Abstract

This paper demonstrates 2-stack and 3-stack white organic light-emitting diodes (WOLEDs) with fluorescent blue and phosphorescent yellow emissive units. The 2-stack and 3-stack WOLED comprises blue-yellow and blue-blue-yellow (blue-yellow-blue) combinations. The position of the yellow emitter and possible cavity lengths in different stack architectures are theoretically and experimentally investigated to reach Commission Internationale de L’Eclairage (CIE) coordinates of near (0.333/0.333). Here, a maximum external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 23.6% and current efficiency of 62.2 cd/A at 1000 cd/m2 as well as suitable CIE color coordinates of (0.335/0.313) for the blue-blue-yellow 3-stack hybrid WOLED structure is reported. In addition, the blue-yellow-blue 3-stack architecture exhibits an improved angular dependence compared to the blue-blue-yellow structure at a decreased EQE of 19.1%.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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    [PubMed]
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    [PubMed]

2015 (3)

J. Lee, T. Koh, H. Cho, S. Hofmann, S. Reineke, J. Lee, J. Lee, S. Yoo, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Color temperature tuning of white organic light-emitting diodes via spatial control of micro-cavity effects based on thin metal strips,” Org. Electron. 26, 334–339 (2015).

M. J. Park, Y. H. Son, G. H. Kim, R. Lampande, H. W. Bae, P. Ramchandra, Y. K. Lee, W. J. Song, and J. H. Kwon, “Device performances of third order micro-cavity green top-emitting organic light emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 26, 458–463 (2015).

Y. Dai, H. Zhang, Z. Zhang, Y. Liu, J. Chen, and D. Ma, “Highly efficient and stable tandem organic light-emitting devices based on HAT-CN/HAT-CN:TAPC/TAPC as a charge generation layer,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 3, 6809–6814 (2015).

2014 (2)

R. B. Wang, Q. K. Wang, H. J. Xie, L. H. Xu, S. Duhm, Y. Q. Li, and J. X. Tang, “HATCN-based charge recombination layers as effective interconnectors for tandem organic solar cells,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(17), 15604–15609 (2014).
[PubMed]

J. Yu, Y. Yin, W. Liu, W. Zhang, L. Zhang, W. Xie, and H. Zhao, “Effect of the greenish-yellow emission on the color rendering index of white organic light-emitting devices,” Org. Electron. 15, 2817–2821 (2014).

2013 (3)

Y. J. Kim, Y. H. Son, and J. H. Kwon, “Highly efficient yellow phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes for two-peak tandem white organic light-emitting diode applications,” J. Inf. Disp. 14, 109–113 (2013).

Y. H. Son, Y. J. Kim, M. J. Park, H. Y. Oh, J. S. Park, and J. H. Kwon, “Small single-triplet energy gap bipolar host materials for phosphorescent blue and white organic light emitting diodes,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 1, 5008–5014 (2013).

W. Gaynor, S. Hofmann, M. G. Christoforo, C. Sachse, S. Mehra, A. Salleo, M. D. McGehee, M. C. Gather, B. Lüssem, L. Müller-Meskamp, P. Peumans, and K. Leo, “Color in the corners: ITO-free white OLEDs with angular color stability,” Adv. Mater. 25(29), 4006–4013 (2013).
[PubMed]

2012 (2)

S. Ming, G. Xu, C. Shu-Fen, F Qu-Li, and H Wei, “Efficient top-emitting white organic light emitting device with an extremely stable chromaticity and viewing-angle,” Chin. Phys. B 21(10), 108507 (2012).

J. S. Park, J. H. Yu, W. S. Jeon, Y. H. Son, M. C. Suh, and J. H. Kwon, “Simple-structure white organic light emitting diodes with high color temperature,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 12, 42–45 (2012).

2010 (1)

T. G. Kim, H. S. Oh, Y. H. Kim, and W. Y. Kim, “Study of deep blue organic light-emitting diodes using doped BCzVBi with various blue host materials,” Trans. Electr. Electron. Mater. 11, 85–88 (2010).

2009 (3)

M. Tomschke, R. Nitsche, M. Furmo, and K. Leo, “Optimized efficiency and angular emission characteristics of white top-emitting organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 083303 (2009).

G. Schwartz, S. Reineke, T. C. Rosenow, K. Walzer, and K. Leo, “Triplet harvesting in hybrid white organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 1319–1333 (2009).

W. S. Jeon, T. J. Park, S. Y. Kim, R. Pode, J. Jang, and J. H. Kwon, “Ideal host and guest system in phosphorescent OLEDs,” Org. Electron. 10, 240–246 (2009).

2008 (1)

T. W. Lee, T. Noh, B. K. Choi, M. S. Kim, and D. W. Shin, “High-efficiency stacked white organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 043301 (2008).

2006 (1)

B. Geffroy, P. Roy, and C. Prat, “Organic light-emitting diode (OLED) technology: materials, devices and display technologies,” Polym. Int. 55, 572–582 (2006).

2004 (1)

Y. Q. Li, J. X. Tang, Z. Y. Xie, L. S. Hung, and S. S. Lau, “An efficient organic light-emitting diode with silver electrodes,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 386, 128–131 (2004).

2002 (1)

A. Köhler, J. S. Wilson, and R. H. Friend, “Fluorescence and phosphorescence in organic materials,” Adv. Eng. Mater. 4, 453–459 (2002).

1998 (1)

A. A. Shoustikov, Y. You, and M. E. Thompson, “Electroluminescence color tuning by dye doping in organic light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 3–13 (1998).

Bae, H. W.

M. J. Park, Y. H. Son, G. H. Kim, R. Lampande, H. W. Bae, P. Ramchandra, Y. K. Lee, W. J. Song, and J. H. Kwon, “Device performances of third order micro-cavity green top-emitting organic light emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 26, 458–463 (2015).

Chen, J.

Y. Dai, H. Zhang, Z. Zhang, Y. Liu, J. Chen, and D. Ma, “Highly efficient and stable tandem organic light-emitting devices based on HAT-CN/HAT-CN:TAPC/TAPC as a charge generation layer,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 3, 6809–6814 (2015).

Cho, H.

J. Lee, T. Koh, H. Cho, S. Hofmann, S. Reineke, J. Lee, J. Lee, S. Yoo, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Color temperature tuning of white organic light-emitting diodes via spatial control of micro-cavity effects based on thin metal strips,” Org. Electron. 26, 334–339 (2015).

Choi, B. K.

T. W. Lee, T. Noh, B. K. Choi, M. S. Kim, and D. W. Shin, “High-efficiency stacked white organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 043301 (2008).

Christoforo, M. G.

W. Gaynor, S. Hofmann, M. G. Christoforo, C. Sachse, S. Mehra, A. Salleo, M. D. McGehee, M. C. Gather, B. Lüssem, L. Müller-Meskamp, P. Peumans, and K. Leo, “Color in the corners: ITO-free white OLEDs with angular color stability,” Adv. Mater. 25(29), 4006–4013 (2013).
[PubMed]

Dai, Y.

Y. Dai, H. Zhang, Z. Zhang, Y. Liu, J. Chen, and D. Ma, “Highly efficient and stable tandem organic light-emitting devices based on HAT-CN/HAT-CN:TAPC/TAPC as a charge generation layer,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 3, 6809–6814 (2015).

Duhm, S.

R. B. Wang, Q. K. Wang, H. J. Xie, L. H. Xu, S. Duhm, Y. Q. Li, and J. X. Tang, “HATCN-based charge recombination layers as effective interconnectors for tandem organic solar cells,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(17), 15604–15609 (2014).
[PubMed]

Friend, R. H.

A. Köhler, J. S. Wilson, and R. H. Friend, “Fluorescence and phosphorescence in organic materials,” Adv. Eng. Mater. 4, 453–459 (2002).

Furmo, M.

M. Tomschke, R. Nitsche, M. Furmo, and K. Leo, “Optimized efficiency and angular emission characteristics of white top-emitting organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 083303 (2009).

Gather, M. C.

J. Lee, T. Koh, H. Cho, S. Hofmann, S. Reineke, J. Lee, J. Lee, S. Yoo, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Color temperature tuning of white organic light-emitting diodes via spatial control of micro-cavity effects based on thin metal strips,” Org. Electron. 26, 334–339 (2015).

W. Gaynor, S. Hofmann, M. G. Christoforo, C. Sachse, S. Mehra, A. Salleo, M. D. McGehee, M. C. Gather, B. Lüssem, L. Müller-Meskamp, P. Peumans, and K. Leo, “Color in the corners: ITO-free white OLEDs with angular color stability,” Adv. Mater. 25(29), 4006–4013 (2013).
[PubMed]

Gaynor, W.

W. Gaynor, S. Hofmann, M. G. Christoforo, C. Sachse, S. Mehra, A. Salleo, M. D. McGehee, M. C. Gather, B. Lüssem, L. Müller-Meskamp, P. Peumans, and K. Leo, “Color in the corners: ITO-free white OLEDs with angular color stability,” Adv. Mater. 25(29), 4006–4013 (2013).
[PubMed]

Geffroy, B.

B. Geffroy, P. Roy, and C. Prat, “Organic light-emitting diode (OLED) technology: materials, devices and display technologies,” Polym. Int. 55, 572–582 (2006).

Hofmann, S.

J. Lee, T. Koh, H. Cho, S. Hofmann, S. Reineke, J. Lee, J. Lee, S. Yoo, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Color temperature tuning of white organic light-emitting diodes via spatial control of micro-cavity effects based on thin metal strips,” Org. Electron. 26, 334–339 (2015).

W. Gaynor, S. Hofmann, M. G. Christoforo, C. Sachse, S. Mehra, A. Salleo, M. D. McGehee, M. C. Gather, B. Lüssem, L. Müller-Meskamp, P. Peumans, and K. Leo, “Color in the corners: ITO-free white OLEDs with angular color stability,” Adv. Mater. 25(29), 4006–4013 (2013).
[PubMed]

Hung, L. S.

Y. Q. Li, J. X. Tang, Z. Y. Xie, L. S. Hung, and S. S. Lau, “An efficient organic light-emitting diode with silver electrodes,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 386, 128–131 (2004).

Jang, J.

W. S. Jeon, T. J. Park, S. Y. Kim, R. Pode, J. Jang, and J. H. Kwon, “Ideal host and guest system in phosphorescent OLEDs,” Org. Electron. 10, 240–246 (2009).

Jeon, W. S.

J. S. Park, J. H. Yu, W. S. Jeon, Y. H. Son, M. C. Suh, and J. H. Kwon, “Simple-structure white organic light emitting diodes with high color temperature,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 12, 42–45 (2012).

W. S. Jeon, T. J. Park, S. Y. Kim, R. Pode, J. Jang, and J. H. Kwon, “Ideal host and guest system in phosphorescent OLEDs,” Org. Electron. 10, 240–246 (2009).

Kim, G. H.

M. J. Park, Y. H. Son, G. H. Kim, R. Lampande, H. W. Bae, P. Ramchandra, Y. K. Lee, W. J. Song, and J. H. Kwon, “Device performances of third order micro-cavity green top-emitting organic light emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 26, 458–463 (2015).

Kim, M. S.

T. W. Lee, T. Noh, B. K. Choi, M. S. Kim, and D. W. Shin, “High-efficiency stacked white organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 043301 (2008).

Kim, S. Y.

W. S. Jeon, T. J. Park, S. Y. Kim, R. Pode, J. Jang, and J. H. Kwon, “Ideal host and guest system in phosphorescent OLEDs,” Org. Electron. 10, 240–246 (2009).

Kim, T. G.

T. G. Kim, H. S. Oh, Y. H. Kim, and W. Y. Kim, “Study of deep blue organic light-emitting diodes using doped BCzVBi with various blue host materials,” Trans. Electr. Electron. Mater. 11, 85–88 (2010).

Kim, W. Y.

T. G. Kim, H. S. Oh, Y. H. Kim, and W. Y. Kim, “Study of deep blue organic light-emitting diodes using doped BCzVBi with various blue host materials,” Trans. Electr. Electron. Mater. 11, 85–88 (2010).

Kim, Y. H.

T. G. Kim, H. S. Oh, Y. H. Kim, and W. Y. Kim, “Study of deep blue organic light-emitting diodes using doped BCzVBi with various blue host materials,” Trans. Electr. Electron. Mater. 11, 85–88 (2010).

Kim, Y. J.

Y. J. Kim, Y. H. Son, and J. H. Kwon, “Highly efficient yellow phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes for two-peak tandem white organic light-emitting diode applications,” J. Inf. Disp. 14, 109–113 (2013).

Y. H. Son, Y. J. Kim, M. J. Park, H. Y. Oh, J. S. Park, and J. H. Kwon, “Small single-triplet energy gap bipolar host materials for phosphorescent blue and white organic light emitting diodes,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 1, 5008–5014 (2013).

Koh, T.

J. Lee, T. Koh, H. Cho, S. Hofmann, S. Reineke, J. Lee, J. Lee, S. Yoo, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Color temperature tuning of white organic light-emitting diodes via spatial control of micro-cavity effects based on thin metal strips,” Org. Electron. 26, 334–339 (2015).

Köhler, A.

A. Köhler, J. S. Wilson, and R. H. Friend, “Fluorescence and phosphorescence in organic materials,” Adv. Eng. Mater. 4, 453–459 (2002).

Kwon, J. H.

M. J. Park, Y. H. Son, G. H. Kim, R. Lampande, H. W. Bae, P. Ramchandra, Y. K. Lee, W. J. Song, and J. H. Kwon, “Device performances of third order micro-cavity green top-emitting organic light emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 26, 458–463 (2015).

Y. J. Kim, Y. H. Son, and J. H. Kwon, “Highly efficient yellow phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes for two-peak tandem white organic light-emitting diode applications,” J. Inf. Disp. 14, 109–113 (2013).

Y. H. Son, Y. J. Kim, M. J. Park, H. Y. Oh, J. S. Park, and J. H. Kwon, “Small single-triplet energy gap bipolar host materials for phosphorescent blue and white organic light emitting diodes,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 1, 5008–5014 (2013).

J. S. Park, J. H. Yu, W. S. Jeon, Y. H. Son, M. C. Suh, and J. H. Kwon, “Simple-structure white organic light emitting diodes with high color temperature,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 12, 42–45 (2012).

W. S. Jeon, T. J. Park, S. Y. Kim, R. Pode, J. Jang, and J. H. Kwon, “Ideal host and guest system in phosphorescent OLEDs,” Org. Electron. 10, 240–246 (2009).

Lampande, R.

M. J. Park, Y. H. Son, G. H. Kim, R. Lampande, H. W. Bae, P. Ramchandra, Y. K. Lee, W. J. Song, and J. H. Kwon, “Device performances of third order micro-cavity green top-emitting organic light emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 26, 458–463 (2015).

Lau, S. S.

Y. Q. Li, J. X. Tang, Z. Y. Xie, L. S. Hung, and S. S. Lau, “An efficient organic light-emitting diode with silver electrodes,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 386, 128–131 (2004).

Lee, J.

J. Lee, T. Koh, H. Cho, S. Hofmann, S. Reineke, J. Lee, J. Lee, S. Yoo, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Color temperature tuning of white organic light-emitting diodes via spatial control of micro-cavity effects based on thin metal strips,” Org. Electron. 26, 334–339 (2015).

J. Lee, T. Koh, H. Cho, S. Hofmann, S. Reineke, J. Lee, J. Lee, S. Yoo, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Color temperature tuning of white organic light-emitting diodes via spatial control of micro-cavity effects based on thin metal strips,” Org. Electron. 26, 334–339 (2015).

J. Lee, T. Koh, H. Cho, S. Hofmann, S. Reineke, J. Lee, J. Lee, S. Yoo, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Color temperature tuning of white organic light-emitting diodes via spatial control of micro-cavity effects based on thin metal strips,” Org. Electron. 26, 334–339 (2015).

Lee, T. W.

T. W. Lee, T. Noh, B. K. Choi, M. S. Kim, and D. W. Shin, “High-efficiency stacked white organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 043301 (2008).

Lee, Y. K.

M. J. Park, Y. H. Son, G. H. Kim, R. Lampande, H. W. Bae, P. Ramchandra, Y. K. Lee, W. J. Song, and J. H. Kwon, “Device performances of third order micro-cavity green top-emitting organic light emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 26, 458–463 (2015).

Leo, K.

J. Lee, T. Koh, H. Cho, S. Hofmann, S. Reineke, J. Lee, J. Lee, S. Yoo, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Color temperature tuning of white organic light-emitting diodes via spatial control of micro-cavity effects based on thin metal strips,” Org. Electron. 26, 334–339 (2015).

W. Gaynor, S. Hofmann, M. G. Christoforo, C. Sachse, S. Mehra, A. Salleo, M. D. McGehee, M. C. Gather, B. Lüssem, L. Müller-Meskamp, P. Peumans, and K. Leo, “Color in the corners: ITO-free white OLEDs with angular color stability,” Adv. Mater. 25(29), 4006–4013 (2013).
[PubMed]

M. Tomschke, R. Nitsche, M. Furmo, and K. Leo, “Optimized efficiency and angular emission characteristics of white top-emitting organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 083303 (2009).

G. Schwartz, S. Reineke, T. C. Rosenow, K. Walzer, and K. Leo, “Triplet harvesting in hybrid white organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 1319–1333 (2009).

Li, Y. Q.

R. B. Wang, Q. K. Wang, H. J. Xie, L. H. Xu, S. Duhm, Y. Q. Li, and J. X. Tang, “HATCN-based charge recombination layers as effective interconnectors for tandem organic solar cells,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(17), 15604–15609 (2014).
[PubMed]

Y. Q. Li, J. X. Tang, Z. Y. Xie, L. S. Hung, and S. S. Lau, “An efficient organic light-emitting diode with silver electrodes,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 386, 128–131 (2004).

Liu, W.

J. Yu, Y. Yin, W. Liu, W. Zhang, L. Zhang, W. Xie, and H. Zhao, “Effect of the greenish-yellow emission on the color rendering index of white organic light-emitting devices,” Org. Electron. 15, 2817–2821 (2014).

Liu, Y.

Y. Dai, H. Zhang, Z. Zhang, Y. Liu, J. Chen, and D. Ma, “Highly efficient and stable tandem organic light-emitting devices based on HAT-CN/HAT-CN:TAPC/TAPC as a charge generation layer,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 3, 6809–6814 (2015).

Lüssem, B.

W. Gaynor, S. Hofmann, M. G. Christoforo, C. Sachse, S. Mehra, A. Salleo, M. D. McGehee, M. C. Gather, B. Lüssem, L. Müller-Meskamp, P. Peumans, and K. Leo, “Color in the corners: ITO-free white OLEDs with angular color stability,” Adv. Mater. 25(29), 4006–4013 (2013).
[PubMed]

Ma, D.

Y. Dai, H. Zhang, Z. Zhang, Y. Liu, J. Chen, and D. Ma, “Highly efficient and stable tandem organic light-emitting devices based on HAT-CN/HAT-CN:TAPC/TAPC as a charge generation layer,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 3, 6809–6814 (2015).

McGehee, M. D.

W. Gaynor, S. Hofmann, M. G. Christoforo, C. Sachse, S. Mehra, A. Salleo, M. D. McGehee, M. C. Gather, B. Lüssem, L. Müller-Meskamp, P. Peumans, and K. Leo, “Color in the corners: ITO-free white OLEDs with angular color stability,” Adv. Mater. 25(29), 4006–4013 (2013).
[PubMed]

Mehra, S.

W. Gaynor, S. Hofmann, M. G. Christoforo, C. Sachse, S. Mehra, A. Salleo, M. D. McGehee, M. C. Gather, B. Lüssem, L. Müller-Meskamp, P. Peumans, and K. Leo, “Color in the corners: ITO-free white OLEDs with angular color stability,” Adv. Mater. 25(29), 4006–4013 (2013).
[PubMed]

Ming, S.

S. Ming, G. Xu, C. Shu-Fen, F Qu-Li, and H Wei, “Efficient top-emitting white organic light emitting device with an extremely stable chromaticity and viewing-angle,” Chin. Phys. B 21(10), 108507 (2012).

Müller-Meskamp, L.

W. Gaynor, S. Hofmann, M. G. Christoforo, C. Sachse, S. Mehra, A. Salleo, M. D. McGehee, M. C. Gather, B. Lüssem, L. Müller-Meskamp, P. Peumans, and K. Leo, “Color in the corners: ITO-free white OLEDs with angular color stability,” Adv. Mater. 25(29), 4006–4013 (2013).
[PubMed]

Nitsche, R.

M. Tomschke, R. Nitsche, M. Furmo, and K. Leo, “Optimized efficiency and angular emission characteristics of white top-emitting organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 083303 (2009).

Noh, T.

T. W. Lee, T. Noh, B. K. Choi, M. S. Kim, and D. W. Shin, “High-efficiency stacked white organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 043301 (2008).

Oh, H. S.

T. G. Kim, H. S. Oh, Y. H. Kim, and W. Y. Kim, “Study of deep blue organic light-emitting diodes using doped BCzVBi with various blue host materials,” Trans. Electr. Electron. Mater. 11, 85–88 (2010).

Oh, H. Y.

Y. H. Son, Y. J. Kim, M. J. Park, H. Y. Oh, J. S. Park, and J. H. Kwon, “Small single-triplet energy gap bipolar host materials for phosphorescent blue and white organic light emitting diodes,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 1, 5008–5014 (2013).

Park, J. S.

Y. H. Son, Y. J. Kim, M. J. Park, H. Y. Oh, J. S. Park, and J. H. Kwon, “Small single-triplet energy gap bipolar host materials for phosphorescent blue and white organic light emitting diodes,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 1, 5008–5014 (2013).

J. S. Park, J. H. Yu, W. S. Jeon, Y. H. Son, M. C. Suh, and J. H. Kwon, “Simple-structure white organic light emitting diodes with high color temperature,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 12, 42–45 (2012).

Park, M. J.

M. J. Park, Y. H. Son, G. H. Kim, R. Lampande, H. W. Bae, P. Ramchandra, Y. K. Lee, W. J. Song, and J. H. Kwon, “Device performances of third order micro-cavity green top-emitting organic light emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 26, 458–463 (2015).

Y. H. Son, Y. J. Kim, M. J. Park, H. Y. Oh, J. S. Park, and J. H. Kwon, “Small single-triplet energy gap bipolar host materials for phosphorescent blue and white organic light emitting diodes,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 1, 5008–5014 (2013).

Park, T. J.

W. S. Jeon, T. J. Park, S. Y. Kim, R. Pode, J. Jang, and J. H. Kwon, “Ideal host and guest system in phosphorescent OLEDs,” Org. Electron. 10, 240–246 (2009).

Peumans, P.

W. Gaynor, S. Hofmann, M. G. Christoforo, C. Sachse, S. Mehra, A. Salleo, M. D. McGehee, M. C. Gather, B. Lüssem, L. Müller-Meskamp, P. Peumans, and K. Leo, “Color in the corners: ITO-free white OLEDs with angular color stability,” Adv. Mater. 25(29), 4006–4013 (2013).
[PubMed]

Pode, R.

W. S. Jeon, T. J. Park, S. Y. Kim, R. Pode, J. Jang, and J. H. Kwon, “Ideal host and guest system in phosphorescent OLEDs,” Org. Electron. 10, 240–246 (2009).

Prat, C.

B. Geffroy, P. Roy, and C. Prat, “Organic light-emitting diode (OLED) technology: materials, devices and display technologies,” Polym. Int. 55, 572–582 (2006).

Qu-Li, F

S. Ming, G. Xu, C. Shu-Fen, F Qu-Li, and H Wei, “Efficient top-emitting white organic light emitting device with an extremely stable chromaticity and viewing-angle,” Chin. Phys. B 21(10), 108507 (2012).

Ramchandra, P.

M. J. Park, Y. H. Son, G. H. Kim, R. Lampande, H. W. Bae, P. Ramchandra, Y. K. Lee, W. J. Song, and J. H. Kwon, “Device performances of third order micro-cavity green top-emitting organic light emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 26, 458–463 (2015).

Reineke, S.

J. Lee, T. Koh, H. Cho, S. Hofmann, S. Reineke, J. Lee, J. Lee, S. Yoo, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Color temperature tuning of white organic light-emitting diodes via spatial control of micro-cavity effects based on thin metal strips,” Org. Electron. 26, 334–339 (2015).

G. Schwartz, S. Reineke, T. C. Rosenow, K. Walzer, and K. Leo, “Triplet harvesting in hybrid white organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 1319–1333 (2009).

Rosenow, T. C.

G. Schwartz, S. Reineke, T. C. Rosenow, K. Walzer, and K. Leo, “Triplet harvesting in hybrid white organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 1319–1333 (2009).

Roy, P.

B. Geffroy, P. Roy, and C. Prat, “Organic light-emitting diode (OLED) technology: materials, devices and display technologies,” Polym. Int. 55, 572–582 (2006).

Sachse, C.

W. Gaynor, S. Hofmann, M. G. Christoforo, C. Sachse, S. Mehra, A. Salleo, M. D. McGehee, M. C. Gather, B. Lüssem, L. Müller-Meskamp, P. Peumans, and K. Leo, “Color in the corners: ITO-free white OLEDs with angular color stability,” Adv. Mater. 25(29), 4006–4013 (2013).
[PubMed]

Salleo, A.

W. Gaynor, S. Hofmann, M. G. Christoforo, C. Sachse, S. Mehra, A. Salleo, M. D. McGehee, M. C. Gather, B. Lüssem, L. Müller-Meskamp, P. Peumans, and K. Leo, “Color in the corners: ITO-free white OLEDs with angular color stability,” Adv. Mater. 25(29), 4006–4013 (2013).
[PubMed]

Schwartz, G.

G. Schwartz, S. Reineke, T. C. Rosenow, K. Walzer, and K. Leo, “Triplet harvesting in hybrid white organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 1319–1333 (2009).

Shin, D. W.

T. W. Lee, T. Noh, B. K. Choi, M. S. Kim, and D. W. Shin, “High-efficiency stacked white organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 043301 (2008).

Shoustikov, A. A.

A. A. Shoustikov, Y. You, and M. E. Thompson, “Electroluminescence color tuning by dye doping in organic light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 3–13 (1998).

Shu-Fen, C.

S. Ming, G. Xu, C. Shu-Fen, F Qu-Li, and H Wei, “Efficient top-emitting white organic light emitting device with an extremely stable chromaticity and viewing-angle,” Chin. Phys. B 21(10), 108507 (2012).

Son, Y. H.

M. J. Park, Y. H. Son, G. H. Kim, R. Lampande, H. W. Bae, P. Ramchandra, Y. K. Lee, W. J. Song, and J. H. Kwon, “Device performances of third order micro-cavity green top-emitting organic light emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 26, 458–463 (2015).

Y. J. Kim, Y. H. Son, and J. H. Kwon, “Highly efficient yellow phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes for two-peak tandem white organic light-emitting diode applications,” J. Inf. Disp. 14, 109–113 (2013).

Y. H. Son, Y. J. Kim, M. J. Park, H. Y. Oh, J. S. Park, and J. H. Kwon, “Small single-triplet energy gap bipolar host materials for phosphorescent blue and white organic light emitting diodes,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 1, 5008–5014 (2013).

J. S. Park, J. H. Yu, W. S. Jeon, Y. H. Son, M. C. Suh, and J. H. Kwon, “Simple-structure white organic light emitting diodes with high color temperature,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 12, 42–45 (2012).

Song, W. J.

M. J. Park, Y. H. Son, G. H. Kim, R. Lampande, H. W. Bae, P. Ramchandra, Y. K. Lee, W. J. Song, and J. H. Kwon, “Device performances of third order micro-cavity green top-emitting organic light emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 26, 458–463 (2015).

Suh, M. C.

J. S. Park, J. H. Yu, W. S. Jeon, Y. H. Son, M. C. Suh, and J. H. Kwon, “Simple-structure white organic light emitting diodes with high color temperature,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 12, 42–45 (2012).

Tang, J. X.

R. B. Wang, Q. K. Wang, H. J. Xie, L. H. Xu, S. Duhm, Y. Q. Li, and J. X. Tang, “HATCN-based charge recombination layers as effective interconnectors for tandem organic solar cells,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(17), 15604–15609 (2014).
[PubMed]

Y. Q. Li, J. X. Tang, Z. Y. Xie, L. S. Hung, and S. S. Lau, “An efficient organic light-emitting diode with silver electrodes,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 386, 128–131 (2004).

Thompson, M. E.

A. A. Shoustikov, Y. You, and M. E. Thompson, “Electroluminescence color tuning by dye doping in organic light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 3–13 (1998).

Tomschke, M.

M. Tomschke, R. Nitsche, M. Furmo, and K. Leo, “Optimized efficiency and angular emission characteristics of white top-emitting organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 083303 (2009).

Walzer, K.

G. Schwartz, S. Reineke, T. C. Rosenow, K. Walzer, and K. Leo, “Triplet harvesting in hybrid white organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 1319–1333 (2009).

Wang, Q. K.

R. B. Wang, Q. K. Wang, H. J. Xie, L. H. Xu, S. Duhm, Y. Q. Li, and J. X. Tang, “HATCN-based charge recombination layers as effective interconnectors for tandem organic solar cells,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(17), 15604–15609 (2014).
[PubMed]

Wang, R. B.

R. B. Wang, Q. K. Wang, H. J. Xie, L. H. Xu, S. Duhm, Y. Q. Li, and J. X. Tang, “HATCN-based charge recombination layers as effective interconnectors for tandem organic solar cells,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(17), 15604–15609 (2014).
[PubMed]

Wei, H

S. Ming, G. Xu, C. Shu-Fen, F Qu-Li, and H Wei, “Efficient top-emitting white organic light emitting device with an extremely stable chromaticity and viewing-angle,” Chin. Phys. B 21(10), 108507 (2012).

Wilson, J. S.

A. Köhler, J. S. Wilson, and R. H. Friend, “Fluorescence and phosphorescence in organic materials,” Adv. Eng. Mater. 4, 453–459 (2002).

Xie, H. J.

R. B. Wang, Q. K. Wang, H. J. Xie, L. H. Xu, S. Duhm, Y. Q. Li, and J. X. Tang, “HATCN-based charge recombination layers as effective interconnectors for tandem organic solar cells,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(17), 15604–15609 (2014).
[PubMed]

Xie, W.

J. Yu, Y. Yin, W. Liu, W. Zhang, L. Zhang, W. Xie, and H. Zhao, “Effect of the greenish-yellow emission on the color rendering index of white organic light-emitting devices,” Org. Electron. 15, 2817–2821 (2014).

Xie, Z. Y.

Y. Q. Li, J. X. Tang, Z. Y. Xie, L. S. Hung, and S. S. Lau, “An efficient organic light-emitting diode with silver electrodes,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 386, 128–131 (2004).

Xu, G.

S. Ming, G. Xu, C. Shu-Fen, F Qu-Li, and H Wei, “Efficient top-emitting white organic light emitting device with an extremely stable chromaticity and viewing-angle,” Chin. Phys. B 21(10), 108507 (2012).

Xu, L. H.

R. B. Wang, Q. K. Wang, H. J. Xie, L. H. Xu, S. Duhm, Y. Q. Li, and J. X. Tang, “HATCN-based charge recombination layers as effective interconnectors for tandem organic solar cells,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(17), 15604–15609 (2014).
[PubMed]

Yin, Y.

J. Yu, Y. Yin, W. Liu, W. Zhang, L. Zhang, W. Xie, and H. Zhao, “Effect of the greenish-yellow emission on the color rendering index of white organic light-emitting devices,” Org. Electron. 15, 2817–2821 (2014).

Yoo, S.

J. Lee, T. Koh, H. Cho, S. Hofmann, S. Reineke, J. Lee, J. Lee, S. Yoo, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Color temperature tuning of white organic light-emitting diodes via spatial control of micro-cavity effects based on thin metal strips,” Org. Electron. 26, 334–339 (2015).

You, Y.

A. A. Shoustikov, Y. You, and M. E. Thompson, “Electroluminescence color tuning by dye doping in organic light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 3–13 (1998).

Yu, J.

J. Yu, Y. Yin, W. Liu, W. Zhang, L. Zhang, W. Xie, and H. Zhao, “Effect of the greenish-yellow emission on the color rendering index of white organic light-emitting devices,” Org. Electron. 15, 2817–2821 (2014).

Yu, J. H.

J. S. Park, J. H. Yu, W. S. Jeon, Y. H. Son, M. C. Suh, and J. H. Kwon, “Simple-structure white organic light emitting diodes with high color temperature,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 12, 42–45 (2012).

Zhang, H.

Y. Dai, H. Zhang, Z. Zhang, Y. Liu, J. Chen, and D. Ma, “Highly efficient and stable tandem organic light-emitting devices based on HAT-CN/HAT-CN:TAPC/TAPC as a charge generation layer,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 3, 6809–6814 (2015).

Zhang, L.

J. Yu, Y. Yin, W. Liu, W. Zhang, L. Zhang, W. Xie, and H. Zhao, “Effect of the greenish-yellow emission on the color rendering index of white organic light-emitting devices,” Org. Electron. 15, 2817–2821 (2014).

Zhang, W.

J. Yu, Y. Yin, W. Liu, W. Zhang, L. Zhang, W. Xie, and H. Zhao, “Effect of the greenish-yellow emission on the color rendering index of white organic light-emitting devices,” Org. Electron. 15, 2817–2821 (2014).

Zhang, Z.

Y. Dai, H. Zhang, Z. Zhang, Y. Liu, J. Chen, and D. Ma, “Highly efficient and stable tandem organic light-emitting devices based on HAT-CN/HAT-CN:TAPC/TAPC as a charge generation layer,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 3, 6809–6814 (2015).

Zhao, H.

J. Yu, Y. Yin, W. Liu, W. Zhang, L. Zhang, W. Xie, and H. Zhao, “Effect of the greenish-yellow emission on the color rendering index of white organic light-emitting devices,” Org. Electron. 15, 2817–2821 (2014).

ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces (1)

R. B. Wang, Q. K. Wang, H. J. Xie, L. H. Xu, S. Duhm, Y. Q. Li, and J. X. Tang, “HATCN-based charge recombination layers as effective interconnectors for tandem organic solar cells,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(17), 15604–15609 (2014).
[PubMed]

Adv. Eng. Mater. (1)

A. Köhler, J. S. Wilson, and R. H. Friend, “Fluorescence and phosphorescence in organic materials,” Adv. Eng. Mater. 4, 453–459 (2002).

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

G. Schwartz, S. Reineke, T. C. Rosenow, K. Walzer, and K. Leo, “Triplet harvesting in hybrid white organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 1319–1333 (2009).

Adv. Mater. (1)

W. Gaynor, S. Hofmann, M. G. Christoforo, C. Sachse, S. Mehra, A. Salleo, M. D. McGehee, M. C. Gather, B. Lüssem, L. Müller-Meskamp, P. Peumans, and K. Leo, “Color in the corners: ITO-free white OLEDs with angular color stability,” Adv. Mater. 25(29), 4006–4013 (2013).
[PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

M. Tomschke, R. Nitsche, M. Furmo, and K. Leo, “Optimized efficiency and angular emission characteristics of white top-emitting organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 083303 (2009).

T. W. Lee, T. Noh, B. K. Choi, M. S. Kim, and D. W. Shin, “High-efficiency stacked white organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 043301 (2008).

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

Y. Q. Li, J. X. Tang, Z. Y. Xie, L. S. Hung, and S. S. Lau, “An efficient organic light-emitting diode with silver electrodes,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 386, 128–131 (2004).

Chin. Phys. B (1)

S. Ming, G. Xu, C. Shu-Fen, F Qu-Li, and H Wei, “Efficient top-emitting white organic light emitting device with an extremely stable chromaticity and viewing-angle,” Chin. Phys. B 21(10), 108507 (2012).

Curr. Appl. Phys. (1)

J. S. Park, J. H. Yu, W. S. Jeon, Y. H. Son, M. C. Suh, and J. H. Kwon, “Simple-structure white organic light emitting diodes with high color temperature,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 12, 42–45 (2012).

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

A. A. Shoustikov, Y. You, and M. E. Thompson, “Electroluminescence color tuning by dye doping in organic light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 3–13 (1998).

J. Inf. Disp. (1)

Y. J. Kim, Y. H. Son, and J. H. Kwon, “Highly efficient yellow phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes for two-peak tandem white organic light-emitting diode applications,” J. Inf. Disp. 14, 109–113 (2013).

J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices (2)

Y. H. Son, Y. J. Kim, M. J. Park, H. Y. Oh, J. S. Park, and J. H. Kwon, “Small single-triplet energy gap bipolar host materials for phosphorescent blue and white organic light emitting diodes,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 1, 5008–5014 (2013).

Y. Dai, H. Zhang, Z. Zhang, Y. Liu, J. Chen, and D. Ma, “Highly efficient and stable tandem organic light-emitting devices based on HAT-CN/HAT-CN:TAPC/TAPC as a charge generation layer,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 3, 6809–6814 (2015).

Org. Electron. (4)

W. S. Jeon, T. J. Park, S. Y. Kim, R. Pode, J. Jang, and J. H. Kwon, “Ideal host and guest system in phosphorescent OLEDs,” Org. Electron. 10, 240–246 (2009).

M. J. Park, Y. H. Son, G. H. Kim, R. Lampande, H. W. Bae, P. Ramchandra, Y. K. Lee, W. J. Song, and J. H. Kwon, “Device performances of third order micro-cavity green top-emitting organic light emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 26, 458–463 (2015).

J. Yu, Y. Yin, W. Liu, W. Zhang, L. Zhang, W. Xie, and H. Zhao, “Effect of the greenish-yellow emission on the color rendering index of white organic light-emitting devices,” Org. Electron. 15, 2817–2821 (2014).

J. Lee, T. Koh, H. Cho, S. Hofmann, S. Reineke, J. Lee, J. Lee, S. Yoo, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Color temperature tuning of white organic light-emitting diodes via spatial control of micro-cavity effects based on thin metal strips,” Org. Electron. 26, 334–339 (2015).

Polym. Int. (1)

B. Geffroy, P. Roy, and C. Prat, “Organic light-emitting diode (OLED) technology: materials, devices and display technologies,” Polym. Int. 55, 572–582 (2006).

Trans. Electr. Electron. Mater. (1)

T. G. Kim, H. S. Oh, Y. H. Kim, and W. Y. Kim, “Study of deep blue organic light-emitting diodes using doped BCzVBi with various blue host materials,” Trans. Electr. Electron. Mater. 11, 85–88 (2010).

Other (6)

C. Han, K. Kim, S. Bae, H. Choi, J. Lee, T. Kim, Y. Tak, S. Cha, and B. Ahn, “55-inch FHD OLED TV employing new tandem WOLEDs,” SID Symp. Dig. Tech. Papers Digest, 43, 279–281 (2012).

S. H. Pieh, M. S. Kim, C. J. Sung, J. D. Seo, H. S. Choi, C. W. Han, and Y. H. Tak, “Two-stacked white organic light-emitting diodes consisting of fluorescent and phosphorescent hybrid structure with high efficiency and good color characteristics,” SID Symp. Dig. Tech. Papers Digest, 40, 903–906 (2009).

C. Han, S. Pieh, H. Pang, J. Lee, H. Choi, S. Hong, B. Kim, Y. Tak, N. Lee, and B. Ahn, “15 inch RGBW panel using two stacked white OLED and color filter for large sized display,” SID Symp. Dig. Tech. Papers Digest, 41, 136–139 (2010).

H. D. Kim, J. K. Jeong, H. Chung, and Y. Mo, “Technological challenges for large-size AMOLED display,” SID Symp. Dig. Tech. Papers Digest, 39, 291–294 (2008).

T. K. Hatwar, J. P. Spindler, M. Kondakova, D. Giesen, J. Deaton, and J. R. Vargas, “Hybrid tandem white OLEDs with high efficiency and long life-time for AMOLED Displays and solid-state lighting,” SID Symp. Dig. Tech. Papers Digest, 41, 778–781 (2010).

L. S. Liao, X. Ren, W. J. Begley, Y. S. Tyan, and C. A. Pillow, “Tandem white OLEDs combining fluorescent and phosphorescent emission,” SID Symp. Dig. Tech. Papers Digest, 39, 818–821 (2008).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Energy level diagram of a) blue single, b) yellow single, and c) 2-stack-light emitting devices as well as chemical structure of related organic materials. The blue device consist of MADN host and BCzVB blue fluorescent dopant, whereas yellow EML consists of Bepp2 and Ir(tptpy)2(acac) as host and yellow phosphorescent dopant, respectively.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Simulated emission intensity of (a) yellow and (b) blue single devices depending on the distance from EML to cathode (ETL) and anode (HTL).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Energy level diagram of the proposed charge generation layer (CGL) structure.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

a) Current density versus voltage (J-V), b) power efficiency and EQE versus luminance plots of the blue (B), yellow (Y), 2-stack (B-Y), and 3-stack (B-B-Y and B-Y-B) OLED devices.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Electroluminescent (EL) spectrum of a) all fabricated devices at the same current intensity b) white OLED (B-B-Y structure) with color filters and transmission spectrum of color filters.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

a)Simulated, b)experimental angular dependence characteristics of the 2-stack and 3-stack WOLEDs.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Emission pattern simulation of individual emitting units within a) the B-B-Y structure and b) the B-Y-B structure. Additionally the Lambertian emission pattern was inserted in both figures.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Electroluminescent characteristics of single blue and yellow OLEDs

Tables Icon

Table 2 Electrical characteristics of 2-stack and 3-stack devices with variation in ETL and HTL thickness

Metrics