Abstract

Heralded single-photon sources (HSPS) are widely used in experimental quantum science because they have negligibly small jitter and can therefore achieve high visibility for quantum interference. However, it is necessary to decrease the photon generation rate to suppress multi-photon components. To address this problem, two methods have been proposed and discussed: spatial (or temporal) source multiplexing and photon-pair number discrimination. Here, we report the experimental realization of a HSPS combining these two methods that can suppress the two-photon probability to 44.2 ± 0.7% of that of a normal HSPS. We also provide a theoretical analysis and a discussion of the effect of combining the two methods, considering a detector cascade as a practical photon number discriminating detector. The experimental results agreed well with the theoretical predictions.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
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2016 (2)

G. J. Mendoza, R. Santagati, J. Munns, E. Hemsley, M. Piekarek, E. Martin-Lopez, G. D. Marshall, D. Bonneau, M. G. Thompson, and J. L. O’Brien, “Active temporal and spatial multiplexing of photon,” Optica 3(2), 127–132 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Xiong, X. Zhang, Z. Liu, M. J. Collins, A. Mahendra, L. G. Helt, M. J. Steel, D.-Y. Choi, C. J. Chae, P. H. W Leong, and B. J. Eggleton, “Active temporal multiplexing of indistinguishable heralded single photons,” Nat. Comm. 7, 10853 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

2013 (3)

M. J. Collons, C. Xoing, I. H. Rey, T. D. Vo, J. He, S. Shahnia, C. Reardon, T. F. Krauss, M. J. Steel, A. S. Clark, and B. J. Eggleton, “Integrated spatial multiplexing of heralded single-photon sources,” Nat. Comm. 4, 2582 (2013).

S. Ramelow, A. Mech, M. Giustina, S. Groblacher, W. Wieczorek, J. Beyer, B. Calkins, T. Gerrits, S. W. Nam, A. Zeilinger, and R. Ursin, “Highly efficient heralding of entangled single photons,” Opt. Express 21(6), 6707–6717 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photon. 7, 210–214 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

J.-W. Pan, Z.-B. Chen, C.-Y. Lu, H. Weinfurter, A. Zeilinger, and M. Zukowski, “Multiphoton entanglement and interferometry,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 84(2), 777–838 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Aspuru-guzik and P. Walther, “Photonic quantum simulators,” Nat. Phys. 8, 285–291 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Tanida, R. Okamoto, and S. Takeuchi, “Highly indistinguishable heralded single-photon sources using parametric down conversion,” Opt. Express 20(14), 15275–15285 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

X. S. Ma, S. Zotter, J. Kofler, T. Jennewein, and A. Zeilinger, “Experimental generation of single photons via active multiplexing,” Phys. Rev. A 83(4), 043814 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. D. Eisaman, J. Fan, A. Migdall, and S. V. Polyakov, “Invited review article: Single-photon sources and detectors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82(7), 071101 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Miki, T. Yamashita, Z. Wang, and H. Terai, “A 64-pixel NbTiN superconducting nanowire single-photon detector array for spatially resolved photon detection,” Opt. Express 22(7), 7811–7820 (2011).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

V. Scarani, H. Bechmann-Pasquinucci, N. J. Cerf, M. Dusek, N. Lutkenhaus, and M. Peev, “The security of practical quantum key distribution,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81(3), 1301–1350 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. Clemmen, K. P. Huy, W. Bogaerts, R. G. Baets, P. Emplit, and S. Massar, “Continuous wave photon pair generation in silicon-on-insulator waveguides and ring resonators,” Opt. Express 17(19), 16558–16570 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (3)

H. J. Kimble, “Quantum internet,” Nature 453, 1023–1030 (2008).
[Crossref]

X. L. Niu, Y. F. Huang, G. Y. Xiang, G. C. Guo, and Z. Y. Ou, “Beamlike high-brightness source of polarization-entangled photon pairs,” Opt. Lett. 33(9), 968–970 (2008).
[Crossref]

O. Kwon, Y. W. Cho, and Y. H. Kim, “Single-mode coupling efficiencies of Type-II spontaneous parametric down -conversion: Collinear, noncollinear, and beamlike phase matching,” Phys. Rev. A 78(5), 053825 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (3)

2006 (1)

2003 (1)

M. J. Fitch, B. C. Jacobs, T. B. Pittman, and J. D. Franson, “Photon-number resolution using time-multiplexed single-photon detectors,” Phys. Rev. A 68(4), 043814 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (5)

K. Tsujino, S. Takeuchi, and K. Sasaki, “Detailed analysis of the fidelity of quantum teleportation using photons: Considering real experimental parameters,” Phys. Rev. A 66(4), 042314 (2002).
[Crossref]

T. B. Pittman, B. C. Jacobs, and J. D. Franson, “Single photons on pseudodemand from stored parametric down-conversion,” Phys. Rev. A 66(4), 042303 (2002).
[Crossref]

A. L. Migdall, D. Branning, and S. Castelletto, “Tailoring single-photon and multiphoton probabilities of a single-photon on-demand source,” Phys. Rev. A 66(5), 053805 (2002).
[Crossref]

C. Santori, D. Fattal, J. Vuckovic, G. S. Solomon, and Y. Yamamoto, “Indistinguishable photons from a single-photon device,” Nature (London) 419, 594 (2002).
[Crossref]

M. Pelton, C. Santori, J. Vuckovic, B. Zhang, and G. S. Solomon, “Efficient source of single photons: A single quantum dot in a micropost microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(23), 233602 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

E. Knill, R. Laflamme, and G. J. Milburn, “A scheme for efficient quantum computation with linear optics,” Nature 409, 46–52 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (2)

C. Kurtsiefer, S. Mayer, P. Zarda, and H. Weinfurter, “Stable solid-state source of single photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(2), 290–293 (2000).
[Crossref]

P. Kok and S. L. Braunstein, “Postselected versus nonpostselected quantum teleportation using parametric down-conversion,” Phys. Rev. A 61(4), 042304 (2000).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

P. R. Tapster and J. G. Rarity, “Photon statistics of pulsed parametric light,” J. Mod. Opt. 45(3), 595–604 (1998).
[Crossref]

1968 (1)

E. Jakeman and E. R. Pike, “The intensity-fluctuation distribution of Gaussian light,” J. Phys. A 1, 128 (1968).
[Crossref]

Aspuru-guzik, A.

A. Aspuru-guzik and P. Walther, “Photonic quantum simulators,” Nat. Phys. 8, 285–291 (2012).
[Crossref]

Baek, B.

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photon. 7, 210–214 (2013).
[Crossref]

Baets, R. G.

Bechmann-Pasquinucci, H.

V. Scarani, H. Bechmann-Pasquinucci, N. J. Cerf, M. Dusek, N. Lutkenhaus, and M. Peev, “The security of practical quantum key distribution,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81(3), 1301–1350 (2009).
[Crossref]

Beyer, J.

Bogaerts, W.

Bonneau, D.

Branning, D.

A. L. Migdall, D. Branning, and S. Castelletto, “Tailoring single-photon and multiphoton probabilities of a single-photon on-demand source,” Phys. Rev. A 66(5), 053805 (2002).
[Crossref]

Braunstein, S. L.

P. Kok and S. L. Braunstein, “Postselected versus nonpostselected quantum teleportation using parametric down-conversion,” Phys. Rev. A 61(4), 042304 (2000).
[Crossref]

Calkins, B.

Castelletto, S.

A. L. Migdall, D. Branning, and S. Castelletto, “Tailoring single-photon and multiphoton probabilities of a single-photon on-demand source,” Phys. Rev. A 66(5), 053805 (2002).
[Crossref]

Cerf, N. J.

V. Scarani, H. Bechmann-Pasquinucci, N. J. Cerf, M. Dusek, N. Lutkenhaus, and M. Peev, “The security of practical quantum key distribution,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81(3), 1301–1350 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chae, C. J.

C. Xiong, X. Zhang, Z. Liu, M. J. Collins, A. Mahendra, L. G. Helt, M. J. Steel, D.-Y. Choi, C. J. Chae, P. H. W Leong, and B. J. Eggleton, “Active temporal multiplexing of indistinguishable heralded single photons,” Nat. Comm. 7, 10853 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Zhang, I. Jizan, J. He, A. S. Clark, D.-Y. Choi, C. J. Chae, B. J. Eggleton, and C. Xiong, “Enhancing the heralded single-photon rate from a silicon nanowire by time and wavelength division multiplexing pump pulses,” Opt. Lett. 40(11), 2489–2492 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, Z.-B.

J.-W. Pan, Z.-B. Chen, C.-Y. Lu, H. Weinfurter, A. Zeilinger, and M. Zukowski, “Multiphoton entanglement and interferometry,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 84(2), 777–838 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cho, Y. W.

O. Kwon, Y. W. Cho, and Y. H. Kim, “Single-mode coupling efficiencies of Type-II spontaneous parametric down -conversion: Collinear, noncollinear, and beamlike phase matching,” Phys. Rev. A 78(5), 053825 (2008).
[Crossref]

Choi, D.-Y.

C. Xiong, X. Zhang, Z. Liu, M. J. Collins, A. Mahendra, L. G. Helt, M. J. Steel, D.-Y. Choi, C. J. Chae, P. H. W Leong, and B. J. Eggleton, “Active temporal multiplexing of indistinguishable heralded single photons,” Nat. Comm. 7, 10853 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Zhang, I. Jizan, J. He, A. S. Clark, D.-Y. Choi, C. J. Chae, B. J. Eggleton, and C. Xiong, “Enhancing the heralded single-photon rate from a silicon nanowire by time and wavelength division multiplexing pump pulses,” Opt. Lett. 40(11), 2489–2492 (2015).
[Crossref]

Christensen, B. G.

Clark, A. S.

X. Zhang, I. Jizan, J. He, A. S. Clark, D.-Y. Choi, C. J. Chae, B. J. Eggleton, and C. Xiong, “Enhancing the heralded single-photon rate from a silicon nanowire by time and wavelength division multiplexing pump pulses,” Opt. Lett. 40(11), 2489–2492 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. J. Collons, C. Xoing, I. H. Rey, T. D. Vo, J. He, S. Shahnia, C. Reardon, T. F. Krauss, M. J. Steel, A. S. Clark, and B. J. Eggleton, “Integrated spatial multiplexing of heralded single-photon sources,” Nat. Comm. 4, 2582 (2013).

Clemmen, S.

Collins, M. J.

C. Xiong, X. Zhang, Z. Liu, M. J. Collins, A. Mahendra, L. G. Helt, M. J. Steel, D.-Y. Choi, C. J. Chae, P. H. W Leong, and B. J. Eggleton, “Active temporal multiplexing of indistinguishable heralded single photons,” Nat. Comm. 7, 10853 (2016).
[Crossref]

Collons, M. J.

M. J. Collons, C. Xoing, I. H. Rey, T. D. Vo, J. He, S. Shahnia, C. Reardon, T. F. Krauss, M. J. Steel, A. S. Clark, and B. J. Eggleton, “Integrated spatial multiplexing of heralded single-photon sources,” Nat. Comm. 4, 2582 (2013).

Dusek, M.

V. Scarani, H. Bechmann-Pasquinucci, N. J. Cerf, M. Dusek, N. Lutkenhaus, and M. Peev, “The security of practical quantum key distribution,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81(3), 1301–1350 (2009).
[Crossref]

Eggleton, B. J.

C. Xiong, X. Zhang, Z. Liu, M. J. Collins, A. Mahendra, L. G. Helt, M. J. Steel, D.-Y. Choi, C. J. Chae, P. H. W Leong, and B. J. Eggleton, “Active temporal multiplexing of indistinguishable heralded single photons,” Nat. Comm. 7, 10853 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Zhang, I. Jizan, J. He, A. S. Clark, D.-Y. Choi, C. J. Chae, B. J. Eggleton, and C. Xiong, “Enhancing the heralded single-photon rate from a silicon nanowire by time and wavelength division multiplexing pump pulses,” Opt. Lett. 40(11), 2489–2492 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. J. Collons, C. Xoing, I. H. Rey, T. D. Vo, J. He, S. Shahnia, C. Reardon, T. F. Krauss, M. J. Steel, A. S. Clark, and B. J. Eggleton, “Integrated spatial multiplexing of heralded single-photon sources,” Nat. Comm. 4, 2582 (2013).

Eisaman, M. D.

M. D. Eisaman, J. Fan, A. Migdall, and S. V. Polyakov, “Invited review article: Single-photon sources and detectors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82(7), 071101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Emplit, P.

Fan, J.

M. D. Eisaman, J. Fan, A. Migdall, and S. V. Polyakov, “Invited review article: Single-photon sources and detectors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82(7), 071101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Fattal, D.

C. Santori, D. Fattal, J. Vuckovic, G. S. Solomon, and Y. Yamamoto, “Indistinguishable photons from a single-photon device,” Nature (London) 419, 594 (2002).
[Crossref]

Fitch, M. J.

M. J. Fitch, B. C. Jacobs, T. B. Pittman, and J. D. Franson, “Photon-number resolution using time-multiplexed single-photon detectors,” Phys. Rev. A 68(4), 043814 (2003).
[Crossref]

Foster, M. A.

Franson, J. D.

M. J. Fitch, B. C. Jacobs, T. B. Pittman, and J. D. Franson, “Photon-number resolution using time-multiplexed single-photon detectors,” Phys. Rev. A 68(4), 043814 (2003).
[Crossref]

T. B. Pittman, B. C. Jacobs, and J. D. Franson, “Single photons on pseudodemand from stored parametric down-conversion,” Phys. Rev. A 66(4), 042303 (2002).
[Crossref]

Gaeta, A. L.

Gerrits, T.

S. Ramelow, A. Mech, M. Giustina, S. Groblacher, W. Wieczorek, J. Beyer, B. Calkins, T. Gerrits, S. W. Nam, A. Zeilinger, and R. Ursin, “Highly efficient heralding of entangled single photons,” Opt. Express 21(6), 6707–6717 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photon. 7, 210–214 (2013).
[Crossref]

Giustina, M.

Groblacher, S.

Guo, G. C.

Harrington, S.

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photon. 7, 210–214 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hasegawa, T.

He, J.

X. Zhang, I. Jizan, J. He, A. S. Clark, D.-Y. Choi, C. J. Chae, B. J. Eggleton, and C. Xiong, “Enhancing the heralded single-photon rate from a silicon nanowire by time and wavelength division multiplexing pump pulses,” Opt. Lett. 40(11), 2489–2492 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. J. Collons, C. Xoing, I. H. Rey, T. D. Vo, J. He, S. Shahnia, C. Reardon, T. F. Krauss, M. J. Steel, A. S. Clark, and B. J. Eggleton, “Integrated spatial multiplexing of heralded single-photon sources,” Nat. Comm. 4, 2582 (2013).

Helt, L. G.

C. Xiong, X. Zhang, Z. Liu, M. J. Collins, A. Mahendra, L. G. Helt, M. J. Steel, D.-Y. Choi, C. J. Chae, P. H. W Leong, and B. J. Eggleton, “Active temporal multiplexing of indistinguishable heralded single photons,” Nat. Comm. 7, 10853 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hemsley, E.

Horokiri, T.

T. Horokiri, Y. Takeno, A. Yabushita, and T. Kobayashi, “Photon-number-resolved heralded-photon source for improved quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. A 76(1), 012306 (2007).
[Crossref]

Huang, Y. F.

Huy, K. P.

Jacobs, B. C.

M. J. Fitch, B. C. Jacobs, T. B. Pittman, and J. D. Franson, “Photon-number resolution using time-multiplexed single-photon detectors,” Phys. Rev. A 68(4), 043814 (2003).
[Crossref]

T. B. Pittman, B. C. Jacobs, and J. D. Franson, “Single photons on pseudodemand from stored parametric down-conversion,” Phys. Rev. A 66(4), 042303 (2002).
[Crossref]

Jakeman, E.

E. Jakeman and E. R. Pike, “The intensity-fluctuation distribution of Gaussian light,” J. Phys. A 1, 128 (1968).
[Crossref]

Jennewein, T.

X. S. Ma, S. Zotter, J. Kofler, T. Jennewein, and A. Zeilinger, “Experimental generation of single photons via active multiplexing,” Phys. Rev. A 83(4), 043814 (2011).
[Crossref]

Jizan, I.

Kaneda, F.

Kim, Y. H.

O. Kwon, Y. W. Cho, and Y. H. Kim, “Single-mode coupling efficiencies of Type-II spontaneous parametric down -conversion: Collinear, noncollinear, and beamlike phase matching,” Phys. Rev. A 78(5), 053825 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kimble, H. J.

H. J. Kimble, “Quantum internet,” Nature 453, 1023–1030 (2008).
[Crossref]

Knill, E.

E. Knill, R. Laflamme, and G. J. Milburn, “A scheme for efficient quantum computation with linear optics,” Nature 409, 46–52 (2001).
[Crossref]

Kobayashi, T.

T. Horokiri, Y. Takeno, A. Yabushita, and T. Kobayashi, “Photon-number-resolved heralded-photon source for improved quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. A 76(1), 012306 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kofler, J.

X. S. Ma, S. Zotter, J. Kofler, T. Jennewein, and A. Zeilinger, “Experimental generation of single photons via active multiplexing,” Phys. Rev. A 83(4), 043814 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kok, P.

P. Kok and S. L. Braunstein, “Postselected versus nonpostselected quantum teleportation using parametric down-conversion,” Phys. Rev. A 61(4), 042304 (2000).
[Crossref]

Krauss, T. F.

M. J. Collons, C. Xoing, I. H. Rey, T. D. Vo, J. He, S. Shahnia, C. Reardon, T. F. Krauss, M. J. Steel, A. S. Clark, and B. J. Eggleton, “Integrated spatial multiplexing of heralded single-photon sources,” Nat. Comm. 4, 2582 (2013).

Kumar, P.

Kurtsiefer, C.

C. Kurtsiefer, S. Mayer, P. Zarda, and H. Weinfurter, “Stable solid-state source of single photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(2), 290–293 (2000).
[Crossref]

Kwiat, P. G.

Kwon, O.

O. Kwon, Y. W. Cho, and Y. H. Kim, “Single-mode coupling efficiencies of Type-II spontaneous parametric down -conversion: Collinear, noncollinear, and beamlike phase matching,” Phys. Rev. A 78(5), 053825 (2008).
[Crossref]

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E. Knill, R. Laflamme, and G. J. Milburn, “A scheme for efficient quantum computation with linear optics,” Nature 409, 46–52 (2001).
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Lee, K. F.

Leong, P. H. W

C. Xiong, X. Zhang, Z. Liu, M. J. Collins, A. Mahendra, L. G. Helt, M. J. Steel, D.-Y. Choi, C. J. Chae, P. H. W Leong, and B. J. Eggleton, “Active temporal multiplexing of indistinguishable heralded single photons,” Nat. Comm. 7, 10853 (2016).
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Lita, A. E.

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photon. 7, 210–214 (2013).
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Liu, Z.

C. Xiong, X. Zhang, Z. Liu, M. J. Collins, A. Mahendra, L. G. Helt, M. J. Steel, D.-Y. Choi, C. J. Chae, P. H. W Leong, and B. J. Eggleton, “Active temporal multiplexing of indistinguishable heralded single photons,” Nat. Comm. 7, 10853 (2016).
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Lopson, M.

Lu, C.-Y.

J.-W. Pan, Z.-B. Chen, C.-Y. Lu, H. Weinfurter, A. Zeilinger, and M. Zukowski, “Multiphoton entanglement and interferometry,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 84(2), 777–838 (2012).
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Lutkenhaus, N.

V. Scarani, H. Bechmann-Pasquinucci, N. J. Cerf, M. Dusek, N. Lutkenhaus, and M. Peev, “The security of practical quantum key distribution,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81(3), 1301–1350 (2009).
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Ma, X. S.

X. S. Ma, S. Zotter, J. Kofler, T. Jennewein, and A. Zeilinger, “Experimental generation of single photons via active multiplexing,” Phys. Rev. A 83(4), 043814 (2011).
[Crossref]

Mahendra, A.

C. Xiong, X. Zhang, Z. Liu, M. J. Collins, A. Mahendra, L. G. Helt, M. J. Steel, D.-Y. Choi, C. J. Chae, P. H. W Leong, and B. J. Eggleton, “Active temporal multiplexing of indistinguishable heralded single photons,” Nat. Comm. 7, 10853 (2016).
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Marshall, G. D.

Marsili, F.

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photon. 7, 210–214 (2013).
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Martin-Lopez, E.

Massar, S.

Matsui, M.

Mayer, S.

C. Kurtsiefer, S. Mayer, P. Zarda, and H. Weinfurter, “Stable solid-state source of single photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(2), 290–293 (2000).
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McCusker, K. T.

Mech, A.

Mendoza, G. J.

Migdall, A.

M. D. Eisaman, J. Fan, A. Migdall, and S. V. Polyakov, “Invited review article: Single-photon sources and detectors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82(7), 071101 (2011).
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Migdall, A. L.

A. L. Migdall, D. Branning, and S. Castelletto, “Tailoring single-photon and multiphoton probabilities of a single-photon on-demand source,” Phys. Rev. A 66(5), 053805 (2002).
[Crossref]

Miki, S.

Milburn, G. J.

E. Knill, R. Laflamme, and G. J. Milburn, “A scheme for efficient quantum computation with linear optics,” Nature 409, 46–52 (2001).
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Mirin, R. P.

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photon. 7, 210–214 (2013).
[Crossref]

Munns, J.

Nam, S. W.

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photon. 7, 210–214 (2013).
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S. Ramelow, A. Mech, M. Giustina, S. Groblacher, W. Wieczorek, J. Beyer, B. Calkins, T. Gerrits, S. W. Nam, A. Zeilinger, and R. Ursin, “Highly efficient heralding of entangled single photons,” Opt. Express 21(6), 6707–6717 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nishioka, T.

Niu, X. L.

O’Brien, J. L.

Okamoto, R.

Ou, Z. Y.

Pan, J.-W.

J.-W. Pan, Z.-B. Chen, C.-Y. Lu, H. Weinfurter, A. Zeilinger, and M. Zukowski, “Multiphoton entanglement and interferometry,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 84(2), 777–838 (2012).
[Crossref]

Park, H. S.

Peev, M.

V. Scarani, H. Bechmann-Pasquinucci, N. J. Cerf, M. Dusek, N. Lutkenhaus, and M. Peev, “The security of practical quantum key distribution,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81(3), 1301–1350 (2009).
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Pelton, M.

M. Pelton, C. Santori, J. Vuckovic, B. Zhang, and G. S. Solomon, “Efficient source of single photons: A single quantum dot in a micropost microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(23), 233602 (2002).
[Crossref]

Piekarek, M.

Pike, E. R.

E. Jakeman and E. R. Pike, “The intensity-fluctuation distribution of Gaussian light,” J. Phys. A 1, 128 (1968).
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Pittman, T. B.

M. J. Fitch, B. C. Jacobs, T. B. Pittman, and J. D. Franson, “Photon-number resolution using time-multiplexed single-photon detectors,” Phys. Rev. A 68(4), 043814 (2003).
[Crossref]

T. B. Pittman, B. C. Jacobs, and J. D. Franson, “Single photons on pseudodemand from stored parametric down-conversion,” Phys. Rev. A 66(4), 042303 (2002).
[Crossref]

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M. D. Eisaman, J. Fan, A. Migdall, and S. V. Polyakov, “Invited review article: Single-photon sources and detectors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82(7), 071101 (2011).
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Ramelow, S.

Rarity, J. G.

P. R. Tapster and J. G. Rarity, “Photon statistics of pulsed parametric light,” J. Mod. Opt. 45(3), 595–604 (1998).
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M. J. Collons, C. Xoing, I. H. Rey, T. D. Vo, J. He, S. Shahnia, C. Reardon, T. F. Krauss, M. J. Steel, A. S. Clark, and B. J. Eggleton, “Integrated spatial multiplexing of heralded single-photon sources,” Nat. Comm. 4, 2582 (2013).

Rey, I. H.

M. J. Collons, C. Xoing, I. H. Rey, T. D. Vo, J. He, S. Shahnia, C. Reardon, T. F. Krauss, M. J. Steel, A. S. Clark, and B. J. Eggleton, “Integrated spatial multiplexing of heralded single-photon sources,” Nat. Comm. 4, 2582 (2013).

Santagati, R.

Santori, C.

C. Santori, D. Fattal, J. Vuckovic, G. S. Solomon, and Y. Yamamoto, “Indistinguishable photons from a single-photon device,” Nature (London) 419, 594 (2002).
[Crossref]

M. Pelton, C. Santori, J. Vuckovic, B. Zhang, and G. S. Solomon, “Efficient source of single photons: A single quantum dot in a micropost microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(23), 233602 (2002).
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A. Soujaeff, T. Nishioka, T. Hasegawa, S. Takeuchi, T. Tsurumaru, K. Sasaki, and M. Matsui, “Quantum key distribution at 1550 nm using a pulse heralded single photon source,” Opt. Express 15(2), 726–734 (2007).
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K. Tsujino, S. Takeuchi, and K. Sasaki, “Detailed analysis of the fidelity of quantum teleportation using photons: Considering real experimental parameters,” Phys. Rev. A 66(4), 042314 (2002).
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Scarani, V.

V. Scarani, H. Bechmann-Pasquinucci, N. J. Cerf, M. Dusek, N. Lutkenhaus, and M. Peev, “The security of practical quantum key distribution,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81(3), 1301–1350 (2009).
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Schmidt, B. S.

Shahnia, S.

M. J. Collons, C. Xoing, I. H. Rey, T. D. Vo, J. He, S. Shahnia, C. Reardon, T. F. Krauss, M. J. Steel, A. S. Clark, and B. J. Eggleton, “Integrated spatial multiplexing of heralded single-photon sources,” Nat. Comm. 4, 2582 (2013).

Shapiro, J. H.

Sharping, J. E.

Shaw, M. D.

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photon. 7, 210–214 (2013).
[Crossref]

Solomon, G. S.

M. Pelton, C. Santori, J. Vuckovic, B. Zhang, and G. S. Solomon, “Efficient source of single photons: A single quantum dot in a micropost microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(23), 233602 (2002).
[Crossref]

C. Santori, D. Fattal, J. Vuckovic, G. S. Solomon, and Y. Yamamoto, “Indistinguishable photons from a single-photon device,” Nature (London) 419, 594 (2002).
[Crossref]

Soujaeff, A.

Steel, M. J.

C. Xiong, X. Zhang, Z. Liu, M. J. Collins, A. Mahendra, L. G. Helt, M. J. Steel, D.-Y. Choi, C. J. Chae, P. H. W Leong, and B. J. Eggleton, “Active temporal multiplexing of indistinguishable heralded single photons,” Nat. Comm. 7, 10853 (2016).
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M. J. Collons, C. Xoing, I. H. Rey, T. D. Vo, J. He, S. Shahnia, C. Reardon, T. F. Krauss, M. J. Steel, A. S. Clark, and B. J. Eggleton, “Integrated spatial multiplexing of heralded single-photon sources,” Nat. Comm. 4, 2582 (2013).

Stern, J. A.

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photon. 7, 210–214 (2013).
[Crossref]

Takeno, Y.

T. Horokiri, Y. Takeno, A. Yabushita, and T. Kobayashi, “Photon-number-resolved heralded-photon source for improved quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. A 76(1), 012306 (2007).
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Takeuchi, S.

Tanida, M.

Tapster, P. R.

P. R. Tapster and J. G. Rarity, “Photon statistics of pulsed parametric light,” J. Mod. Opt. 45(3), 595–604 (1998).
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Terai, H.

Thompsom, M. G.

D. Bonneau, G. J. Mendoza, J. L. O’Brien, and M. G. Thompsom, “Effect of loss on multiplexed single-photon sources,” New. J. Phys. 17(4), 043057 (2015).
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Thompson, M. G.

Tsujino, K.

K. Tsujino, S. Takeuchi, and K. Sasaki, “Detailed analysis of the fidelity of quantum teleportation using photons: Considering real experimental parameters,” Phys. Rev. A 66(4), 042314 (2002).
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Tsurumaru, T.

Turner, A. C.

Ursin, R.

Vayshenker, I.

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photon. 7, 210–214 (2013).
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Verma, V. B.

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photon. 7, 210–214 (2013).
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Vo, T. D.

M. J. Collons, C. Xoing, I. H. Rey, T. D. Vo, J. He, S. Shahnia, C. Reardon, T. F. Krauss, M. J. Steel, A. S. Clark, and B. J. Eggleton, “Integrated spatial multiplexing of heralded single-photon sources,” Nat. Comm. 4, 2582 (2013).

Vuckovic, J.

M. Pelton, C. Santori, J. Vuckovic, B. Zhang, and G. S. Solomon, “Efficient source of single photons: A single quantum dot in a micropost microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(23), 233602 (2002).
[Crossref]

C. Santori, D. Fattal, J. Vuckovic, G. S. Solomon, and Y. Yamamoto, “Indistinguishable photons from a single-photon device,” Nature (London) 419, 594 (2002).
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Walther, P.

A. Aspuru-guzik and P. Walther, “Photonic quantum simulators,” Nat. Phys. 8, 285–291 (2012).
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Wang, Z.

Weinfurter, H.

J.-W. Pan, Z.-B. Chen, C.-Y. Lu, H. Weinfurter, A. Zeilinger, and M. Zukowski, “Multiphoton entanglement and interferometry,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 84(2), 777–838 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Kurtsiefer, S. Mayer, P. Zarda, and H. Weinfurter, “Stable solid-state source of single photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(2), 290–293 (2000).
[Crossref]

Wieczorek, W.

Wong, F. N.

Wong, J. J.

Xiang, G. Y.

Xiong, C.

C. Xiong, X. Zhang, Z. Liu, M. J. Collins, A. Mahendra, L. G. Helt, M. J. Steel, D.-Y. Choi, C. J. Chae, P. H. W Leong, and B. J. Eggleton, “Active temporal multiplexing of indistinguishable heralded single photons,” Nat. Comm. 7, 10853 (2016).
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X. Zhang, I. Jizan, J. He, A. S. Clark, D.-Y. Choi, C. J. Chae, B. J. Eggleton, and C. Xiong, “Enhancing the heralded single-photon rate from a silicon nanowire by time and wavelength division multiplexing pump pulses,” Opt. Lett. 40(11), 2489–2492 (2015).
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Xoing, C.

M. J. Collons, C. Xoing, I. H. Rey, T. D. Vo, J. He, S. Shahnia, C. Reardon, T. F. Krauss, M. J. Steel, A. S. Clark, and B. J. Eggleton, “Integrated spatial multiplexing of heralded single-photon sources,” Nat. Comm. 4, 2582 (2013).

Yabushita, A.

T. Horokiri, Y. Takeno, A. Yabushita, and T. Kobayashi, “Photon-number-resolved heralded-photon source for improved quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. A 76(1), 012306 (2007).
[Crossref]

Yamamoto, Y.

C. Santori, D. Fattal, J. Vuckovic, G. S. Solomon, and Y. Yamamoto, “Indistinguishable photons from a single-photon device,” Nature (London) 419, 594 (2002).
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Yamashita, T.

Zarda, P.

C. Kurtsiefer, S. Mayer, P. Zarda, and H. Weinfurter, “Stable solid-state source of single photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(2), 290–293 (2000).
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Zeilinger, A.

S. Ramelow, A. Mech, M. Giustina, S. Groblacher, W. Wieczorek, J. Beyer, B. Calkins, T. Gerrits, S. W. Nam, A. Zeilinger, and R. Ursin, “Highly efficient heralding of entangled single photons,” Opt. Express 21(6), 6707–6717 (2013).
[Crossref]

J.-W. Pan, Z.-B. Chen, C.-Y. Lu, H. Weinfurter, A. Zeilinger, and M. Zukowski, “Multiphoton entanglement and interferometry,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 84(2), 777–838 (2012).
[Crossref]

X. S. Ma, S. Zotter, J. Kofler, T. Jennewein, and A. Zeilinger, “Experimental generation of single photons via active multiplexing,” Phys. Rev. A 83(4), 043814 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhang, B.

M. Pelton, C. Santori, J. Vuckovic, B. Zhang, and G. S. Solomon, “Efficient source of single photons: A single quantum dot in a micropost microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(23), 233602 (2002).
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Zhang, X.

C. Xiong, X. Zhang, Z. Liu, M. J. Collins, A. Mahendra, L. G. Helt, M. J. Steel, D.-Y. Choi, C. J. Chae, P. H. W Leong, and B. J. Eggleton, “Active temporal multiplexing of indistinguishable heralded single photons,” Nat. Comm. 7, 10853 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Zhang, I. Jizan, J. He, A. S. Clark, D.-Y. Choi, C. J. Chae, B. J. Eggleton, and C. Xiong, “Enhancing the heralded single-photon rate from a silicon nanowire by time and wavelength division multiplexing pump pulses,” Opt. Lett. 40(11), 2489–2492 (2015).
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Zotter, S.

X. S. Ma, S. Zotter, J. Kofler, T. Jennewein, and A. Zeilinger, “Experimental generation of single photons via active multiplexing,” Phys. Rev. A 83(4), 043814 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zukowski, M.

J.-W. Pan, Z.-B. Chen, C.-Y. Lu, H. Weinfurter, A. Zeilinger, and M. Zukowski, “Multiphoton entanglement and interferometry,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 84(2), 777–838 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

P. R. Tapster and J. G. Rarity, “Photon statistics of pulsed parametric light,” J. Mod. Opt. 45(3), 595–604 (1998).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. A (1)

E. Jakeman and E. R. Pike, “The intensity-fluctuation distribution of Gaussian light,” J. Phys. A 1, 128 (1968).
[Crossref]

Nat. Comm. (2)

C. Xiong, X. Zhang, Z. Liu, M. J. Collins, A. Mahendra, L. G. Helt, M. J. Steel, D.-Y. Choi, C. J. Chae, P. H. W Leong, and B. J. Eggleton, “Active temporal multiplexing of indistinguishable heralded single photons,” Nat. Comm. 7, 10853 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. J. Collons, C. Xoing, I. H. Rey, T. D. Vo, J. He, S. Shahnia, C. Reardon, T. F. Krauss, M. J. Steel, A. S. Clark, and B. J. Eggleton, “Integrated spatial multiplexing of heralded single-photon sources,” Nat. Comm. 4, 2582 (2013).

Nat. Photon. (1)

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photon. 7, 210–214 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nat. Phys. (1)

A. Aspuru-guzik and P. Walther, “Photonic quantum simulators,” Nat. Phys. 8, 285–291 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nature (2)

E. Knill, R. Laflamme, and G. J. Milburn, “A scheme for efficient quantum computation with linear optics,” Nature 409, 46–52 (2001).
[Crossref]

H. J. Kimble, “Quantum internet,” Nature 453, 1023–1030 (2008).
[Crossref]

Nature (London) (1)

C. Santori, D. Fattal, J. Vuckovic, G. S. Solomon, and Y. Yamamoto, “Indistinguishable photons from a single-photon device,” Nature (London) 419, 594 (2002).
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New. J. Phys. (1)

D. Bonneau, G. J. Mendoza, J. L. O’Brien, and M. G. Thompsom, “Effect of loss on multiplexed single-photon sources,” New. J. Phys. 17(4), 043057 (2015).
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Opt. Express (6)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Optica (2)

Phys. Rev. A (8)

T. B. Pittman, B. C. Jacobs, and J. D. Franson, “Single photons on pseudodemand from stored parametric down-conversion,” Phys. Rev. A 66(4), 042303 (2002).
[Crossref]

A. L. Migdall, D. Branning, and S. Castelletto, “Tailoring single-photon and multiphoton probabilities of a single-photon on-demand source,” Phys. Rev. A 66(5), 053805 (2002).
[Crossref]

O. Kwon, Y. W. Cho, and Y. H. Kim, “Single-mode coupling efficiencies of Type-II spontaneous parametric down -conversion: Collinear, noncollinear, and beamlike phase matching,” Phys. Rev. A 78(5), 053825 (2008).
[Crossref]

X. S. Ma, S. Zotter, J. Kofler, T. Jennewein, and A. Zeilinger, “Experimental generation of single photons via active multiplexing,” Phys. Rev. A 83(4), 043814 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. Tsujino, S. Takeuchi, and K. Sasaki, “Detailed analysis of the fidelity of quantum teleportation using photons: Considering real experimental parameters,” Phys. Rev. A 66(4), 042314 (2002).
[Crossref]

T. Horokiri, Y. Takeno, A. Yabushita, and T. Kobayashi, “Photon-number-resolved heralded-photon source for improved quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. A 76(1), 012306 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. J. Fitch, B. C. Jacobs, T. B. Pittman, and J. D. Franson, “Photon-number resolution using time-multiplexed single-photon detectors,” Phys. Rev. A 68(4), 043814 (2003).
[Crossref]

P. Kok and S. L. Braunstein, “Postselected versus nonpostselected quantum teleportation using parametric down-conversion,” Phys. Rev. A 61(4), 042304 (2000).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

M. Pelton, C. Santori, J. Vuckovic, B. Zhang, and G. S. Solomon, “Efficient source of single photons: A single quantum dot in a micropost microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(23), 233602 (2002).
[Crossref]

C. Kurtsiefer, S. Mayer, P. Zarda, and H. Weinfurter, “Stable solid-state source of single photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(2), 290–293 (2000).
[Crossref]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (2)

J.-W. Pan, Z.-B. Chen, C.-Y. Lu, H. Weinfurter, A. Zeilinger, and M. Zukowski, “Multiphoton entanglement and interferometry,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 84(2), 777–838 (2012).
[Crossref]

V. Scarani, H. Bechmann-Pasquinucci, N. J. Cerf, M. Dusek, N. Lutkenhaus, and M. Peev, “The security of practical quantum key distribution,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81(3), 1301–1350 (2009).
[Crossref]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

M. D. Eisaman, J. Fan, A. Migdall, and S. V. Polyakov, “Invited review article: Single-photon sources and detectors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82(7), 071101 (2011).
[Crossref]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Scheme of a conventional HSPS [S = 1]. (b) Scheme of HSPS using a PND [S = 1, D = 1]. (c) Scheme of a cascaded detector [D = 2]. The detector consists of 50:50 beam splitters (BS) and on–off detectors. (d) Scheme of Multiplexed-HSPS [S = 2] with on-off detectors/Multiplexed-HSPS with PND [S = 2] with PNDs.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Two-photon probability from the Multiplexed-HSPS with PND versus the mean number of photons pairs for (a) ηh=0.5, t=0.5, (b) ηh=0.9, t=0.5. Black line: S = 1, D = 0; red line: S = 1, D = 1; blue line: S = 1, D = 2; purple line: S = 1, D = ∞; black dashed line: S = 2, D = 0; red dashed line: S = 2, D = 1; blue dashed line: S = 2, D = 2; purple dashed line: S = 2, D = ∞:

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Suppression ratio versus detection efficiency. Ratio between HSPS [S = 1, D = 0] and Multiplexed-HSPS with PND [S, D] for N ¯ = 0.05, t = 0.5. Black curve: S = 1, D = 0; blue curve: S = 2, D = 0; red curve: S = 4, D = 0; black dashed curve: S = 1, D = 1; blue dashed curve: S = 2, D = 1; black long dashed/short dashed curve: S = 1, D = ∞; blue long dashed/short dashed curve: S = 2, D = ∞.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Schematic diagram of experimental set up. BBO: beta-barium-borate crystal (Type-I); DM: dichroic mirror; FC: fiber coupler; SPCM: single-photon counting module; XOR: XOR gate; AND: AND gate; EOM: electro-optic modulator; PBS: polarizing beam splitter; HWP: half wave plate; BPF: band pass filter (∆λ = 4 nm); PMF : polarization maintaining fiber; 50:50 FBS: 50:50 fiber beam splitter; AMP: high-voltage pulsed amplifier; fiber delay is 65m.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Experimental results: The vertical axis is the two photon probability at the output. The horizontal axis shows the number of events where one of the two detectors (D1, D2) detects a photon when the final heralding signal is produced. HSPS (SPDC-A) [S=1, D=0] (blue circles), HSPS (SPDC-A) using PND [S=1, D=1] (red circles), Multiplexed-HSPS [S=2, D=0] (blue squares), a Multiplexed-HSPS with PND [S=2, D=1] (red square), where all contain the optical switch. The dashed lines are based on our model.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Separately measured parameters. ηh,A/B: detection efficiency of the detector in SPDC-A/B. tA/B: transmittance of the single photon between the SPDC-A/B and the output.

Equations (10)

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P ( n ) = P th ( n ) N ¯ n ( 1 + N ¯ ) 1 + n ,
P ( n ) = P Po ( n ) N ¯ n e N ¯ n ! .
P herald = m = 1 P ( m ) P D ( 1 | m ) ,
P D = 0 ( 1 | m ) = 1 ( 1 η h ) m ,
P D ( 1 | m ) = 1 2 m 1 a = 0 m   m C a { P D 1 ( 1 | a ) ( 1 η h ) m a } ,
P C ( n ) = m = n P ( m ) P D ( 1 | m ) m C n t n ( 1 t ) m n ,
P h ( n ) = ( P C 1 ( n ) + ( 1 P herald 1 ) ( P C 2 ( n ) + ( 1 P herald 2 ) ( P C 3 ( n ) + ) ) 1 ( 1 P herald 1 ) ( 1 P herald 2 ) ( 1 P herald 3 ) ,
P ( n ) = γ P th ( n ) + ( 1 γ ) P Po ( n ) .
P h ( 2 ) ~ ( 1 + γ ) t 2 P D ( 1 | 2 ) 2 η h S × N ¯ .
R = P h ( 2 ) [ S , D ] P h ( 2 ) [ S = 1 , D = 0 ] ,

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