Abstract

Abstract: Pancharatnam–Berry (PB) metasurfaces have intrigued a great deal of interest in recent years for anomalous reflection/refraction, vortex plate, orbital angular momentum, flat lens, photonic spin hall effect (PSHE), holograms and reflect/transmit arrays. However, almost all designs are restricted to fixed electrical performance/functionality once the design is finished. Here, we report for the first time a strategy for PB metasurface with agile working frequency by involving each meta-atom with tunable PIN diodes. For verification, a tunable PB metasurface with frequency reconfigurability is designed and numerically characterized across C and X band. By controlling the external voltages imposed on the diodes, numerical results show that the operation band with 180° phase difference between orthogonal reflection coefficients can be dynamically controlled. As such, the resulting PB metasurface composed of these orderly rotated meta-atoms exhibits a broadband PSHE with nearly 100% conversion efficiency in the “On” state while switches to dual well-separated bands in the “Off” state. Our proposal, not confined to PHSE, set a solid platform for PB phase control and can be populated to any dual-functional and/or multifunctional devices with high integrity, stability and low cost.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
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References

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2016 (10)

S. Liu, T. J. Cui, Q. Xu, D. Bao, L. Du, X. Wan, W. X. Tang, C. Ouyang, X. Y. Zhou, H. Yuan, H. F. Ma, W. X. Jiang, J. Han, W. Zhang, and Q. Cheng, “Anisotropic coding metamaterials and their powerful manipulation of differently polarized terahertz waves,” Light Sci. Appl. 5(5), e16076 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Liu, T. J. Cui, L. Zhang, Q. Xu, Q. Wang, X. Wan, J. Q. Gu, W. X. Tang, M. Qi, J. G. Han, W. L. Zhang, X. Y. Zhou, and Q. Cheng, “Convolution operations on coding metasurface to reach flexible and continuous controls of terahertz beams,” Adv Sci (Weinh) 3(10), 1600156 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-X. Xu, S. Tang, G.-M. Wang, T. Cai, W. Huang, Q. He, S. Sun, and L. Zhou, “Multifunctional microstrip array combining a linear polarizer and focusing metasurface,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 64(8), 3676–3682 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. P. Scarborough, D. H. Werner, and D. E. Wolfe, “Compact low-profile tunable metasurface-enabled antenna with near-arbitrary polarization,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 64(7), 2775–2783 (2016).
[Crossref]

H.-X. Xu, S. Sun, S. Tang, S. Ma, Q. He, G.-M. Wang, T. Cai, H.-P. Li, and L. Zhou, “Dynamical control on helicity of electromagnetic waves by tunable metasurfaces,” Sci. Rep. 6, 27503 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. M. Estakhri and A. Alù, “Recent progress in gradient metasurfaces,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 33(2), A21 (2016).
[Crossref]

N. M. Estakhri and A. Alù, “Wave-front transformation with gradient metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. X 6(4), 041008 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Epstein and G. V. Eleftheriades, “Huygens’ metasurfaces via the equivalence principle: design and applications,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 33(2), A31 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Epstein and G. V. Eleftheriades, “Arbitrary power-conserving field transformations with passive lossless omega-type bianisotropic metasurfaces,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 64(9), 3880–3895 (2016).
[Crossref]

V. S. Asadchy, M. Albooyeh, S. N. Tcvetkova, A. Díaz-Rubio, Y. Ra’di, and S. A. Tretyakov, “Perfect control of reflection and refraction using spatially dispersive metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 94(7), 075142 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (7)

L. H. Gao, Q. Cheng, J. Yang, S. J. Ma, J. Zhao, S. Liu, H. B. Chen, Q. He, W. X. Jiang, H. F. Ma, Q. Y. Wen, L. J. Liang, B. B. Jin, W. W. Liu, L. Zhou, J. Q. Yao, P. H. Wu, and T. J. Cui, “Broadband diffusion of terahertz waves by multi-bit coding metasurfaces,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(9), e324 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Zheng, H. Mühlenbernd, M. Kenney, G. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Metasurface holograms reaching 80% efficiency,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(4), 308–312 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Ding, F. Monticone, K. Zhang, L. Zhang, D. Gao, S. N. Burokur, A. de Lustrac, Q. Wu, C. W. Qiu, and A. Alù, “Ultrathin pancharatnam-berry metasurface with maximal cross-polarization efficiency,” Adv. Mater. 27(7), 1195–1200 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Z. Chen, M. Chen, M. Q. Mehmood, D. D. Wen, F. Y. Yue, C. W. Qiu, and S. Zhang, “Longitudinal multifoci metalens for circularly polarized light,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(9), 1201–1206 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. Luo, S. Xiao, Q. He, S. Sun, and L. Zhou, “Photonic spin hall effect with nearly 100% efficiency,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(8), 1102–1108 (2015).
[Crossref]

E. Erdil, K. Topalli, N. S. Esmaeilzad, Ö. Zorlu, H. Kulah, and O. A. Civi, “Reconfigurable nested ring-split ring transmitarray unit cell employing the element rotation method by microfluidics,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 63(3), 1163–1167 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Q. Miao, Q. Wu, X. Li, Q. He, K. Ding, Z. H. An, Y. B. Zhang, and L. Zhou, “Widely tunable terahertz phase modulation with gate-controlled graphene metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. X 5(4), 041027 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (6)

J. Lee, S. Jung, P.-Y. Chen, F. Lu, F. Demmerle, G. Boehm, M.-C. Amann, A. Alù, and M. A. Belkin, “Ultrafast electrically tunable polaritonic metasurfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(11), 1057–1063 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. J. Cui, M. Q. Qi, X. Wan, J. Zhao, and Q. Cheng, “Coding metamaterials, digital metamaterials and programmable metamaterials,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(10), e218 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Zhou, S. B. Sørensen, O. S. Kim, E. Jørgensen, P. Meincke, O. Breinbjerg, and G. Toso, “The generalized direct optimization technique for printed reflectarrays,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 62(4), 1690–1700 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. Yu and F. Capasso, “Flat optics with designer metasurfaces,” Nat. Mater. 13(2), 139–150 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Yang, W. Wang, P. Moitra, I. I. Kravchenko, D. P. Briggs, and J. Valentine, “Dielectric meta-reflectarray for broadband linear polarization conversion and optical vortex generation,” Nano Lett. 14(3), 1394–1399 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Karimi, S. A. Schulz, I. De Leon, H. Qassim, J. Upham, and R. W. Boyd, “Generating optical orbital angular momentum at visible wavelengths using a plasmonic metasurface,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(5), e167 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (5)

M. Zhou, S. B. Sørensen, O. S. Kim, E. Jørgensen, P. Meincke, and O. Breinbjerg, “Direct optimization of printed reflectarrays for contoured beam satellite antenna applications,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 61(4), 1995–2004 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Yin, Z. Ye, J. Rho, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, “Photonic spin Hall effect at metasurfaces,” Science 339(6126), 1405–1407 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Chen, J. Soric, Y. R. Padooru, H. M. Bernety, A. B. Yakovlev, and A. Alu, “Nanostructured graphene metasurface for tunable terahertz cloaking,” New J. Phys. 15(12), 123029 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. O. Zhu, J. Zhao, and Y. Feng, “Active impedance metasurface with full 360° reflection phase tuning,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3059 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Huang, X. Z. Chen, H. Muhlenbernd, H. Zhang, S. M. Chen, B. F. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, K. W. Cheah, C.-W. Qiu, J. S. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical holography using a plasmonic metasurface,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2808 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (4)

A. Yu, F. Yang, A. Z. Elsherbeni, J. Huang, and Y. Kim, “An offset-fed X-band reflectarray antenna using a modified element rotation technique,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 60(3), 1619–1624 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Rodriguez-Zamudio, J. I. Martinez-Lopez, J. Rodriguez-Cuevas, and A. E. Martynyuk, “Reconfigurable reflectarrays based on optimized spiraphase-type elements,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 60(4), 1821–1830 (2012).
[Crossref]

X. Chen, L. Huang, H. Mühlenbernd, G. Li, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, C.-W. Qiu, S. Zhang, and T. Zentgraf, “Dual-polarity plasmonic metalens for visible light,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1198 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Genevet, N. Yu, F. Aieta, J. Lin, M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, M. O. Scully, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Ultrathin plasmonic optical vortex plate based on phase discontinuities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(1), 013101 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. H. Phillion and M. Okoniewski, “Lenses for circular polarization using planar arrays of rotated passive elements,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 59(4), 1217–1227 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

M. Euler and V. F. Fusco, “Frequency selective surface using nested split ring slot elements as a lens with mechanically reconfigurable beam steering capability,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 58(10), 3417–3421 (2010).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

A. E. Martynyuk, J. I. Martinez-Lopez, and N. A. Martynyuk, “Spiraphase-type reflectarrays based on loaded ring slot resonators,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 52(1), 142–153 (2004).
[Crossref]

B. Strassner, C. Han, and K. Chang, “Circularly polarized reflectarray with microstrip ring elements having variable rotation angles,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 52(4), 1122–1125 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

D. F. Sievenpiper, J. H. Schaffner, H. J. Song, R. Y. Loo, and G. Tangonan, “Two-dimensional beam steering using an electrically tunable impedance surface,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 51(10), 2713–2722 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

1998 (1)

J. Huang and R. J. Pogorzelski, “A ka-band microstrip reflectarray with elements having variable rotation angles,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 46(5), 650–656 (1998).
[Crossref]

Aieta, F.

P. Genevet, N. Yu, F. Aieta, J. Lin, M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, M. O. Scully, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Ultrathin plasmonic optical vortex plate based on phase discontinuities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(1), 013101 (2012).
[Crossref]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Albooyeh, M.

V. S. Asadchy, M. Albooyeh, S. N. Tcvetkova, A. Díaz-Rubio, Y. Ra’di, and S. A. Tretyakov, “Perfect control of reflection and refraction using spatially dispersive metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 94(7), 075142 (2016).
[Crossref]

Alu, A.

P. Chen, J. Soric, Y. R. Padooru, H. M. Bernety, A. B. Yakovlev, and A. Alu, “Nanostructured graphene metasurface for tunable terahertz cloaking,” New J. Phys. 15(12), 123029 (2013).
[Crossref]

Alù, A.

N. M. Estakhri and A. Alù, “Recent progress in gradient metasurfaces,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 33(2), A21 (2016).
[Crossref]

N. M. Estakhri and A. Alù, “Wave-front transformation with gradient metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. X 6(4), 041008 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Ding, F. Monticone, K. Zhang, L. Zhang, D. Gao, S. N. Burokur, A. de Lustrac, Q. Wu, C. W. Qiu, and A. Alù, “Ultrathin pancharatnam-berry metasurface with maximal cross-polarization efficiency,” Adv. Mater. 27(7), 1195–1200 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Lee, S. Jung, P.-Y. Chen, F. Lu, F. Demmerle, G. Boehm, M.-C. Amann, A. Alù, and M. A. Belkin, “Ultrafast electrically tunable polaritonic metasurfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(11), 1057–1063 (2014).
[Crossref]

Amann, M.-C.

J. Lee, S. Jung, P.-Y. Chen, F. Lu, F. Demmerle, G. Boehm, M.-C. Amann, A. Alù, and M. A. Belkin, “Ultrafast electrically tunable polaritonic metasurfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(11), 1057–1063 (2014).
[Crossref]

An, Z. H.

Z. Q. Miao, Q. Wu, X. Li, Q. He, K. Ding, Z. H. An, Y. B. Zhang, and L. Zhou, “Widely tunable terahertz phase modulation with gate-controlled graphene metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. X 5(4), 041027 (2015).
[Crossref]

Asadchy, V. S.

V. S. Asadchy, M. Albooyeh, S. N. Tcvetkova, A. Díaz-Rubio, Y. Ra’di, and S. A. Tretyakov, “Perfect control of reflection and refraction using spatially dispersive metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 94(7), 075142 (2016).
[Crossref]

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H.-X. Xu, S. Tang, G.-M. Wang, T. Cai, W. Huang, Q. He, S. Sun, and L. Zhou, “Multifunctional microstrip array combining a linear polarizer and focusing metasurface,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 64(8), 3676–3682 (2016).
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H.-X. Xu, S. Sun, S. Tang, S. Ma, Q. He, G.-M. Wang, T. Cai, H.-P. Li, and L. Zhou, “Dynamical control on helicity of electromagnetic waves by tunable metasurfaces,” Sci. Rep. 6, 27503 (2016).
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N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
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B. Strassner, C. Han, and K. Chang, “Circularly polarized reflectarray with microstrip ring elements having variable rotation angles,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 52(4), 1122–1125 (2004).
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L. Huang, X. Z. Chen, H. Muhlenbernd, H. Zhang, S. M. Chen, B. F. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, K. W. Cheah, C.-W. Qiu, J. S. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical holography using a plasmonic metasurface,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2808 (2013).
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L. H. Gao, Q. Cheng, J. Yang, S. J. Ma, J. Zhao, S. Liu, H. B. Chen, Q. He, W. X. Jiang, H. F. Ma, Q. Y. Wen, L. J. Liang, B. B. Jin, W. W. Liu, L. Zhou, J. Q. Yao, P. H. Wu, and T. J. Cui, “Broadband diffusion of terahertz waves by multi-bit coding metasurfaces,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(9), e324 (2015).
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P. Chen, J. Soric, Y. R. Padooru, H. M. Bernety, A. B. Yakovlev, and A. Alu, “Nanostructured graphene metasurface for tunable terahertz cloaking,” New J. Phys. 15(12), 123029 (2013).
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J. Lee, S. Jung, P.-Y. Chen, F. Lu, F. Demmerle, G. Boehm, M.-C. Amann, A. Alù, and M. A. Belkin, “Ultrafast electrically tunable polaritonic metasurfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(11), 1057–1063 (2014).
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L. Huang, X. Z. Chen, H. Muhlenbernd, H. Zhang, S. M. Chen, B. F. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, K. W. Cheah, C.-W. Qiu, J. S. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical holography using a plasmonic metasurface,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2808 (2013).
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Chen, X.

X. Chen, L. Huang, H. Mühlenbernd, G. Li, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, C.-W. Qiu, S. Zhang, and T. Zentgraf, “Dual-polarity plasmonic metalens for visible light,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1198 (2012).
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L. Huang, X. Z. Chen, H. Muhlenbernd, H. Zhang, S. M. Chen, B. F. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, K. W. Cheah, C.-W. Qiu, J. S. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical holography using a plasmonic metasurface,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2808 (2013).
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S. Liu, T. J. Cui, Q. Xu, D. Bao, L. Du, X. Wan, W. X. Tang, C. Ouyang, X. Y. Zhou, H. Yuan, H. F. Ma, W. X. Jiang, J. Han, W. Zhang, and Q. Cheng, “Anisotropic coding metamaterials and their powerful manipulation of differently polarized terahertz waves,” Light Sci. Appl. 5(5), e16076 (2016).
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L. H. Gao, Q. Cheng, J. Yang, S. J. Ma, J. Zhao, S. Liu, H. B. Chen, Q. He, W. X. Jiang, H. F. Ma, Q. Y. Wen, L. J. Liang, B. B. Jin, W. W. Liu, L. Zhou, J. Q. Yao, P. H. Wu, and T. J. Cui, “Broadband diffusion of terahertz waves by multi-bit coding metasurfaces,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(9), e324 (2015).
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E. Erdil, K. Topalli, N. S. Esmaeilzad, Ö. Zorlu, H. Kulah, and O. A. Civi, “Reconfigurable nested ring-split ring transmitarray unit cell employing the element rotation method by microfluidics,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 63(3), 1163–1167 (2015).
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S. Liu, T. J. Cui, Q. Xu, D. Bao, L. Du, X. Wan, W. X. Tang, C. Ouyang, X. Y. Zhou, H. Yuan, H. F. Ma, W. X. Jiang, J. Han, W. Zhang, and Q. Cheng, “Anisotropic coding metamaterials and their powerful manipulation of differently polarized terahertz waves,” Light Sci. Appl. 5(5), e16076 (2016).
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S. Liu, T. J. Cui, L. Zhang, Q. Xu, Q. Wang, X. Wan, J. Q. Gu, W. X. Tang, M. Qi, J. G. Han, W. L. Zhang, X. Y. Zhou, and Q. Cheng, “Convolution operations on coding metasurface to reach flexible and continuous controls of terahertz beams,” Adv Sci (Weinh) 3(10), 1600156 (2016).
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L. H. Gao, Q. Cheng, J. Yang, S. J. Ma, J. Zhao, S. Liu, H. B. Chen, Q. He, W. X. Jiang, H. F. Ma, Q. Y. Wen, L. J. Liang, B. B. Jin, W. W. Liu, L. Zhou, J. Q. Yao, P. H. Wu, and T. J. Cui, “Broadband diffusion of terahertz waves by multi-bit coding metasurfaces,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(9), e324 (2015).
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T. J. Cui, M. Q. Qi, X. Wan, J. Zhao, and Q. Cheng, “Coding metamaterials, digital metamaterials and programmable metamaterials,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(10), e218 (2014).
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De Leon, I.

E. Karimi, S. A. Schulz, I. De Leon, H. Qassim, J. Upham, and R. W. Boyd, “Generating optical orbital angular momentum at visible wavelengths using a plasmonic metasurface,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(5), e167 (2014).
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X. Ding, F. Monticone, K. Zhang, L. Zhang, D. Gao, S. N. Burokur, A. de Lustrac, Q. Wu, C. W. Qiu, and A. Alù, “Ultrathin pancharatnam-berry metasurface with maximal cross-polarization efficiency,” Adv. Mater. 27(7), 1195–1200 (2015).
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J. Lee, S. Jung, P.-Y. Chen, F. Lu, F. Demmerle, G. Boehm, M.-C. Amann, A. Alù, and M. A. Belkin, “Ultrafast electrically tunable polaritonic metasurfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(11), 1057–1063 (2014).
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V. S. Asadchy, M. Albooyeh, S. N. Tcvetkova, A. Díaz-Rubio, Y. Ra’di, and S. A. Tretyakov, “Perfect control of reflection and refraction using spatially dispersive metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 94(7), 075142 (2016).
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Z. Q. Miao, Q. Wu, X. Li, Q. He, K. Ding, Z. H. An, Y. B. Zhang, and L. Zhou, “Widely tunable terahertz phase modulation with gate-controlled graphene metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. X 5(4), 041027 (2015).
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X. Ding, F. Monticone, K. Zhang, L. Zhang, D. Gao, S. N. Burokur, A. de Lustrac, Q. Wu, C. W. Qiu, and A. Alù, “Ultrathin pancharatnam-berry metasurface with maximal cross-polarization efficiency,” Adv. Mater. 27(7), 1195–1200 (2015).
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S. Liu, T. J. Cui, Q. Xu, D. Bao, L. Du, X. Wan, W. X. Tang, C. Ouyang, X. Y. Zhou, H. Yuan, H. F. Ma, W. X. Jiang, J. Han, W. Zhang, and Q. Cheng, “Anisotropic coding metamaterials and their powerful manipulation of differently polarized terahertz waves,” Light Sci. Appl. 5(5), e16076 (2016).
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A. Epstein and G. V. Eleftheriades, “Huygens’ metasurfaces via the equivalence principle: design and applications,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 33(2), A31 (2016).
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A. Yu, F. Yang, A. Z. Elsherbeni, J. Huang, and Y. Kim, “An offset-fed X-band reflectarray antenna using a modified element rotation technique,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 60(3), 1619–1624 (2012).
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A. Epstein and G. V. Eleftheriades, “Arbitrary power-conserving field transformations with passive lossless omega-type bianisotropic metasurfaces,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 64(9), 3880–3895 (2016).
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A. Epstein and G. V. Eleftheriades, “Huygens’ metasurfaces via the equivalence principle: design and applications,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 33(2), A31 (2016).
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E. Erdil, K. Topalli, N. S. Esmaeilzad, Ö. Zorlu, H. Kulah, and O. A. Civi, “Reconfigurable nested ring-split ring transmitarray unit cell employing the element rotation method by microfluidics,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 63(3), 1163–1167 (2015).
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Esmaeilzad, N. S.

E. Erdil, K. Topalli, N. S. Esmaeilzad, Ö. Zorlu, H. Kulah, and O. A. Civi, “Reconfigurable nested ring-split ring transmitarray unit cell employing the element rotation method by microfluidics,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 63(3), 1163–1167 (2015).
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M. Euler and V. F. Fusco, “Frequency selective surface using nested split ring slot elements as a lens with mechanically reconfigurable beam steering capability,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 58(10), 3417–3421 (2010).
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B. O. Zhu, J. Zhao, and Y. Feng, “Active impedance metasurface with full 360° reflection phase tuning,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3059 (2013).
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P. Genevet, N. Yu, F. Aieta, J. Lin, M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, M. O. Scully, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Ultrathin plasmonic optical vortex plate based on phase discontinuities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(1), 013101 (2012).
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N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
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Gao, D.

X. Ding, F. Monticone, K. Zhang, L. Zhang, D. Gao, S. N. Burokur, A. de Lustrac, Q. Wu, C. W. Qiu, and A. Alù, “Ultrathin pancharatnam-berry metasurface with maximal cross-polarization efficiency,” Adv. Mater. 27(7), 1195–1200 (2015).
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L. H. Gao, Q. Cheng, J. Yang, S. J. Ma, J. Zhao, S. Liu, H. B. Chen, Q. He, W. X. Jiang, H. F. Ma, Q. Y. Wen, L. J. Liang, B. B. Jin, W. W. Liu, L. Zhou, J. Q. Yao, P. H. Wu, and T. J. Cui, “Broadband diffusion of terahertz waves by multi-bit coding metasurfaces,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(9), e324 (2015).
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Genevet, P.

P. Genevet, N. Yu, F. Aieta, J. Lin, M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, M. O. Scully, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Ultrathin plasmonic optical vortex plate based on phase discontinuities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(1), 013101 (2012).
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N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
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S. Liu, T. J. Cui, L. Zhang, Q. Xu, Q. Wang, X. Wan, J. Q. Gu, W. X. Tang, M. Qi, J. G. Han, W. L. Zhang, X. Y. Zhou, and Q. Cheng, “Convolution operations on coding metasurface to reach flexible and continuous controls of terahertz beams,” Adv Sci (Weinh) 3(10), 1600156 (2016).
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Han, C.

B. Strassner, C. Han, and K. Chang, “Circularly polarized reflectarray with microstrip ring elements having variable rotation angles,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 52(4), 1122–1125 (2004).
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Han, J.

S. Liu, T. J. Cui, Q. Xu, D. Bao, L. Du, X. Wan, W. X. Tang, C. Ouyang, X. Y. Zhou, H. Yuan, H. F. Ma, W. X. Jiang, J. Han, W. Zhang, and Q. Cheng, “Anisotropic coding metamaterials and their powerful manipulation of differently polarized terahertz waves,” Light Sci. Appl. 5(5), e16076 (2016).
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S. Liu, T. J. Cui, L. Zhang, Q. Xu, Q. Wang, X. Wan, J. Q. Gu, W. X. Tang, M. Qi, J. G. Han, W. L. Zhang, X. Y. Zhou, and Q. Cheng, “Convolution operations on coding metasurface to reach flexible and continuous controls of terahertz beams,” Adv Sci (Weinh) 3(10), 1600156 (2016).
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He, Q.

H.-X. Xu, S. Sun, S. Tang, S. Ma, Q. He, G.-M. Wang, T. Cai, H.-P. Li, and L. Zhou, “Dynamical control on helicity of electromagnetic waves by tunable metasurfaces,” Sci. Rep. 6, 27503 (2016).
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H.-X. Xu, S. Tang, G.-M. Wang, T. Cai, W. Huang, Q. He, S. Sun, and L. Zhou, “Multifunctional microstrip array combining a linear polarizer and focusing metasurface,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 64(8), 3676–3682 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. H. Gao, Q. Cheng, J. Yang, S. J. Ma, J. Zhao, S. Liu, H. B. Chen, Q. He, W. X. Jiang, H. F. Ma, Q. Y. Wen, L. J. Liang, B. B. Jin, W. W. Liu, L. Zhou, J. Q. Yao, P. H. Wu, and T. J. Cui, “Broadband diffusion of terahertz waves by multi-bit coding metasurfaces,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(9), e324 (2015).
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Z. Q. Miao, Q. Wu, X. Li, Q. He, K. Ding, Z. H. An, Y. B. Zhang, and L. Zhou, “Widely tunable terahertz phase modulation with gate-controlled graphene metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. X 5(4), 041027 (2015).
[Crossref]

Huang, J.

A. Yu, F. Yang, A. Z. Elsherbeni, J. Huang, and Y. Kim, “An offset-fed X-band reflectarray antenna using a modified element rotation technique,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 60(3), 1619–1624 (2012).
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L. Huang, X. Z. Chen, H. Muhlenbernd, H. Zhang, S. M. Chen, B. F. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, K. W. Cheah, C.-W. Qiu, J. S. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical holography using a plasmonic metasurface,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2808 (2013).
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X. Chen, L. Huang, H. Mühlenbernd, G. Li, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, C.-W. Qiu, S. Zhang, and T. Zentgraf, “Dual-polarity plasmonic metalens for visible light,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1198 (2012).
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Huang, W.

H.-X. Xu, S. Tang, G.-M. Wang, T. Cai, W. Huang, Q. He, S. Sun, and L. Zhou, “Multifunctional microstrip array combining a linear polarizer and focusing metasurface,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 64(8), 3676–3682 (2016).
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Jiang, W. X.

S. Liu, T. J. Cui, Q. Xu, D. Bao, L. Du, X. Wan, W. X. Tang, C. Ouyang, X. Y. Zhou, H. Yuan, H. F. Ma, W. X. Jiang, J. Han, W. Zhang, and Q. Cheng, “Anisotropic coding metamaterials and their powerful manipulation of differently polarized terahertz waves,” Light Sci. Appl. 5(5), e16076 (2016).
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L. H. Gao, Q. Cheng, J. Yang, S. J. Ma, J. Zhao, S. Liu, H. B. Chen, Q. He, W. X. Jiang, H. F. Ma, Q. Y. Wen, L. J. Liang, B. B. Jin, W. W. Liu, L. Zhou, J. Q. Yao, P. H. Wu, and T. J. Cui, “Broadband diffusion of terahertz waves by multi-bit coding metasurfaces,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(9), e324 (2015).
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L. H. Gao, Q. Cheng, J. Yang, S. J. Ma, J. Zhao, S. Liu, H. B. Chen, Q. He, W. X. Jiang, H. F. Ma, Q. Y. Wen, L. J. Liang, B. B. Jin, W. W. Liu, L. Zhou, J. Q. Yao, P. H. Wu, and T. J. Cui, “Broadband diffusion of terahertz waves by multi-bit coding metasurfaces,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(9), e324 (2015).
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L. Huang, X. Z. Chen, H. Muhlenbernd, H. Zhang, S. M. Chen, B. F. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, K. W. Cheah, C.-W. Qiu, J. S. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical holography using a plasmonic metasurface,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2808 (2013).
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X. Chen, L. Huang, H. Mühlenbernd, G. Li, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, C.-W. Qiu, S. Zhang, and T. Zentgraf, “Dual-polarity plasmonic metalens for visible light,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1198 (2012).
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Jørgensen, E.

M. Zhou, S. B. Sørensen, O. S. Kim, E. Jørgensen, P. Meincke, O. Breinbjerg, and G. Toso, “The generalized direct optimization technique for printed reflectarrays,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 62(4), 1690–1700 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Zhou, S. B. Sørensen, O. S. Kim, E. Jørgensen, P. Meincke, and O. Breinbjerg, “Direct optimization of printed reflectarrays for contoured beam satellite antenna applications,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 61(4), 1995–2004 (2013).
[Crossref]

Jung, S.

J. Lee, S. Jung, P.-Y. Chen, F. Lu, F. Demmerle, G. Boehm, M.-C. Amann, A. Alù, and M. A. Belkin, “Ultrafast electrically tunable polaritonic metasurfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(11), 1057–1063 (2014).
[Crossref]

Karimi, E.

E. Karimi, S. A. Schulz, I. De Leon, H. Qassim, J. Upham, and R. W. Boyd, “Generating optical orbital angular momentum at visible wavelengths using a plasmonic metasurface,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(5), e167 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kats, M. A.

P. Genevet, N. Yu, F. Aieta, J. Lin, M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, M. O. Scully, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Ultrathin plasmonic optical vortex plate based on phase discontinuities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(1), 013101 (2012).
[Crossref]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
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G. Zheng, H. Mühlenbernd, M. Kenney, G. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Metasurface holograms reaching 80% efficiency,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(4), 308–312 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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M. Zhou, S. B. Sørensen, O. S. Kim, E. Jørgensen, P. Meincke, O. Breinbjerg, and G. Toso, “The generalized direct optimization technique for printed reflectarrays,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 62(4), 1690–1700 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Zhou, S. B. Sørensen, O. S. Kim, E. Jørgensen, P. Meincke, and O. Breinbjerg, “Direct optimization of printed reflectarrays for contoured beam satellite antenna applications,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 61(4), 1995–2004 (2013).
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Kim, Y.

A. Yu, F. Yang, A. Z. Elsherbeni, J. Huang, and Y. Kim, “An offset-fed X-band reflectarray antenna using a modified element rotation technique,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 60(3), 1619–1624 (2012).
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Kleiner, V.

Kravchenko, I. I.

Y. Yang, W. Wang, P. Moitra, I. I. Kravchenko, D. P. Briggs, and J. Valentine, “Dielectric meta-reflectarray for broadband linear polarization conversion and optical vortex generation,” Nano Lett. 14(3), 1394–1399 (2014).
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Kulah, H.

E. Erdil, K. Topalli, N. S. Esmaeilzad, Ö. Zorlu, H. Kulah, and O. A. Civi, “Reconfigurable nested ring-split ring transmitarray unit cell employing the element rotation method by microfluidics,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 63(3), 1163–1167 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lee, J.

J. Lee, S. Jung, P.-Y. Chen, F. Lu, F. Demmerle, G. Boehm, M.-C. Amann, A. Alù, and M. A. Belkin, “Ultrafast electrically tunable polaritonic metasurfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(11), 1057–1063 (2014).
[Crossref]

Li, G.

G. Zheng, H. Mühlenbernd, M. Kenney, G. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Metasurface holograms reaching 80% efficiency,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(4), 308–312 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Chen, L. Huang, H. Mühlenbernd, G. Li, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, C.-W. Qiu, S. Zhang, and T. Zentgraf, “Dual-polarity plasmonic metalens for visible light,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1198 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, H.-P.

H.-X. Xu, S. Sun, S. Tang, S. Ma, Q. He, G.-M. Wang, T. Cai, H.-P. Li, and L. Zhou, “Dynamical control on helicity of electromagnetic waves by tunable metasurfaces,” Sci. Rep. 6, 27503 (2016).
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L. Huang, X. Z. Chen, H. Muhlenbernd, H. Zhang, S. M. Chen, B. F. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, K. W. Cheah, C.-W. Qiu, J. S. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical holography using a plasmonic metasurface,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2808 (2013).
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Z. Q. Miao, Q. Wu, X. Li, Q. He, K. Ding, Z. H. An, Y. B. Zhang, and L. Zhou, “Widely tunable terahertz phase modulation with gate-controlled graphene metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. X 5(4), 041027 (2015).
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L. H. Gao, Q. Cheng, J. Yang, S. J. Ma, J. Zhao, S. Liu, H. B. Chen, Q. He, W. X. Jiang, H. F. Ma, Q. Y. Wen, L. J. Liang, B. B. Jin, W. W. Liu, L. Zhou, J. Q. Yao, P. H. Wu, and T. J. Cui, “Broadband diffusion of terahertz waves by multi-bit coding metasurfaces,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(9), e324 (2015).
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P. Genevet, N. Yu, F. Aieta, J. Lin, M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, M. O. Scully, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Ultrathin plasmonic optical vortex plate based on phase discontinuities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(1), 013101 (2012).
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S. Liu, T. J. Cui, Q. Xu, D. Bao, L. Du, X. Wan, W. X. Tang, C. Ouyang, X. Y. Zhou, H. Yuan, H. F. Ma, W. X. Jiang, J. Han, W. Zhang, and Q. Cheng, “Anisotropic coding metamaterials and their powerful manipulation of differently polarized terahertz waves,” Light Sci. Appl. 5(5), e16076 (2016).
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S. Liu, T. J. Cui, L. Zhang, Q. Xu, Q. Wang, X. Wan, J. Q. Gu, W. X. Tang, M. Qi, J. G. Han, W. L. Zhang, X. Y. Zhou, and Q. Cheng, “Convolution operations on coding metasurface to reach flexible and continuous controls of terahertz beams,” Adv Sci (Weinh) 3(10), 1600156 (2016).
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L. H. Gao, Q. Cheng, J. Yang, S. J. Ma, J. Zhao, S. Liu, H. B. Chen, Q. He, W. X. Jiang, H. F. Ma, Q. Y. Wen, L. J. Liang, B. B. Jin, W. W. Liu, L. Zhou, J. Q. Yao, P. H. Wu, and T. J. Cui, “Broadband diffusion of terahertz waves by multi-bit coding metasurfaces,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(9), e324 (2015).
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L. H. Gao, Q. Cheng, J. Yang, S. J. Ma, J. Zhao, S. Liu, H. B. Chen, Q. He, W. X. Jiang, H. F. Ma, Q. Y. Wen, L. J. Liang, B. B. Jin, W. W. Liu, L. Zhou, J. Q. Yao, P. H. Wu, and T. J. Cui, “Broadband diffusion of terahertz waves by multi-bit coding metasurfaces,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(9), e324 (2015).
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Loo, R. Y.

D. F. Sievenpiper, J. H. Schaffner, H. J. Song, R. Y. Loo, and G. Tangonan, “Two-dimensional beam steering using an electrically tunable impedance surface,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 51(10), 2713–2722 (2003).
[Crossref]

Lu, F.

J. Lee, S. Jung, P.-Y. Chen, F. Lu, F. Demmerle, G. Boehm, M.-C. Amann, A. Alù, and M. A. Belkin, “Ultrafast electrically tunable polaritonic metasurfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(11), 1057–1063 (2014).
[Crossref]

Luo, W.

W. Luo, S. Xiao, Q. He, S. Sun, and L. Zhou, “Photonic spin hall effect with nearly 100% efficiency,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(8), 1102–1108 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ma, H. F.

S. Liu, T. J. Cui, Q. Xu, D. Bao, L. Du, X. Wan, W. X. Tang, C. Ouyang, X. Y. Zhou, H. Yuan, H. F. Ma, W. X. Jiang, J. Han, W. Zhang, and Q. Cheng, “Anisotropic coding metamaterials and their powerful manipulation of differently polarized terahertz waves,” Light Sci. Appl. 5(5), e16076 (2016).
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L. H. Gao, Q. Cheng, J. Yang, S. J. Ma, J. Zhao, S. Liu, H. B. Chen, Q. He, W. X. Jiang, H. F. Ma, Q. Y. Wen, L. J. Liang, B. B. Jin, W. W. Liu, L. Zhou, J. Q. Yao, P. H. Wu, and T. J. Cui, “Broadband diffusion of terahertz waves by multi-bit coding metasurfaces,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(9), e324 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ma, S.

H.-X. Xu, S. Sun, S. Tang, S. Ma, Q. He, G.-M. Wang, T. Cai, H.-P. Li, and L. Zhou, “Dynamical control on helicity of electromagnetic waves by tunable metasurfaces,” Sci. Rep. 6, 27503 (2016).
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L. H. Gao, Q. Cheng, J. Yang, S. J. Ma, J. Zhao, S. Liu, H. B. Chen, Q. He, W. X. Jiang, H. F. Ma, Q. Y. Wen, L. J. Liang, B. B. Jin, W. W. Liu, L. Zhou, J. Q. Yao, P. H. Wu, and T. J. Cui, “Broadband diffusion of terahertz waves by multi-bit coding metasurfaces,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(9), e324 (2015).
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Martinez-Lopez, J. I.

J. Rodriguez-Zamudio, J. I. Martinez-Lopez, J. Rodriguez-Cuevas, and A. E. Martynyuk, “Reconfigurable reflectarrays based on optimized spiraphase-type elements,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 60(4), 1821–1830 (2012).
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A. E. Martynyuk, J. I. Martinez-Lopez, and N. A. Martynyuk, “Spiraphase-type reflectarrays based on loaded ring slot resonators,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 52(1), 142–153 (2004).
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J. Rodriguez-Zamudio, J. I. Martinez-Lopez, J. Rodriguez-Cuevas, and A. E. Martynyuk, “Reconfigurable reflectarrays based on optimized spiraphase-type elements,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 60(4), 1821–1830 (2012).
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A. E. Martynyuk, J. I. Martinez-Lopez, and N. A. Martynyuk, “Spiraphase-type reflectarrays based on loaded ring slot resonators,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 52(1), 142–153 (2004).
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Martynyuk, N. A.

A. E. Martynyuk, J. I. Martinez-Lopez, and N. A. Martynyuk, “Spiraphase-type reflectarrays based on loaded ring slot resonators,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 52(1), 142–153 (2004).
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X. Z. Chen, M. Chen, M. Q. Mehmood, D. D. Wen, F. Y. Yue, C. W. Qiu, and S. Zhang, “Longitudinal multifoci metalens for circularly polarized light,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(9), 1201–1206 (2015).
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M. Zhou, S. B. Sørensen, O. S. Kim, E. Jørgensen, P. Meincke, O. Breinbjerg, and G. Toso, “The generalized direct optimization technique for printed reflectarrays,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 62(4), 1690–1700 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Zhou, S. B. Sørensen, O. S. Kim, E. Jørgensen, P. Meincke, and O. Breinbjerg, “Direct optimization of printed reflectarrays for contoured beam satellite antenna applications,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 61(4), 1995–2004 (2013).
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Miao, Z. Q.

Z. Q. Miao, Q. Wu, X. Li, Q. He, K. Ding, Z. H. An, Y. B. Zhang, and L. Zhou, “Widely tunable terahertz phase modulation with gate-controlled graphene metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. X 5(4), 041027 (2015).
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Moitra, P.

Y. Yang, W. Wang, P. Moitra, I. I. Kravchenko, D. P. Briggs, and J. Valentine, “Dielectric meta-reflectarray for broadband linear polarization conversion and optical vortex generation,” Nano Lett. 14(3), 1394–1399 (2014).
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Monticone, F.

X. Ding, F. Monticone, K. Zhang, L. Zhang, D. Gao, S. N. Burokur, A. de Lustrac, Q. Wu, C. W. Qiu, and A. Alù, “Ultrathin pancharatnam-berry metasurface with maximal cross-polarization efficiency,” Adv. Mater. 27(7), 1195–1200 (2015).
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Muhlenbernd, H.

L. Huang, X. Z. Chen, H. Muhlenbernd, H. Zhang, S. M. Chen, B. F. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, K. W. Cheah, C.-W. Qiu, J. S. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical holography using a plasmonic metasurface,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2808 (2013).
[Crossref]

Mühlenbernd, H.

G. Zheng, H. Mühlenbernd, M. Kenney, G. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Metasurface holograms reaching 80% efficiency,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(4), 308–312 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Chen, L. Huang, H. Mühlenbernd, G. Li, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, C.-W. Qiu, S. Zhang, and T. Zentgraf, “Dual-polarity plasmonic metalens for visible light,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1198 (2012).
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R. H. Phillion and M. Okoniewski, “Lenses for circular polarization using planar arrays of rotated passive elements,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 59(4), 1217–1227 (2011).
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S. Liu, T. J. Cui, Q. Xu, D. Bao, L. Du, X. Wan, W. X. Tang, C. Ouyang, X. Y. Zhou, H. Yuan, H. F. Ma, W. X. Jiang, J. Han, W. Zhang, and Q. Cheng, “Anisotropic coding metamaterials and their powerful manipulation of differently polarized terahertz waves,” Light Sci. Appl. 5(5), e16076 (2016).
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Padooru, Y. R.

P. Chen, J. Soric, Y. R. Padooru, H. M. Bernety, A. B. Yakovlev, and A. Alu, “Nanostructured graphene metasurface for tunable terahertz cloaking,” New J. Phys. 15(12), 123029 (2013).
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R. H. Phillion and M. Okoniewski, “Lenses for circular polarization using planar arrays of rotated passive elements,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 59(4), 1217–1227 (2011).
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E. Karimi, S. A. Schulz, I. De Leon, H. Qassim, J. Upham, and R. W. Boyd, “Generating optical orbital angular momentum at visible wavelengths using a plasmonic metasurface,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(5), e167 (2014).
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Qi, M.

S. Liu, T. J. Cui, L. Zhang, Q. Xu, Q. Wang, X. Wan, J. Q. Gu, W. X. Tang, M. Qi, J. G. Han, W. L. Zhang, X. Y. Zhou, and Q. Cheng, “Convolution operations on coding metasurface to reach flexible and continuous controls of terahertz beams,” Adv Sci (Weinh) 3(10), 1600156 (2016).
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T. J. Cui, M. Q. Qi, X. Wan, J. Zhao, and Q. Cheng, “Coding metamaterials, digital metamaterials and programmable metamaterials,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(10), e218 (2014).
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X. Ding, F. Monticone, K. Zhang, L. Zhang, D. Gao, S. N. Burokur, A. de Lustrac, Q. Wu, C. W. Qiu, and A. Alù, “Ultrathin pancharatnam-berry metasurface with maximal cross-polarization efficiency,” Adv. Mater. 27(7), 1195–1200 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Z. Chen, M. Chen, M. Q. Mehmood, D. D. Wen, F. Y. Yue, C. W. Qiu, and S. Zhang, “Longitudinal multifoci metalens for circularly polarized light,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(9), 1201–1206 (2015).
[Crossref]

Qiu, C.-W.

L. Huang, X. Z. Chen, H. Muhlenbernd, H. Zhang, S. M. Chen, B. F. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, K. W. Cheah, C.-W. Qiu, J. S. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical holography using a plasmonic metasurface,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2808 (2013).
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X. Chen, L. Huang, H. Mühlenbernd, G. Li, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, C.-W. Qiu, S. Zhang, and T. Zentgraf, “Dual-polarity plasmonic metalens for visible light,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1198 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ra’di, Y.

V. S. Asadchy, M. Albooyeh, S. N. Tcvetkova, A. Díaz-Rubio, Y. Ra’di, and S. A. Tretyakov, “Perfect control of reflection and refraction using spatially dispersive metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 94(7), 075142 (2016).
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X. Yin, Z. Ye, J. Rho, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, “Photonic spin Hall effect at metasurfaces,” Science 339(6126), 1405–1407 (2013).
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Rodriguez-Cuevas, J.

J. Rodriguez-Zamudio, J. I. Martinez-Lopez, J. Rodriguez-Cuevas, and A. E. Martynyuk, “Reconfigurable reflectarrays based on optimized spiraphase-type elements,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 60(4), 1821–1830 (2012).
[Crossref]

Rodriguez-Zamudio, J.

J. Rodriguez-Zamudio, J. I. Martinez-Lopez, J. Rodriguez-Cuevas, and A. E. Martynyuk, “Reconfigurable reflectarrays based on optimized spiraphase-type elements,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 60(4), 1821–1830 (2012).
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Scarborough, C. P.

C. P. Scarborough, D. H. Werner, and D. E. Wolfe, “Compact low-profile tunable metasurface-enabled antenna with near-arbitrary polarization,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 64(7), 2775–2783 (2016).
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Schaffner, J. H.

D. F. Sievenpiper, J. H. Schaffner, H. J. Song, R. Y. Loo, and G. Tangonan, “Two-dimensional beam steering using an electrically tunable impedance surface,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 51(10), 2713–2722 (2003).
[Crossref]

Schulz, S. A.

E. Karimi, S. A. Schulz, I. De Leon, H. Qassim, J. Upham, and R. W. Boyd, “Generating optical orbital angular momentum at visible wavelengths using a plasmonic metasurface,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(5), e167 (2014).
[Crossref]

Scully, M. O.

P. Genevet, N. Yu, F. Aieta, J. Lin, M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, M. O. Scully, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Ultrathin plasmonic optical vortex plate based on phase discontinuities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(1), 013101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sievenpiper, D. F.

D. F. Sievenpiper, J. H. Schaffner, H. J. Song, R. Y. Loo, and G. Tangonan, “Two-dimensional beam steering using an electrically tunable impedance surface,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 51(10), 2713–2722 (2003).
[Crossref]

Song, H. J.

D. F. Sievenpiper, J. H. Schaffner, H. J. Song, R. Y. Loo, and G. Tangonan, “Two-dimensional beam steering using an electrically tunable impedance surface,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 51(10), 2713–2722 (2003).
[Crossref]

Sørensen, S. B.

M. Zhou, S. B. Sørensen, O. S. Kim, E. Jørgensen, P. Meincke, O. Breinbjerg, and G. Toso, “The generalized direct optimization technique for printed reflectarrays,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 62(4), 1690–1700 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Zhou, S. B. Sørensen, O. S. Kim, E. Jørgensen, P. Meincke, and O. Breinbjerg, “Direct optimization of printed reflectarrays for contoured beam satellite antenna applications,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 61(4), 1995–2004 (2013).
[Crossref]

Soric, J.

P. Chen, J. Soric, Y. R. Padooru, H. M. Bernety, A. B. Yakovlev, and A. Alu, “Nanostructured graphene metasurface for tunable terahertz cloaking,” New J. Phys. 15(12), 123029 (2013).
[Crossref]

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B. Strassner, C. Han, and K. Chang, “Circularly polarized reflectarray with microstrip ring elements having variable rotation angles,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 52(4), 1122–1125 (2004).
[Crossref]

Sun, S.

H.-X. Xu, S. Sun, S. Tang, S. Ma, Q. He, G.-M. Wang, T. Cai, H.-P. Li, and L. Zhou, “Dynamical control on helicity of electromagnetic waves by tunable metasurfaces,” Sci. Rep. 6, 27503 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-X. Xu, S. Tang, G.-M. Wang, T. Cai, W. Huang, Q. He, S. Sun, and L. Zhou, “Multifunctional microstrip array combining a linear polarizer and focusing metasurface,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 64(8), 3676–3682 (2016).
[Crossref]

W. Luo, S. Xiao, Q. He, S. Sun, and L. Zhou, “Photonic spin hall effect with nearly 100% efficiency,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(8), 1102–1108 (2015).
[Crossref]

Tan, Q.

L. Huang, X. Z. Chen, H. Muhlenbernd, H. Zhang, S. M. Chen, B. F. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, K. W. Cheah, C.-W. Qiu, J. S. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical holography using a plasmonic metasurface,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2808 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Chen, L. Huang, H. Mühlenbernd, G. Li, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, C.-W. Qiu, S. Zhang, and T. Zentgraf, “Dual-polarity plasmonic metalens for visible light,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1198 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tang, S.

H.-X. Xu, S. Tang, G.-M. Wang, T. Cai, W. Huang, Q. He, S. Sun, and L. Zhou, “Multifunctional microstrip array combining a linear polarizer and focusing metasurface,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 64(8), 3676–3682 (2016).
[Crossref]

H.-X. Xu, S. Sun, S. Tang, S. Ma, Q. He, G.-M. Wang, T. Cai, H.-P. Li, and L. Zhou, “Dynamical control on helicity of electromagnetic waves by tunable metasurfaces,” Sci. Rep. 6, 27503 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tang, W. X.

S. Liu, T. J. Cui, L. Zhang, Q. Xu, Q. Wang, X. Wan, J. Q. Gu, W. X. Tang, M. Qi, J. G. Han, W. L. Zhang, X. Y. Zhou, and Q. Cheng, “Convolution operations on coding metasurface to reach flexible and continuous controls of terahertz beams,” Adv Sci (Weinh) 3(10), 1600156 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Liu, T. J. Cui, Q. Xu, D. Bao, L. Du, X. Wan, W. X. Tang, C. Ouyang, X. Y. Zhou, H. Yuan, H. F. Ma, W. X. Jiang, J. Han, W. Zhang, and Q. Cheng, “Anisotropic coding metamaterials and their powerful manipulation of differently polarized terahertz waves,” Light Sci. Appl. 5(5), e16076 (2016).
[Crossref]

Tangonan, G.

D. F. Sievenpiper, J. H. Schaffner, H. J. Song, R. Y. Loo, and G. Tangonan, “Two-dimensional beam steering using an electrically tunable impedance surface,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 51(10), 2713–2722 (2003).
[Crossref]

Tcvetkova, S. N.

V. S. Asadchy, M. Albooyeh, S. N. Tcvetkova, A. Díaz-Rubio, Y. Ra’di, and S. A. Tretyakov, “Perfect control of reflection and refraction using spatially dispersive metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 94(7), 075142 (2016).
[Crossref]

Tetienne, J. P.

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Topalli, K.

E. Erdil, K. Topalli, N. S. Esmaeilzad, Ö. Zorlu, H. Kulah, and O. A. Civi, “Reconfigurable nested ring-split ring transmitarray unit cell employing the element rotation method by microfluidics,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 63(3), 1163–1167 (2015).
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Toso, G.

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H.-X. Xu, S. Sun, S. Tang, S. Ma, Q. He, G.-M. Wang, T. Cai, H.-P. Li, and L. Zhou, “Dynamical control on helicity of electromagnetic waves by tunable metasurfaces,” Sci. Rep. 6, 27503 (2016).
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C. P. Scarborough, D. H. Werner, and D. E. Wolfe, “Compact low-profile tunable metasurface-enabled antenna with near-arbitrary polarization,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 64(7), 2775–2783 (2016).
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Y. Yang, W. Wang, P. Moitra, I. I. Kravchenko, D. P. Briggs, and J. Valentine, “Dielectric meta-reflectarray for broadband linear polarization conversion and optical vortex generation,” Nano Lett. 14(3), 1394–1399 (2014).
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L. H. Gao, Q. Cheng, J. Yang, S. J. Ma, J. Zhao, S. Liu, H. B. Chen, Q. He, W. X. Jiang, H. F. Ma, Q. Y. Wen, L. J. Liang, B. B. Jin, W. W. Liu, L. Zhou, J. Q. Yao, P. H. Wu, and T. J. Cui, “Broadband diffusion of terahertz waves by multi-bit coding metasurfaces,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(9), e324 (2015).
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X. Yin, Z. Ye, J. Rho, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, “Photonic spin Hall effect at metasurfaces,” Science 339(6126), 1405–1407 (2013).
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X. Yin, Z. Ye, J. Rho, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, “Photonic spin Hall effect at metasurfaces,” Science 339(6126), 1405–1407 (2013).
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A. Yu, F. Yang, A. Z. Elsherbeni, J. Huang, and Y. Kim, “An offset-fed X-band reflectarray antenna using a modified element rotation technique,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 60(3), 1619–1624 (2012).
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Yue, F. Y.

X. Z. Chen, M. Chen, M. Q. Mehmood, D. D. Wen, F. Y. Yue, C. W. Qiu, and S. Zhang, “Longitudinal multifoci metalens for circularly polarized light,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(9), 1201–1206 (2015).
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S. Liu, T. J. Cui, L. Zhang, Q. Xu, Q. Wang, X. Wan, J. Q. Gu, W. X. Tang, M. Qi, J. G. Han, W. L. Zhang, X. Y. Zhou, and Q. Cheng, “Convolution operations on coding metasurface to reach flexible and continuous controls of terahertz beams,” Adv Sci (Weinh) 3(10), 1600156 (2016).
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X. Yin, Z. Ye, J. Rho, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, “Photonic spin Hall effect at metasurfaces,” Science 339(6126), 1405–1407 (2013).
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Z. Q. Miao, Q. Wu, X. Li, Q. He, K. Ding, Z. H. An, Y. B. Zhang, and L. Zhou, “Widely tunable terahertz phase modulation with gate-controlled graphene metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. X 5(4), 041027 (2015).
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L. H. Gao, Q. Cheng, J. Yang, S. J. Ma, J. Zhao, S. Liu, H. B. Chen, Q. He, W. X. Jiang, H. F. Ma, Q. Y. Wen, L. J. Liang, B. B. Jin, W. W. Liu, L. Zhou, J. Q. Yao, P. H. Wu, and T. J. Cui, “Broadband diffusion of terahertz waves by multi-bit coding metasurfaces,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(9), e324 (2015).
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B. O. Zhu, J. Zhao, and Y. Feng, “Active impedance metasurface with full 360° reflection phase tuning,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3059 (2013).
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H.-X. Xu, S. Sun, S. Tang, S. Ma, Q. He, G.-M. Wang, T. Cai, H.-P. Li, and L. Zhou, “Dynamical control on helicity of electromagnetic waves by tunable metasurfaces,” Sci. Rep. 6, 27503 (2016).
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H.-X. Xu, S. Tang, G.-M. Wang, T. Cai, W. Huang, Q. He, S. Sun, and L. Zhou, “Multifunctional microstrip array combining a linear polarizer and focusing metasurface,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 64(8), 3676–3682 (2016).
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W. Luo, S. Xiao, Q. He, S. Sun, and L. Zhou, “Photonic spin hall effect with nearly 100% efficiency,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(8), 1102–1108 (2015).
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Z. Q. Miao, Q. Wu, X. Li, Q. He, K. Ding, Z. H. An, Y. B. Zhang, and L. Zhou, “Widely tunable terahertz phase modulation with gate-controlled graphene metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. X 5(4), 041027 (2015).
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Zhou, M.

M. Zhou, S. B. Sørensen, O. S. Kim, E. Jørgensen, P. Meincke, O. Breinbjerg, and G. Toso, “The generalized direct optimization technique for printed reflectarrays,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 62(4), 1690–1700 (2014).
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M. Zhou, S. B. Sørensen, O. S. Kim, E. Jørgensen, P. Meincke, and O. Breinbjerg, “Direct optimization of printed reflectarrays for contoured beam satellite antenna applications,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 61(4), 1995–2004 (2013).
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S. Liu, T. J. Cui, Q. Xu, D. Bao, L. Du, X. Wan, W. X. Tang, C. Ouyang, X. Y. Zhou, H. Yuan, H. F. Ma, W. X. Jiang, J. Han, W. Zhang, and Q. Cheng, “Anisotropic coding metamaterials and their powerful manipulation of differently polarized terahertz waves,” Light Sci. Appl. 5(5), e16076 (2016).
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S. Liu, T. J. Cui, L. Zhang, Q. Xu, Q. Wang, X. Wan, J. Q. Gu, W. X. Tang, M. Qi, J. G. Han, W. L. Zhang, X. Y. Zhou, and Q. Cheng, “Convolution operations on coding metasurface to reach flexible and continuous controls of terahertz beams,” Adv Sci (Weinh) 3(10), 1600156 (2016).
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B. O. Zhu, J. Zhao, and Y. Feng, “Active impedance metasurface with full 360° reflection phase tuning,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3059 (2013).
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E. Erdil, K. Topalli, N. S. Esmaeilzad, Ö. Zorlu, H. Kulah, and O. A. Civi, “Reconfigurable nested ring-split ring transmitarray unit cell employing the element rotation method by microfluidics,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 63(3), 1163–1167 (2015).
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Adv Sci (Weinh) (1)

S. Liu, T. J. Cui, L. Zhang, Q. Xu, Q. Wang, X. Wan, J. Q. Gu, W. X. Tang, M. Qi, J. G. Han, W. L. Zhang, X. Y. Zhou, and Q. Cheng, “Convolution operations on coding metasurface to reach flexible and continuous controls of terahertz beams,” Adv Sci (Weinh) 3(10), 1600156 (2016).
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Adv. Mater. (1)

X. Ding, F. Monticone, K. Zhang, L. Zhang, D. Gao, S. N. Burokur, A. de Lustrac, Q. Wu, C. W. Qiu, and A. Alù, “Ultrathin pancharatnam-berry metasurface with maximal cross-polarization efficiency,” Adv. Mater. 27(7), 1195–1200 (2015).
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Adv. Opt. Mater. (3)

W. Luo, S. Xiao, Q. He, S. Sun, and L. Zhou, “Photonic spin hall effect with nearly 100% efficiency,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(8), 1102–1108 (2015).
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X. Z. Chen, M. Chen, M. Q. Mehmood, D. D. Wen, F. Y. Yue, C. W. Qiu, and S. Zhang, “Longitudinal multifoci metalens for circularly polarized light,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(9), 1201–1206 (2015).
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Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

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IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. (14)

H.-X. Xu, S. Tang, G.-M. Wang, T. Cai, W. Huang, Q. He, S. Sun, and L. Zhou, “Multifunctional microstrip array combining a linear polarizer and focusing metasurface,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 64(8), 3676–3682 (2016).
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M. Zhou, S. B. Sørensen, O. S. Kim, E. Jørgensen, P. Meincke, O. Breinbjerg, and G. Toso, “The generalized direct optimization technique for printed reflectarrays,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 62(4), 1690–1700 (2014).
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M. Zhou, S. B. Sørensen, O. S. Kim, E. Jørgensen, P. Meincke, and O. Breinbjerg, “Direct optimization of printed reflectarrays for contoured beam satellite antenna applications,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 61(4), 1995–2004 (2013).
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E. Erdil, K. Topalli, N. S. Esmaeilzad, Ö. Zorlu, H. Kulah, and O. A. Civi, “Reconfigurable nested ring-split ring transmitarray unit cell employing the element rotation method by microfluidics,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 63(3), 1163–1167 (2015).
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MA4PBL027, HMICTM Silicon Beam-Lead PIN Diodes, www.macomtech.com for data sheets and product information, M/A-COM Technology Solutions Inc.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Topology of the proposed tunable PB meta-atom. (a) Perspective view. (b) Simulation setup. (c) Slot in ground. (d) Side view. (e) Top view. (f) Bottom view.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The equivalent circuit model of the (a-e) proposed meta-atom for (a-d) y polarization and (e) for x polarization at f (x) and (f) microwave model of PIN diodes. The (a, c) general and (b, d)detailed model and of the meta-atom at (a, b) f (y) in the “On” state and at (c, d) f 1 (y) , f 2 (y) in the “Off” state.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Effects of the (a, b, g, h) patch height h3 and (c-f) junction capacitance Cj on reflection response of the tunable meta-atom under y polarization. EM calculated reflection response in the (a-d)“Off” and (g, h) “On” state. (e, f) CM calculated reflection response in the “Off” state. (a, c, e, g) Reflection amplitude. (b, d, f, h) Reflection phase. For general purpose, we plot here the results for meta-atom without lumped inductors in the bias line since they are the same as those for meta-atom with lumped inductors when self-resonance of the lumped inductors does not occur. Note that h3 = 9 mm was used for the “only patch” case. The geometrical parameters are designed as (unit: mm) px = py = 12, d1 = 0.4, d2 = 0.5, d3 = 0.3, w1 = 3, w2 = 0.4, R1 = 3, R2 = 2.5, h1 = 3, h2 = 0.5, h3 = 9, h4 = 2.5, h5 = 1 and h6 = 1. In full-wave simulations, Ls = 0.115 nH, Cj = 0.03 pF and Rs = 2.8 Ω. The circuit parameters are retrieved as L1 = 13 nH, C1 = 0.04 pF, L2 = 1 nH, C2 = 0.081 pF, R1 = 0.9 Ω, R2 = 0.8 Ω, Zc = 109.3 Ω and ho = 60.5°.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Layout of the designed tunable PB metasurface with zoom-in view of a super cell shown in the dashed. The geometrical parameters of the meta-atoms are the same as those shown in Fig. 3 except for different rotation angles and introduced chip inductors.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Simulated (a, b) LP and (c, d) CP reflection coefficients of the designed PB metasurface in the (a, c) “Off” and (b, d) “On” states.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Simulated and theoretically calculated (symbols) normalized far-field scattering power intensity P(θr, λ) of the PB metasurface under y-polarized normal incidence for −90°<θr<90°. The P(θr, λ) is normalized to the maximum intensity. The (a, d) LCP and (b, e) RCP wave for (a-c) “On” state and (d-f) “Off” state. The 3D scattering pattern at 8 GHz in the (c) “On” state and (f) “Off” state.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Scattering power intensity of the tunable PB metasurface (a-d) with (e, f) and without chip inductors in biasing lines at (a) 5.95, (b) 9.6, (e) 6 and (f) 10 GHz in the “Off” state, and at (c) 8.7 and (d) 10.8 GHz in the “On” state. Scattering (g) power intensity and (h) far-field pattern of the tunable PB metasurface at 8 GHz in the “On” state with Rs = 200 Ω in the last three PIN diodes along + x direction and Rs = 2 Ω in all residual ones.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Surface current distributions on bottom plane for PB metasurface (a) without and (b) with chip inductors introduced in feeding lines. Each plot shows 2 × 2 meta-atoms.

Equations (7)

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R φ XY = [ cosφ sinφ sinφ cosφ ] 1 [ r xx r xy r yx r yy ][ cosφ sinφ sinφ cosφ ]
R φ LR = 1 2 [ 1 j 1 j ] R φ XY [ 1 j 1 j ] 1
r ll = 1 2 [( r xx r yy )j( r xy + r yx )] e j2φ
r rr = 1 2 [( r xx r yy )+j( r xy + r yx ) ]e +j2φ
r lr = 1 2 [( r xx + r yy )+j( r xy r yx )]
r lr = 1 2 [( r xx + r yy )j( r xy r yx )]
φ xx (f) f = φ yy (f) f

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