Abstract

We report on the progress in the development of linear polarization-variable multi-electrode emitters for terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. The results on its microfabrication, the finite element method modeling of appropriate bias distribution between electrodes, the finite-difference time-domain simulated spectral output, and actual experimental testing are presented. The rotation of the emitted terahertz field with linear polarization on an angle multiple of 45° can be achieved by synchronized bias and single polarizer rotations.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. E. Castro-Camus and M. B. Johnston, “Extraction of the anisotropic dielectric properties of materials from polarization-resolved terahertz time-domain spectra,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11(10), 105206 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  2. T. Nagashima, M. Tani, and M. Hangyo, “Polarization-sensitive THz-TDS and its application to anisotropy sensing,” J. Infrared Milli. 34(11), 740–775 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  3. E. Castro-Camus, “Polarization-resolved terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” J. Infrared Milli. 33(4), 418–430 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  4. H. Dong, Y. Gong, V. Paulose, and M. Hong, “Polarization state and Mueller matrix measurements in terahertz-time domain spectroscopy,” Opt. Commun. 282(18), 3671–3675 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  5. T. Tanabe, K. Watanabe, Y. Oyama, and K. Seo, “Polarization sensitive THz absorption spectroscopy for the evaluation of uniaxially deformed ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene,” NDT Int. 43(4), 329–333 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  6. D. S. Bulgarevich, M. Shiwa, G. Niehues, and M. Tani, “Linear dichroism detection and analysis in terahertz spectral range,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 5(6), 1097–1099 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  7. K. Wiesauer and C. Jördens, “Recent advances in birefringence studies at THz frequencies,” J. Infrared Milli. 34(11), 663–681 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  8. Y. Kim, J. Ahn, B. G. Kim, and D.-S. Yee, “Terahertz birefringence in zinc oxide,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50(3R), 030203 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  9. M. Neshat and N. P. Armitage, “Developments in THz range ellipsometry,” J. Infrared Milli. 34(11), 682–708 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  10. J. V. Rudd, J. L. Johnson, and D. M. Mittleman, “Quadrupole radiation from terahertz dipole antennas,” Opt. Lett. 25(20), 1556–1558 (2000).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. H. Park, E. P. J. Parrott, Z. Huang, H. P. Chan, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Accurate photoconductive antenna characterization using a thin film polarizer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(12), 121108 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  12. D. S. Bulgarevich, M. Watanabe, M. Shiwa, G. Niehues, S. Nishizawa, and M. Tani, “A polarization-sensitive 4-contact detector for terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 22(9), 10332–10340 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. G. Niehues, S. Funkner, D. S. Bulgarevich, S. Tsuzuki, T. Furuya, K. Yamamoto, M. Shiwa, and M. Tani, “A matter of symmetry: terahertz polarization detection properties of a multi-contact photoconductive antenna evaluated by a response matrix analysis,” Opt. Express 23(12), 16184–16195 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. Y. Hirota, R. Hattori, M. Tani, and M. Hangyo, “Polarization modulation of terahertz electromagnetic radiation by four-contact photoconductive antenna,” Opt. Express 14(10), 4486–4493 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. H. Suo, K. Takano, S. Ohno, H. Kurosawa, K. Nakayama, T. Ishihara, and M. Hangyo, “Polarization property of terahertz wave emission from gammadion-type photoconductive antennas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(11), 111106 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  16. S. Winnerl, B. Zimmermann, F. Peter, H. Schneider, and M. Helm, “Terahertz Bessel-Gauss beams of radial and azimuthal polarization from microstructured photoconductive antennas,” Opt. Express 17(3), 1571–1576 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. J. A. Deibel, M. D. Escarra, and D. M. Mittleman, “Photoconductive terahertz antenna with radial symmetry,” Electron. Lett. 41(5), 226–228 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  18. J. A. Deibel, K. Wang, M. Escarra, N. Berndsen, and D. M. Mittleman, “The excitation and emission of terahertz surface plasmon polaritons on metal wire waveguides,” C. R. Phys. 9(2), 215–231 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  19. D. S. Bulgarevich, M. Watanabe, and M. Shiwa, 2015 Japan Patent Pending 15-MS-055.
  20. H. Makabe, Y. Hirota, M. Tani, and M. Hangyo, “Polarization state measurement of terahertz electromagnetic radiation by three-contact photoconductive antenna,” Opt. Express 15(18), 11650–11657 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. V. Siklitsky and A. Tolmatchev, “Physical Properties of Semiconductors,” http://www.ioffe.ru/SVA/NSM/ .

2015 (2)

2014 (1)

2013 (4)

H. Suo, K. Takano, S. Ohno, H. Kurosawa, K. Nakayama, T. Ishihara, and M. Hangyo, “Polarization property of terahertz wave emission from gammadion-type photoconductive antennas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(11), 111106 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. Wiesauer and C. Jördens, “Recent advances in birefringence studies at THz frequencies,” J. Infrared Milli. 34(11), 663–681 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Neshat and N. P. Armitage, “Developments in THz range ellipsometry,” J. Infrared Milli. 34(11), 682–708 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Nagashima, M. Tani, and M. Hangyo, “Polarization-sensitive THz-TDS and its application to anisotropy sensing,” J. Infrared Milli. 34(11), 740–775 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

E. Castro-Camus, “Polarization-resolved terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” J. Infrared Milli. 33(4), 418–430 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Park, E. P. J. Parrott, Z. Huang, H. P. Chan, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Accurate photoconductive antenna characterization using a thin film polarizer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(12), 121108 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

Y. Kim, J. Ahn, B. G. Kim, and D.-S. Yee, “Terahertz birefringence in zinc oxide,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50(3R), 030203 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

T. Tanabe, K. Watanabe, Y. Oyama, and K. Seo, “Polarization sensitive THz absorption spectroscopy for the evaluation of uniaxially deformed ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene,” NDT Int. 43(4), 329–333 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

E. Castro-Camus and M. B. Johnston, “Extraction of the anisotropic dielectric properties of materials from polarization-resolved terahertz time-domain spectra,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11(10), 105206 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Dong, Y. Gong, V. Paulose, and M. Hong, “Polarization state and Mueller matrix measurements in terahertz-time domain spectroscopy,” Opt. Commun. 282(18), 3671–3675 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. Winnerl, B. Zimmermann, F. Peter, H. Schneider, and M. Helm, “Terahertz Bessel-Gauss beams of radial and azimuthal polarization from microstructured photoconductive antennas,” Opt. Express 17(3), 1571–1576 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

J. A. Deibel, K. Wang, M. Escarra, N. Berndsen, and D. M. Mittleman, “The excitation and emission of terahertz surface plasmon polaritons on metal wire waveguides,” C. R. Phys. 9(2), 215–231 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

J. A. Deibel, M. D. Escarra, and D. M. Mittleman, “Photoconductive terahertz antenna with radial symmetry,” Electron. Lett. 41(5), 226–228 (2005).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

Ahn, J.

Y. Kim, J. Ahn, B. G. Kim, and D.-S. Yee, “Terahertz birefringence in zinc oxide,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50(3R), 030203 (2011).
[Crossref]

Armitage, N. P.

M. Neshat and N. P. Armitage, “Developments in THz range ellipsometry,” J. Infrared Milli. 34(11), 682–708 (2013).
[Crossref]

Berndsen, N.

J. A. Deibel, K. Wang, M. Escarra, N. Berndsen, and D. M. Mittleman, “The excitation and emission of terahertz surface plasmon polaritons on metal wire waveguides,” C. R. Phys. 9(2), 215–231 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bulgarevich, D. S.

Castro-Camus, E.

E. Castro-Camus, “Polarization-resolved terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” J. Infrared Milli. 33(4), 418–430 (2012).
[Crossref]

E. Castro-Camus and M. B. Johnston, “Extraction of the anisotropic dielectric properties of materials from polarization-resolved terahertz time-domain spectra,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11(10), 105206 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chan, H. P.

H. Park, E. P. J. Parrott, Z. Huang, H. P. Chan, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Accurate photoconductive antenna characterization using a thin film polarizer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(12), 121108 (2012).
[Crossref]

Deibel, J. A.

J. A. Deibel, K. Wang, M. Escarra, N. Berndsen, and D. M. Mittleman, “The excitation and emission of terahertz surface plasmon polaritons on metal wire waveguides,” C. R. Phys. 9(2), 215–231 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. A. Deibel, M. D. Escarra, and D. M. Mittleman, “Photoconductive terahertz antenna with radial symmetry,” Electron. Lett. 41(5), 226–228 (2005).
[Crossref]

Dong, H.

H. Dong, Y. Gong, V. Paulose, and M. Hong, “Polarization state and Mueller matrix measurements in terahertz-time domain spectroscopy,” Opt. Commun. 282(18), 3671–3675 (2009).
[Crossref]

Escarra, M.

J. A. Deibel, K. Wang, M. Escarra, N. Berndsen, and D. M. Mittleman, “The excitation and emission of terahertz surface plasmon polaritons on metal wire waveguides,” C. R. Phys. 9(2), 215–231 (2008).
[Crossref]

Escarra, M. D.

J. A. Deibel, M. D. Escarra, and D. M. Mittleman, “Photoconductive terahertz antenna with radial symmetry,” Electron. Lett. 41(5), 226–228 (2005).
[Crossref]

Funkner, S.

Furuya, T.

Gong, Y.

H. Dong, Y. Gong, V. Paulose, and M. Hong, “Polarization state and Mueller matrix measurements in terahertz-time domain spectroscopy,” Opt. Commun. 282(18), 3671–3675 (2009).
[Crossref]

Hangyo, M.

T. Nagashima, M. Tani, and M. Hangyo, “Polarization-sensitive THz-TDS and its application to anisotropy sensing,” J. Infrared Milli. 34(11), 740–775 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Suo, K. Takano, S. Ohno, H. Kurosawa, K. Nakayama, T. Ishihara, and M. Hangyo, “Polarization property of terahertz wave emission from gammadion-type photoconductive antennas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(11), 111106 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Makabe, Y. Hirota, M. Tani, and M. Hangyo, “Polarization state measurement of terahertz electromagnetic radiation by three-contact photoconductive antenna,” Opt. Express 15(18), 11650–11657 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Hirota, R. Hattori, M. Tani, and M. Hangyo, “Polarization modulation of terahertz electromagnetic radiation by four-contact photoconductive antenna,” Opt. Express 14(10), 4486–4493 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hattori, R.

Helm, M.

Hirota, Y.

Hong, M.

H. Dong, Y. Gong, V. Paulose, and M. Hong, “Polarization state and Mueller matrix measurements in terahertz-time domain spectroscopy,” Opt. Commun. 282(18), 3671–3675 (2009).
[Crossref]

Huang, Z.

H. Park, E. P. J. Parrott, Z. Huang, H. P. Chan, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Accurate photoconductive antenna characterization using a thin film polarizer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(12), 121108 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ishihara, T.

H. Suo, K. Takano, S. Ohno, H. Kurosawa, K. Nakayama, T. Ishihara, and M. Hangyo, “Polarization property of terahertz wave emission from gammadion-type photoconductive antennas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(11), 111106 (2013).
[Crossref]

Johnson, J. L.

Johnston, M. B.

E. Castro-Camus and M. B. Johnston, “Extraction of the anisotropic dielectric properties of materials from polarization-resolved terahertz time-domain spectra,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11(10), 105206 (2009).
[Crossref]

Jördens, C.

K. Wiesauer and C. Jördens, “Recent advances in birefringence studies at THz frequencies,” J. Infrared Milli. 34(11), 663–681 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kim, B. G.

Y. Kim, J. Ahn, B. G. Kim, and D.-S. Yee, “Terahertz birefringence in zinc oxide,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50(3R), 030203 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kim, Y.

Y. Kim, J. Ahn, B. G. Kim, and D.-S. Yee, “Terahertz birefringence in zinc oxide,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50(3R), 030203 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kurosawa, H.

H. Suo, K. Takano, S. Ohno, H. Kurosawa, K. Nakayama, T. Ishihara, and M. Hangyo, “Polarization property of terahertz wave emission from gammadion-type photoconductive antennas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(11), 111106 (2013).
[Crossref]

Makabe, H.

Mittleman, D. M.

J. A. Deibel, K. Wang, M. Escarra, N. Berndsen, and D. M. Mittleman, “The excitation and emission of terahertz surface plasmon polaritons on metal wire waveguides,” C. R. Phys. 9(2), 215–231 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. A. Deibel, M. D. Escarra, and D. M. Mittleman, “Photoconductive terahertz antenna with radial symmetry,” Electron. Lett. 41(5), 226–228 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. V. Rudd, J. L. Johnson, and D. M. Mittleman, “Quadrupole radiation from terahertz dipole antennas,” Opt. Lett. 25(20), 1556–1558 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nagashima, T.

T. Nagashima, M. Tani, and M. Hangyo, “Polarization-sensitive THz-TDS and its application to anisotropy sensing,” J. Infrared Milli. 34(11), 740–775 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nakayama, K.

H. Suo, K. Takano, S. Ohno, H. Kurosawa, K. Nakayama, T. Ishihara, and M. Hangyo, “Polarization property of terahertz wave emission from gammadion-type photoconductive antennas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(11), 111106 (2013).
[Crossref]

Neshat, M.

M. Neshat and N. P. Armitage, “Developments in THz range ellipsometry,” J. Infrared Milli. 34(11), 682–708 (2013).
[Crossref]

Niehues, G.

Nishizawa, S.

Ohno, S.

H. Suo, K. Takano, S. Ohno, H. Kurosawa, K. Nakayama, T. Ishihara, and M. Hangyo, “Polarization property of terahertz wave emission from gammadion-type photoconductive antennas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(11), 111106 (2013).
[Crossref]

Oyama, Y.

T. Tanabe, K. Watanabe, Y. Oyama, and K. Seo, “Polarization sensitive THz absorption spectroscopy for the evaluation of uniaxially deformed ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene,” NDT Int. 43(4), 329–333 (2010).
[Crossref]

Park, H.

H. Park, E. P. J. Parrott, Z. Huang, H. P. Chan, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Accurate photoconductive antenna characterization using a thin film polarizer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(12), 121108 (2012).
[Crossref]

Parrott, E. P. J.

H. Park, E. P. J. Parrott, Z. Huang, H. P. Chan, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Accurate photoconductive antenna characterization using a thin film polarizer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(12), 121108 (2012).
[Crossref]

Paulose, V.

H. Dong, Y. Gong, V. Paulose, and M. Hong, “Polarization state and Mueller matrix measurements in terahertz-time domain spectroscopy,” Opt. Commun. 282(18), 3671–3675 (2009).
[Crossref]

Peter, F.

Pickwell-MacPherson, E.

H. Park, E. P. J. Parrott, Z. Huang, H. P. Chan, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Accurate photoconductive antenna characterization using a thin film polarizer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(12), 121108 (2012).
[Crossref]

Rudd, J. V.

Schneider, H.

Seo, K.

T. Tanabe, K. Watanabe, Y. Oyama, and K. Seo, “Polarization sensitive THz absorption spectroscopy for the evaluation of uniaxially deformed ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene,” NDT Int. 43(4), 329–333 (2010).
[Crossref]

Shiwa, M.

Suo, H.

H. Suo, K. Takano, S. Ohno, H. Kurosawa, K. Nakayama, T. Ishihara, and M. Hangyo, “Polarization property of terahertz wave emission from gammadion-type photoconductive antennas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(11), 111106 (2013).
[Crossref]

Takano, K.

H. Suo, K. Takano, S. Ohno, H. Kurosawa, K. Nakayama, T. Ishihara, and M. Hangyo, “Polarization property of terahertz wave emission from gammadion-type photoconductive antennas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(11), 111106 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tanabe, T.

T. Tanabe, K. Watanabe, Y. Oyama, and K. Seo, “Polarization sensitive THz absorption spectroscopy for the evaluation of uniaxially deformed ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene,” NDT Int. 43(4), 329–333 (2010).
[Crossref]

Tani, M.

Tsuzuki, S.

Wang, K.

J. A. Deibel, K. Wang, M. Escarra, N. Berndsen, and D. M. Mittleman, “The excitation and emission of terahertz surface plasmon polaritons on metal wire waveguides,” C. R. Phys. 9(2), 215–231 (2008).
[Crossref]

Watanabe, K.

T. Tanabe, K. Watanabe, Y. Oyama, and K. Seo, “Polarization sensitive THz absorption spectroscopy for the evaluation of uniaxially deformed ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene,” NDT Int. 43(4), 329–333 (2010).
[Crossref]

Watanabe, M.

Wiesauer, K.

K. Wiesauer and C. Jördens, “Recent advances in birefringence studies at THz frequencies,” J. Infrared Milli. 34(11), 663–681 (2013).
[Crossref]

Winnerl, S.

Yamamoto, K.

Yee, D.-S.

Y. Kim, J. Ahn, B. G. Kim, and D.-S. Yee, “Terahertz birefringence in zinc oxide,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50(3R), 030203 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zimmermann, B.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

H. Park, E. P. J. Parrott, Z. Huang, H. P. Chan, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Accurate photoconductive antenna characterization using a thin film polarizer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(12), 121108 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Suo, K. Takano, S. Ohno, H. Kurosawa, K. Nakayama, T. Ishihara, and M. Hangyo, “Polarization property of terahertz wave emission from gammadion-type photoconductive antennas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(11), 111106 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. R. Phys. (1)

J. A. Deibel, K. Wang, M. Escarra, N. Berndsen, and D. M. Mittleman, “The excitation and emission of terahertz surface plasmon polaritons on metal wire waveguides,” C. R. Phys. 9(2), 215–231 (2008).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (1)

J. A. Deibel, M. D. Escarra, and D. M. Mittleman, “Photoconductive terahertz antenna with radial symmetry,” Electron. Lett. 41(5), 226–228 (2005).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. (1)

D. S. Bulgarevich, M. Shiwa, G. Niehues, and M. Tani, “Linear dichroism detection and analysis in terahertz spectral range,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 5(6), 1097–1099 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Infrared Milli. (4)

K. Wiesauer and C. Jördens, “Recent advances in birefringence studies at THz frequencies,” J. Infrared Milli. 34(11), 663–681 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Neshat and N. P. Armitage, “Developments in THz range ellipsometry,” J. Infrared Milli. 34(11), 682–708 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Nagashima, M. Tani, and M. Hangyo, “Polarization-sensitive THz-TDS and its application to anisotropy sensing,” J. Infrared Milli. 34(11), 740–775 (2013).
[Crossref]

E. Castro-Camus, “Polarization-resolved terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” J. Infrared Milli. 33(4), 418–430 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

E. Castro-Camus and M. B. Johnston, “Extraction of the anisotropic dielectric properties of materials from polarization-resolved terahertz time-domain spectra,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11(10), 105206 (2009).
[Crossref]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

Y. Kim, J. Ahn, B. G. Kim, and D.-S. Yee, “Terahertz birefringence in zinc oxide,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50(3R), 030203 (2011).
[Crossref]

NDT Int. (1)

T. Tanabe, K. Watanabe, Y. Oyama, and K. Seo, “Polarization sensitive THz absorption spectroscopy for the evaluation of uniaxially deformed ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene,” NDT Int. 43(4), 329–333 (2010).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

H. Dong, Y. Gong, V. Paulose, and M. Hong, “Polarization state and Mueller matrix measurements in terahertz-time domain spectroscopy,” Opt. Commun. 282(18), 3671–3675 (2009).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (2)

D. S. Bulgarevich, M. Watanabe, and M. Shiwa, 2015 Japan Patent Pending 15-MS-055.

V. Siklitsky and A. Tolmatchev, “Physical Properties of Semiconductors,” http://www.ioffe.ru/SVA/NSM/ .

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Microfabricated 8-CE (a)-(d) and scheme of its testing (e): the photomask geometry in mm (a); the total view of the microfabricated bow-tie electrodes, lead lines, and 1 × 1 mm contact pads (b); the magnified detector center with ~50 µm bowie-tie flares (c); the 8-CE chip mounted on Si lens and wired to terminals for DC bias application (d); antenna; optical scheme of testing with wire-grid polarizers (e).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

FEM simulation results of static E distribution at the center of 8-CE between DC-biased antenna electrodes for E x and E y components (in V/m): 2.9 V at 1st, 1.7 V at 2nd and 8th, 1.4 V at 3rd and 7th and 0 V at 4th, 5th, and 6th electrodes.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental and FDTD modeled data for 8-CE in frequency (a) and time domains (b). The comparison between FDTD simulation of 8-CE spectral signature, distribution of THz E x -field between two opposite electrodes ( log( | E x | 2 / | E 0 | 2 ) color scales on inserts), and experimental spectral results (a). The experimental waveforms (b). The red and black y-axes in (a) are for FDTD and experimental results, respectively. The spectrum for DE/DD antennas in (a) is one-tenth amplitude of the actual one. The E 0 in (a) is the incident THz field amplitude in FDTD simulations. See text for more details.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The scheme of synchronized rotation of DC bias on 8-CE electrodes and P in front of 8-CE to achieve the linear polarization rotation of THz emission with constant intensity (see text for used notations).

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