Abstract

Thermal lensing in diode-side-pumped Nd:YAG laser has been measured quantitatively using digital holographic interferometry. A series of holograms, carrying the information of the laser rod under different pump currents, are recorded with a CCD and reconstructed numerically. The optical path difference induced by the thermal lensing and the corresponding evolution process under different currents are obtained accordingly. Further, the thermal lensing diopters, induced aberrations, and its Zernike coefficients are calculated. The proposed method can be applied in the thermal lensing measurement and the optimization design of a laser resonator.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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  2. S. Chénais, F. Druon, S. Forget, F. Balembois, and P. Georges, “On thermal effects in solid-state lasers: The case of ytterbium-doped materials,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 30(4), 89–153 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  3. R. Weber, B. Neuenschwander, and H. P. Weber, “Thermal effects in solid-state laser materials,” Opt. Mater. 11(2-3), 245–254 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  4. M. Schmid, R. Weber, T. Graf, M. Roos, and H. P. Weber, “Numerical simulation and analytical description of thermally induced birefringence in laser rods,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36(5), 620–626 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  5. W. Clarkson, “Thermal effects and their mitigation in end-pumped solid-state lasers,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 34(16), 2381–2395 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  6. Y. S. Huang, H. L. Tsai, and F. L. Chang, “Thermo-optic effects affecting the high pump power end pumped solid state lasers: Modeling and analysis,” Opt. Commun. 273(2), 515–525 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  7. S. Chénais, F. Balembois, F. Druon, G. Lucas-Leclin, and P. Georges, “Thermal lensing in diode-pumped ytterbium lasers-Part I: theoretical analysis and wavefront measurements,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(9), 1217–1234 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  8. D. C. Burnham, “Simple measurement of thermal lensing effects in laser rods,” Appl. Opt. 9(7), 1727–1728 (1970).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. C. Hu and J. R. Whinnery, “New thermooptical measurement method and a comparison with other methods,” Appl. Opt. 12(1), 72–79 (1973).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. D. Lancaster and J. Dawes, “Thermal-lens measurement of a quasi steady-state repetitively flashlamp-pumped Cr, Tm, Ho: YAG laser,” Opt. Laser Technol. 30(2), 103–108 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  11. S. Ito, H. Nagaoka, T. Miura, K. Kobayashi, A. Endo, and K. Torizuka, “Measurement of thermal lensing in a power amplifier of a terawatt Ti: sapphire laser,” Appl. Phys. B 74(4-5), 343–347 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  12. A. Nishimura, K. Akaoka, A. Ohzu, and T. Usami, “Temporal change of thermal lens effects on highly pumped ytterbium glass by wavefront measurement,” J. Nucl. Sci. Technol. 38(12), 1043–1047 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  13. J. L. Blows, J. M. Dawes, and T. Omatsu, “Thermal lensing measurements in line-focus end-pumped neodymium yttrium aluminium garnet using holographic lateral shearing interferometry,” J. Appl. Phys. 83(6), 2901–2906 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  14. J. Blows, P. Dekker, P. Wang, J. Dawes, and T. Omatsu, “Thermal lensing measurements and thermal conductivity of Yb: YAB,” Appl. Phys. B 76(3), 289–292 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  15. L. Grossard, A. Desfarges-Berthelemot, B. Colombeau, and C. Froehly, “Iterative reconstruction of thermally induced phase distortion in a Nd3+: YVO4 laser,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 4(1), 1–7 (2001).
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  20. Y. Zhang, J. Zhao, J. Di, H. Jiang, Q. Wang, J. Wang, Y. Guo, and D. Yin, “Real-time monitoring of the solution concentration variation during the crystallization process of protein-lysozyme by using digital holographic interferometry,” Opt. Express 20(16), 18415–18421 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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  22. X. Peng, L. Xu, and A. Asundi, “Thermal lensing effects for diode-end-pumped Nd: YVO4 and Nd: YAG lasers,” Opt. Eng. 43, 2454–2461 (2004).
    [Crossref]

2016 (1)

2015 (1)

2012 (2)

Y. Zhang, J. Zhao, J. Di, H. Jiang, Q. Wang, J. Wang, Y. Guo, and D. Yin, “Real-time monitoring of the solution concentration variation during the crystallization process of protein-lysozyme by using digital holographic interferometry,” Opt. Express 20(16), 18415–18421 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Wang, J. Zhao, X. Jiao, J. Di, and H. Jiang, “Visual and quantitative measurement of the temperature distribution of heat conduction process in glass based on digital holographic interferometry,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(9), 093111 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

2009 (1)

2007 (1)

Y. S. Huang, H. L. Tsai, and F. L. Chang, “Thermo-optic effects affecting the high pump power end pumped solid state lasers: Modeling and analysis,” Opt. Commun. 273(2), 515–525 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

S. Chénais, F. Druon, S. Forget, F. Balembois, and P. Georges, “On thermal effects in solid-state lasers: The case of ytterbium-doped materials,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 30(4), 89–153 (2006).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

S. Chénais, F. Balembois, F. Druon, G. Lucas-Leclin, and P. Georges, “Thermal lensing in diode-pumped ytterbium lasers-Part I: theoretical analysis and wavefront measurements,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(9), 1217–1234 (2004).
[Crossref]

X. Peng, L. Xu, and A. Asundi, “Thermal lensing effects for diode-end-pumped Nd: YVO4 and Nd: YAG lasers,” Opt. Eng. 43, 2454–2461 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

J. Blows, P. Dekker, P. Wang, J. Dawes, and T. Omatsu, “Thermal lensing measurements and thermal conductivity of Yb: YAB,” Appl. Phys. B 76(3), 289–292 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

S. Ito, H. Nagaoka, T. Miura, K. Kobayashi, A. Endo, and K. Torizuka, “Measurement of thermal lensing in a power amplifier of a terawatt Ti: sapphire laser,” Appl. Phys. B 74(4-5), 343–347 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (3)

A. Nishimura, K. Akaoka, A. Ohzu, and T. Usami, “Temporal change of thermal lens effects on highly pumped ytterbium glass by wavefront measurement,” J. Nucl. Sci. Technol. 38(12), 1043–1047 (2001).
[Crossref]

L. Grossard, A. Desfarges-Berthelemot, B. Colombeau, and C. Froehly, “Iterative reconstruction of thermally induced phase distortion in a Nd3+: YVO4 laser,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 4(1), 1–7 (2001).
[Crossref]

W. Clarkson, “Thermal effects and their mitigation in end-pumped solid-state lasers,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 34(16), 2381–2395 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

M. Schmid, R. Weber, T. Graf, M. Roos, and H. P. Weber, “Numerical simulation and analytical description of thermally induced birefringence in laser rods,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36(5), 620–626 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

R. Weber, B. Neuenschwander, and H. P. Weber, “Thermal effects in solid-state laser materials,” Opt. Mater. 11(2-3), 245–254 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (2)

D. Lancaster and J. Dawes, “Thermal-lens measurement of a quasi steady-state repetitively flashlamp-pumped Cr, Tm, Ho: YAG laser,” Opt. Laser Technol. 30(2), 103–108 (1998).
[Crossref]

J. L. Blows, J. M. Dawes, and T. Omatsu, “Thermal lensing measurements in line-focus end-pumped neodymium yttrium aluminium garnet using holographic lateral shearing interferometry,” J. Appl. Phys. 83(6), 2901–2906 (1998).
[Crossref]

1973 (1)

1970 (1)

Akaoka, K.

A. Nishimura, K. Akaoka, A. Ohzu, and T. Usami, “Temporal change of thermal lens effects on highly pumped ytterbium glass by wavefront measurement,” J. Nucl. Sci. Technol. 38(12), 1043–1047 (2001).
[Crossref]

Asundi, A.

Balembois, F.

S. Chénais, F. Druon, S. Forget, F. Balembois, and P. Georges, “On thermal effects in solid-state lasers: The case of ytterbium-doped materials,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 30(4), 89–153 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. Chénais, F. Balembois, F. Druon, G. Lucas-Leclin, and P. Georges, “Thermal lensing in diode-pumped ytterbium lasers-Part I: theoretical analysis and wavefront measurements,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(9), 1217–1234 (2004).
[Crossref]

Blows, J.

J. Blows, P. Dekker, P. Wang, J. Dawes, and T. Omatsu, “Thermal lensing measurements and thermal conductivity of Yb: YAB,” Appl. Phys. B 76(3), 289–292 (2003).
[Crossref]

Blows, J. L.

J. L. Blows, J. M. Dawes, and T. Omatsu, “Thermal lensing measurements in line-focus end-pumped neodymium yttrium aluminium garnet using holographic lateral shearing interferometry,” J. Appl. Phys. 83(6), 2901–2906 (1998).
[Crossref]

Burnham, D. C.

Chang, F. L.

Y. S. Huang, H. L. Tsai, and F. L. Chang, “Thermo-optic effects affecting the high pump power end pumped solid state lasers: Modeling and analysis,” Opt. Commun. 273(2), 515–525 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chénais, S.

S. Chénais, F. Druon, S. Forget, F. Balembois, and P. Georges, “On thermal effects in solid-state lasers: The case of ytterbium-doped materials,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 30(4), 89–153 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. Chénais, F. Balembois, F. Druon, G. Lucas-Leclin, and P. Georges, “Thermal lensing in diode-pumped ytterbium lasers-Part I: theoretical analysis and wavefront measurements,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(9), 1217–1234 (2004).
[Crossref]

Clarkson, W.

W. Clarkson, “Thermal effects and their mitigation in end-pumped solid-state lasers,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 34(16), 2381–2395 (2001).
[Crossref]

Colombeau, B.

L. Grossard, A. Desfarges-Berthelemot, B. Colombeau, and C. Froehly, “Iterative reconstruction of thermally induced phase distortion in a Nd3+: YVO4 laser,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 4(1), 1–7 (2001).
[Crossref]

Dai, S.

Dawes, J.

J. Blows, P. Dekker, P. Wang, J. Dawes, and T. Omatsu, “Thermal lensing measurements and thermal conductivity of Yb: YAB,” Appl. Phys. B 76(3), 289–292 (2003).
[Crossref]

D. Lancaster and J. Dawes, “Thermal-lens measurement of a quasi steady-state repetitively flashlamp-pumped Cr, Tm, Ho: YAG laser,” Opt. Laser Technol. 30(2), 103–108 (1998).
[Crossref]

Dawes, J. M.

J. L. Blows, J. M. Dawes, and T. Omatsu, “Thermal lensing measurements in line-focus end-pumped neodymium yttrium aluminium garnet using holographic lateral shearing interferometry,” J. Appl. Phys. 83(6), 2901–2906 (1998).
[Crossref]

Dekker, P.

J. Blows, P. Dekker, P. Wang, J. Dawes, and T. Omatsu, “Thermal lensing measurements and thermal conductivity of Yb: YAB,” Appl. Phys. B 76(3), 289–292 (2003).
[Crossref]

Desfarges-Berthelemot, A.

L. Grossard, A. Desfarges-Berthelemot, B. Colombeau, and C. Froehly, “Iterative reconstruction of thermally induced phase distortion in a Nd3+: YVO4 laser,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 4(1), 1–7 (2001).
[Crossref]

Di, J.

Druon, F.

S. Chénais, F. Druon, S. Forget, F. Balembois, and P. Georges, “On thermal effects in solid-state lasers: The case of ytterbium-doped materials,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 30(4), 89–153 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. Chénais, F. Balembois, F. Druon, G. Lucas-Leclin, and P. Georges, “Thermal lensing in diode-pumped ytterbium lasers-Part I: theoretical analysis and wavefront measurements,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(9), 1217–1234 (2004).
[Crossref]

Endo, A.

S. Ito, H. Nagaoka, T. Miura, K. Kobayashi, A. Endo, and K. Torizuka, “Measurement of thermal lensing in a power amplifier of a terawatt Ti: sapphire laser,” Appl. Phys. B 74(4-5), 343–347 (2002).
[Crossref]

Forget, S.

S. Chénais, F. Druon, S. Forget, F. Balembois, and P. Georges, “On thermal effects in solid-state lasers: The case of ytterbium-doped materials,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 30(4), 89–153 (2006).
[Crossref]

Froehly, C.

L. Grossard, A. Desfarges-Berthelemot, B. Colombeau, and C. Froehly, “Iterative reconstruction of thermally induced phase distortion in a Nd3+: YVO4 laser,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 4(1), 1–7 (2001).
[Crossref]

Georges, P.

S. Chénais, F. Druon, S. Forget, F. Balembois, and P. Georges, “On thermal effects in solid-state lasers: The case of ytterbium-doped materials,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 30(4), 89–153 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. Chénais, F. Balembois, F. Druon, G. Lucas-Leclin, and P. Georges, “Thermal lensing in diode-pumped ytterbium lasers-Part I: theoretical analysis and wavefront measurements,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(9), 1217–1234 (2004).
[Crossref]

Graf, T.

M. Schmid, R. Weber, T. Graf, M. Roos, and H. P. Weber, “Numerical simulation and analytical description of thermally induced birefringence in laser rods,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36(5), 620–626 (2000).
[Crossref]

Grossard, L.

L. Grossard, A. Desfarges-Berthelemot, B. Colombeau, and C. Froehly, “Iterative reconstruction of thermally induced phase distortion in a Nd3+: YVO4 laser,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 4(1), 1–7 (2001).
[Crossref]

Guo, Y.

Hu, C.

Huang, L.

Huang, Y. S.

Y. S. Huang, H. L. Tsai, and F. L. Chang, “Thermo-optic effects affecting the high pump power end pumped solid state lasers: Modeling and analysis,” Opt. Commun. 273(2), 515–525 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ito, S.

S. Ito, H. Nagaoka, T. Miura, K. Kobayashi, A. Endo, and K. Torizuka, “Measurement of thermal lensing in a power amplifier of a terawatt Ti: sapphire laser,” Appl. Phys. B 74(4-5), 343–347 (2002).
[Crossref]

Jiang, H.

Y. Zhang, J. Zhao, J. Di, H. Jiang, Q. Wang, J. Wang, Y. Guo, and D. Yin, “Real-time monitoring of the solution concentration variation during the crystallization process of protein-lysozyme by using digital holographic interferometry,” Opt. Express 20(16), 18415–18421 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Wang, J. Zhao, X. Jiao, J. Di, and H. Jiang, “Visual and quantitative measurement of the temperature distribution of heat conduction process in glass based on digital holographic interferometry,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(9), 093111 (2012).
[Crossref]

Jiao, X.

Q. Wang, J. Zhao, X. Jiao, J. Di, and H. Jiang, “Visual and quantitative measurement of the temperature distribution of heat conduction process in glass based on digital holographic interferometry,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(9), 093111 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kemao, Q.

Kobayashi, K.

S. Ito, H. Nagaoka, T. Miura, K. Kobayashi, A. Endo, and K. Torizuka, “Measurement of thermal lensing in a power amplifier of a terawatt Ti: sapphire laser,” Appl. Phys. B 74(4-5), 343–347 (2002).
[Crossref]

Lancaster, D.

D. Lancaster and J. Dawes, “Thermal-lens measurement of a quasi steady-state repetitively flashlamp-pumped Cr, Tm, Ho: YAG laser,” Opt. Laser Technol. 30(2), 103–108 (1998).
[Crossref]

Li, Y.

Lucas-Leclin, G.

S. Chénais, F. Balembois, F. Druon, G. Lucas-Leclin, and P. Georges, “Thermal lensing in diode-pumped ytterbium lasers-Part I: theoretical analysis and wavefront measurements,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(9), 1217–1234 (2004).
[Crossref]

Ma, C.

Miura, T.

S. Ito, H. Nagaoka, T. Miura, K. Kobayashi, A. Endo, and K. Torizuka, “Measurement of thermal lensing in a power amplifier of a terawatt Ti: sapphire laser,” Appl. Phys. B 74(4-5), 343–347 (2002).
[Crossref]

Nagaoka, H.

S. Ito, H. Nagaoka, T. Miura, K. Kobayashi, A. Endo, and K. Torizuka, “Measurement of thermal lensing in a power amplifier of a terawatt Ti: sapphire laser,” Appl. Phys. B 74(4-5), 343–347 (2002).
[Crossref]

Neuenschwander, B.

R. Weber, B. Neuenschwander, and H. P. Weber, “Thermal effects in solid-state laser materials,” Opt. Mater. 11(2-3), 245–254 (1999).
[Crossref]

Nishimura, A.

A. Nishimura, K. Akaoka, A. Ohzu, and T. Usami, “Temporal change of thermal lens effects on highly pumped ytterbium glass by wavefront measurement,” J. Nucl. Sci. Technol. 38(12), 1043–1047 (2001).
[Crossref]

Ohzu, A.

A. Nishimura, K. Akaoka, A. Ohzu, and T. Usami, “Temporal change of thermal lens effects on highly pumped ytterbium glass by wavefront measurement,” J. Nucl. Sci. Technol. 38(12), 1043–1047 (2001).
[Crossref]

Omatsu, T.

J. Blows, P. Dekker, P. Wang, J. Dawes, and T. Omatsu, “Thermal lensing measurements and thermal conductivity of Yb: YAB,” Appl. Phys. B 76(3), 289–292 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. L. Blows, J. M. Dawes, and T. Omatsu, “Thermal lensing measurements in line-focus end-pumped neodymium yttrium aluminium garnet using holographic lateral shearing interferometry,” J. Appl. Phys. 83(6), 2901–2906 (1998).
[Crossref]

Peng, X.

X. Peng, L. Xu, and A. Asundi, “Thermal lensing effects for diode-end-pumped Nd: YVO4 and Nd: YAG lasers,” Opt. Eng. 43, 2454–2461 (2004).
[Crossref]

Roos, M.

M. Schmid, R. Weber, T. Graf, M. Roos, and H. P. Weber, “Numerical simulation and analytical description of thermally induced birefringence in laser rods,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36(5), 620–626 (2000).
[Crossref]

Schmid, M.

M. Schmid, R. Weber, T. Graf, M. Roos, and H. P. Weber, “Numerical simulation and analytical description of thermally induced birefringence in laser rods,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36(5), 620–626 (2000).
[Crossref]

Su, X.

Sun, W.

Torizuka, K.

S. Ito, H. Nagaoka, T. Miura, K. Kobayashi, A. Endo, and K. Torizuka, “Measurement of thermal lensing in a power amplifier of a terawatt Ti: sapphire laser,” Appl. Phys. B 74(4-5), 343–347 (2002).
[Crossref]

Tsai, H. L.

Y. S. Huang, H. L. Tsai, and F. L. Chang, “Thermo-optic effects affecting the high pump power end pumped solid state lasers: Modeling and analysis,” Opt. Commun. 273(2), 515–525 (2007).
[Crossref]

Usami, T.

A. Nishimura, K. Akaoka, A. Ohzu, and T. Usami, “Temporal change of thermal lens effects on highly pumped ytterbium glass by wavefront measurement,” J. Nucl. Sci. Technol. 38(12), 1043–1047 (2001).
[Crossref]

Wang, J.

Wang, L.

Wang, P.

J. Blows, P. Dekker, P. Wang, J. Dawes, and T. Omatsu, “Thermal lensing measurements and thermal conductivity of Yb: YAB,” Appl. Phys. B 76(3), 289–292 (2003).
[Crossref]

Wang, Q.

Weber, H. P.

M. Schmid, R. Weber, T. Graf, M. Roos, and H. P. Weber, “Numerical simulation and analytical description of thermally induced birefringence in laser rods,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36(5), 620–626 (2000).
[Crossref]

R. Weber, B. Neuenschwander, and H. P. Weber, “Thermal effects in solid-state laser materials,” Opt. Mater. 11(2-3), 245–254 (1999).
[Crossref]

Weber, R.

M. Schmid, R. Weber, T. Graf, M. Roos, and H. P. Weber, “Numerical simulation and analytical description of thermally induced birefringence in laser rods,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36(5), 620–626 (2000).
[Crossref]

R. Weber, B. Neuenschwander, and H. P. Weber, “Thermal effects in solid-state laser materials,” Opt. Mater. 11(2-3), 245–254 (1999).
[Crossref]

Whinnery, J. R.

Xi, T.

Xu, L.

X. Peng, L. Xu, and A. Asundi, “Thermal lensing effects for diode-end-pumped Nd: YVO4 and Nd: YAG lasers,” Opt. Eng. 43, 2454–2461 (2004).
[Crossref]

Yin, D.

Zhang, J.

Zhang, Q.

Zhang, Y.

Zhao, J.

Zhao, M.

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys. B (2)

J. Blows, P. Dekker, P. Wang, J. Dawes, and T. Omatsu, “Thermal lensing measurements and thermal conductivity of Yb: YAB,” Appl. Phys. B 76(3), 289–292 (2003).
[Crossref]

S. Ito, H. Nagaoka, T. Miura, K. Kobayashi, A. Endo, and K. Torizuka, “Measurement of thermal lensing in a power amplifier of a terawatt Ti: sapphire laser,” Appl. Phys. B 74(4-5), 343–347 (2002).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

S. Chénais, F. Balembois, F. Druon, G. Lucas-Leclin, and P. Georges, “Thermal lensing in diode-pumped ytterbium lasers-Part I: theoretical analysis and wavefront measurements,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(9), 1217–1234 (2004).
[Crossref]

M. Schmid, R. Weber, T. Graf, M. Roos, and H. P. Weber, “Numerical simulation and analytical description of thermally induced birefringence in laser rods,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36(5), 620–626 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

J. L. Blows, J. M. Dawes, and T. Omatsu, “Thermal lensing measurements in line-focus end-pumped neodymium yttrium aluminium garnet using holographic lateral shearing interferometry,” J. Appl. Phys. 83(6), 2901–2906 (1998).
[Crossref]

Q. Wang, J. Zhao, X. Jiao, J. Di, and H. Jiang, “Visual and quantitative measurement of the temperature distribution of heat conduction process in glass based on digital holographic interferometry,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(9), 093111 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Nucl. Sci. Technol. (1)

A. Nishimura, K. Akaoka, A. Ohzu, and T. Usami, “Temporal change of thermal lens effects on highly pumped ytterbium glass by wavefront measurement,” J. Nucl. Sci. Technol. 38(12), 1043–1047 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

L. Grossard, A. Desfarges-Berthelemot, B. Colombeau, and C. Froehly, “Iterative reconstruction of thermally induced phase distortion in a Nd3+: YVO4 laser,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 4(1), 1–7 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. (1)

W. Clarkson, “Thermal effects and their mitigation in end-pumped solid-state lasers,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 34(16), 2381–2395 (2001).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

Y. S. Huang, H. L. Tsai, and F. L. Chang, “Thermo-optic effects affecting the high pump power end pumped solid state lasers: Modeling and analysis,” Opt. Commun. 273(2), 515–525 (2007).
[Crossref]

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X. Peng, L. Xu, and A. Asundi, “Thermal lensing effects for diode-end-pumped Nd: YVO4 and Nd: YAG lasers,” Opt. Eng. 43, 2454–2461 (2004).
[Crossref]

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D. Lancaster and J. Dawes, “Thermal-lens measurement of a quasi steady-state repetitively flashlamp-pumped Cr, Tm, Ho: YAG laser,” Opt. Laser Technol. 30(2), 103–108 (1998).
[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

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S. Chénais, F. Druon, S. Forget, F. Balembois, and P. Georges, “On thermal effects in solid-state lasers: The case of ytterbium-doped materials,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 30(4), 89–153 (2006).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

W. Koechner, Solid-State Laser Engineering (Springer, 2013), Vol. 1.

Supplementary Material (1)

NameDescription
» Visualization 1: AVI (451 KB)      Shape and evolution of wavefront under different pump currents

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Experimental setup for measuring the thermal lensing effects in diode-side-pumped Nd:YAG laser by use of digital holographic interferometry
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Recorded digital hologram and corresponding reconstructed phase map at 0 A current.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Reconstructed phase map under different currents. (a)-(f) 10 A, 15 A, 20 A, 25 A, 30 A, 35 A.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Shape and evolution of wavefront under different pump currents (Visualization 1).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Measured 2D phase distribution of wavefront under 35A pump current; (b) fitting of the OPD profile along the white line.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Measured thermal lensing diopter vs. pump current.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a) 2D phase distribution of the wavefront in the central circular region of Fig. 5(a); (b) obtained Zernike polynomial fitting wavefront; (c) residual error map.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Calculated Zernike coefficients

Equations (5)

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f= KA P h [ 1 2 dn dT +α C r,ϕ n o 3 + α r 0 ( n 0 1) l ] 1 .
I( x,y )= | O( x,y ) | 2 + | R( x,y ) | 2 + R * ( x,y )O( x,y )+R( x,y ) O * ( x,y ),
U( ξ,η )=IFFT.{ FFT{ C( x,y )I( x,y ) }FFT{ g( ξ,η,x,y ) } }.
Δφ=arg[ U 1 ( ξ,η ) U 2 ( ξ,η ) ]( mod2π ),
Δφ( x,y )= 2π λ Δl( x,y )= 2π λ 0 L [n(x,y,z) n 0 ] dz,

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