Abstract

The use of resonant whispering gallery modes (WGMs) for sensing exhibits various drawbacks and critical points related to the microsphere and tapered optical fiber fabrication tolerance. The uncertainty on the fiber taper and microsphere geometry or the gap between the microsphere and the fiber taper can complicate or limit the actual use of these devices for sensing, requiring peculiar calibration of the WGM based sensing set-up. An alternative double-step approach is proposed in this paper. In particular, the geometrical parameters of the set-up are recovered preliminarily and then the rare earth parameters are recovered via simple transmittance/gain measurements. The method is based on a refined electromagnetic model of the device suitably integrated with a particle swarm optimization (PSO) approach. The percent errors made on the up-conversion coefficients Cup and C3 are extremely low, being 0.75%, 0.05%, respectively. The procedure is very robust. It can be applied more in general, allowing the sensing of other physical parameters via simple transmittance measurements instead of wavelength shift ones, in both microsphere and microbubble based set-up.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. L. Mescia, A. Giaquinto, G. Fornarelli, G. Acciani, M. De Sario, and F. Prudenzano, “Particle swarm optimization for the design and characterization of silica-based photonic crystal fiber amplifiers,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 357(8–9), 1851–1855 (2011).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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2016 (1)

M. C. Falconi, G. Palma, F. Starecki, V. Nazabal, J. Troles, S. Taccheo, M. Ferrari, and F. Prudenzano, “Design of an efficient pumping scheme for Mid-IR Dy3+:Ga5Ge20Sb10S65 PCF fiber laser,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(18), 1984–1987 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

G. Palma, C. Falconi, V. Nazabal, T. Yano, T. Kishi, T. Kumagai, M. Ferrari, and F. Prudenzano, “Modeling of Whispering Gallery Modes for rare earth spectroscopic characterization,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(17), 1861–1863 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

N. Miri and M. Mohammadzaheri, “Optical sensing using microspheres with different size and material,” IEEE Sens. J. 14(10), 3593–3598 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

M. Charlebois, A. Paquet, L. S. Verret, K. Boissinot, M. Boissinot, M. G. Bergeron, and C. Nì Allen, “Differentiation between analyte absorption and homogenous index sensing in WGM biodetection,” IEEE Sens. J. 13(1), 229–233 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Mescia, P. Bia, O. Losito, and F. Prudenzano, “Design of Mid-IR Er3+-doped microsphere laser,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(4), 1501308 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Girard, L. Mescia, M. Vivona, A. Laurent, Y. Ouerdane, C. Marcandella, F. Prudenzano, A. Boukenter, T. Robin, P. Paillet, V. Goiffon, M. Gaillardin, B. Cadier, E. Pinsard, M. Cannas, and R. Boscaino, “Design of radiation-hardened rare-earth doped amplifiers through a coupled experiment/simulation approach,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(8), 1247–1254 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

2011 (5)

L. He, S. K. Özdemir, J. Zhu, W. Kim, and L. Yang, “Detecting single viruses and nanoparticles using whispering gallery microlasers,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(7), 428–432 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y.-Z. Yan, C.-L. Zou, S.-B. Yan, F.-W. Sun, J. Liu, C.-Y. Xue, Y.-G. Zhang, L. Wang, W.-D. Zhang, and J.-J. Xiong, “Robust spot-packaged microsphere-taper coupling structure for in-line optical sensors,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(22), 1736–1738 (2011).
[Crossref]

G. S. Murugan, M. N. Zervas, Y. Panitchob, and J. S. Wilkinson, “Integrated Nd-doped borosilicate glass microsphere laser,” Opt. Lett. 36(1), 73–75 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Giaquinto, L. Mescia, G. Fornarelli, and F. Prudenzano, “Particle swarm optimization-based approach for accurate evaluation of upconversion parameters in Er3+-doped fibers,” Opt. Lett. 36(2), 142–144 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Mescia, A. Giaquinto, G. Fornarelli, G. Acciani, M. De Sario, and F. Prudenzano, “Particle swarm optimization for the design and characterization of silica-based photonic crystal fiber amplifiers,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 357(8–9), 1851–1855 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

F. Prudenzano, L. Mescia, L. Allegretti, V. Moizan, V. Nazabal, and F. Smektala, “Theoretical study of cascade laser in erbium-doped chalcogenide glass fibers,” Opt. Mater. 33(2), 241–245 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

S. Y. Chen, T. Sun, K. T. V. Grattan, K. Annapurna, and R. Sen, “Characteristics of Er and Er–Yb–Cr doped phosphate microsphere fibre lasers,” Opt. Commun. 282(18), 3765–3769 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. Arnold, D. Keng, S. I. Shopova, S. Holler, W. Zurawsky, and F. Vollmer, “Whispering Gallery Mode Carousel--a photonic mechanism for enhanced nanoparticle detection in biosensing,” Opt. Express 17(8), 6230–6238 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (4)

J. M. Ward, P. Féron, and S. N. Chormaic, “A taper-fused microspherical laser source,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(6), 392–394 (2008).
[Crossref]

C. Grillet, S. N. Bian, E. C. Magi, and B. J. Eggleton, “Fiber taper coupling to chalcogenide microsphere modes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(17), 171109 (2008).
[Crossref]

V. Moizan, V. Nazabal, J. Troles, P. Houizot, J.-L. Adam, F. Smektala, G. Gadret, S. Pitois, J.-L. Doualan, R. Moncorgé, and G. Canat, “Er3+-doped GeGaSbS glasses for Mid-IR fibre laser application: Synthesis and rare earth spectroscopy,” Opt. Mater. 31(1), 39–46 (2008).
[Crossref]

C. Zou, Y. Yang, C. Dong, Y. Xiao, X. Wu, Z. Han, and G. Guo, “Taper-microsphere coupling with numerical calculation of coupled-mode theory,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25(11), 1895–1898 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

2006 (1)

G. Nunzi Conti, A. Chiasera, L. Ghisa, S. Berneschi, M. Brenci, Y. Dumeige, S. Pelli, S. Sebastiani, P. Feron, M. Ferrari, and G. C. Righini, “Spectroscopic and lasing properties of Er3+ doped glass microspheres,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(23-25), 2360–2363 (2006).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

C. A. Coello Coello, G. T. Pulido, and M. S. Lechuga, “Handling multiple objectives with particle swarm optimization,” IEEE Trans. Evol. Comput. 8(3), 256–279 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

K. J. Vahala, “Optical microcavities,” Nature 424(6950), 839–846 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Kadono, T. Yazawa, S. Jiang, J. Porque, B.-C. Hwang, and N. Peyghambarian, “Rate equation analysis and energy transfer of Er3+-doped Ga2S3–GeS2–La2S3 glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 331(1-3), 79–80 (2003).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

1997 (2)

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. Foresi, and J. P. Laine, “Microring resonator channel dropping filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(6), 998–1005 (1997).
[Crossref]

K. Miura, K. Tanaka, and K. Hirao, “CW laser oscillation on both the 4F3/2 –4I11/2 and 4F3/2–4I13/2 transitions of Nd3+ ions using a fluoride glass microsphere,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 213–214, 276–280 (1997).
[Crossref]

Acciani, G.

L. Mescia, A. Giaquinto, G. Fornarelli, G. Acciani, M. De Sario, and F. Prudenzano, “Particle swarm optimization for the design and characterization of silica-based photonic crystal fiber amplifiers,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 357(8–9), 1851–1855 (2011).
[Crossref]

Adam, J.-L.

V. Moizan, V. Nazabal, J. Troles, P. Houizot, J.-L. Adam, F. Smektala, G. Gadret, S. Pitois, J.-L. Doualan, R. Moncorgé, and G. Canat, “Er3+-doped GeGaSbS glasses for Mid-IR fibre laser application: Synthesis and rare earth spectroscopy,” Opt. Mater. 31(1), 39–46 (2008).
[Crossref]

Allegretti, L.

F. Prudenzano, L. Mescia, L. Allegretti, V. Moizan, V. Nazabal, and F. Smektala, “Theoretical study of cascade laser in erbium-doped chalcogenide glass fibers,” Opt. Mater. 33(2), 241–245 (2010).
[Crossref]

Annapurna, K.

S. Y. Chen, T. Sun, K. T. V. Grattan, K. Annapurna, and R. Sen, “Characteristics of Er and Er–Yb–Cr doped phosphate microsphere fibre lasers,” Opt. Commun. 282(18), 3765–3769 (2009).
[Crossref]

Arnold, S.

Bergeron, M. G.

M. Charlebois, A. Paquet, L. S. Verret, K. Boissinot, M. Boissinot, M. G. Bergeron, and C. Nì Allen, “Differentiation between analyte absorption and homogenous index sensing in WGM biodetection,” IEEE Sens. J. 13(1), 229–233 (2013).
[Crossref]

Berneschi, S.

G. Nunzi Conti, A. Chiasera, L. Ghisa, S. Berneschi, M. Brenci, Y. Dumeige, S. Pelli, S. Sebastiani, P. Feron, M. Ferrari, and G. C. Righini, “Spectroscopic and lasing properties of Er3+ doped glass microspheres,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(23-25), 2360–2363 (2006).
[Crossref]

Bia, P.

Bian, S. N.

C. Grillet, S. N. Bian, E. C. Magi, and B. J. Eggleton, “Fiber taper coupling to chalcogenide microsphere modes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(17), 171109 (2008).
[Crossref]

Boissinot, K.

M. Charlebois, A. Paquet, L. S. Verret, K. Boissinot, M. Boissinot, M. G. Bergeron, and C. Nì Allen, “Differentiation between analyte absorption and homogenous index sensing in WGM biodetection,” IEEE Sens. J. 13(1), 229–233 (2013).
[Crossref]

Boissinot, M.

M. Charlebois, A. Paquet, L. S. Verret, K. Boissinot, M. Boissinot, M. G. Bergeron, and C. Nì Allen, “Differentiation between analyte absorption and homogenous index sensing in WGM biodetection,” IEEE Sens. J. 13(1), 229–233 (2013).
[Crossref]

Boscaino, R.

S. Girard, L. Mescia, M. Vivona, A. Laurent, Y. Ouerdane, C. Marcandella, F. Prudenzano, A. Boukenter, T. Robin, P. Paillet, V. Goiffon, M. Gaillardin, B. Cadier, E. Pinsard, M. Cannas, and R. Boscaino, “Design of radiation-hardened rare-earth doped amplifiers through a coupled experiment/simulation approach,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(8), 1247–1254 (2013).
[Crossref]

Boukenter, A.

S. Girard, L. Mescia, M. Vivona, A. Laurent, Y. Ouerdane, C. Marcandella, F. Prudenzano, A. Boukenter, T. Robin, P. Paillet, V. Goiffon, M. Gaillardin, B. Cadier, E. Pinsard, M. Cannas, and R. Boscaino, “Design of radiation-hardened rare-earth doped amplifiers through a coupled experiment/simulation approach,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(8), 1247–1254 (2013).
[Crossref]

Brenci, M.

G. Nunzi Conti, A. Chiasera, L. Ghisa, S. Berneschi, M. Brenci, Y. Dumeige, S. Pelli, S. Sebastiani, P. Feron, M. Ferrari, and G. C. Righini, “Spectroscopic and lasing properties of Er3+ doped glass microspheres,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(23-25), 2360–2363 (2006).
[Crossref]

Cadier, B.

S. Girard, L. Mescia, M. Vivona, A. Laurent, Y. Ouerdane, C. Marcandella, F. Prudenzano, A. Boukenter, T. Robin, P. Paillet, V. Goiffon, M. Gaillardin, B. Cadier, E. Pinsard, M. Cannas, and R. Boscaino, “Design of radiation-hardened rare-earth doped amplifiers through a coupled experiment/simulation approach,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(8), 1247–1254 (2013).
[Crossref]

Canat, G.

V. Moizan, V. Nazabal, J. Troles, P. Houizot, J.-L. Adam, F. Smektala, G. Gadret, S. Pitois, J.-L. Doualan, R. Moncorgé, and G. Canat, “Er3+-doped GeGaSbS glasses for Mid-IR fibre laser application: Synthesis and rare earth spectroscopy,” Opt. Mater. 31(1), 39–46 (2008).
[Crossref]

Cannas, M.

S. Girard, L. Mescia, M. Vivona, A. Laurent, Y. Ouerdane, C. Marcandella, F. Prudenzano, A. Boukenter, T. Robin, P. Paillet, V. Goiffon, M. Gaillardin, B. Cadier, E. Pinsard, M. Cannas, and R. Boscaino, “Design of radiation-hardened rare-earth doped amplifiers through a coupled experiment/simulation approach,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(8), 1247–1254 (2013).
[Crossref]

Charlebois, M.

M. Charlebois, A. Paquet, L. S. Verret, K. Boissinot, M. Boissinot, M. G. Bergeron, and C. Nì Allen, “Differentiation between analyte absorption and homogenous index sensing in WGM biodetection,” IEEE Sens. J. 13(1), 229–233 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chen, S. Y.

S. Y. Chen, T. Sun, K. T. V. Grattan, K. Annapurna, and R. Sen, “Characteristics of Er and Er–Yb–Cr doped phosphate microsphere fibre lasers,” Opt. Commun. 282(18), 3765–3769 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chiasera, A.

F. Prudenzano, L. Mescia, A. D’Orazio, M. De Sario, V. Petruzzelli, A. Chiasera, and M. Ferrari, “Optimization and characterization of rare earth doped photonic crystal fiber amplifier using genetic algorithm,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25(8), 2135–2142 (2007).
[Crossref]

G. Nunzi Conti, A. Chiasera, L. Ghisa, S. Berneschi, M. Brenci, Y. Dumeige, S. Pelli, S. Sebastiani, P. Feron, M. Ferrari, and G. C. Righini, “Spectroscopic and lasing properties of Er3+ doped glass microspheres,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(23-25), 2360–2363 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chormaic, S. N.

J. M. Ward, P. Féron, and S. N. Chormaic, “A taper-fused microspherical laser source,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(6), 392–394 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chu, S. T.

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. Foresi, and J. P. Laine, “Microring resonator channel dropping filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(6), 998–1005 (1997).
[Crossref]

Coello Coello, C. A.

C. A. Coello Coello, G. T. Pulido, and M. S. Lechuga, “Handling multiple objectives with particle swarm optimization,” IEEE Trans. Evol. Comput. 8(3), 256–279 (2004).
[Crossref]

D’Orazio, A.

De Sario, M.

Di Tommaso, A.

Dong, C.

Doualan, J.-L.

V. Moizan, V. Nazabal, J. Troles, P. Houizot, J.-L. Adam, F. Smektala, G. Gadret, S. Pitois, J.-L. Doualan, R. Moncorgé, and G. Canat, “Er3+-doped GeGaSbS glasses for Mid-IR fibre laser application: Synthesis and rare earth spectroscopy,” Opt. Mater. 31(1), 39–46 (2008).
[Crossref]

Dumeige, Y.

G. Nunzi Conti, A. Chiasera, L. Ghisa, S. Berneschi, M. Brenci, Y. Dumeige, S. Pelli, S. Sebastiani, P. Feron, M. Ferrari, and G. C. Righini, “Spectroscopic and lasing properties of Er3+ doped glass microspheres,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(23-25), 2360–2363 (2006).
[Crossref]

Eggleton, B. J.

C. Grillet, S. N. Bian, E. C. Magi, and B. J. Eggleton, “Fiber taper coupling to chalcogenide microsphere modes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(17), 171109 (2008).
[Crossref]

Elliott, G. R.

Falconi, C.

G. Palma, C. Falconi, V. Nazabal, T. Yano, T. Kishi, T. Kumagai, M. Ferrari, and F. Prudenzano, “Modeling of Whispering Gallery Modes for rare earth spectroscopic characterization,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(17), 1861–1863 (2015).
[Crossref]

Falconi, M. C.

M. C. Falconi, G. Palma, F. Starecki, V. Nazabal, J. Troles, S. Taccheo, M. Ferrari, and F. Prudenzano, “Design of an efficient pumping scheme for Mid-IR Dy3+:Ga5Ge20Sb10S65 PCF fiber laser,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(18), 1984–1987 (2016).
[Crossref]

Feron, P.

G. Nunzi Conti, A. Chiasera, L. Ghisa, S. Berneschi, M. Brenci, Y. Dumeige, S. Pelli, S. Sebastiani, P. Feron, M. Ferrari, and G. C. Righini, “Spectroscopic and lasing properties of Er3+ doped glass microspheres,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(23-25), 2360–2363 (2006).
[Crossref]

Féron, P.

J. M. Ward, P. Féron, and S. N. Chormaic, “A taper-fused microspherical laser source,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(6), 392–394 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ferrari, M.

M. C. Falconi, G. Palma, F. Starecki, V. Nazabal, J. Troles, S. Taccheo, M. Ferrari, and F. Prudenzano, “Design of an efficient pumping scheme for Mid-IR Dy3+:Ga5Ge20Sb10S65 PCF fiber laser,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(18), 1984–1987 (2016).
[Crossref]

G. Palma, C. Falconi, V. Nazabal, T. Yano, T. Kishi, T. Kumagai, M. Ferrari, and F. Prudenzano, “Modeling of Whispering Gallery Modes for rare earth spectroscopic characterization,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(17), 1861–1863 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Prudenzano, L. Mescia, A. D’Orazio, M. De Sario, V. Petruzzelli, A. Chiasera, and M. Ferrari, “Optimization and characterization of rare earth doped photonic crystal fiber amplifier using genetic algorithm,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25(8), 2135–2142 (2007).
[Crossref]

G. Nunzi Conti, A. Chiasera, L. Ghisa, S. Berneschi, M. Brenci, Y. Dumeige, S. Pelli, S. Sebastiani, P. Feron, M. Ferrari, and G. C. Righini, “Spectroscopic and lasing properties of Er3+ doped glass microspheres,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(23-25), 2360–2363 (2006).
[Crossref]

Foresi, J.

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. Foresi, and J. P. Laine, “Microring resonator channel dropping filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(6), 998–1005 (1997).
[Crossref]

Fornarelli, G.

L. Mescia, A. Giaquinto, G. Fornarelli, G. Acciani, M. De Sario, and F. Prudenzano, “Particle swarm optimization for the design and characterization of silica-based photonic crystal fiber amplifiers,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 357(8–9), 1851–1855 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Giaquinto, L. Mescia, G. Fornarelli, and F. Prudenzano, “Particle swarm optimization-based approach for accurate evaluation of upconversion parameters in Er3+-doped fibers,” Opt. Lett. 36(2), 142–144 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gadret, G.

V. Moizan, V. Nazabal, J. Troles, P. Houizot, J.-L. Adam, F. Smektala, G. Gadret, S. Pitois, J.-L. Doualan, R. Moncorgé, and G. Canat, “Er3+-doped GeGaSbS glasses for Mid-IR fibre laser application: Synthesis and rare earth spectroscopy,” Opt. Mater. 31(1), 39–46 (2008).
[Crossref]

Gaillardin, M.

S. Girard, L. Mescia, M. Vivona, A. Laurent, Y. Ouerdane, C. Marcandella, F. Prudenzano, A. Boukenter, T. Robin, P. Paillet, V. Goiffon, M. Gaillardin, B. Cadier, E. Pinsard, M. Cannas, and R. Boscaino, “Design of radiation-hardened rare-earth doped amplifiers through a coupled experiment/simulation approach,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(8), 1247–1254 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ghisa, L.

G. Nunzi Conti, A. Chiasera, L. Ghisa, S. Berneschi, M. Brenci, Y. Dumeige, S. Pelli, S. Sebastiani, P. Feron, M. Ferrari, and G. C. Righini, “Spectroscopic and lasing properties of Er3+ doped glass microspheres,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(23-25), 2360–2363 (2006).
[Crossref]

Giaquinto, A.

L. Mescia, A. Giaquinto, G. Fornarelli, G. Acciani, M. De Sario, and F. Prudenzano, “Particle swarm optimization for the design and characterization of silica-based photonic crystal fiber amplifiers,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 357(8–9), 1851–1855 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Giaquinto, L. Mescia, G. Fornarelli, and F. Prudenzano, “Particle swarm optimization-based approach for accurate evaluation of upconversion parameters in Er3+-doped fibers,” Opt. Lett. 36(2), 142–144 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Girard, S.

S. Girard, L. Mescia, M. Vivona, A. Laurent, Y. Ouerdane, C. Marcandella, F. Prudenzano, A. Boukenter, T. Robin, P. Paillet, V. Goiffon, M. Gaillardin, B. Cadier, E. Pinsard, M. Cannas, and R. Boscaino, “Design of radiation-hardened rare-earth doped amplifiers through a coupled experiment/simulation approach,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(8), 1247–1254 (2013).
[Crossref]

Goiffon, V.

S. Girard, L. Mescia, M. Vivona, A. Laurent, Y. Ouerdane, C. Marcandella, F. Prudenzano, A. Boukenter, T. Robin, P. Paillet, V. Goiffon, M. Gaillardin, B. Cadier, E. Pinsard, M. Cannas, and R. Boscaino, “Design of radiation-hardened rare-earth doped amplifiers through a coupled experiment/simulation approach,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(8), 1247–1254 (2013).
[Crossref]

Grattan, K. T. V.

S. Y. Chen, T. Sun, K. T. V. Grattan, K. Annapurna, and R. Sen, “Characteristics of Er and Er–Yb–Cr doped phosphate microsphere fibre lasers,” Opt. Commun. 282(18), 3765–3769 (2009).
[Crossref]

Grillet, C.

C. Grillet, S. N. Bian, E. C. Magi, and B. J. Eggleton, “Fiber taper coupling to chalcogenide microsphere modes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(17), 171109 (2008).
[Crossref]

Guo, G.

Han, Z.

Haus, H. A.

B. E. Little, J. P. Laine, and H. A. Haus, “Analytic theory of coupling from tapered fibers and half-blocks into microsphere resonators,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17(4), 704–715 (1999).
[Crossref]

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. Foresi, and J. P. Laine, “Microring resonator channel dropping filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(6), 998–1005 (1997).
[Crossref]

He, L.

L. He, S. K. Özdemir, J. Zhu, W. Kim, and L. Yang, “Detecting single viruses and nanoparticles using whispering gallery microlasers,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(7), 428–432 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hewak, D. W.

Hirao, K.

K. Miura, K. Tanaka, and K. Hirao, “CW laser oscillation on both the 4F3/2 –4I11/2 and 4F3/2–4I13/2 transitions of Nd3+ ions using a fluoride glass microsphere,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 213–214, 276–280 (1997).
[Crossref]

Holler, S.

Houizot, P.

V. Moizan, V. Nazabal, J. Troles, P. Houizot, J.-L. Adam, F. Smektala, G. Gadret, S. Pitois, J.-L. Doualan, R. Moncorgé, and G. Canat, “Er3+-doped GeGaSbS glasses for Mid-IR fibre laser application: Synthesis and rare earth spectroscopy,” Opt. Mater. 31(1), 39–46 (2008).
[Crossref]

Hwang, B.-C.

K. Kadono, T. Yazawa, S. Jiang, J. Porque, B.-C. Hwang, and N. Peyghambarian, “Rate equation analysis and energy transfer of Er3+-doped Ga2S3–GeS2–La2S3 glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 331(1-3), 79–80 (2003).
[Crossref]

Jiang, S.

K. Kadono, T. Yazawa, S. Jiang, J. Porque, B.-C. Hwang, and N. Peyghambarian, “Rate equation analysis and energy transfer of Er3+-doped Ga2S3–GeS2–La2S3 glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 331(1-3), 79–80 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kadono, K.

K. Kadono, T. Yazawa, S. Jiang, J. Porque, B.-C. Hwang, and N. Peyghambarian, “Rate equation analysis and energy transfer of Er3+-doped Ga2S3–GeS2–La2S3 glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 331(1-3), 79–80 (2003).
[Crossref]

Keng, D.

Kim, W.

L. He, S. K. Özdemir, J. Zhu, W. Kim, and L. Yang, “Detecting single viruses and nanoparticles using whispering gallery microlasers,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(7), 428–432 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kishi, T.

G. Palma, C. Falconi, V. Nazabal, T. Yano, T. Kishi, T. Kumagai, M. Ferrari, and F. Prudenzano, “Modeling of Whispering Gallery Modes for rare earth spectroscopic characterization,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(17), 1861–1863 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kumagai, T.

G. Palma, C. Falconi, V. Nazabal, T. Yano, T. Kishi, T. Kumagai, M. Ferrari, and F. Prudenzano, “Modeling of Whispering Gallery Modes for rare earth spectroscopic characterization,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(17), 1861–1863 (2015).
[Crossref]

Laine, J. P.

B. E. Little, J. P. Laine, and H. A. Haus, “Analytic theory of coupling from tapered fibers and half-blocks into microsphere resonators,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17(4), 704–715 (1999).
[Crossref]

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. Foresi, and J. P. Laine, “Microring resonator channel dropping filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(6), 998–1005 (1997).
[Crossref]

Laurent, A.

S. Girard, L. Mescia, M. Vivona, A. Laurent, Y. Ouerdane, C. Marcandella, F. Prudenzano, A. Boukenter, T. Robin, P. Paillet, V. Goiffon, M. Gaillardin, B. Cadier, E. Pinsard, M. Cannas, and R. Boscaino, “Design of radiation-hardened rare-earth doped amplifiers through a coupled experiment/simulation approach,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(8), 1247–1254 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lechuga, M. S.

C. A. Coello Coello, G. T. Pulido, and M. S. Lechuga, “Handling multiple objectives with particle swarm optimization,” IEEE Trans. Evol. Comput. 8(3), 256–279 (2004).
[Crossref]

Little, B. E.

B. E. Little, J. P. Laine, and H. A. Haus, “Analytic theory of coupling from tapered fibers and half-blocks into microsphere resonators,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17(4), 704–715 (1999).
[Crossref]

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. Foresi, and J. P. Laine, “Microring resonator channel dropping filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(6), 998–1005 (1997).
[Crossref]

Liu, J.

Y.-Z. Yan, C.-L. Zou, S.-B. Yan, F.-W. Sun, J. Liu, C.-Y. Xue, Y.-G. Zhang, L. Wang, W.-D. Zhang, and J.-J. Xiong, “Robust spot-packaged microsphere-taper coupling structure for in-line optical sensors,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(22), 1736–1738 (2011).
[Crossref]

Losito, O.

L. Mescia, P. Bia, O. Losito, and F. Prudenzano, “Design of Mid-IR Er3+-doped microsphere laser,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(4), 1501308 (2013).
[Crossref]

Magi, E. C.

C. Grillet, S. N. Bian, E. C. Magi, and B. J. Eggleton, “Fiber taper coupling to chalcogenide microsphere modes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(17), 171109 (2008).
[Crossref]

Marcandella, C.

S. Girard, L. Mescia, M. Vivona, A. Laurent, Y. Ouerdane, C. Marcandella, F. Prudenzano, A. Boukenter, T. Robin, P. Paillet, V. Goiffon, M. Gaillardin, B. Cadier, E. Pinsard, M. Cannas, and R. Boscaino, “Design of radiation-hardened rare-earth doped amplifiers through a coupled experiment/simulation approach,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(8), 1247–1254 (2013).
[Crossref]

Mescia, L.

S. Girard, L. Mescia, M. Vivona, A. Laurent, Y. Ouerdane, C. Marcandella, F. Prudenzano, A. Boukenter, T. Robin, P. Paillet, V. Goiffon, M. Gaillardin, B. Cadier, E. Pinsard, M. Cannas, and R. Boscaino, “Design of radiation-hardened rare-earth doped amplifiers through a coupled experiment/simulation approach,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(8), 1247–1254 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Mescia, P. Bia, O. Losito, and F. Prudenzano, “Design of Mid-IR Er3+-doped microsphere laser,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(4), 1501308 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Mescia, P. Bia, M. De Sario, A. Di Tommaso, and F. Prudenzano, “Design of mid-infrared amplifiers based on fiber taper coupling to erbium-doped microspherical resonator,” Opt. Express 20(7), 7616–7629 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Giaquinto, L. Mescia, G. Fornarelli, and F. Prudenzano, “Particle swarm optimization-based approach for accurate evaluation of upconversion parameters in Er3+-doped fibers,” Opt. Lett. 36(2), 142–144 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Mescia, A. Giaquinto, G. Fornarelli, G. Acciani, M. De Sario, and F. Prudenzano, “Particle swarm optimization for the design and characterization of silica-based photonic crystal fiber amplifiers,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 357(8–9), 1851–1855 (2011).
[Crossref]

F. Prudenzano, L. Mescia, L. Allegretti, V. Moizan, V. Nazabal, and F. Smektala, “Theoretical study of cascade laser in erbium-doped chalcogenide glass fibers,” Opt. Mater. 33(2), 241–245 (2010).
[Crossref]

F. Prudenzano, L. Mescia, A. D’Orazio, M. De Sario, V. Petruzzelli, A. Chiasera, and M. Ferrari, “Optimization and characterization of rare earth doped photonic crystal fiber amplifier using genetic algorithm,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25(8), 2135–2142 (2007).
[Crossref]

Miri, N.

N. Miri and M. Mohammadzaheri, “Optical sensing using microspheres with different size and material,” IEEE Sens. J. 14(10), 3593–3598 (2014).
[Crossref]

Miura, K.

K. Miura, K. Tanaka, and K. Hirao, “CW laser oscillation on both the 4F3/2 –4I11/2 and 4F3/2–4I13/2 transitions of Nd3+ ions using a fluoride glass microsphere,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 213–214, 276–280 (1997).
[Crossref]

Mohammadzaheri, M.

N. Miri and M. Mohammadzaheri, “Optical sensing using microspheres with different size and material,” IEEE Sens. J. 14(10), 3593–3598 (2014).
[Crossref]

Moizan, V.

F. Prudenzano, L. Mescia, L. Allegretti, V. Moizan, V. Nazabal, and F. Smektala, “Theoretical study of cascade laser in erbium-doped chalcogenide glass fibers,” Opt. Mater. 33(2), 241–245 (2010).
[Crossref]

V. Moizan, V. Nazabal, J. Troles, P. Houizot, J.-L. Adam, F. Smektala, G. Gadret, S. Pitois, J.-L. Doualan, R. Moncorgé, and G. Canat, “Er3+-doped GeGaSbS glasses for Mid-IR fibre laser application: Synthesis and rare earth spectroscopy,” Opt. Mater. 31(1), 39–46 (2008).
[Crossref]

Moncorgé, R.

V. Moizan, V. Nazabal, J. Troles, P. Houizot, J.-L. Adam, F. Smektala, G. Gadret, S. Pitois, J.-L. Doualan, R. Moncorgé, and G. Canat, “Er3+-doped GeGaSbS glasses for Mid-IR fibre laser application: Synthesis and rare earth spectroscopy,” Opt. Mater. 31(1), 39–46 (2008).
[Crossref]

Murugan, G. S.

Nazabal, V.

M. C. Falconi, G. Palma, F. Starecki, V. Nazabal, J. Troles, S. Taccheo, M. Ferrari, and F. Prudenzano, “Design of an efficient pumping scheme for Mid-IR Dy3+:Ga5Ge20Sb10S65 PCF fiber laser,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(18), 1984–1987 (2016).
[Crossref]

G. Palma, C. Falconi, V. Nazabal, T. Yano, T. Kishi, T. Kumagai, M. Ferrari, and F. Prudenzano, “Modeling of Whispering Gallery Modes for rare earth spectroscopic characterization,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(17), 1861–1863 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Prudenzano, L. Mescia, L. Allegretti, V. Moizan, V. Nazabal, and F. Smektala, “Theoretical study of cascade laser in erbium-doped chalcogenide glass fibers,” Opt. Mater. 33(2), 241–245 (2010).
[Crossref]

V. Moizan, V. Nazabal, J. Troles, P. Houizot, J.-L. Adam, F. Smektala, G. Gadret, S. Pitois, J.-L. Doualan, R. Moncorgé, and G. Canat, “Er3+-doped GeGaSbS glasses for Mid-IR fibre laser application: Synthesis and rare earth spectroscopy,” Opt. Mater. 31(1), 39–46 (2008).
[Crossref]

Nì Allen, C.

M. Charlebois, A. Paquet, L. S. Verret, K. Boissinot, M. Boissinot, M. G. Bergeron, and C. Nì Allen, “Differentiation between analyte absorption and homogenous index sensing in WGM biodetection,” IEEE Sens. J. 13(1), 229–233 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nunzi Conti, G.

G. Nunzi Conti, A. Chiasera, L. Ghisa, S. Berneschi, M. Brenci, Y. Dumeige, S. Pelli, S. Sebastiani, P. Feron, M. Ferrari, and G. C. Righini, “Spectroscopic and lasing properties of Er3+ doped glass microspheres,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(23-25), 2360–2363 (2006).
[Crossref]

Ouerdane, Y.

S. Girard, L. Mescia, M. Vivona, A. Laurent, Y. Ouerdane, C. Marcandella, F. Prudenzano, A. Boukenter, T. Robin, P. Paillet, V. Goiffon, M. Gaillardin, B. Cadier, E. Pinsard, M. Cannas, and R. Boscaino, “Design of radiation-hardened rare-earth doped amplifiers through a coupled experiment/simulation approach,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(8), 1247–1254 (2013).
[Crossref]

Özdemir, S. K.

L. He, S. K. Özdemir, J. Zhu, W. Kim, and L. Yang, “Detecting single viruses and nanoparticles using whispering gallery microlasers,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(7), 428–432 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Paillet, P.

S. Girard, L. Mescia, M. Vivona, A. Laurent, Y. Ouerdane, C. Marcandella, F. Prudenzano, A. Boukenter, T. Robin, P. Paillet, V. Goiffon, M. Gaillardin, B. Cadier, E. Pinsard, M. Cannas, and R. Boscaino, “Design of radiation-hardened rare-earth doped amplifiers through a coupled experiment/simulation approach,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(8), 1247–1254 (2013).
[Crossref]

Palma, G.

M. C. Falconi, G. Palma, F. Starecki, V. Nazabal, J. Troles, S. Taccheo, M. Ferrari, and F. Prudenzano, “Design of an efficient pumping scheme for Mid-IR Dy3+:Ga5Ge20Sb10S65 PCF fiber laser,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(18), 1984–1987 (2016).
[Crossref]

G. Palma, C. Falconi, V. Nazabal, T. Yano, T. Kishi, T. Kumagai, M. Ferrari, and F. Prudenzano, “Modeling of Whispering Gallery Modes for rare earth spectroscopic characterization,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(17), 1861–1863 (2015).
[Crossref]

Panitchob, Y.

Paquet, A.

M. Charlebois, A. Paquet, L. S. Verret, K. Boissinot, M. Boissinot, M. G. Bergeron, and C. Nì Allen, “Differentiation between analyte absorption and homogenous index sensing in WGM biodetection,” IEEE Sens. J. 13(1), 229–233 (2013).
[Crossref]

Pelli, S.

G. Nunzi Conti, A. Chiasera, L. Ghisa, S. Berneschi, M. Brenci, Y. Dumeige, S. Pelli, S. Sebastiani, P. Feron, M. Ferrari, and G. C. Righini, “Spectroscopic and lasing properties of Er3+ doped glass microspheres,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(23-25), 2360–2363 (2006).
[Crossref]

Petruzzelli, V.

Peyghambarian, N.

K. Kadono, T. Yazawa, S. Jiang, J. Porque, B.-C. Hwang, and N. Peyghambarian, “Rate equation analysis and energy transfer of Er3+-doped Ga2S3–GeS2–La2S3 glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 331(1-3), 79–80 (2003).
[Crossref]

Pinsard, E.

S. Girard, L. Mescia, M. Vivona, A. Laurent, Y. Ouerdane, C. Marcandella, F. Prudenzano, A. Boukenter, T. Robin, P. Paillet, V. Goiffon, M. Gaillardin, B. Cadier, E. Pinsard, M. Cannas, and R. Boscaino, “Design of radiation-hardened rare-earth doped amplifiers through a coupled experiment/simulation approach,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(8), 1247–1254 (2013).
[Crossref]

Pitois, S.

V. Moizan, V. Nazabal, J. Troles, P. Houizot, J.-L. Adam, F. Smektala, G. Gadret, S. Pitois, J.-L. Doualan, R. Moncorgé, and G. Canat, “Er3+-doped GeGaSbS glasses for Mid-IR fibre laser application: Synthesis and rare earth spectroscopy,” Opt. Mater. 31(1), 39–46 (2008).
[Crossref]

Porque, J.

K. Kadono, T. Yazawa, S. Jiang, J. Porque, B.-C. Hwang, and N. Peyghambarian, “Rate equation analysis and energy transfer of Er3+-doped Ga2S3–GeS2–La2S3 glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 331(1-3), 79–80 (2003).
[Crossref]

Prudenzano, F.

M. C. Falconi, G. Palma, F. Starecki, V. Nazabal, J. Troles, S. Taccheo, M. Ferrari, and F. Prudenzano, “Design of an efficient pumping scheme for Mid-IR Dy3+:Ga5Ge20Sb10S65 PCF fiber laser,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(18), 1984–1987 (2016).
[Crossref]

G. Palma, C. Falconi, V. Nazabal, T. Yano, T. Kishi, T. Kumagai, M. Ferrari, and F. Prudenzano, “Modeling of Whispering Gallery Modes for rare earth spectroscopic characterization,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(17), 1861–1863 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Mescia, P. Bia, O. Losito, and F. Prudenzano, “Design of Mid-IR Er3+-doped microsphere laser,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(4), 1501308 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Girard, L. Mescia, M. Vivona, A. Laurent, Y. Ouerdane, C. Marcandella, F. Prudenzano, A. Boukenter, T. Robin, P. Paillet, V. Goiffon, M. Gaillardin, B. Cadier, E. Pinsard, M. Cannas, and R. Boscaino, “Design of radiation-hardened rare-earth doped amplifiers through a coupled experiment/simulation approach,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(8), 1247–1254 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Mescia, P. Bia, M. De Sario, A. Di Tommaso, and F. Prudenzano, “Design of mid-infrared amplifiers based on fiber taper coupling to erbium-doped microspherical resonator,” Opt. Express 20(7), 7616–7629 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Giaquinto, L. Mescia, G. Fornarelli, and F. Prudenzano, “Particle swarm optimization-based approach for accurate evaluation of upconversion parameters in Er3+-doped fibers,” Opt. Lett. 36(2), 142–144 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Mescia, A. Giaquinto, G. Fornarelli, G. Acciani, M. De Sario, and F. Prudenzano, “Particle swarm optimization for the design and characterization of silica-based photonic crystal fiber amplifiers,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 357(8–9), 1851–1855 (2011).
[Crossref]

F. Prudenzano, L. Mescia, L. Allegretti, V. Moizan, V. Nazabal, and F. Smektala, “Theoretical study of cascade laser in erbium-doped chalcogenide glass fibers,” Opt. Mater. 33(2), 241–245 (2010).
[Crossref]

F. Prudenzano, L. Mescia, A. D’Orazio, M. De Sario, V. Petruzzelli, A. Chiasera, and M. Ferrari, “Optimization and characterization of rare earth doped photonic crystal fiber amplifier using genetic algorithm,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25(8), 2135–2142 (2007).
[Crossref]

Pulido, G. T.

C. A. Coello Coello, G. T. Pulido, and M. S. Lechuga, “Handling multiple objectives with particle swarm optimization,” IEEE Trans. Evol. Comput. 8(3), 256–279 (2004).
[Crossref]

Righini, G. C.

G. Nunzi Conti, A. Chiasera, L. Ghisa, S. Berneschi, M. Brenci, Y. Dumeige, S. Pelli, S. Sebastiani, P. Feron, M. Ferrari, and G. C. Righini, “Spectroscopic and lasing properties of Er3+ doped glass microspheres,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(23-25), 2360–2363 (2006).
[Crossref]

Robin, T.

S. Girard, L. Mescia, M. Vivona, A. Laurent, Y. Ouerdane, C. Marcandella, F. Prudenzano, A. Boukenter, T. Robin, P. Paillet, V. Goiffon, M. Gaillardin, B. Cadier, E. Pinsard, M. Cannas, and R. Boscaino, “Design of radiation-hardened rare-earth doped amplifiers through a coupled experiment/simulation approach,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(8), 1247–1254 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sebastiani, S.

G. Nunzi Conti, A. Chiasera, L. Ghisa, S. Berneschi, M. Brenci, Y. Dumeige, S. Pelli, S. Sebastiani, P. Feron, M. Ferrari, and G. C. Righini, “Spectroscopic and lasing properties of Er3+ doped glass microspheres,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(23-25), 2360–2363 (2006).
[Crossref]

Sen, R.

S. Y. Chen, T. Sun, K. T. V. Grattan, K. Annapurna, and R. Sen, “Characteristics of Er and Er–Yb–Cr doped phosphate microsphere fibre lasers,” Opt. Commun. 282(18), 3765–3769 (2009).
[Crossref]

Shopova, S. I.

Smektala, F.

F. Prudenzano, L. Mescia, L. Allegretti, V. Moizan, V. Nazabal, and F. Smektala, “Theoretical study of cascade laser in erbium-doped chalcogenide glass fibers,” Opt. Mater. 33(2), 241–245 (2010).
[Crossref]

V. Moizan, V. Nazabal, J. Troles, P. Houizot, J.-L. Adam, F. Smektala, G. Gadret, S. Pitois, J.-L. Doualan, R. Moncorgé, and G. Canat, “Er3+-doped GeGaSbS glasses for Mid-IR fibre laser application: Synthesis and rare earth spectroscopy,” Opt. Mater. 31(1), 39–46 (2008).
[Crossref]

Starecki, F.

M. C. Falconi, G. Palma, F. Starecki, V. Nazabal, J. Troles, S. Taccheo, M. Ferrari, and F. Prudenzano, “Design of an efficient pumping scheme for Mid-IR Dy3+:Ga5Ge20Sb10S65 PCF fiber laser,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(18), 1984–1987 (2016).
[Crossref]

Sun, F.-W.

Y.-Z. Yan, C.-L. Zou, S.-B. Yan, F.-W. Sun, J. Liu, C.-Y. Xue, Y.-G. Zhang, L. Wang, W.-D. Zhang, and J.-J. Xiong, “Robust spot-packaged microsphere-taper coupling structure for in-line optical sensors,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(22), 1736–1738 (2011).
[Crossref]

Sun, T.

S. Y. Chen, T. Sun, K. T. V. Grattan, K. Annapurna, and R. Sen, “Characteristics of Er and Er–Yb–Cr doped phosphate microsphere fibre lasers,” Opt. Commun. 282(18), 3765–3769 (2009).
[Crossref]

Taccheo, S.

M. C. Falconi, G. Palma, F. Starecki, V. Nazabal, J. Troles, S. Taccheo, M. Ferrari, and F. Prudenzano, “Design of an efficient pumping scheme for Mid-IR Dy3+:Ga5Ge20Sb10S65 PCF fiber laser,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(18), 1984–1987 (2016).
[Crossref]

Tanaka, K.

K. Miura, K. Tanaka, and K. Hirao, “CW laser oscillation on both the 4F3/2 –4I11/2 and 4F3/2–4I13/2 transitions of Nd3+ ions using a fluoride glass microsphere,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 213–214, 276–280 (1997).
[Crossref]

Troles, J.

M. C. Falconi, G. Palma, F. Starecki, V. Nazabal, J. Troles, S. Taccheo, M. Ferrari, and F. Prudenzano, “Design of an efficient pumping scheme for Mid-IR Dy3+:Ga5Ge20Sb10S65 PCF fiber laser,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(18), 1984–1987 (2016).
[Crossref]

V. Moizan, V. Nazabal, J. Troles, P. Houizot, J.-L. Adam, F. Smektala, G. Gadret, S. Pitois, J.-L. Doualan, R. Moncorgé, and G. Canat, “Er3+-doped GeGaSbS glasses for Mid-IR fibre laser application: Synthesis and rare earth spectroscopy,” Opt. Mater. 31(1), 39–46 (2008).
[Crossref]

Vahala, K. J.

K. J. Vahala, “Optical microcavities,” Nature 424(6950), 839–846 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Verret, L. S.

M. Charlebois, A. Paquet, L. S. Verret, K. Boissinot, M. Boissinot, M. G. Bergeron, and C. Nì Allen, “Differentiation between analyte absorption and homogenous index sensing in WGM biodetection,” IEEE Sens. J. 13(1), 229–233 (2013).
[Crossref]

Vivona, M.

S. Girard, L. Mescia, M. Vivona, A. Laurent, Y. Ouerdane, C. Marcandella, F. Prudenzano, A. Boukenter, T. Robin, P. Paillet, V. Goiffon, M. Gaillardin, B. Cadier, E. Pinsard, M. Cannas, and R. Boscaino, “Design of radiation-hardened rare-earth doped amplifiers through a coupled experiment/simulation approach,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(8), 1247–1254 (2013).
[Crossref]

Vollmer, F.

Wang, L.

Y.-Z. Yan, C.-L. Zou, S.-B. Yan, F.-W. Sun, J. Liu, C.-Y. Xue, Y.-G. Zhang, L. Wang, W.-D. Zhang, and J.-J. Xiong, “Robust spot-packaged microsphere-taper coupling structure for in-line optical sensors,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(22), 1736–1738 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ward, J. M.

J. M. Ward, P. Féron, and S. N. Chormaic, “A taper-fused microspherical laser source,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(6), 392–394 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wilkinson, J. S.

Wu, X.

Xiao, Y.

Xiong, J.-J.

Y.-Z. Yan, C.-L. Zou, S.-B. Yan, F.-W. Sun, J. Liu, C.-Y. Xue, Y.-G. Zhang, L. Wang, W.-D. Zhang, and J.-J. Xiong, “Robust spot-packaged microsphere-taper coupling structure for in-line optical sensors,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(22), 1736–1738 (2011).
[Crossref]

Xue, C.-Y.

Y.-Z. Yan, C.-L. Zou, S.-B. Yan, F.-W. Sun, J. Liu, C.-Y. Xue, Y.-G. Zhang, L. Wang, W.-D. Zhang, and J.-J. Xiong, “Robust spot-packaged microsphere-taper coupling structure for in-line optical sensors,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(22), 1736–1738 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yan, S.-B.

Y.-Z. Yan, C.-L. Zou, S.-B. Yan, F.-W. Sun, J. Liu, C.-Y. Xue, Y.-G. Zhang, L. Wang, W.-D. Zhang, and J.-J. Xiong, “Robust spot-packaged microsphere-taper coupling structure for in-line optical sensors,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(22), 1736–1738 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yan, Y.-Z.

Y.-Z. Yan, C.-L. Zou, S.-B. Yan, F.-W. Sun, J. Liu, C.-Y. Xue, Y.-G. Zhang, L. Wang, W.-D. Zhang, and J.-J. Xiong, “Robust spot-packaged microsphere-taper coupling structure for in-line optical sensors,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(22), 1736–1738 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yang, L.

L. He, S. K. Özdemir, J. Zhu, W. Kim, and L. Yang, “Detecting single viruses and nanoparticles using whispering gallery microlasers,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(7), 428–432 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, Y.

Yano, T.

G. Palma, C. Falconi, V. Nazabal, T. Yano, T. Kishi, T. Kumagai, M. Ferrari, and F. Prudenzano, “Modeling of Whispering Gallery Modes for rare earth spectroscopic characterization,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(17), 1861–1863 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yazawa, T.

K. Kadono, T. Yazawa, S. Jiang, J. Porque, B.-C. Hwang, and N. Peyghambarian, “Rate equation analysis and energy transfer of Er3+-doped Ga2S3–GeS2–La2S3 glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 331(1-3), 79–80 (2003).
[Crossref]

Zervas, M. N.

Zhang, W.-D.

Y.-Z. Yan, C.-L. Zou, S.-B. Yan, F.-W. Sun, J. Liu, C.-Y. Xue, Y.-G. Zhang, L. Wang, W.-D. Zhang, and J.-J. Xiong, “Robust spot-packaged microsphere-taper coupling structure for in-line optical sensors,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(22), 1736–1738 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y.-G.

Y.-Z. Yan, C.-L. Zou, S.-B. Yan, F.-W. Sun, J. Liu, C.-Y. Xue, Y.-G. Zhang, L. Wang, W.-D. Zhang, and J.-J. Xiong, “Robust spot-packaged microsphere-taper coupling structure for in-line optical sensors,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(22), 1736–1738 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhu, J.

L. He, S. K. Özdemir, J. Zhu, W. Kim, and L. Yang, “Detecting single viruses and nanoparticles using whispering gallery microlasers,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(7), 428–432 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zou, C.

Zou, C.-L.

Y.-Z. Yan, C.-L. Zou, S.-B. Yan, F.-W. Sun, J. Liu, C.-Y. Xue, Y.-G. Zhang, L. Wang, W.-D. Zhang, and J.-J. Xiong, “Robust spot-packaged microsphere-taper coupling structure for in-line optical sensors,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(22), 1736–1738 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zurawsky, W.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

C. Grillet, S. N. Bian, E. C. Magi, and B. J. Eggleton, “Fiber taper coupling to chalcogenide microsphere modes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(17), 171109 (2008).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics J. (1)

L. Mescia, P. Bia, O. Losito, and F. Prudenzano, “Design of Mid-IR Er3+-doped microsphere laser,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(4), 1501308 (2013).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (4)

J. M. Ward, P. Féron, and S. N. Chormaic, “A taper-fused microspherical laser source,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(6), 392–394 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. C. Falconi, G. Palma, F. Starecki, V. Nazabal, J. Troles, S. Taccheo, M. Ferrari, and F. Prudenzano, “Design of an efficient pumping scheme for Mid-IR Dy3+:Ga5Ge20Sb10S65 PCF fiber laser,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(18), 1984–1987 (2016).
[Crossref]

G. Palma, C. Falconi, V. Nazabal, T. Yano, T. Kishi, T. Kumagai, M. Ferrari, and F. Prudenzano, “Modeling of Whispering Gallery Modes for rare earth spectroscopic characterization,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(17), 1861–1863 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y.-Z. Yan, C.-L. Zou, S.-B. Yan, F.-W. Sun, J. Liu, C.-Y. Xue, Y.-G. Zhang, L. Wang, W.-D. Zhang, and J.-J. Xiong, “Robust spot-packaged microsphere-taper coupling structure for in-line optical sensors,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(22), 1736–1738 (2011).
[Crossref]

IEEE Sens. J. (2)

N. Miri and M. Mohammadzaheri, “Optical sensing using microspheres with different size and material,” IEEE Sens. J. 14(10), 3593–3598 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Charlebois, A. Paquet, L. S. Verret, K. Boissinot, M. Boissinot, M. G. Bergeron, and C. Nì Allen, “Differentiation between analyte absorption and homogenous index sensing in WGM biodetection,” IEEE Sens. J. 13(1), 229–233 (2013).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Evol. Comput. (1)

C. A. Coello Coello, G. T. Pulido, and M. S. Lechuga, “Handling multiple objectives with particle swarm optimization,” IEEE Trans. Evol. Comput. 8(3), 256–279 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (4)

F. Prudenzano, L. Mescia, A. D’Orazio, M. De Sario, V. Petruzzelli, A. Chiasera, and M. Ferrari, “Optimization and characterization of rare earth doped photonic crystal fiber amplifier using genetic algorithm,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25(8), 2135–2142 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. Girard, L. Mescia, M. Vivona, A. Laurent, Y. Ouerdane, C. Marcandella, F. Prudenzano, A. Boukenter, T. Robin, P. Paillet, V. Goiffon, M. Gaillardin, B. Cadier, E. Pinsard, M. Cannas, and R. Boscaino, “Design of radiation-hardened rare-earth doped amplifiers through a coupled experiment/simulation approach,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(8), 1247–1254 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. E. Little, J. P. Laine, and H. A. Haus, “Analytic theory of coupling from tapered fibers and half-blocks into microsphere resonators,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17(4), 704–715 (1999).
[Crossref]

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. Foresi, and J. P. Laine, “Microring resonator channel dropping filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(6), 998–1005 (1997).
[Crossref]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (4)

K. Kadono, T. Yazawa, S. Jiang, J. Porque, B.-C. Hwang, and N. Peyghambarian, “Rate equation analysis and energy transfer of Er3+-doped Ga2S3–GeS2–La2S3 glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 331(1-3), 79–80 (2003).
[Crossref]

G. Nunzi Conti, A. Chiasera, L. Ghisa, S. Berneschi, M. Brenci, Y. Dumeige, S. Pelli, S. Sebastiani, P. Feron, M. Ferrari, and G. C. Righini, “Spectroscopic and lasing properties of Er3+ doped glass microspheres,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(23-25), 2360–2363 (2006).
[Crossref]

K. Miura, K. Tanaka, and K. Hirao, “CW laser oscillation on both the 4F3/2 –4I11/2 and 4F3/2–4I13/2 transitions of Nd3+ ions using a fluoride glass microsphere,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 213–214, 276–280 (1997).
[Crossref]

L. Mescia, A. Giaquinto, G. Fornarelli, G. Acciani, M. De Sario, and F. Prudenzano, “Particle swarm optimization for the design and characterization of silica-based photonic crystal fiber amplifiers,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 357(8–9), 1851–1855 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Nat. Nanotechnol. (1)

L. He, S. K. Özdemir, J. Zhu, W. Kim, and L. Yang, “Detecting single viruses and nanoparticles using whispering gallery microlasers,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(7), 428–432 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nature (1)

K. J. Vahala, “Optical microcavities,” Nature 424(6950), 839–846 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

S. Y. Chen, T. Sun, K. T. V. Grattan, K. Annapurna, and R. Sen, “Characteristics of Er and Er–Yb–Cr doped phosphate microsphere fibre lasers,” Opt. Commun. 282(18), 3765–3769 (2009).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Opt. Mater. (2)

F. Prudenzano, L. Mescia, L. Allegretti, V. Moizan, V. Nazabal, and F. Smektala, “Theoretical study of cascade laser in erbium-doped chalcogenide glass fibers,” Opt. Mater. 33(2), 241–245 (2010).
[Crossref]

V. Moizan, V. Nazabal, J. Troles, P. Houizot, J.-L. Adam, F. Smektala, G. Gadret, S. Pitois, J.-L. Doualan, R. Moncorgé, and G. Canat, “Er3+-doped GeGaSbS glasses for Mid-IR fibre laser application: Synthesis and rare earth spectroscopy,” Opt. Mater. 31(1), 39–46 (2008).
[Crossref]

Other (4)

H. A. Haus, Waves and Fields in Optoelectronics (Prentice Hall Inc., 1984).

K. Vahala, Optical Microcavities (World Scientific Publishing, 2004).

M. J. F. Digonnet, Rare Earth-Doped Fiber Lasers and Amplifiers (Marcel Dekker Inc., 2001).

G. Palma, P. Bia, L. Mescia, T. Yano, V. Nazabal, J. Taguchi, A. Moréac, F. Prudenzano, “Design of fiber coupled Er3+: chalcogenide microsphere amplifier via particle swarm optimization algorithm,” Opt. Eng. 53(7), 071805 (2013).
[Crossref]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a).Simulated optical gain g versus the RSS geometrical parameters. For each curve, only the parameter specified in the legend is varied, the other parameters have the nominal values of Tables 1 and 2. Input pump power Pp = 140mW, input signal power SP = −50dBm. (b) Simulated optical gain g versus the rare earth coefficients. For each curve, only the coefficient specified in the legend is varied, the other parameters have the nominal values of Table 1 and 2. Input pump power Pp = 140 mW, input signal power Sp = - 50dBm.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Calculated RSS optical gain gk versus the input pump powers Pp. Input signal power is SP = −50 dBm. The geometrical and spectroscopic parameters are reported in Table 1 and 2.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 RSS output signal power S p o u t versus the wavelength. Input signal power Sp = 100 mW.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Position in C3-Cup and τ23 solution domains of the global best positions (dots) recovered via the RCPSO = 10 CPSO executions, the target values (circles) and the weighted means WMGBP reported in Table 5 (crosses).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Fitness function Φc (in logarithmic scale) versus τ2, τ3 and β32 for the global best positions p ¯ G B recovered by all the RCPSO = 10 executions in S) CPSO-III case. The vertical line represents the target position in each dimension.

Tables (7)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Spectroscopic Parameters of the Er3+-doped Chalcogenide Glass [21–24]

Tables Icon

Table 2 RSS Design Parameters

Tables Icon

Table 3 WGM Characteristics of RSS at Signal Wavelength λr

Tables Icon

Table 4 Geometrical G) Characterization

Tables Icon

Table 5 Spectroscopic Characterization, S) CPSO – I case

Tables Icon

Table 6 Spectroscopic Characterization, S) CPSO – II case

Tables Icon

Table 7 Spectroscopic Characterization, S) CPSO – III case

Equations (14)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Φ C ( p ¯ j ) = k = 1 N p ( R C k R C C P S O , k j ) 2 ,
W M G B P = r = 1 R C P S O ( p ¯ r G B × 1 Φ c ( p ¯ r G B ) ) r = 1 R C P S O 1 Φ c ( p ¯ r G B ) ,
E % = | W M G B P - V n o m | V n o m 100 ,
Φ S C ( p ¯ j ) = k = 1 N p ( g k g k j ) 2 ,
Φ G C ( p ¯ j ) = ( S p o u t S p , C P S O o u t , j ) 2 ,
v j ( n + 1 ) = χ × { v j ( n ) + c 1 × r 1 × [ p ¯ j P B ( n ) p ¯ j ( n ) ] + c 2 × r 2 × [ p ¯ G B ( n ) p ¯ j ( n ) ] } ,
p ¯ j ( n + 1 ) = p ¯ j ( n ) + v j ( n + 1 ) ,
C F = 2 | 2 χ χ 2 4 χ | ,
ψ l , m , n ( r , θ , γ ) = N s R ( r ) Θ ( θ ) Γ ( γ ) ,
W T ( z ) = W T ( 0 ) + | z | α ,
d A l , m , n P d t = ( 2 τ e x t 1 τ 0 O g l , m , n P + i Δ ω ) A l , m , n P i 2 τ e x t τ A i n . l , m , n P d A l , m , n S d t = ( 2 τ e x t 1 τ 0 O g l , m , n S + i Δ ω ) A l , m , n S + c 2 n e f f q N i q σ j i ( ω W G M ) Ω l , m , n q , S A 0 i 2 τ e x t τ A i n . l , m , n S
O g l , m , n y = c 2 n e f f ( q N i q σ j i ( ω W G M ) Ω l , m , n q , y q N i q σ i j ( ω W G M ) Ω l , m , n q , y ) .
g = | A o u t , l , m , n y A i n , l , m , n y | 2
Ω l , m , n q , y = A q | K l , m , n y ( r , θ ) | 2 r d r d θ ,

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