on fast-electron-beam divergence in solid-density plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(1), 015003 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Martin, P.

C. Thaury, F. Quéré, J.-P. Geindre, A. Levy, T. Ceccotti, P. Monot, M. Bougeard, F. Réau, P. D’Oliveira, P. Audebert, R. Marjoribanks, and P. Martin, “Plasma mirrors for ultrahigh-intensity optics,” Nat. Phys. 3(6), 424–429 (2007).
[Crossref]

Martinolli, E.

L. Gremillet, F. Amiranoff, S. Baton, J.-C. Gauthier, M. Koenig, E. Martinolli, F. Pisani, G. Bonnaud, C. Lebourg, C. Rousseaux, C. Toupin, A. Antonicci, D. Batani, A. Bernardinello, T. Hall, D. Scott, P. Norreys, H. Bandulet, and H. Pépin, “Time-resolved observation of ultrahigh intensity laser-produced electron jets propagating through transparent solid targets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(24), 5015–5018 (1999).
[Crossref]

Matsuoka, T.

A. L. Lei, K. A. Tanaka, R. Kodama, K. Adumi, H. Habara, Y. Kitagawa, K. Kondo, T. Matsuoka, T. Tanimoto, T. Yabuuchi, K. Mima, K. Nagai, H. Nagatomo, T. Norimatsu, K. Sawai, K. Suzuki, W. Yu, H. Xu, X. Q. Yang, L. H. Cao, H. B. Cai, Y. Sentoku, A. Pukhov, R. Kumar, R. Snavely, R. Freeman, M. Yu, and J. Zheng, “Study of ultraintense laser propagation in overdense plasmas for fast ignition,” Phys. Plasmas 16(5), 056307 (2009).
[Crossref]

McPhee, A.

J. S. Green, V. M. Ovchinnikov, R. G. Evans, K. U. Akli, H. Azechi, F. N. Beg, C. Bellei, R. R. Freeman, H. Habara, R. Heathcote, M. H. Key, J. A. King, K. L. Lancaster, N. C. Lopes, T. Ma, A. J. MacKinnon, K. Markey, A. McPhee, Z. Najmudin, P. Nilson, R. Onofrei, R. Stephens, K. Takeda, K. A. Tanaka, W. Theobald, T. Tanimoto, J. Waugh, L. Van Woerkom, N. C. Woolsey, M. Zepf, J. R. Davies, and P. A. Norreys, “Effect of laser intensity on fast-electron-beam divergence in solid-density plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(1), 015003 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mima, K.

A. L. Lei, K. A. Tanaka, R. Kodama, K. Adumi, H. Habara, Y. Kitagawa, K. Kondo, T. Matsuoka, T. Tanimoto, T. Yabuuchi, K. Mima, K. Nagai, H. Nagatomo, T. Norimatsu, K. Sawai, K. Suzuki, W. Yu, H. Xu, X. Q. Yang, L. H. Cao, H. B. Cai, Y. Sentoku, A. Pukhov, R. Kumar, R. Snavely, R. Freeman, M. Yu, and J. Zheng, “Study of ultraintense laser propagation in overdense plasmas for fast ignition,” Phys. Plasmas 16(5), 056307 (2009).
[Crossref]

Miquel, J. L.

G. Malka and J. L. Miquel, “Experimental confirmation of ponderomotive-force electrons produced by an ultrarelativistic laser pulse on a solid target,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77(1), 75–78 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mitchell, R. W.

J. P. Freidberg, R. W. Mitchell, R. L. Morse, and L. I. Rudsinski, “Resonant absorption of laser light by plasma targets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 28(13), 795–799 (1972).
[Crossref]

Mondal, S.

S. Mondal, V. Narayanan, W. J. Ding, A. D. Lad, B. Hao, S. Ahmad, W. M. Wang, Z. M. Sheng, S. Sengupta, P. Kaw, A. Das, and G. R. Kumar, “Direct observation of turbulent magnetic fields in hot, dense laser produced plasmas,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(21), 8011–8015 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Chatterjee, P. K. Singh, S. Ahmed, A. P. L. Robinson, A. D. Lad, S. Mondal, V. Narayanan, I. Srivastava, N. Koratkar, J. Pasley, A. K. Sood, and G. R. Kumar, “Macroscopic transport of mega-ampere electron currents in aligned carbon-nanotube arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(23), 235005 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Habara, K. Ohta, K. A. Tanaka, G. R. Kumar, M. Krishnamurthy, S. Kahaly, S. Mondal, M. K. Bhuyan, R. Rajeev, and J. Zheng, “Measurements of high energy density electrons via observation of Cherenkov radiation,” Phys. Plasmas 17(5), 056306 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Habara, K. Ohta, K. A. Tanaka, G. R. Kumar, M. Krishnamurthy, S. Kahaly, S. Mondal, M. K. Bhuyan, R. Rajeev, and J. Zheng, “Direct, absolute, and in situ measurement of fast electron transport via Cherenkov emission,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(5), 055001 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Monot, P.

C. Thaury, F. Quéré, J.-P. Geindre, A. Levy, T. Ceccotti, P. Monot, M. Bougeard, F. Réau, P. D’Oliveira, P. Audebert, R. Marjoribanks, and P. Martin, “Plasma mirrors for ultrahigh-intensity optics,” Nat. Phys. 3(6), 424–429 (2007).
[Crossref]

Morse, R. L.

J. P. Freidberg, R. W. Mitchell, R. L. Morse, and L. I. Rudsinski, “Resonant absorption of laser light by plasma targets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 28(13), 795–799 (1972).
[Crossref]

Mulser, P.

P. Mulser, D. Bauer, and H. Ruhl, “Collisionless laser-energy conversion by anharmonic resonance,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(22), 225002 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Cerchez, R. Jung, J. Osterholz, T. Toncian, O. Willi, P. Mulser, and H. Ruhl, “Absorption of ultrashort laser pulses in strongly overdense targets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(24), 245001 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Murnane, M. M.

M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, M. D. Rosen, and R. W. Falcone, “Ultrafast X-ray pulses from laser-produced plasmas,” Science 251(4993), 531–536 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nagai, K.

A. L. Lei, K. A. Tanaka, R. Kodama, K. Adumi, H. Habara, Y. Kitagawa, K. Kondo, T. Matsuoka, T. Tanimoto, T. Yabuuchi, K. Mima, K. Nagai, H. Nagatomo, T. Norimatsu, K. Sawai, K. Suzuki, W. Yu, H. Xu, X. Q. Yang, L. H. Cao, H. B. Cai, Y. Sentoku, A. Pukhov, R. Kumar, R. Snavely, R. Freeman, M. Yu, and J. Zheng, “Study of ultraintense laser propagation in overdense plasmas for fast ignition,” Phys. Plasmas 16(5), 056307 (2009).
[Crossref]

Nagatomo, H.

A. L. Lei, K. A. Tanaka, R. Kodama, K. Adumi, H. Habara, Y. Kitagawa, K. Kondo, T. Matsuoka, T. Tanimoto, T. Yabuuchi, K. Mima, K. Nagai, H. Nagatomo, T. Norimatsu, K. Sawai, K. Suzuki, W. Yu, H. Xu, X. Q. Yang, L. H. Cao, H. B. Cai, Y. Sentoku, A. Pukhov, R. Kumar, R. Snavely, R. Freeman, M. Yu, and J. Zheng, “Study of ultraintense laser propagation in overdense plasmas for fast ignition,” Phys. Plasmas 16(5), 056307 (2009).
[Crossref]

Najmudin, Z.

J. S. Green, V. M. Ovchinnikov, R. G. Evans, K. U. Akli, H. Azechi, F. N. Beg, C. Bellei, R. R. Freeman, H. Habara, R. Heathcote, M. H. Key, J. A. King, K. L. Lancaster, N. C. Lopes, T. Ma, A. J. MacKinnon, K. Markey, A. McPhee, Z. Najmudin, P. Nilson, R. Onofrei, R. Stephens, K. Takeda, K. A. Tanaka, W. Theobald, T. Tanimoto, J. Waugh, L. Van Woerkom, N. C. Woolsey, M. Zepf, J. R. Davies, and P. A. Norreys, “Effect of laser intensity on fast-electron-beam divergence in solid-density plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(1), 015003 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Narayanan, V.

G. Chatterjee, P. K. Singh, S. Ahmed, A. P. L. Robinson, A. D. Lad, S. Mondal, V. Narayanan, I. Srivastava, N. Koratkar, J. Pasley, A. K. Sood, and G. R. Kumar, “Macroscopic transport of mega-ampere electron currents in aligned carbon-nanotube arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(23), 235005 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Mondal, V. Narayanan, W. J. Ding, A. D. Lad, B. Hao, S. Ahmad, W. M. Wang, Z. M. Sheng, S. Sengupta, P. Kaw, A. Das, and G. R. Kumar, “Direct observation of turbulent magnetic fields in hot, dense laser produced plasmas,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(21), 8011–8015 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nilson, P.

J. S. Green, V. M. Ovchinnikov, R. G. Evans, K. U. Akli, H. Azechi, F. N. Beg, C. Bellei, R. R. Freeman, H. Habara, R. Heathcote, M. H. Key, J. A. King, K. L. Lancaster, N. C. Lopes, T. Ma, A. J. MacKinnon, K. Markey, A. McPhee, Z. Najmudin, P. Nilson, R. Onofrei, R. Stephens, K. Takeda, K. A. Tanaka, W. Theobald, T. Tanimoto, J. Waugh, L. Van Woerkom, N. C. Woolsey, M. Zepf, J. R. Davies, and P. A. Norreys, “Effect of laser intensity on fast-electron-beam divergence in solid-density plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(1), 015003 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Norimatsu, T.

A. L. Lei, K. A. Tanaka, R. Kodama, K. Adumi, H. Habara, Y. Kitagawa, K. Kondo, T. Matsuoka, T. Tanimoto, T. Yabuuchi, K. Mima, K. Nagai, H. Nagatomo, T. Norimatsu, K. Sawai, K. Suzuki, W. Yu, H. Xu, X. Q. Yang, L. H. Cao, H. B. Cai, Y. Sentoku, A. Pukhov, R. Kumar, R. Snavely, R. Freeman, M. Yu, and J. Zheng, “Study of ultraintense laser propagation in overdense plasmas for fast ignition,” Phys. Plasmas 16(5), 056307 (2009).
[Crossref]

Norreys, P.

L. Gremillet, F. Amiranoff, S. Baton, J.-C. Gauthier, M. Koenig, E. Martinolli, F. Pisani, G. Bonnaud, C. Lebourg, C. Rousseaux, C. Toupin, A. Antonicci, D. Batani, A. Bernardinello, T. Hall, D. Scott, P. Norreys, H. Bandulet, and H. Pépin, “Time-resolved observation of ultrahigh intensity laser-produced electron jets propagating through transparent solid targets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(24), 5015–5018 (1999).
[Crossref]

Norreys, P. A.

J. S. Green, V. M. Ovchinnikov, R. G. Evans, K. U. Akli, H. Azechi, F. N. Beg, C. Bellei, R. R. Freeman, H. Habara, R. Heathcote, M. H. Key, J. A. King, K. L. Lancaster, N. C. Lopes, T. Ma, A. J. MacKinnon, K. Markey, A. McPhee, Z. Najmudin, P. Nilson, R. Onofrei, R. Stephens, K. Takeda, K. A. Tanaka, W. Theobald, T. Tanimoto, J. Waugh, L. Van Woerkom, N. C. Woolsey, M. Zepf, J. R. Davies, and P. A. Norreys, “Effect of laser intensity on fast-electron-beam divergence in solid-density plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(1), 015003 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

U. Wagner, M. Tatarakis, A. Gopal, F. N. Beg, E. L. Clark, A. E. Dangor, R. G. Evans, M. G. Haines, S. P. D. Mangles, P. A. Norreys, M. S. Wei, M. Zepf, and K. Krushelnick, “Laboratory measurements of 0.7 GG magnetic fields generated during high-intensity laser interactions with dense plasmas,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 70(2), 026401 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ohta, K.

H. Habara, K. Ohta, K. A. Tanaka, G. R. Kumar, M. Krishnamurthy, S. Kahaly, S. Mondal, M. K. Bhuyan, R. Rajeev, and J. Zheng, “Measurements of high energy density electrons via observation of Cherenkov radiation,” Phys. Plasmas 17(5), 056306 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Habara, K. Ohta, K. A. Tanaka, G. R. Kumar, M. Krishnamurthy, S. Kahaly, S. Mondal, M. K. Bhuyan, R. Rajeev, and J. Zheng, “Direct, absolute, and in situ measurement of fast electron transport via Cherenkov emission,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(5), 055001 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Onofrei, R.

J. S. Green, V. M. Ovchinnikov, R. G. Evans, K. U. Akli, H. Azechi, F. N. Beg, C. Bellei, R. R. Freeman, H. Habara, R. Heathcote, M. H. Key, J. A. King, K. L. Lancaster, N. C. Lopes, T. Ma, A. J. MacKinnon, K. Markey, A. McPhee, Z. Najmudin, P. Nilson, R. Onofrei, R. Stephens, K. Takeda, K. A. Tanaka, W. Theobald, T. Tanimoto, J. Waugh, L. Van Woerkom, N. C. Woolsey, M. Zepf, J. R. Davies, and P. A. Norreys, “Effect of laser intensity on fast-electron-beam divergence in solid-density plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(1), 015003 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Osterholz, J.

M. Cerchez, R. Jung, J. Osterholz, T. Toncian, O. Willi, P. Mulser, and H. Ruhl, “Absorption of ultrashort laser pulses in strongly overdense targets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(24), 245001 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ovchinnikov, V. M.

J. S. Green, V. M. Ovchinnikov, R. G. Evans, K. U. Akli, H. Azechi, F. N. Beg, C. Bellei, R. R. Freeman, H. Habara, R. Heathcote, M. H. Key, J. A. King, K. L. Lancaster, N. C. Lopes, T. Ma, A. J. MacKinnon, K. Markey, A. McPhee, Z. Najmudin, P. Nilson, R. Onofrei, R. Stephens, K. Takeda, K. A. Tanaka, W. Theobald, T. Tanimoto, J. Waugh, L. Van Woerkom, N. C. Woolsey, M. Zepf, J. R. Davies, and P. A. Norreys, “Effect of laser intensity on fast-electron-beam divergence in solid-density plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(1), 015003 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pasley, J.

G. Chatterjee, P. K. Singh, S. Ahmed, A. P. L. Robinson, A. D. Lad, S. Mondal, V. Narayanan, I. Srivastava, N. Koratkar, J. Pasley, A. K. Sood, and G. R. Kumar, “Macroscopic transport of mega-ampere electron currents in aligned carbon-nanotube arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(23), 235005 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pépin, H.

L. Gremillet, F. Amiranoff, S. Baton, J.-C. Gauthier, M. Koenig, E. Martinolli, F. Pisani, G. Bonnaud, C. Lebourg, C. Rousseaux, C. Toupin, A. Antonicci, D. Batani, A. Bernardinello, T. Hall, D. Scott, P. Norreys, H. Bandulet, and H. Pépin, “Time-resolved observation of ultrahigh intensity laser-produced electron jets propagating through transparent solid targets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(24), 5015–5018 (1999).
[Crossref]

Ping, Y.

Y. Ping, R. Shepherd, B. F. Lasinski, M. Tabak, H. Chen, H. K. Chung, K. B. Fournier, S. B. Hansen, A. Kemp, D. A. Liedahl, K. Widmann, S. C. Wilks, W. Rozmus, and M. Sherlock, “Absorption of short laser pulses on solid targets in the ultrarelativistic regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(8), 085004 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pisani, F.

L. Gremillet, F. Amiranoff, S. Baton, J.-C. Gauthier, M. Koenig, E. Martinolli, F. Pisani, G. Bonnaud, C. Lebourg, C. Rousseaux, C. Toupin, A. Antonicci, D. Batani, A. Bernardinello, T. Hall, D. Scott, P. Norreys, H. Bandulet, and H. Pépin, “Time-resolved observation of ultrahigh intensity laser-produced electron jets propagating through transparent solid targets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(24), 5015–5018 (1999).
[Crossref]

Pukhov, A.

A. L. Lei, K. A. Tanaka, R. Kodama, K. Adumi, H. Habara, Y. Kitagawa, K. Kondo, T. Matsuoka, T. Tanimoto, T. Yabuuchi, K. Mima, K. Nagai, H. Nagatomo, T. Norimatsu, K. Sawai, K. Suzuki, W. Yu, H. Xu, X. Q. Yang, L. H. Cao, H. B. Cai, Y. Sentoku, A. Pukhov, R. Kumar, R. Snavely, R. Freeman, M. Yu, and J. Zheng, “Study of ultraintense laser propagation in overdense plasmas for fast ignition,” Phys. Plasmas 16(5), 056307 (2009).
[Crossref]

Quéré, F.

C. Thaury, F. Quéré, J.-P. Geindre, A. Levy, T. Ceccotti, P. Monot, M. Bougeard, F. Réau, P. D’Oliveira, P. Audebert, R. Marjoribanks, and P. Martin, “Plasma mirrors for ultrahigh-intensity optics,” Nat. Phys. 3(6), 424–429 (2007).
[Crossref]

Rajeev, R.

H. Habara, K. Ohta, K. A. Tanaka, G. R. Kumar, M. Krishnamurthy, S. Kahaly, S. Mondal, M. K. Bhuyan, R. Rajeev, and J. Zheng, “Measurements of high energy density electrons via observation of Cherenkov radiation,” Phys. Plasmas 17(5), 056306 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Habara, K. Ohta, K. A. Tanaka, G. R. Kumar, M. Krishnamurthy, S. Kahaly, S. Mondal, M. K. Bhuyan, R. Rajeev, and J. Zheng, “Direct, absolute, and in situ measurement of fast electron transport via Cherenkov emission,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(5), 055001 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ravindra Kumar, G.

P. Kumar Singh, G. Chatterjee, A. D. Lad, A. Adak, S. Ahmed, M. Khorasaninejad, M. M. Adachi, K. S. Karim, S. S. Saini, A. K. Sood, and G. Ravindra Kumar, “Efficient generation and guiding of megaampere relativistic electron current by silicon nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(24), 244104 (2012).
[Crossref]

Réau, F.

C. Thaury, F. Quéré, J.-P. Geindre, A. Levy, T. Ceccotti, P. Monot, M. Bougeard, F. Réau, P. D’Oliveira, P. Audebert, R. Marjoribanks, and P. Martin, “Plasma mirrors for ultrahigh-intensity optics,” Nat. Phys. 3(6), 424–429 (2007).
[Crossref]

Robinson, A. P. L.

G. Chatterjee, P. K. Singh, S. Ahmed, A. P. L. Robinson, A. D. Lad, S. Mondal, V. Narayanan, I. Srivastava, N. Koratkar, J. Pasley, A. K. Sood, and G. R. Kumar, “Macroscopic transport of mega-ampere electron currents in aligned carbon-nanotube arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(23), 235005 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rosen, M. D.

M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, M. D. Rosen, and R. W. Falcone, “Ultrafast X-ray pulses from laser-produced plasmas,” Science 251(4993), 531–536 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rousseaux, C.

L. Gremillet, F. Amiranoff, S. Baton, J.-C. Gauthier, M. Koenig, E. Martinolli, F. Pisani, G. Bonnaud, C. Lebourg, C. Rousseaux, C. Toupin, A. Antonicci, D. Batani, A. Bernardinello, T. Hall, D. Scott, P. Norreys, H. Bandulet, and H. Pépin, “Time-resolved observation of ultrahigh intensity laser-produced electron jets propagating through transparent solid targets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(24), 5015–5018 (1999).
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Rozmus, W.

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P. Kumar Singh, G. Chatterjee, A. D. Lad, A. Adak, S. Ahmed, M. Khorasaninejad, M. M. Adachi, K. S. Karim, S. S. Saini, A. K. Sood, and G. Ravindra Kumar, “Efficient generation and guiding of megaampere relativistic electron current by silicon nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(24), 244104 (2012).
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Takeda, K.

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Wang, Q.

Wang, W. M.

S. Mondal, V. Narayanan, W. J. Ding, A. D. Lad, B. Hao, S. Ahmad, W. M. Wang, Z. M. Sheng, S. Sengupta, P. Kaw, A. Das, and G. R. Kumar, “Direct observation of turbulent magnetic fields in hot, dense laser produced plasmas,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(21), 8011–8015 (2012).
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J. S. Green, V. M. Ovchinnikov, R. G. Evans, K. U. Akli, H. Azechi, F. N. Beg, C. Bellei, R. R. Freeman, H. Habara, R. Heathcote, M. H. Key, J. A. King, K. L. Lancaster, N. C. Lopes, T. Ma, A. J. MacKinnon, K. Markey, A. McPhee, Z. Najmudin, P. Nilson, R. Onofrei, R. Stephens, K. Takeda, K. A. Tanaka, W. Theobald, T. Tanimoto, J. Waugh, L. Van Woerkom, N. C. Woolsey, M. Zepf, J. R. Davies, and P. A. Norreys, “Effect of laser intensity on fast-electron-beam divergence in solid-density plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(1), 015003 (2008).
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U. Wagner, M. Tatarakis, A. Gopal, F. N. Beg, E. L. Clark, A. E. Dangor, R. G. Evans, M. G. Haines, S. P. D. Mangles, P. A. Norreys, M. S. Wei, M. Zepf, and K. Krushelnick, “Laboratory measurements of 0.7 GG magnetic fields generated during high-intensity laser interactions with dense plasmas,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 70(2), 026401 (2004).
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Y. Ping, R. Shepherd, B. F. Lasinski, M. Tabak, H. Chen, H. K. Chung, K. B. Fournier, S. B. Hansen, A. Kemp, D. A. Liedahl, K. Widmann, S. C. Wilks, W. Rozmus, and M. Sherlock, “Absorption of short laser pulses on solid targets in the ultrarelativistic regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(8), 085004 (2008).
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G. S. Sarkisov, V. V. Ivanov, P. Leblanc, Y. Sentoku, K. Yates, P. Wiewior, O. Chalyy, A. Astanovitskiy, V. Y. Bychenkov, D. Jobe, and R. B. Spielman, “Propagation of a laser-driven relativistic electron beam inside a solid dielectric,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 86(3), 036412 (2012).
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Wilks, S. C.

Y. Ping, R. Shepherd, B. F. Lasinski, M. Tabak, H. Chen, H. K. Chung, K. B. Fournier, S. B. Hansen, A. Kemp, D. A. Liedahl, K. Widmann, S. C. Wilks, W. Rozmus, and M. Sherlock, “Absorption of short laser pulses on solid targets in the ultrarelativistic regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(8), 085004 (2008).
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Willi, O.

M. Cerchez, R. Jung, J. Osterholz, T. Toncian, O. Willi, P. Mulser, and H. Ruhl, “Absorption of ultrashort laser pulses in strongly overdense targets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(24), 245001 (2008).
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Woolsey, N. C.

J. S. Green, V. M. Ovchinnikov, R. G. Evans, K. U. Akli, H. Azechi, F. N. Beg, C. Bellei, R. R. Freeman, H. Habara, R. Heathcote, M. H. Key, J. A. King, K. L. Lancaster, N. C. Lopes, T. Ma, A. J. MacKinnon, K. Markey, A. McPhee, Z. Najmudin, P. Nilson, R. Onofrei, R. Stephens, K. Takeda, K. A. Tanaka, W. Theobald, T. Tanimoto, J. Waugh, L. Van Woerkom, N. C. Woolsey, M. Zepf, J. R. Davies, and P. A. Norreys, “Effect of laser intensity on fast-electron-beam divergence in solid-density plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(1), 015003 (2008).
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Xu, H.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic of the experimental setup; BS: beam splitter, M01 – M11: mirrors, L01 – L03: focusing lenses, TDS: time delay stage, OAP: off-axis parabola, BGF: blue-green filter, BBO: beta-Barium Borate (second harmonic generator) crystal, T: target (BK7), CCD: charged coupled device, NDF: neutral density filter, VC: vacuum chamber. (b) Magnified view of the pump-probe schematic on the target. (c) Laser spot-size imaging and measurement for the high contrast laser. (d) Intensity contrast measurement using third order auto-correlator for both the laser systems (high contrast – 100 TW, low contrast – 20 TW).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Shadowgraphs obtained with the high contrast laser for a BK7 target. (a) Target – vacuum interface in the absence of any pump pulse (probe only). (b) Typical fast electron jet streak in the target at a time delay of 5.0 ps after main pump interaction. Corresponding linear intensity profiles are plotted on the shadowgraph to demonstrate the difference between absence and presence of electron jet streaks. (c) An enlarged image of the section (~1 mm length) marked by the dashed rectangular boundary in part (b), showing the gradual divergence of the electron jet.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a)–(f) Shadowgraphs demonstrating the temporal evolution of fast electron jet streak measured using high contrast laser pulses at early times. (g) Fast electron channel length vs time delay plot for estimation of the corresponding electron jet speed. (h)–(m) Shadowgraphs demonstrating the temporal evolution of fast electron jet streaks at later times, along with the plasma expansion into the vacuum. (n) Plot of vacuum side plasma expansion radius as a function of time delay for high contrast pulses.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a)–(e) Low contrast laser pulse shadowgraphs demonstrating the temporal evolution of fast electron cloud inside the target, along with the plasma expansion into the vacuum. (f) Temporal variations of, (left-axis) average channel length of electron cloud penetration in to the target, and (right-axis, same scale) Radius of plasma expansion in the vacuum side, for the low contrast laser.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Cherenkov emission image (background subtracted) after a differential time interval of 0.5 ns for the high contrast laser. (b) Differential peak intensity of Cherenkov emission obtained with three different interference filters (400, 520, 650 nm) of bandwidth ~10 nm, indicating the spectrum of the Cherenkov emission.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a)–(f) Shadowgraphs demonstrating the temporal evolution of fast electron jet streak measured using high contrast laser pulses with a larger intensity (~1019 W/cm2), at early times. (g) Fast electron channel length vs time delay plot for estimation of the corresponding electron jet speed. (h)–(m) Shadowgraphs demonstrating the temporal evolution of fast electron streaks at later times, along with the plasma expansion into the vacuum. (n) Plot of vacuum side plasma expansion radius as a function of time delay for high contrast pulses.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Estimation of Basic Parameters Associated with Fast Electron Transport for High Contrast Laser.

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