Abstract

Almost all the deformable mirror (DM) based adaptive optics systems (AOSs) used on large aperture telescopes work at the infrared waveband due to the limitation of the number of actuators. To extend the imaging waveband to the visible, we propose a DM and Liquid crystal wavefront corrector (DM/LCWFC) combination AOS. The LCWFC is used to correct the high frequency aberration corresponding to the visible waveband and the aberrations of the infrared are corrected by the DM. The calculated results show that, to a 10 m telescope, DM/LCWFC AOS which contains a 1538 actuators DM and a 404 × 404 pixels LCWFC is equivalent to a DM based AOS with 4057 actuators. It indicates that the DM/LCWFC AOS is possible to work from visible to infrared for larger aperture telescopes. The simulations and laboratory experiment are performed for a 2 m telescope. The experimental results show that, after correction, near diffraction limited resolution USAF target images are obtained at the wavebands of 0.7-0.9 μm, 0.9-1.5 μm and 1.5-1.7 μm respectively. Therefore, the DM/LCWFC AOS may be used to extend imaging waveband of larger aperture telescope to the visible. It is very appropriate for the observation of spatial objects and the scientific research in astronomy.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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2015 (1)

Z. Cao, Q. Mu, H. Xu, P. Zhang, L. Yao, and L. Xuan, “Open loop liquid crystal adaptive optics systems: progresses and results,” Proc. SPIE 9676, 1–7 (2015).

2014 (1)

J. M. Booth, “Adaptive optical microscopy: the ongoing quest for a perfect image,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(4), e165 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

Z. Peng, Y. Liu, Z. Cao, Q. Mu, L. Yao, L. Hu, C. Yang, R. Wu, and L. Xuan, “Fast response property of low-viscosity difluorooxymethylene-bridged liquid crystals,” Liq. Cryst. 40(1), 91–96 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Lin, Y. Liu, L. Wang, G. Wang, and F. Wei, “Performance test and experiment of correction capability of 137-element deformable mirror,” Opt. Precision Eng. 21(2), 267–273 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (4)

Q. Mu, Z. Cao, L. Hu, Y. Liu, Z. Peng, L. Yao, and L. Xuan, “Open loop adaptive optics testbed on 2.16 meter telescope with liquid crystal corrector,” Opt. Commun. 285(6), 896–899 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Hu, L. Hu, Z. Peng, Q. Mu, X. Zhang, C. Liu, and L. Xuan, “Advanced single-frame overdriving for liquid-crystal spatial light modulators,” Opt. Lett. 37(16), 3324–3326 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Cao, Q. Mu, L. Hu, Y. Liu, Z. Peng, Q. Yang, H. Meng, L. Yao, and L. Xuan, “Optimal energy-splitting method for an open-loop liquid crystal adaptive optics system,” Opt. Express 20(17), 19331–19342 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. E. Roberts, R. G. Dekany, R. S. Burruss, C. Baranec, A. Bouchez, E. E. Croner, S. R. Guiwits, D. D. S. Hale, J. R. Henning, D. L. Palmer, M. Troy, T. N. Truong, and J. Zolkower, “Results from the PALM-3000 high-order adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 84470Y (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

Z. Peng, Y. Liu, L. Yao, Z. Cao, Q. Mu, L. Hu, and L. Xuan, “Improvement of the switching frequency of a liquid-crystal spatial light modulator with optimal cell gap,” Opt. Lett. 36(18), 3608–3610 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z.-H. Peng, Y.-G. Liu, L.-S. Yao, Z.-L. Cao, Q.-Q. Mu, L.-F. Hu, X.-H. Lu, L. Xuan, and Z.-Y. Zhang, “Improvement of response performance of liquid crystal optical devices by using a low viscosity component,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 28(9), 0942071 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

H. Chen, L. Xuan, L. Hu, Z. Cao, and Q. Mu, “Design of open-loop liquid crystal adaptive optical system for 1200 mm telescope,” Opt. Precision Eng. 18(1), 29–36 (2010).

Q. Mu, Z. Cao, L. Hu, Y. Liu, Z. Peng, and L. Xuan, “Novel spectral range expansion method for liquid crystal adaptive optics,” Opt. Express 18(21), 21687–21696 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Roberts, A. H. Bouchez, R. S. Burruss, R. G. Dekany, S. R. Guiwits, and M. Troy, “Optical characterization of the PALM-3000 3388-actuator deformable mirror,” Proc. SPIE 77362, 77362 (2010).

2009 (2)

2008 (2)

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

H. Takami, S. Colley, M. Dinkins, M. Eldred, O. Guyon, T. Golota, M. Hattori, Y. Hayano, M. Ito, M. Iye, S. Oya, Y. Saito, and M. Watanabe, “Status of Subaru laser guide star AO system,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720C (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

Z. Cao, L. Xuan, L. Hu, Y. Liu, and Q. Mu, “Effects of the space-bandwidth product on the liquid-crystal kinoform,” Opt. Express 13(14), 5186–5191 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Dayton, S. Browne, and J. Gonglewski, “Increasing the bandwidth of a liquid crystal phased array adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 5894, 58940M (2005).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

S. R. Restaino, D. M. Payne, J. T. Baker, J. R. Andrews, S. W. Teare, G. C. Gilbreath, D. Dayton, and J. Gonglewski, “Liquid crystal technology for adaptive optics: un update,” Proc. SPIE 5003, 187–192 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

2000 (3)

C. E. Max, B. A. Macintosh, S. Gibbard, D. T. Gavel, H. G. Roe, I. de Pater, A. M. Ghez, D. S. Acton, P. L. Wizinowich, and O. Lai, “Neptune and Titan observed with Keck telescope adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 4007, 213–220 (2000).
[Crossref]

G. Herriot, S. Morris, A. Anthony, D. Derdall, D. Duncan, J. Dunn, A. Ebbers, J. M. Fletcher, T. Hardy, B. Leckie, A. Mirza, C. Morbey, M. Pfleger, S. Roberts, P. Shott, M. Smith, L. Saddlemyer, J. Sebesta, K. Szeto, B. Wooff, W. Windels, and J. P. Veran, “Progress on Altair: the Gemini North adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 4007, 115–125 (2000).
[Crossref]

G. Rousset, F. Lacombe, P. Puget, E. Gendron, R. Arsenault, P. Kern, D. Rabaud, P. Y. Madec, N. Hubin, G. Zins, E. Stadler, J. Charton, P. Gigan, and P. Feautrier, “Status of the VLT Nasmyth adaptive optics system (NAOS),” Proc. SPIE 4007, 72–81 (2000).
[Crossref]

1976 (1)

Acton, D. S.

C. E. Max, B. A. Macintosh, S. Gibbard, D. T. Gavel, H. G. Roe, I. de Pater, A. M. Ghez, D. S. Acton, P. L. Wizinowich, and O. Lai, “Neptune and Titan observed with Keck telescope adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 4007, 213–220 (2000).
[Crossref]

Andrews, J. R.

S. R. Restaino, D. M. Payne, J. T. Baker, J. R. Andrews, S. W. Teare, G. C. Gilbreath, D. Dayton, and J. Gonglewski, “Liquid crystal technology for adaptive optics: un update,” Proc. SPIE 5003, 187–192 (2003).
[Crossref]

Anthony, A.

G. Herriot, S. Morris, A. Anthony, D. Derdall, D. Duncan, J. Dunn, A. Ebbers, J. M. Fletcher, T. Hardy, B. Leckie, A. Mirza, C. Morbey, M. Pfleger, S. Roberts, P. Shott, M. Smith, L. Saddlemyer, J. Sebesta, K. Szeto, B. Wooff, W. Windels, and J. P. Veran, “Progress on Altair: the Gemini North adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 4007, 115–125 (2000).
[Crossref]

Arsenault, R.

G. Rousset, F. Lacombe, P. Puget, E. Gendron, R. Arsenault, P. Kern, D. Rabaud, P. Y. Madec, N. Hubin, G. Zins, E. Stadler, J. Charton, P. Gigan, and P. Feautrier, “Status of the VLT Nasmyth adaptive optics system (NAOS),” Proc. SPIE 4007, 72–81 (2000).
[Crossref]

Baker, J. T.

S. R. Restaino, D. M. Payne, J. T. Baker, J. R. Andrews, S. W. Teare, G. C. Gilbreath, D. Dayton, and J. Gonglewski, “Liquid crystal technology for adaptive optics: un update,” Proc. SPIE 5003, 187–192 (2003).
[Crossref]

Baranec, C.

J. E. Roberts, R. G. Dekany, R. S. Burruss, C. Baranec, A. Bouchez, E. E. Croner, S. R. Guiwits, D. D. S. Hale, J. R. Henning, D. L. Palmer, M. Troy, T. N. Truong, and J. Zolkower, “Results from the PALM-3000 high-order adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 84470Y (2012).
[Crossref]

Bauchert, K. A.

K. A. Bauchert, S. A. Serati, and A. Furman, “Advances in liquid crystal spatial light modulators,” Proc. SPIE 4734, 35–43 (2002).
[Crossref]

Blain, C.

Booth, J. M.

J. M. Booth, “Adaptive optical microscopy: the ongoing quest for a perfect image,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(4), e165 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bouchez, A.

J. E. Roberts, R. G. Dekany, R. S. Burruss, C. Baranec, A. Bouchez, E. E. Croner, S. R. Guiwits, D. D. S. Hale, J. R. Henning, D. L. Palmer, M. Troy, T. N. Truong, and J. Zolkower, “Results from the PALM-3000 high-order adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 84470Y (2012).
[Crossref]

Bouchez, A. H.

J. Roberts, A. H. Bouchez, R. S. Burruss, R. G. Dekany, S. R. Guiwits, and M. Troy, “Optical characterization of the PALM-3000 3388-actuator deformable mirror,” Proc. SPIE 77362, 77362 (2010).

Bradley, C.

Browne, S.

Burruss, R. S.

J. E. Roberts, R. G. Dekany, R. S. Burruss, C. Baranec, A. Bouchez, E. E. Croner, S. R. Guiwits, D. D. S. Hale, J. R. Henning, D. L. Palmer, M. Troy, T. N. Truong, and J. Zolkower, “Results from the PALM-3000 high-order adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 84470Y (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Roberts, A. H. Bouchez, R. S. Burruss, R. G. Dekany, S. R. Guiwits, and M. Troy, “Optical characterization of the PALM-3000 3388-actuator deformable mirror,” Proc. SPIE 77362, 77362 (2010).

Cao, Z.

Z. Cao, Q. Mu, H. Xu, P. Zhang, L. Yao, and L. Xuan, “Open loop liquid crystal adaptive optics systems: progresses and results,” Proc. SPIE 9676, 1–7 (2015).

Z. Peng, Y. Liu, Z. Cao, Q. Mu, L. Yao, L. Hu, C. Yang, R. Wu, and L. Xuan, “Fast response property of low-viscosity difluorooxymethylene-bridged liquid crystals,” Liq. Cryst. 40(1), 91–96 (2013).
[Crossref]

Q. Mu, Z. Cao, L. Hu, Y. Liu, Z. Peng, L. Yao, and L. Xuan, “Open loop adaptive optics testbed on 2.16 meter telescope with liquid crystal corrector,” Opt. Commun. 285(6), 896–899 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. Cao, Q. Mu, L. Hu, Y. Liu, Z. Peng, Q. Yang, H. Meng, L. Yao, and L. Xuan, “Optimal energy-splitting method for an open-loop liquid crystal adaptive optics system,” Opt. Express 20(17), 19331–19342 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Peng, Y. Liu, L. Yao, Z. Cao, Q. Mu, L. Hu, and L. Xuan, “Improvement of the switching frequency of a liquid-crystal spatial light modulator with optimal cell gap,” Opt. Lett. 36(18), 3608–3610 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Mu, Z. Cao, L. Hu, Y. Liu, Z. Peng, and L. Xuan, “Novel spectral range expansion method for liquid crystal adaptive optics,” Opt. Express 18(21), 21687–21696 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Chen, L. Xuan, L. Hu, Z. Cao, and Q. Mu, “Design of open-loop liquid crystal adaptive optical system for 1200 mm telescope,” Opt. Precision Eng. 18(1), 29–36 (2010).

Q. Mu, Z. Cao, Z. Peng, Y. Liu, L. Hu, X. Lu, and L. Xuan, “Modal interaction matrix measurement for liquid-crystal corrector: precision evaluation,” Opt. Express 17(11), 9330–9336 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Cao, Q. Mu, L. Hu, X. Lu, and L. Xuan, “A simple method for evaluating the wavefront compensation error of diffractive liquid-crystal wavefront correctors,” Opt. Express 17(20), 17715–17722 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Mu, Z. Cao, D. Li, L. Hu, and L. Xuan, “Open-loop correction of horizontal turbulence: system design and result,” Appl. Opt. 47(23), 4297–4301 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Cao, Q. Mu, L. Hu, D. Li, Y. Liu, L. Jin, and L. Xuan, “Correction of horizontal turbulence with nematic liquid crystal wavefront corrector,” Opt. Express 16(10), 7006–7013 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Cao, L. Xuan, L. Hu, Y. Liu, and Q. Mu, “Effects of the space-bandwidth product on the liquid-crystal kinoform,” Opt. Express 13(14), 5186–5191 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cao, Z.-L.

Z.-H. Peng, Y.-G. Liu, L.-S. Yao, Z.-L. Cao, Q.-Q. Mu, L.-F. Hu, X.-H. Lu, L. Xuan, and Z.-Y. Zhang, “Improvement of response performance of liquid crystal optical devices by using a low viscosity component,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 28(9), 0942071 (2011).
[Crossref]

Carrion, B.

Charton, J.

G. Rousset, F. Lacombe, P. Puget, E. Gendron, R. Arsenault, P. Kern, D. Rabaud, P. Y. Madec, N. Hubin, G. Zins, E. Stadler, J. Charton, P. Gigan, and P. Feautrier, “Status of the VLT Nasmyth adaptive optics system (NAOS),” Proc. SPIE 4007, 72–81 (2000).
[Crossref]

Chen, H.

H. Chen, L. Xuan, L. Hu, Z. Cao, and Q. Mu, “Design of open-loop liquid crystal adaptive optical system for 1200 mm telescope,” Opt. Precision Eng. 18(1), 29–36 (2010).

Colley, S.

H. Takami, S. Colley, M. Dinkins, M. Eldred, O. Guyon, T. Golota, M. Hattori, Y. Hayano, M. Ito, M. Iye, S. Oya, Y. Saito, and M. Watanabe, “Status of Subaru laser guide star AO system,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720C (2006).
[Crossref]

Conan, R.

Croner, E. E.

J. E. Roberts, R. G. Dekany, R. S. Burruss, C. Baranec, A. Bouchez, E. E. Croner, S. R. Guiwits, D. D. S. Hale, J. R. Henning, D. L. Palmer, M. Troy, T. N. Truong, and J. Zolkower, “Results from the PALM-3000 high-order adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 84470Y (2012).
[Crossref]

Dayton, D.

D. Dayton, S. Browne, and J. Gonglewski, “Increasing the bandwidth of a liquid crystal phased array adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 5894, 58940M (2005).
[Crossref]

S. R. Restaino, D. M. Payne, J. T. Baker, J. R. Andrews, S. W. Teare, G. C. Gilbreath, D. Dayton, and J. Gonglewski, “Liquid crystal technology for adaptive optics: un update,” Proc. SPIE 5003, 187–192 (2003).
[Crossref]

D. Dayton, J. Gonglewski, S. Restaino, J. Martin, J. Phillips, M. Hartman, P. Kervin, J. Snodgress, S. Browne, N. Heimann, M. Shilko, R. Pohle, B. Carrion, C. Smith, and D. Thiel, “Demonstration of new technology MEMS and liquid crystal adaptive optics on bright astronomical objects and satellites,” Opt. Express 10(25), 1508–1519 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

de Pater, I.

C. E. Max, B. A. Macintosh, S. Gibbard, D. T. Gavel, H. G. Roe, I. de Pater, A. M. Ghez, D. S. Acton, P. L. Wizinowich, and O. Lai, “Neptune and Titan observed with Keck telescope adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 4007, 213–220 (2000).
[Crossref]

Dekany, R. G.

J. E. Roberts, R. G. Dekany, R. S. Burruss, C. Baranec, A. Bouchez, E. E. Croner, S. R. Guiwits, D. D. S. Hale, J. R. Henning, D. L. Palmer, M. Troy, T. N. Truong, and J. Zolkower, “Results from the PALM-3000 high-order adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 84470Y (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Roberts, A. H. Bouchez, R. S. Burruss, R. G. Dekany, S. R. Guiwits, and M. Troy, “Optical characterization of the PALM-3000 3388-actuator deformable mirror,” Proc. SPIE 77362, 77362 (2010).

Derdall, D.

G. Herriot, S. Morris, A. Anthony, D. Derdall, D. Duncan, J. Dunn, A. Ebbers, J. M. Fletcher, T. Hardy, B. Leckie, A. Mirza, C. Morbey, M. Pfleger, S. Roberts, P. Shott, M. Smith, L. Saddlemyer, J. Sebesta, K. Szeto, B. Wooff, W. Windels, and J. P. Veran, “Progress on Altair: the Gemini North adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 4007, 115–125 (2000).
[Crossref]

Dinkins, M.

H. Takami, S. Colley, M. Dinkins, M. Eldred, O. Guyon, T. Golota, M. Hattori, Y. Hayano, M. Ito, M. Iye, S. Oya, Y. Saito, and M. Watanabe, “Status of Subaru laser guide star AO system,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720C (2006).
[Crossref]

Duncan, D.

G. Herriot, S. Morris, A. Anthony, D. Derdall, D. Duncan, J. Dunn, A. Ebbers, J. M. Fletcher, T. Hardy, B. Leckie, A. Mirza, C. Morbey, M. Pfleger, S. Roberts, P. Shott, M. Smith, L. Saddlemyer, J. Sebesta, K. Szeto, B. Wooff, W. Windels, and J. P. Veran, “Progress on Altair: the Gemini North adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 4007, 115–125 (2000).
[Crossref]

Dunn, J.

G. Herriot, S. Morris, A. Anthony, D. Derdall, D. Duncan, J. Dunn, A. Ebbers, J. M. Fletcher, T. Hardy, B. Leckie, A. Mirza, C. Morbey, M. Pfleger, S. Roberts, P. Shott, M. Smith, L. Saddlemyer, J. Sebesta, K. Szeto, B. Wooff, W. Windels, and J. P. Veran, “Progress on Altair: the Gemini North adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 4007, 115–125 (2000).
[Crossref]

Ebbers, A.

G. Herriot, S. Morris, A. Anthony, D. Derdall, D. Duncan, J. Dunn, A. Ebbers, J. M. Fletcher, T. Hardy, B. Leckie, A. Mirza, C. Morbey, M. Pfleger, S. Roberts, P. Shott, M. Smith, L. Saddlemyer, J. Sebesta, K. Szeto, B. Wooff, W. Windels, and J. P. Veran, “Progress on Altair: the Gemini North adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 4007, 115–125 (2000).
[Crossref]

Eldred, M.

H. Takami, S. Colley, M. Dinkins, M. Eldred, O. Guyon, T. Golota, M. Hattori, Y. Hayano, M. Ito, M. Iye, S. Oya, Y. Saito, and M. Watanabe, “Status of Subaru laser guide star AO system,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720C (2006).
[Crossref]

Feautrier, P.

G. Rousset, F. Lacombe, P. Puget, E. Gendron, R. Arsenault, P. Kern, D. Rabaud, P. Y. Madec, N. Hubin, G. Zins, E. Stadler, J. Charton, P. Gigan, and P. Feautrier, “Status of the VLT Nasmyth adaptive optics system (NAOS),” Proc. SPIE 4007, 72–81 (2000).
[Crossref]

Fletcher, J. M.

G. Herriot, S. Morris, A. Anthony, D. Derdall, D. Duncan, J. Dunn, A. Ebbers, J. M. Fletcher, T. Hardy, B. Leckie, A. Mirza, C. Morbey, M. Pfleger, S. Roberts, P. Shott, M. Smith, L. Saddlemyer, J. Sebesta, K. Szeto, B. Wooff, W. Windels, and J. P. Veran, “Progress on Altair: the Gemini North adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 4007, 115–125 (2000).
[Crossref]

Furman, A.

K. A. Bauchert, S. A. Serati, and A. Furman, “Advances in liquid crystal spatial light modulators,” Proc. SPIE 4734, 35–43 (2002).
[Crossref]

Gavel, D. T.

C. E. Max, B. A. Macintosh, S. Gibbard, D. T. Gavel, H. G. Roe, I. de Pater, A. M. Ghez, D. S. Acton, P. L. Wizinowich, and O. Lai, “Neptune and Titan observed with Keck telescope adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 4007, 213–220 (2000).
[Crossref]

Gendron, E.

G. Rousset, F. Lacombe, P. Puget, E. Gendron, R. Arsenault, P. Kern, D. Rabaud, P. Y. Madec, N. Hubin, G. Zins, E. Stadler, J. Charton, P. Gigan, and P. Feautrier, “Status of the VLT Nasmyth adaptive optics system (NAOS),” Proc. SPIE 4007, 72–81 (2000).
[Crossref]

Ghez, A. M.

C. E. Max, B. A. Macintosh, S. Gibbard, D. T. Gavel, H. G. Roe, I. de Pater, A. M. Ghez, D. S. Acton, P. L. Wizinowich, and O. Lai, “Neptune and Titan observed with Keck telescope adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 4007, 213–220 (2000).
[Crossref]

Gibbard, S.

C. E. Max, B. A. Macintosh, S. Gibbard, D. T. Gavel, H. G. Roe, I. de Pater, A. M. Ghez, D. S. Acton, P. L. Wizinowich, and O. Lai, “Neptune and Titan observed with Keck telescope adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 4007, 213–220 (2000).
[Crossref]

Gigan, P.

G. Rousset, F. Lacombe, P. Puget, E. Gendron, R. Arsenault, P. Kern, D. Rabaud, P. Y. Madec, N. Hubin, G. Zins, E. Stadler, J. Charton, P. Gigan, and P. Feautrier, “Status of the VLT Nasmyth adaptive optics system (NAOS),” Proc. SPIE 4007, 72–81 (2000).
[Crossref]

Gilbreath, G. C.

S. R. Restaino, D. M. Payne, J. T. Baker, J. R. Andrews, S. W. Teare, G. C. Gilbreath, D. Dayton, and J. Gonglewski, “Liquid crystal technology for adaptive optics: un update,” Proc. SPIE 5003, 187–192 (2003).
[Crossref]

Golota, T.

H. Takami, S. Colley, M. Dinkins, M. Eldred, O. Guyon, T. Golota, M. Hattori, Y. Hayano, M. Ito, M. Iye, S. Oya, Y. Saito, and M. Watanabe, “Status of Subaru laser guide star AO system,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720C (2006).
[Crossref]

Gonglewski, J.

D. Dayton, S. Browne, and J. Gonglewski, “Increasing the bandwidth of a liquid crystal phased array adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 5894, 58940M (2005).
[Crossref]

S. R. Restaino, D. M. Payne, J. T. Baker, J. R. Andrews, S. W. Teare, G. C. Gilbreath, D. Dayton, and J. Gonglewski, “Liquid crystal technology for adaptive optics: un update,” Proc. SPIE 5003, 187–192 (2003).
[Crossref]

D. Dayton, J. Gonglewski, S. Restaino, J. Martin, J. Phillips, M. Hartman, P. Kervin, J. Snodgress, S. Browne, N. Heimann, M. Shilko, R. Pohle, B. Carrion, C. Smith, and D. Thiel, “Demonstration of new technology MEMS and liquid crystal adaptive optics on bright astronomical objects and satellites,” Opt. Express 10(25), 1508–1519 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guiwits, S. R.

J. E. Roberts, R. G. Dekany, R. S. Burruss, C. Baranec, A. Bouchez, E. E. Croner, S. R. Guiwits, D. D. S. Hale, J. R. Henning, D. L. Palmer, M. Troy, T. N. Truong, and J. Zolkower, “Results from the PALM-3000 high-order adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 84470Y (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Roberts, A. H. Bouchez, R. S. Burruss, R. G. Dekany, S. R. Guiwits, and M. Troy, “Optical characterization of the PALM-3000 3388-actuator deformable mirror,” Proc. SPIE 77362, 77362 (2010).

Guyon, O.

H. Takami, S. Colley, M. Dinkins, M. Eldred, O. Guyon, T. Golota, M. Hattori, Y. Hayano, M. Ito, M. Iye, S. Oya, Y. Saito, and M. Watanabe, “Status of Subaru laser guide star AO system,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720C (2006).
[Crossref]

Hale, D. D. S.

J. E. Roberts, R. G. Dekany, R. S. Burruss, C. Baranec, A. Bouchez, E. E. Croner, S. R. Guiwits, D. D. S. Hale, J. R. Henning, D. L. Palmer, M. Troy, T. N. Truong, and J. Zolkower, “Results from the PALM-3000 high-order adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 84470Y (2012).
[Crossref]

Hampton, P.

Hardy, T.

G. Herriot, S. Morris, A. Anthony, D. Derdall, D. Duncan, J. Dunn, A. Ebbers, J. M. Fletcher, T. Hardy, B. Leckie, A. Mirza, C. Morbey, M. Pfleger, S. Roberts, P. Shott, M. Smith, L. Saddlemyer, J. Sebesta, K. Szeto, B. Wooff, W. Windels, and J. P. Veran, “Progress on Altair: the Gemini North adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 4007, 115–125 (2000).
[Crossref]

Hartman, M.

Hattori, M.

H. Takami, S. Colley, M. Dinkins, M. Eldred, O. Guyon, T. Golota, M. Hattori, Y. Hayano, M. Ito, M. Iye, S. Oya, Y. Saito, and M. Watanabe, “Status of Subaru laser guide star AO system,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720C (2006).
[Crossref]

Hayano, Y.

H. Takami, S. Colley, M. Dinkins, M. Eldred, O. Guyon, T. Golota, M. Hattori, Y. Hayano, M. Ito, M. Iye, S. Oya, Y. Saito, and M. Watanabe, “Status of Subaru laser guide star AO system,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720C (2006).
[Crossref]

Heimann, N.

Henning, J. R.

J. E. Roberts, R. G. Dekany, R. S. Burruss, C. Baranec, A. Bouchez, E. E. Croner, S. R. Guiwits, D. D. S. Hale, J. R. Henning, D. L. Palmer, M. Troy, T. N. Truong, and J. Zolkower, “Results from the PALM-3000 high-order adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 84470Y (2012).
[Crossref]

Herriot, G.

G. Herriot, S. Morris, A. Anthony, D. Derdall, D. Duncan, J. Dunn, A. Ebbers, J. M. Fletcher, T. Hardy, B. Leckie, A. Mirza, C. Morbey, M. Pfleger, S. Roberts, P. Shott, M. Smith, L. Saddlemyer, J. Sebesta, K. Szeto, B. Wooff, W. Windels, and J. P. Veran, “Progress on Altair: the Gemini North adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 4007, 115–125 (2000).
[Crossref]

Hilton, A.

Hu, H.

Hu, L.

Z. Peng, Y. Liu, Z. Cao, Q. Mu, L. Yao, L. Hu, C. Yang, R. Wu, and L. Xuan, “Fast response property of low-viscosity difluorooxymethylene-bridged liquid crystals,” Liq. Cryst. 40(1), 91–96 (2013).
[Crossref]

Q. Mu, Z. Cao, L. Hu, Y. Liu, Z. Peng, L. Yao, and L. Xuan, “Open loop adaptive optics testbed on 2.16 meter telescope with liquid crystal corrector,” Opt. Commun. 285(6), 896–899 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Hu, L. Hu, Z. Peng, Q. Mu, X. Zhang, C. Liu, and L. Xuan, “Advanced single-frame overdriving for liquid-crystal spatial light modulators,” Opt. Lett. 37(16), 3324–3326 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Cao, Q. Mu, L. Hu, Y. Liu, Z. Peng, Q. Yang, H. Meng, L. Yao, and L. Xuan, “Optimal energy-splitting method for an open-loop liquid crystal adaptive optics system,” Opt. Express 20(17), 19331–19342 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Peng, Y. Liu, L. Yao, Z. Cao, Q. Mu, L. Hu, and L. Xuan, “Improvement of the switching frequency of a liquid-crystal spatial light modulator with optimal cell gap,” Opt. Lett. 36(18), 3608–3610 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Mu, Z. Cao, L. Hu, Y. Liu, Z. Peng, and L. Xuan, “Novel spectral range expansion method for liquid crystal adaptive optics,” Opt. Express 18(21), 21687–21696 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Chen, L. Xuan, L. Hu, Z. Cao, and Q. Mu, “Design of open-loop liquid crystal adaptive optical system for 1200 mm telescope,” Opt. Precision Eng. 18(1), 29–36 (2010).

Z. Cao, Q. Mu, L. Hu, X. Lu, and L. Xuan, “A simple method for evaluating the wavefront compensation error of diffractive liquid-crystal wavefront correctors,” Opt. Express 17(20), 17715–17722 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Mu, Z. Cao, Z. Peng, Y. Liu, L. Hu, X. Lu, and L. Xuan, “Modal interaction matrix measurement for liquid-crystal corrector: precision evaluation,” Opt. Express 17(11), 9330–9336 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Mu, Z. Cao, D. Li, L. Hu, and L. Xuan, “Open-loop correction of horizontal turbulence: system design and result,” Appl. Opt. 47(23), 4297–4301 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Cao, Q. Mu, L. Hu, D. Li, Y. Liu, L. Jin, and L. Xuan, “Correction of horizontal turbulence with nematic liquid crystal wavefront corrector,” Opt. Express 16(10), 7006–7013 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Cao, L. Xuan, L. Hu, Y. Liu, and Q. Mu, “Effects of the space-bandwidth product on the liquid-crystal kinoform,” Opt. Express 13(14), 5186–5191 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hu, L.-F.

Z.-H. Peng, Y.-G. Liu, L.-S. Yao, Z.-L. Cao, Q.-Q. Mu, L.-F. Hu, X.-H. Lu, L. Xuan, and Z.-Y. Zhang, “Improvement of response performance of liquid crystal optical devices by using a low viscosity component,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 28(9), 0942071 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hubin, N.

G. Rousset, F. Lacombe, P. Puget, E. Gendron, R. Arsenault, P. Kern, D. Rabaud, P. Y. Madec, N. Hubin, G. Zins, E. Stadler, J. Charton, P. Gigan, and P. Feautrier, “Status of the VLT Nasmyth adaptive optics system (NAOS),” Proc. SPIE 4007, 72–81 (2000).
[Crossref]

Ito, M.

H. Takami, S. Colley, M. Dinkins, M. Eldred, O. Guyon, T. Golota, M. Hattori, Y. Hayano, M. Ito, M. Iye, S. Oya, Y. Saito, and M. Watanabe, “Status of Subaru laser guide star AO system,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720C (2006).
[Crossref]

Iye, M.

H. Takami, S. Colley, M. Dinkins, M. Eldred, O. Guyon, T. Golota, M. Hattori, Y. Hayano, M. Ito, M. Iye, S. Oya, Y. Saito, and M. Watanabe, “Status of Subaru laser guide star AO system,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720C (2006).
[Crossref]

Jin, L.

Kern, P.

G. Rousset, F. Lacombe, P. Puget, E. Gendron, R. Arsenault, P. Kern, D. Rabaud, P. Y. Madec, N. Hubin, G. Zins, E. Stadler, J. Charton, P. Gigan, and P. Feautrier, “Status of the VLT Nasmyth adaptive optics system (NAOS),” Proc. SPIE 4007, 72–81 (2000).
[Crossref]

Kervin, P.

Keskin, O.

Lacombe, F.

G. Rousset, F. Lacombe, P. Puget, E. Gendron, R. Arsenault, P. Kern, D. Rabaud, P. Y. Madec, N. Hubin, G. Zins, E. Stadler, J. Charton, P. Gigan, and P. Feautrier, “Status of the VLT Nasmyth adaptive optics system (NAOS),” Proc. SPIE 4007, 72–81 (2000).
[Crossref]

Lai, O.

C. E. Max, B. A. Macintosh, S. Gibbard, D. T. Gavel, H. G. Roe, I. de Pater, A. M. Ghez, D. S. Acton, P. L. Wizinowich, and O. Lai, “Neptune and Titan observed with Keck telescope adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 4007, 213–220 (2000).
[Crossref]

Leckie, B.

G. Herriot, S. Morris, A. Anthony, D. Derdall, D. Duncan, J. Dunn, A. Ebbers, J. M. Fletcher, T. Hardy, B. Leckie, A. Mirza, C. Morbey, M. Pfleger, S. Roberts, P. Shott, M. Smith, L. Saddlemyer, J. Sebesta, K. Szeto, B. Wooff, W. Windels, and J. P. Veran, “Progress on Altair: the Gemini North adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 4007, 115–125 (2000).
[Crossref]

Li, D.

Lin, X.

X. Lin, Y. Liu, L. Wang, G. Wang, and F. Wei, “Performance test and experiment of correction capability of 137-element deformable mirror,” Opt. Precision Eng. 21(2), 267–273 (2013).
[Crossref]

Liu, C.

Liu, Y.

X. Lin, Y. Liu, L. Wang, G. Wang, and F. Wei, “Performance test and experiment of correction capability of 137-element deformable mirror,” Opt. Precision Eng. 21(2), 267–273 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z. Peng, Y. Liu, Z. Cao, Q. Mu, L. Yao, L. Hu, C. Yang, R. Wu, and L. Xuan, “Fast response property of low-viscosity difluorooxymethylene-bridged liquid crystals,” Liq. Cryst. 40(1), 91–96 (2013).
[Crossref]

Q. Mu, Z. Cao, L. Hu, Y. Liu, Z. Peng, L. Yao, and L. Xuan, “Open loop adaptive optics testbed on 2.16 meter telescope with liquid crystal corrector,” Opt. Commun. 285(6), 896–899 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. Cao, Q. Mu, L. Hu, Y. Liu, Z. Peng, Q. Yang, H. Meng, L. Yao, and L. Xuan, “Optimal energy-splitting method for an open-loop liquid crystal adaptive optics system,” Opt. Express 20(17), 19331–19342 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Peng, Y. Liu, L. Yao, Z. Cao, Q. Mu, L. Hu, and L. Xuan, “Improvement of the switching frequency of a liquid-crystal spatial light modulator with optimal cell gap,” Opt. Lett. 36(18), 3608–3610 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Mu, Z. Cao, L. Hu, Y. Liu, Z. Peng, and L. Xuan, “Novel spectral range expansion method for liquid crystal adaptive optics,” Opt. Express 18(21), 21687–21696 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Mu, Z. Cao, Z. Peng, Y. Liu, L. Hu, X. Lu, and L. Xuan, “Modal interaction matrix measurement for liquid-crystal corrector: precision evaluation,” Opt. Express 17(11), 9330–9336 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Cao, Q. Mu, L. Hu, D. Li, Y. Liu, L. Jin, and L. Xuan, “Correction of horizontal turbulence with nematic liquid crystal wavefront corrector,” Opt. Express 16(10), 7006–7013 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Cao, L. Xuan, L. Hu, Y. Liu, and Q. Mu, “Effects of the space-bandwidth product on the liquid-crystal kinoform,” Opt. Express 13(14), 5186–5191 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, Y.-G.

Z.-H. Peng, Y.-G. Liu, L.-S. Yao, Z.-L. Cao, Q.-Q. Mu, L.-F. Hu, X.-H. Lu, L. Xuan, and Z.-Y. Zhang, “Improvement of response performance of liquid crystal optical devices by using a low viscosity component,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 28(9), 0942071 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lu, X.

Lu, X.-H.

Z.-H. Peng, Y.-G. Liu, L.-S. Yao, Z.-L. Cao, Q.-Q. Mu, L.-F. Hu, X.-H. Lu, L. Xuan, and Z.-Y. Zhang, “Improvement of response performance of liquid crystal optical devices by using a low viscosity component,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 28(9), 0942071 (2011).
[Crossref]

Macintosh, B. A.

C. E. Max, B. A. Macintosh, S. Gibbard, D. T. Gavel, H. G. Roe, I. de Pater, A. M. Ghez, D. S. Acton, P. L. Wizinowich, and O. Lai, “Neptune and Titan observed with Keck telescope adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 4007, 213–220 (2000).
[Crossref]

Madec, P. Y.

G. Rousset, F. Lacombe, P. Puget, E. Gendron, R. Arsenault, P. Kern, D. Rabaud, P. Y. Madec, N. Hubin, G. Zins, E. Stadler, J. Charton, P. Gigan, and P. Feautrier, “Status of the VLT Nasmyth adaptive optics system (NAOS),” Proc. SPIE 4007, 72–81 (2000).
[Crossref]

Martin, J.

Max, C. E.

C. E. Max, B. A. Macintosh, S. Gibbard, D. T. Gavel, H. G. Roe, I. de Pater, A. M. Ghez, D. S. Acton, P. L. Wizinowich, and O. Lai, “Neptune and Titan observed with Keck telescope adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 4007, 213–220 (2000).
[Crossref]

Meng, H.

Mirza, A.

G. Herriot, S. Morris, A. Anthony, D. Derdall, D. Duncan, J. Dunn, A. Ebbers, J. M. Fletcher, T. Hardy, B. Leckie, A. Mirza, C. Morbey, M. Pfleger, S. Roberts, P. Shott, M. Smith, L. Saddlemyer, J. Sebesta, K. Szeto, B. Wooff, W. Windels, and J. P. Veran, “Progress on Altair: the Gemini North adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 4007, 115–125 (2000).
[Crossref]

Morbey, C.

G. Herriot, S. Morris, A. Anthony, D. Derdall, D. Duncan, J. Dunn, A. Ebbers, J. M. Fletcher, T. Hardy, B. Leckie, A. Mirza, C. Morbey, M. Pfleger, S. Roberts, P. Shott, M. Smith, L. Saddlemyer, J. Sebesta, K. Szeto, B. Wooff, W. Windels, and J. P. Veran, “Progress on Altair: the Gemini North adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 4007, 115–125 (2000).
[Crossref]

Morris, S.

G. Herriot, S. Morris, A. Anthony, D. Derdall, D. Duncan, J. Dunn, A. Ebbers, J. M. Fletcher, T. Hardy, B. Leckie, A. Mirza, C. Morbey, M. Pfleger, S. Roberts, P. Shott, M. Smith, L. Saddlemyer, J. Sebesta, K. Szeto, B. Wooff, W. Windels, and J. P. Veran, “Progress on Altair: the Gemini North adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 4007, 115–125 (2000).
[Crossref]

Mu, Q.

Z. Cao, Q. Mu, H. Xu, P. Zhang, L. Yao, and L. Xuan, “Open loop liquid crystal adaptive optics systems: progresses and results,” Proc. SPIE 9676, 1–7 (2015).

Z. Peng, Y. Liu, Z. Cao, Q. Mu, L. Yao, L. Hu, C. Yang, R. Wu, and L. Xuan, “Fast response property of low-viscosity difluorooxymethylene-bridged liquid crystals,” Liq. Cryst. 40(1), 91–96 (2013).
[Crossref]

Q. Mu, Z. Cao, L. Hu, Y. Liu, Z. Peng, L. Yao, and L. Xuan, “Open loop adaptive optics testbed on 2.16 meter telescope with liquid crystal corrector,” Opt. Commun. 285(6), 896–899 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. Cao, Q. Mu, L. Hu, Y. Liu, Z. Peng, Q. Yang, H. Meng, L. Yao, and L. Xuan, “Optimal energy-splitting method for an open-loop liquid crystal adaptive optics system,” Opt. Express 20(17), 19331–19342 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Hu, L. Hu, Z. Peng, Q. Mu, X. Zhang, C. Liu, and L. Xuan, “Advanced single-frame overdriving for liquid-crystal spatial light modulators,” Opt. Lett. 37(16), 3324–3326 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Peng, Y. Liu, L. Yao, Z. Cao, Q. Mu, L. Hu, and L. Xuan, “Improvement of the switching frequency of a liquid-crystal spatial light modulator with optimal cell gap,” Opt. Lett. 36(18), 3608–3610 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Mu, Z. Cao, L. Hu, Y. Liu, Z. Peng, and L. Xuan, “Novel spectral range expansion method for liquid crystal adaptive optics,” Opt. Express 18(21), 21687–21696 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Chen, L. Xuan, L. Hu, Z. Cao, and Q. Mu, “Design of open-loop liquid crystal adaptive optical system for 1200 mm telescope,” Opt. Precision Eng. 18(1), 29–36 (2010).

Z. Cao, Q. Mu, L. Hu, X. Lu, and L. Xuan, “A simple method for evaluating the wavefront compensation error of diffractive liquid-crystal wavefront correctors,” Opt. Express 17(20), 17715–17722 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Mu, Z. Cao, Z. Peng, Y. Liu, L. Hu, X. Lu, and L. Xuan, “Modal interaction matrix measurement for liquid-crystal corrector: precision evaluation,” Opt. Express 17(11), 9330–9336 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Mu, Z. Cao, D. Li, L. Hu, and L. Xuan, “Open-loop correction of horizontal turbulence: system design and result,” Appl. Opt. 47(23), 4297–4301 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Cao, Q. Mu, L. Hu, D. Li, Y. Liu, L. Jin, and L. Xuan, “Correction of horizontal turbulence with nematic liquid crystal wavefront corrector,” Opt. Express 16(10), 7006–7013 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Cao, L. Xuan, L. Hu, Y. Liu, and Q. Mu, “Effects of the space-bandwidth product on the liquid-crystal kinoform,” Opt. Express 13(14), 5186–5191 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mu, Q.-Q.

Z.-H. Peng, Y.-G. Liu, L.-S. Yao, Z.-L. Cao, Q.-Q. Mu, L.-F. Hu, X.-H. Lu, L. Xuan, and Z.-Y. Zhang, “Improvement of response performance of liquid crystal optical devices by using a low viscosity component,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 28(9), 0942071 (2011).
[Crossref]

Noll, R. J.

Oya, S.

H. Takami, S. Colley, M. Dinkins, M. Eldred, O. Guyon, T. Golota, M. Hattori, Y. Hayano, M. Ito, M. Iye, S. Oya, Y. Saito, and M. Watanabe, “Status of Subaru laser guide star AO system,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720C (2006).
[Crossref]

Palmer, D. L.

J. E. Roberts, R. G. Dekany, R. S. Burruss, C. Baranec, A. Bouchez, E. E. Croner, S. R. Guiwits, D. D. S. Hale, J. R. Henning, D. L. Palmer, M. Troy, T. N. Truong, and J. Zolkower, “Results from the PALM-3000 high-order adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 84470Y (2012).
[Crossref]

Payne, D. M.

S. R. Restaino, D. M. Payne, J. T. Baker, J. R. Andrews, S. W. Teare, G. C. Gilbreath, D. Dayton, and J. Gonglewski, “Liquid crystal technology for adaptive optics: un update,” Proc. SPIE 5003, 187–192 (2003).
[Crossref]

Peng, Z.

Z. Peng, Y. Liu, Z. Cao, Q. Mu, L. Yao, L. Hu, C. Yang, R. Wu, and L. Xuan, “Fast response property of low-viscosity difluorooxymethylene-bridged liquid crystals,” Liq. Cryst. 40(1), 91–96 (2013).
[Crossref]

Q. Mu, Z. Cao, L. Hu, Y. Liu, Z. Peng, L. Yao, and L. Xuan, “Open loop adaptive optics testbed on 2.16 meter telescope with liquid crystal corrector,” Opt. Commun. 285(6), 896–899 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Hu, L. Hu, Z. Peng, Q. Mu, X. Zhang, C. Liu, and L. Xuan, “Advanced single-frame overdriving for liquid-crystal spatial light modulators,” Opt. Lett. 37(16), 3324–3326 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Cao, Q. Mu, L. Hu, Y. Liu, Z. Peng, Q. Yang, H. Meng, L. Yao, and L. Xuan, “Optimal energy-splitting method for an open-loop liquid crystal adaptive optics system,” Opt. Express 20(17), 19331–19342 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Peng, Y. Liu, L. Yao, Z. Cao, Q. Mu, L. Hu, and L. Xuan, “Improvement of the switching frequency of a liquid-crystal spatial light modulator with optimal cell gap,” Opt. Lett. 36(18), 3608–3610 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Mu, Z. Cao, L. Hu, Y. Liu, Z. Peng, and L. Xuan, “Novel spectral range expansion method for liquid crystal adaptive optics,” Opt. Express 18(21), 21687–21696 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Mu, Z. Cao, Z. Peng, Y. Liu, L. Hu, X. Lu, and L. Xuan, “Modal interaction matrix measurement for liquid-crystal corrector: precision evaluation,” Opt. Express 17(11), 9330–9336 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Peng, Z.-H.

Z.-H. Peng, Y.-G. Liu, L.-S. Yao, Z.-L. Cao, Q.-Q. Mu, L.-F. Hu, X.-H. Lu, L. Xuan, and Z.-Y. Zhang, “Improvement of response performance of liquid crystal optical devices by using a low viscosity component,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 28(9), 0942071 (2011).
[Crossref]

Pfleger, M.

G. Herriot, S. Morris, A. Anthony, D. Derdall, D. Duncan, J. Dunn, A. Ebbers, J. M. Fletcher, T. Hardy, B. Leckie, A. Mirza, C. Morbey, M. Pfleger, S. Roberts, P. Shott, M. Smith, L. Saddlemyer, J. Sebesta, K. Szeto, B. Wooff, W. Windels, and J. P. Veran, “Progress on Altair: the Gemini North adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 4007, 115–125 (2000).
[Crossref]

Phillips, J.

Pohle, R.

Puget, P.

G. Rousset, F. Lacombe, P. Puget, E. Gendron, R. Arsenault, P. Kern, D. Rabaud, P. Y. Madec, N. Hubin, G. Zins, E. Stadler, J. Charton, P. Gigan, and P. Feautrier, “Status of the VLT Nasmyth adaptive optics system (NAOS),” Proc. SPIE 4007, 72–81 (2000).
[Crossref]

Rabaud, D.

G. Rousset, F. Lacombe, P. Puget, E. Gendron, R. Arsenault, P. Kern, D. Rabaud, P. Y. Madec, N. Hubin, G. Zins, E. Stadler, J. Charton, P. Gigan, and P. Feautrier, “Status of the VLT Nasmyth adaptive optics system (NAOS),” Proc. SPIE 4007, 72–81 (2000).
[Crossref]

Restaino, S.

Restaino, S. R.

S. R. Restaino, D. M. Payne, J. T. Baker, J. R. Andrews, S. W. Teare, G. C. Gilbreath, D. Dayton, and J. Gonglewski, “Liquid crystal technology for adaptive optics: un update,” Proc. SPIE 5003, 187–192 (2003).
[Crossref]

Roberts, J.

J. Roberts, A. H. Bouchez, R. S. Burruss, R. G. Dekany, S. R. Guiwits, and M. Troy, “Optical characterization of the PALM-3000 3388-actuator deformable mirror,” Proc. SPIE 77362, 77362 (2010).

Roberts, J. E.

J. E. Roberts, R. G. Dekany, R. S. Burruss, C. Baranec, A. Bouchez, E. E. Croner, S. R. Guiwits, D. D. S. Hale, J. R. Henning, D. L. Palmer, M. Troy, T. N. Truong, and J. Zolkower, “Results from the PALM-3000 high-order adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 84470Y (2012).
[Crossref]

Roberts, S.

G. Herriot, S. Morris, A. Anthony, D. Derdall, D. Duncan, J. Dunn, A. Ebbers, J. M. Fletcher, T. Hardy, B. Leckie, A. Mirza, C. Morbey, M. Pfleger, S. Roberts, P. Shott, M. Smith, L. Saddlemyer, J. Sebesta, K. Szeto, B. Wooff, W. Windels, and J. P. Veran, “Progress on Altair: the Gemini North adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 4007, 115–125 (2000).
[Crossref]

Roe, H. G.

C. E. Max, B. A. Macintosh, S. Gibbard, D. T. Gavel, H. G. Roe, I. de Pater, A. M. Ghez, D. S. Acton, P. L. Wizinowich, and O. Lai, “Neptune and Titan observed with Keck telescope adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 4007, 213–220 (2000).
[Crossref]

Rousset, G.

G. Rousset, F. Lacombe, P. Puget, E. Gendron, R. Arsenault, P. Kern, D. Rabaud, P. Y. Madec, N. Hubin, G. Zins, E. Stadler, J. Charton, P. Gigan, and P. Feautrier, “Status of the VLT Nasmyth adaptive optics system (NAOS),” Proc. SPIE 4007, 72–81 (2000).
[Crossref]

Saddlemyer, L.

G. Herriot, S. Morris, A. Anthony, D. Derdall, D. Duncan, J. Dunn, A. Ebbers, J. M. Fletcher, T. Hardy, B. Leckie, A. Mirza, C. Morbey, M. Pfleger, S. Roberts, P. Shott, M. Smith, L. Saddlemyer, J. Sebesta, K. Szeto, B. Wooff, W. Windels, and J. P. Veran, “Progress on Altair: the Gemini North adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 4007, 115–125 (2000).
[Crossref]

Saito, Y.

H. Takami, S. Colley, M. Dinkins, M. Eldred, O. Guyon, T. Golota, M. Hattori, Y. Hayano, M. Ito, M. Iye, S. Oya, Y. Saito, and M. Watanabe, “Status of Subaru laser guide star AO system,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720C (2006).
[Crossref]

Sebesta, J.

G. Herriot, S. Morris, A. Anthony, D. Derdall, D. Duncan, J. Dunn, A. Ebbers, J. M. Fletcher, T. Hardy, B. Leckie, A. Mirza, C. Morbey, M. Pfleger, S. Roberts, P. Shott, M. Smith, L. Saddlemyer, J. Sebesta, K. Szeto, B. Wooff, W. Windels, and J. P. Veran, “Progress on Altair: the Gemini North adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 4007, 115–125 (2000).
[Crossref]

Serati, S. A.

K. A. Bauchert, S. A. Serati, and A. Furman, “Advances in liquid crystal spatial light modulators,” Proc. SPIE 4734, 35–43 (2002).
[Crossref]

Shilko, M.

Shott, P.

G. Herriot, S. Morris, A. Anthony, D. Derdall, D. Duncan, J. Dunn, A. Ebbers, J. M. Fletcher, T. Hardy, B. Leckie, A. Mirza, C. Morbey, M. Pfleger, S. Roberts, P. Shott, M. Smith, L. Saddlemyer, J. Sebesta, K. Szeto, B. Wooff, W. Windels, and J. P. Veran, “Progress on Altair: the Gemini North adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 4007, 115–125 (2000).
[Crossref]

Smith, C.

Smith, M.

G. Herriot, S. Morris, A. Anthony, D. Derdall, D. Duncan, J. Dunn, A. Ebbers, J. M. Fletcher, T. Hardy, B. Leckie, A. Mirza, C. Morbey, M. Pfleger, S. Roberts, P. Shott, M. Smith, L. Saddlemyer, J. Sebesta, K. Szeto, B. Wooff, W. Windels, and J. P. Veran, “Progress on Altair: the Gemini North adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 4007, 115–125 (2000).
[Crossref]

Snodgress, J.

Stadler, E.

G. Rousset, F. Lacombe, P. Puget, E. Gendron, R. Arsenault, P. Kern, D. Rabaud, P. Y. Madec, N. Hubin, G. Zins, E. Stadler, J. Charton, P. Gigan, and P. Feautrier, “Status of the VLT Nasmyth adaptive optics system (NAOS),” Proc. SPIE 4007, 72–81 (2000).
[Crossref]

Szeto, K.

G. Herriot, S. Morris, A. Anthony, D. Derdall, D. Duncan, J. Dunn, A. Ebbers, J. M. Fletcher, T. Hardy, B. Leckie, A. Mirza, C. Morbey, M. Pfleger, S. Roberts, P. Shott, M. Smith, L. Saddlemyer, J. Sebesta, K. Szeto, B. Wooff, W. Windels, and J. P. Veran, “Progress on Altair: the Gemini North adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 4007, 115–125 (2000).
[Crossref]

Takami, H.

H. Takami, S. Colley, M. Dinkins, M. Eldred, O. Guyon, T. Golota, M. Hattori, Y. Hayano, M. Ito, M. Iye, S. Oya, Y. Saito, and M. Watanabe, “Status of Subaru laser guide star AO system,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720C (2006).
[Crossref]

Teare, S. W.

S. R. Restaino, D. M. Payne, J. T. Baker, J. R. Andrews, S. W. Teare, G. C. Gilbreath, D. Dayton, and J. Gonglewski, “Liquid crystal technology for adaptive optics: un update,” Proc. SPIE 5003, 187–192 (2003).
[Crossref]

Thiel, D.

Troy, M.

J. E. Roberts, R. G. Dekany, R. S. Burruss, C. Baranec, A. Bouchez, E. E. Croner, S. R. Guiwits, D. D. S. Hale, J. R. Henning, D. L. Palmer, M. Troy, T. N. Truong, and J. Zolkower, “Results from the PALM-3000 high-order adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 84470Y (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Roberts, A. H. Bouchez, R. S. Burruss, R. G. Dekany, S. R. Guiwits, and M. Troy, “Optical characterization of the PALM-3000 3388-actuator deformable mirror,” Proc. SPIE 77362, 77362 (2010).

Truong, T. N.

J. E. Roberts, R. G. Dekany, R. S. Burruss, C. Baranec, A. Bouchez, E. E. Croner, S. R. Guiwits, D. D. S. Hale, J. R. Henning, D. L. Palmer, M. Troy, T. N. Truong, and J. Zolkower, “Results from the PALM-3000 high-order adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 84470Y (2012).
[Crossref]

Veran, J. P.

G. Herriot, S. Morris, A. Anthony, D. Derdall, D. Duncan, J. Dunn, A. Ebbers, J. M. Fletcher, T. Hardy, B. Leckie, A. Mirza, C. Morbey, M. Pfleger, S. Roberts, P. Shott, M. Smith, L. Saddlemyer, J. Sebesta, K. Szeto, B. Wooff, W. Windels, and J. P. Veran, “Progress on Altair: the Gemini North adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 4007, 115–125 (2000).
[Crossref]

Wang, G.

X. Lin, Y. Liu, L. Wang, G. Wang, and F. Wei, “Performance test and experiment of correction capability of 137-element deformable mirror,” Opt. Precision Eng. 21(2), 267–273 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wang, L.

X. Lin, Y. Liu, L. Wang, G. Wang, and F. Wei, “Performance test and experiment of correction capability of 137-element deformable mirror,” Opt. Precision Eng. 21(2), 267–273 (2013).
[Crossref]

Watanabe, M.

H. Takami, S. Colley, M. Dinkins, M. Eldred, O. Guyon, T. Golota, M. Hattori, Y. Hayano, M. Ito, M. Iye, S. Oya, Y. Saito, and M. Watanabe, “Status of Subaru laser guide star AO system,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720C (2006).
[Crossref]

Wei, F.

X. Lin, Y. Liu, L. Wang, G. Wang, and F. Wei, “Performance test and experiment of correction capability of 137-element deformable mirror,” Opt. Precision Eng. 21(2), 267–273 (2013).
[Crossref]

Windels, W.

G. Herriot, S. Morris, A. Anthony, D. Derdall, D. Duncan, J. Dunn, A. Ebbers, J. M. Fletcher, T. Hardy, B. Leckie, A. Mirza, C. Morbey, M. Pfleger, S. Roberts, P. Shott, M. Smith, L. Saddlemyer, J. Sebesta, K. Szeto, B. Wooff, W. Windels, and J. P. Veran, “Progress on Altair: the Gemini North adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 4007, 115–125 (2000).
[Crossref]

Wizinowich, P. L.

C. E. Max, B. A. Macintosh, S. Gibbard, D. T. Gavel, H. G. Roe, I. de Pater, A. M. Ghez, D. S. Acton, P. L. Wizinowich, and O. Lai, “Neptune and Titan observed with Keck telescope adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 4007, 213–220 (2000).
[Crossref]

Wooff, B.

G. Herriot, S. Morris, A. Anthony, D. Derdall, D. Duncan, J. Dunn, A. Ebbers, J. M. Fletcher, T. Hardy, B. Leckie, A. Mirza, C. Morbey, M. Pfleger, S. Roberts, P. Shott, M. Smith, L. Saddlemyer, J. Sebesta, K. Szeto, B. Wooff, W. Windels, and J. P. Veran, “Progress on Altair: the Gemini North adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 4007, 115–125 (2000).
[Crossref]

Wu, R.

Z. Peng, Y. Liu, Z. Cao, Q. Mu, L. Yao, L. Hu, C. Yang, R. Wu, and L. Xuan, “Fast response property of low-viscosity difluorooxymethylene-bridged liquid crystals,” Liq. Cryst. 40(1), 91–96 (2013).
[Crossref]

Xu, H.

Z. Cao, Q. Mu, H. Xu, P. Zhang, L. Yao, and L. Xuan, “Open loop liquid crystal adaptive optics systems: progresses and results,” Proc. SPIE 9676, 1–7 (2015).

Xuan, L.

Z. Cao, Q. Mu, H. Xu, P. Zhang, L. Yao, and L. Xuan, “Open loop liquid crystal adaptive optics systems: progresses and results,” Proc. SPIE 9676, 1–7 (2015).

Z. Peng, Y. Liu, Z. Cao, Q. Mu, L. Yao, L. Hu, C. Yang, R. Wu, and L. Xuan, “Fast response property of low-viscosity difluorooxymethylene-bridged liquid crystals,” Liq. Cryst. 40(1), 91–96 (2013).
[Crossref]

Q. Mu, Z. Cao, L. Hu, Y. Liu, Z. Peng, L. Yao, and L. Xuan, “Open loop adaptive optics testbed on 2.16 meter telescope with liquid crystal corrector,” Opt. Commun. 285(6), 896–899 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Hu, L. Hu, Z. Peng, Q. Mu, X. Zhang, C. Liu, and L. Xuan, “Advanced single-frame overdriving for liquid-crystal spatial light modulators,” Opt. Lett. 37(16), 3324–3326 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Cao, Q. Mu, L. Hu, Y. Liu, Z. Peng, Q. Yang, H. Meng, L. Yao, and L. Xuan, “Optimal energy-splitting method for an open-loop liquid crystal adaptive optics system,” Opt. Express 20(17), 19331–19342 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Peng, Y. Liu, L. Yao, Z. Cao, Q. Mu, L. Hu, and L. Xuan, “Improvement of the switching frequency of a liquid-crystal spatial light modulator with optimal cell gap,” Opt. Lett. 36(18), 3608–3610 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z.-H. Peng, Y.-G. Liu, L.-S. Yao, Z.-L. Cao, Q.-Q. Mu, L.-F. Hu, X.-H. Lu, L. Xuan, and Z.-Y. Zhang, “Improvement of response performance of liquid crystal optical devices by using a low viscosity component,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 28(9), 0942071 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. Chen, L. Xuan, L. Hu, Z. Cao, and Q. Mu, “Design of open-loop liquid crystal adaptive optical system for 1200 mm telescope,” Opt. Precision Eng. 18(1), 29–36 (2010).

Q. Mu, Z. Cao, L. Hu, Y. Liu, Z. Peng, and L. Xuan, “Novel spectral range expansion method for liquid crystal adaptive optics,” Opt. Express 18(21), 21687–21696 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Mu, Z. Cao, Z. Peng, Y. Liu, L. Hu, X. Lu, and L. Xuan, “Modal interaction matrix measurement for liquid-crystal corrector: precision evaluation,” Opt. Express 17(11), 9330–9336 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Cao, Q. Mu, L. Hu, X. Lu, and L. Xuan, “A simple method for evaluating the wavefront compensation error of diffractive liquid-crystal wavefront correctors,” Opt. Express 17(20), 17715–17722 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Mu, Z. Cao, D. Li, L. Hu, and L. Xuan, “Open-loop correction of horizontal turbulence: system design and result,” Appl. Opt. 47(23), 4297–4301 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Cao, Q. Mu, L. Hu, D. Li, Y. Liu, L. Jin, and L. Xuan, “Correction of horizontal turbulence with nematic liquid crystal wavefront corrector,” Opt. Express 16(10), 7006–7013 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Cao, L. Xuan, L. Hu, Y. Liu, and Q. Mu, “Effects of the space-bandwidth product on the liquid-crystal kinoform,” Opt. Express 13(14), 5186–5191 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, C.

Z. Peng, Y. Liu, Z. Cao, Q. Mu, L. Yao, L. Hu, C. Yang, R. Wu, and L. Xuan, “Fast response property of low-viscosity difluorooxymethylene-bridged liquid crystals,” Liq. Cryst. 40(1), 91–96 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yang, Q.

Yao, L.

Z. Cao, Q. Mu, H. Xu, P. Zhang, L. Yao, and L. Xuan, “Open loop liquid crystal adaptive optics systems: progresses and results,” Proc. SPIE 9676, 1–7 (2015).

Z. Peng, Y. Liu, Z. Cao, Q. Mu, L. Yao, L. Hu, C. Yang, R. Wu, and L. Xuan, “Fast response property of low-viscosity difluorooxymethylene-bridged liquid crystals,” Liq. Cryst. 40(1), 91–96 (2013).
[Crossref]

Q. Mu, Z. Cao, L. Hu, Y. Liu, Z. Peng, L. Yao, and L. Xuan, “Open loop adaptive optics testbed on 2.16 meter telescope with liquid crystal corrector,” Opt. Commun. 285(6), 896–899 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. Cao, Q. Mu, L. Hu, Y. Liu, Z. Peng, Q. Yang, H. Meng, L. Yao, and L. Xuan, “Optimal energy-splitting method for an open-loop liquid crystal adaptive optics system,” Opt. Express 20(17), 19331–19342 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Peng, Y. Liu, L. Yao, Z. Cao, Q. Mu, L. Hu, and L. Xuan, “Improvement of the switching frequency of a liquid-crystal spatial light modulator with optimal cell gap,” Opt. Lett. 36(18), 3608–3610 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yao, L.-S.

Z.-H. Peng, Y.-G. Liu, L.-S. Yao, Z.-L. Cao, Q.-Q. Mu, L.-F. Hu, X.-H. Lu, L. Xuan, and Z.-Y. Zhang, “Improvement of response performance of liquid crystal optical devices by using a low viscosity component,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 28(9), 0942071 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhang, P.

Z. Cao, Q. Mu, H. Xu, P. Zhang, L. Yao, and L. Xuan, “Open loop liquid crystal adaptive optics systems: progresses and results,” Proc. SPIE 9676, 1–7 (2015).

Zhang, X.

Zhang, Z.-Y.

Z.-H. Peng, Y.-G. Liu, L.-S. Yao, Z.-L. Cao, Q.-Q. Mu, L.-F. Hu, X.-H. Lu, L. Xuan, and Z.-Y. Zhang, “Improvement of response performance of liquid crystal optical devices by using a low viscosity component,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 28(9), 0942071 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zins, G.

G. Rousset, F. Lacombe, P. Puget, E. Gendron, R. Arsenault, P. Kern, D. Rabaud, P. Y. Madec, N. Hubin, G. Zins, E. Stadler, J. Charton, P. Gigan, and P. Feautrier, “Status of the VLT Nasmyth adaptive optics system (NAOS),” Proc. SPIE 4007, 72–81 (2000).
[Crossref]

Zolkower, J.

J. E. Roberts, R. G. Dekany, R. S. Burruss, C. Baranec, A. Bouchez, E. E. Croner, S. R. Guiwits, D. D. S. Hale, J. R. Henning, D. L. Palmer, M. Troy, T. N. Truong, and J. Zolkower, “Results from the PALM-3000 high-order adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 84470Y (2012).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Chin. Phys. Lett. (1)

Z.-H. Peng, Y.-G. Liu, L.-S. Yao, Z.-L. Cao, Q.-Q. Mu, L.-F. Hu, X.-H. Lu, L. Xuan, and Z.-Y. Zhang, “Improvement of response performance of liquid crystal optical devices by using a low viscosity component,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 28(9), 0942071 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Light Sci. Appl. (1)

J. M. Booth, “Adaptive optical microscopy: the ongoing quest for a perfect image,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(4), e165 (2014).
[Crossref]

Liq. Cryst. (1)

Z. Peng, Y. Liu, Z. Cao, Q. Mu, L. Yao, L. Hu, C. Yang, R. Wu, and L. Xuan, “Fast response property of low-viscosity difluorooxymethylene-bridged liquid crystals,” Liq. Cryst. 40(1), 91–96 (2013).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

Q. Mu, Z. Cao, L. Hu, Y. Liu, Z. Peng, L. Yao, and L. Xuan, “Open loop adaptive optics testbed on 2.16 meter telescope with liquid crystal corrector,” Opt. Commun. 285(6), 896–899 (2012).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (7)

Z. Cao, Q. Mu, L. Hu, D. Li, Y. Liu, L. Jin, and L. Xuan, “Correction of horizontal turbulence with nematic liquid crystal wavefront corrector,” Opt. Express 16(10), 7006–7013 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Cao, Q. Mu, L. Hu, X. Lu, and L. Xuan, “A simple method for evaluating the wavefront compensation error of diffractive liquid-crystal wavefront correctors,” Opt. Express 17(20), 17715–17722 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Dayton, J. Gonglewski, S. Restaino, J. Martin, J. Phillips, M. Hartman, P. Kervin, J. Snodgress, S. Browne, N. Heimann, M. Shilko, R. Pohle, B. Carrion, C. Smith, and D. Thiel, “Demonstration of new technology MEMS and liquid crystal adaptive optics on bright astronomical objects and satellites,” Opt. Express 10(25), 1508–1519 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Cao, L. Xuan, L. Hu, Y. Liu, and Q. Mu, “Effects of the space-bandwidth product on the liquid-crystal kinoform,” Opt. Express 13(14), 5186–5191 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Mu, Z. Cao, Z. Peng, Y. Liu, L. Hu, X. Lu, and L. Xuan, “Modal interaction matrix measurement for liquid-crystal corrector: precision evaluation,” Opt. Express 17(11), 9330–9336 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Mu, Z. Cao, L. Hu, Y. Liu, Z. Peng, and L. Xuan, “Novel spectral range expansion method for liquid crystal adaptive optics,” Opt. Express 18(21), 21687–21696 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Opt. Precision Eng. (2)

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[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (10)

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[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

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Z. Cao, Q. Mu, H. Xu, P. Zhang, L. Yao, and L. Xuan, “Open loop liquid crystal adaptive optics systems: progresses and results,” Proc. SPIE 9676, 1–7 (2015).

G. Herriot, S. Morris, A. Anthony, D. Derdall, D. Duncan, J. Dunn, A. Ebbers, J. M. Fletcher, T. Hardy, B. Leckie, A. Mirza, C. Morbey, M. Pfleger, S. Roberts, P. Shott, M. Smith, L. Saddlemyer, J. Sebesta, K. Szeto, B. Wooff, W. Windels, and J. P. Veran, “Progress on Altair: the Gemini North adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 4007, 115–125 (2000).
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[Crossref]

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Other (2)

F. Roddier, Adaptive Optics in Astronomy (Cambridge University, 1999) Chap. 1.

J. W. Hardy, Adaptive Optics for Astronomical Telescope (Oxford University, 1998).

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Figures (14)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic diagram of the DM/LCWFC combination AOS
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Numbers of actuators as a function of the telescope aperture: (a) DM and DM/LCWFC; (b) LCWFC.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Simulated atmospheric turbulence: (a) Coefficients of Zernike modes; (b) Wavefront
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Performance of the DM: (a) Configuration of the actuator; (b) Response of an actuator measured by ZYGO interferometer
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Simulation of the wavefront correction by the DM: (a) Zernike coefficients of the residual wavefront; (b) Reconstructed wavefront; (c) Residual wavefront
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Illustration of the phase wrapping: (a) Modulo of 2π; (b) Quantization
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Response curve of the LCWFC
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Simulation of the wavefront correction by the LCWFC and DM: (a) Zernike coefficients of the residual wavefront; (b) Reconstructed wavefront; (c) Residual wavefront
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Optical layout of the DM/LCWFC AOS: (a) Designed; (b) Experimental configuration
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Disturbance rejection as a function of tilt frequency
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 Wavefront correction with the DM: (a) Before correction; (b) After correction
Fig. 12
Fig. 12 Images of the USAF target for 1.5-1.7 μm: (a) Without correction; (b) With correction of DM
Fig. 13
Fig. 13 Images of the USAF target for 0.9-1.5 μm: (a) Without correction; (b) With correction of DM
Fig. 14
Fig. 14 Images of the resolution target for 700-950nm: (a) Without correction; (b) With correction of DM; (c) With correction of DM and LCWFC.

Equations (12)

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N= (D/ r 0 ) 2 .
P N =6.25Q+(151.5D23Q+0.91QD) r 0 6/5 .
ϕ= n=1 a n Z n = n=1 m a n Z n + n=m+1 l a n Z n +ε,
ϕ 1 = i=1 k v i R i (x,y) ,
R i (x,y)= n=1 m a in Z n .
n=1 m a n Z n = i=1 k n=1 m v i a in Z n .
A 1 =V A r ,
V= A 1 ( A r ) 1 ,
M= C 1 A 1 ,
C 2 = M 1 A 2 ,
σ φ 2 0.294 J 3 2 ( D r 0 ) 5 3 ,
rej(dB)=20 log 10 ( OutputDisturbanceAmplitude InputDisturbanceAmplitude ).

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