Abstract

We study the spectroscopic properties of thin films of potassium ytterbium gadolinium double tungstates, KYb0.57Gd0.43(WO4)2, and potassium ytterbium lutetium double tungstates, KYb0.76Lu0.24(WO4)2, specifically at the central absorption line near 981 nm wavelength, which is important for amplifiers and lasers. The absorption cross-section of both thin films is found to be similar to those of bulk potassium rare-earth double tungstates, suggesting that the crystalline layers retain their spectroscopic properties albeit having >50 at.% Yb3+ concentration. The influence of sample temperature is investigated and found to substantially affect the measured absorption cross-section. Since amplifiers and lasers typically operate above room temperature due to pump-induced heating, the temperature dependence of the peak-absorption cross-section of the KYb0.57Gd0.43(WO4)2 is evaluated for the sample being heated from 20 °C to 170 °C, resulting in a measured reduction of peak-absorption cross-section at the transitions near 933 nm and 981 nm by ~40% and ~52%, respectively. It is shown that two effects, the change of Stark-level population and linewidth broadening due to intra-manifold relaxation induced by temperature-dependent electron-phonon interaction, contribute to the observed behavior. The effective emission cross-sections versus temperature have been calculated. Luminescence-decay measurements show no significant dependence of the luminescence lifetime on temperature.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]
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2015 (1)

M. Eichhorn and M. Pollnau, “Spectroscopic foundations of lasers: spontaneous emission into a resonator mode,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(1), 900216 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

J. Körner, V. Jambunathan, J. Hein, R. Seifert, M. Loeser, M. Siebold, U. Schramm, P. Sikocinski, A. Lucianetti, T. Mocek, and M. C. Kaluza, “Spectroscopic characterization of Yb3+-doped laser materials at cryogenic temperatures,” Appl. Phys. B 116(1), 75–81 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

S. Aravazhi, D. Geskus, K. van Dalfsen, S. A. Vázquez-Córdova, C. Grivas, U. Griebner, S. M. García-Blanco, and M. Pollnau, “Engineering lattice matching, doping level, and optical properties of KY(WO4)2:Gd, Lu, Yb layers for a cladding-side-pumped channel waveguide laser,” Appl. Phys. B 111(3), 433–446 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Geskus, E. H. Bernhardi, K. van Dalfsen, S. Aravazhi, and M. Pollnau, “Highly efficient Yb3+-doped channel waveguide laser at 981 nm,” Opt. Express 21(11), 13773–13778 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (3)

2011 (2)

F. Balembois, M. Castaing, P. Georges, and T. Georges, “Line competition in an intracavity diode-pumped Yb:KYW laser operating at 981nm,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28(1), 115–122 (2011).
[Crossref]

G. G. Demirkhanyan and R. B. Kostanyan, “Temperature dependence of spectral-line intensities in YAG:Yb3+,” Laser Phys. 18(2), 104–111 (2011).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

G. G. Demirkhanyan, H. G. Demirkhanyan, E. P. Kokanyan, R. B. Kostanyan, J. B. Gruber, K. L. Nash, and D. K. Sardar, “Phonon effects on zero-phonon transitions between Stark levels in NaBi(WO4)2:Yb3+,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(6), 063106 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (3)

B. Jacobsson, “Experimental and theoretical investigation of a volume-Bragg-grating-locked Yb:KYW laser at selected wavelengths,” Opt. Express 16(9), 6443–6454 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Silvestre, A. Aznar, R. Solé, M. C. Pujol, F. Díaz, and M. Aguiló, “Lattice mismatch and crystal growth of monoclinic KY1−xYbx(WO4)2/KY(WO4)2 layers by liquid phase epitaxy,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 20(22), 225004 (2008).
[Crossref]

O. Silvestre, M. C. Pujol, R. Solé, W. Bolaños, J. J. Carvajal, J. Massons, M. Aguiló, and F. Diaz, “Ln3+:KLu(WO4)2/KLu(WO4)2 epitaxial layers: Crystal growth and physical characterisation,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 146(1-3), 59–65 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (4)

M. Pollnau, Y. E. Romanyuk, F. Gardillou, C. N. Borca, U. Griebner, S. Rivier, and V. Petrov, “Double tungstate lasers: From bulk toward on-chip integrated waveguide devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(3), 661–671 (2007).
[Crossref]

V. Petrov, M. Cinta Pujol, X. Mateos, Ò. Silvestre, S. Rivier, M. Aguiló, R. M. Solé, J. Liu, U. Griebner, and F. Díaz, “Growth and properties of KLu(WO4)2, and novel ytterbium and thulium lasers based on this monoclinic crystalline host,” Laser Photonics Rev. 1(2), 179–212 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. Kühn, S. T. Fredrich-Thornton, C. Kränkel, R. Peters, and K. Petermann, “Model for the calculation of radiation trapping and description of the pinhole method,” Opt. Lett. 32(13), 1908–1910 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Y. Fan, D. J. Ripin, R. L. Aggarwal, J. R. Ochoa, B. Chann, M. Tilleman, and J. Spitzberg, “Cryogenic Yb3+-doped solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(3), 448–459 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

X. Mateos, R. Solé, J. Gavaldà, M. Aguiló, J. Massons, and F. Díaz, “Crystal growth, optical and spectroscopic characterisation of monoclinic KY(WO4)2 co-doped with Er3+ and Yb3+,” Opt. Mater. 28(4), 423–431 (2006).
[Crossref]

X. Mateos, R. Solé, J. Gavaldà, M. Aguiló, J. Massons, F. Díaz, V. Petrov, and U. Griebner, “Crystal growth, spectroscopic studies and laser operation of Yb3+-doped potassium lutetium tungstate,” Opt. Mater. 28(5), 519–523 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

R. L. Aggarwal, D. J. Ripin, J. R. Ochoa, and T. Y. Fan, “Measurement of thermo-optic properties of Y3Al5O12, Lu3Al5O12, YAIO3, LiYF4, LiLuF4, BaY2F8, KGd(WO4)2, and KY(WO4)2 laser crystals in the 80–300,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 103514 (2005).
[Crossref]

K. Petermann, D. Fagundes-Peters, J. Johannsen, M. Mond, V. Peters, J. J. Romero, S. Kutovoi, J. Speiser, and A. Giesen, “Highly Yb-doped oxides for thin-disc lasers,” J. Cryst. Growth 275(1-2), 135–140 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

X. Mateos, M. C. Pujol, F. Guell, M. Galan, R. M. Sole, J. Gavalda, M. Aguilo, J. Massons, and F. Diaz, “Erbium spectroscopy and 1.5-μm emission in KGd(WO4)2: Er,Yb single crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(6), 759–770 (2004).
[Crossref]

X. Xu, Z. Zhao, P. Song, G. Zhou, J. Xu, and P. Deng, “Structural, thermal, and luminescent properties of Yb-doped Y3Al5O12 crystals,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21(3), 543–547 (2004).
[Crossref]

2002 (3)

M. C. Pujol, M. A. Bursukova, F. Güell, X. Mateos, R. Solé, J. Gavaldà, M. Aguiló, J. Massons, F. Díaz, P. Klopp, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, “Growth, optical characterization, and laser operation of a stoichiometric crystal KYb(WO4)2,” Phys. Rev. B 65(16), 165121 (2002).
[Crossref]

M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, R. Solé, J. Massons, J. Gavaldà, X. Solans, F. Díaz, and M. Aguiló, “Structure, crystal growth and physical anisotropy of KYb(WO4)2, a new laser matrix,” J. Appl. Cryst. 35(1), 108–112 (2002).
[Crossref]

P. Klopp, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, X. Mateos, M. A. Bursukova, M. C. Pujol, R. Sole, J. Gavalda, M. Aguilo, F. Güell, J. Massons, T. Kirilov, and F. Diaz, “Laser operation of the new stoichiometric crystal KYb(WO4)2,” Appl. Phys. B 74(2), 185–189 (2002).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

1992 (1)

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and W. F. Krupke, “Infrared cross-section measurement for crystals doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(11), 2619–2630 (1992).
[Crossref]

1984 (1)

M. R. Sharpe, “Stray light in UV-VIS spectrophotometers,” Anal. Chem. 56, 339–356 (1984).

Aggarwal, R. L.

T. Y. Fan, D. J. Ripin, R. L. Aggarwal, J. R. Ochoa, B. Chann, M. Tilleman, and J. Spitzberg, “Cryogenic Yb3+-doped solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(3), 448–459 (2007).
[Crossref]

R. L. Aggarwal, D. J. Ripin, J. R. Ochoa, and T. Y. Fan, “Measurement of thermo-optic properties of Y3Al5O12, Lu3Al5O12, YAIO3, LiYF4, LiLuF4, BaY2F8, KGd(WO4)2, and KY(WO4)2 laser crystals in the 80–300,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 103514 (2005).
[Crossref]

Aguilo, M.

X. Mateos, M. C. Pujol, F. Guell, M. Galan, R. M. Sole, J. Gavalda, M. Aguilo, J. Massons, and F. Diaz, “Erbium spectroscopy and 1.5-μm emission in KGd(WO4)2: Er,Yb single crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(6), 759–770 (2004).
[Crossref]

P. Klopp, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, X. Mateos, M. A. Bursukova, M. C. Pujol, R. Sole, J. Gavalda, M. Aguilo, F. Güell, J. Massons, T. Kirilov, and F. Diaz, “Laser operation of the new stoichiometric crystal KYb(WO4)2,” Appl. Phys. B 74(2), 185–189 (2002).
[Crossref]

Aguiló, M.

O. Silvestre, A. Aznar, R. Solé, M. C. Pujol, F. Díaz, and M. Aguiló, “Lattice mismatch and crystal growth of monoclinic KY1−xYbx(WO4)2/KY(WO4)2 layers by liquid phase epitaxy,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 20(22), 225004 (2008).
[Crossref]

O. Silvestre, M. C. Pujol, R. Solé, W. Bolaños, J. J. Carvajal, J. Massons, M. Aguiló, and F. Diaz, “Ln3+:KLu(WO4)2/KLu(WO4)2 epitaxial layers: Crystal growth and physical characterisation,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 146(1-3), 59–65 (2008).
[Crossref]

V. Petrov, M. Cinta Pujol, X. Mateos, Ò. Silvestre, S. Rivier, M. Aguiló, R. M. Solé, J. Liu, U. Griebner, and F. Díaz, “Growth and properties of KLu(WO4)2, and novel ytterbium and thulium lasers based on this monoclinic crystalline host,” Laser Photonics Rev. 1(2), 179–212 (2007).
[Crossref]

X. Mateos, R. Solé, J. Gavaldà, M. Aguiló, J. Massons, and F. Díaz, “Crystal growth, optical and spectroscopic characterisation of monoclinic KY(WO4)2 co-doped with Er3+ and Yb3+,” Opt. Mater. 28(4), 423–431 (2006).
[Crossref]

X. Mateos, R. Solé, J. Gavaldà, M. Aguiló, J. Massons, F. Díaz, V. Petrov, and U. Griebner, “Crystal growth, spectroscopic studies and laser operation of Yb3+-doped potassium lutetium tungstate,” Opt. Mater. 28(5), 519–523 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. C. Pujol, M. A. Bursukova, F. Güell, X. Mateos, R. Solé, J. Gavaldà, M. Aguiló, J. Massons, F. Díaz, P. Klopp, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, “Growth, optical characterization, and laser operation of a stoichiometric crystal KYb(WO4)2,” Phys. Rev. B 65(16), 165121 (2002).
[Crossref]

M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, R. Solé, J. Massons, J. Gavaldà, X. Solans, F. Díaz, and M. Aguiló, “Structure, crystal growth and physical anisotropy of KYb(WO4)2, a new laser matrix,” J. Appl. Cryst. 35(1), 108–112 (2002).
[Crossref]

Aravazhi, S.

S. Aravazhi, D. Geskus, K. van Dalfsen, S. A. Vázquez-Córdova, C. Grivas, U. Griebner, S. M. García-Blanco, and M. Pollnau, “Engineering lattice matching, doping level, and optical properties of KY(WO4)2:Gd, Lu, Yb layers for a cladding-side-pumped channel waveguide laser,” Appl. Phys. B 111(3), 433–446 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Geskus, E. H. Bernhardi, K. van Dalfsen, S. Aravazhi, and M. Pollnau, “Highly efficient Yb3+-doped channel waveguide laser at 981 nm,” Opt. Express 21(11), 13773–13778 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Geskus, S. Aravazhi, S. M. García-Blanco, and M. Pollnau, “Giant optical gain in a rare-earth-ion-doped microstructure,” Adv. Mater. 24(10), OP19–OP22 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aznar, A.

O. Silvestre, A. Aznar, R. Solé, M. C. Pujol, F. Díaz, and M. Aguiló, “Lattice mismatch and crystal growth of monoclinic KY1−xYbx(WO4)2/KY(WO4)2 layers by liquid phase epitaxy,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 20(22), 225004 (2008).
[Crossref]

Balembois, F.

Bernhardi, E. H.

Bolaños, W.

O. Silvestre, M. C. Pujol, R. Solé, W. Bolaños, J. J. Carvajal, J. Massons, M. Aguiló, and F. Diaz, “Ln3+:KLu(WO4)2/KLu(WO4)2 epitaxial layers: Crystal growth and physical characterisation,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 146(1-3), 59–65 (2008).
[Crossref]

Borca, C. N.

M. Pollnau, Y. E. Romanyuk, F. Gardillou, C. N. Borca, U. Griebner, S. Rivier, and V. Petrov, “Double tungstate lasers: From bulk toward on-chip integrated waveguide devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(3), 661–671 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bursukova, M. A.

P. Klopp, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, X. Mateos, M. A. Bursukova, M. C. Pujol, R. Sole, J. Gavalda, M. Aguilo, F. Güell, J. Massons, T. Kirilov, and F. Diaz, “Laser operation of the new stoichiometric crystal KYb(WO4)2,” Appl. Phys. B 74(2), 185–189 (2002).
[Crossref]

M. C. Pujol, M. A. Bursukova, F. Güell, X. Mateos, R. Solé, J. Gavaldà, M. Aguiló, J. Massons, F. Díaz, P. Klopp, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, “Growth, optical characterization, and laser operation of a stoichiometric crystal KYb(WO4)2,” Phys. Rev. B 65(16), 165121 (2002).
[Crossref]

Carvajal, J. J.

O. Silvestre, M. C. Pujol, R. Solé, W. Bolaños, J. J. Carvajal, J. Massons, M. Aguiló, and F. Diaz, “Ln3+:KLu(WO4)2/KLu(WO4)2 epitaxial layers: Crystal growth and physical characterisation,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 146(1-3), 59–65 (2008).
[Crossref]

Castaing, M.

Chann, B.

T. Y. Fan, D. J. Ripin, R. L. Aggarwal, J. R. Ochoa, B. Chann, M. Tilleman, and J. Spitzberg, “Cryogenic Yb3+-doped solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(3), 448–459 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chase, L. L.

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and W. F. Krupke, “Infrared cross-section measurement for crystals doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(11), 2619–2630 (1992).
[Crossref]

Cinta Pujol, M.

V. Petrov, M. Cinta Pujol, X. Mateos, Ò. Silvestre, S. Rivier, M. Aguiló, R. M. Solé, J. Liu, U. Griebner, and F. Díaz, “Growth and properties of KLu(WO4)2, and novel ytterbium and thulium lasers based on this monoclinic crystalline host,” Laser Photonics Rev. 1(2), 179–212 (2007).
[Crossref]

Demirkhanyan, G. G.

G. G. Demirkhanyan and R. B. Kostanyan, “Temperature dependence of spectral-line intensities in YAG:Yb3+,” Laser Phys. 18(2), 104–111 (2011).
[Crossref]

G. G. Demirkhanyan, H. G. Demirkhanyan, E. P. Kokanyan, R. B. Kostanyan, J. B. Gruber, K. L. Nash, and D. K. Sardar, “Phonon effects on zero-phonon transitions between Stark levels in NaBi(WO4)2:Yb3+,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(6), 063106 (2009).
[Crossref]

Demirkhanyan, H. G.

G. G. Demirkhanyan, H. G. Demirkhanyan, E. P. Kokanyan, R. B. Kostanyan, J. B. Gruber, K. L. Nash, and D. K. Sardar, “Phonon effects on zero-phonon transitions between Stark levels in NaBi(WO4)2:Yb3+,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(6), 063106 (2009).
[Crossref]

Deng, P.

Diaz, F.

O. Silvestre, M. C. Pujol, R. Solé, W. Bolaños, J. J. Carvajal, J. Massons, M. Aguiló, and F. Diaz, “Ln3+:KLu(WO4)2/KLu(WO4)2 epitaxial layers: Crystal growth and physical characterisation,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 146(1-3), 59–65 (2008).
[Crossref]

X. Mateos, M. C. Pujol, F. Guell, M. Galan, R. M. Sole, J. Gavalda, M. Aguilo, J. Massons, and F. Diaz, “Erbium spectroscopy and 1.5-μm emission in KGd(WO4)2: Er,Yb single crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(6), 759–770 (2004).
[Crossref]

P. Klopp, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, X. Mateos, M. A. Bursukova, M. C. Pujol, R. Sole, J. Gavalda, M. Aguilo, F. Güell, J. Massons, T. Kirilov, and F. Diaz, “Laser operation of the new stoichiometric crystal KYb(WO4)2,” Appl. Phys. B 74(2), 185–189 (2002).
[Crossref]

Díaz, F.

O. Silvestre, A. Aznar, R. Solé, M. C. Pujol, F. Díaz, and M. Aguiló, “Lattice mismatch and crystal growth of monoclinic KY1−xYbx(WO4)2/KY(WO4)2 layers by liquid phase epitaxy,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 20(22), 225004 (2008).
[Crossref]

V. Petrov, M. Cinta Pujol, X. Mateos, Ò. Silvestre, S. Rivier, M. Aguiló, R. M. Solé, J. Liu, U. Griebner, and F. Díaz, “Growth and properties of KLu(WO4)2, and novel ytterbium and thulium lasers based on this monoclinic crystalline host,” Laser Photonics Rev. 1(2), 179–212 (2007).
[Crossref]

X. Mateos, R. Solé, J. Gavaldà, M. Aguiló, J. Massons, F. Díaz, V. Petrov, and U. Griebner, “Crystal growth, spectroscopic studies and laser operation of Yb3+-doped potassium lutetium tungstate,” Opt. Mater. 28(5), 519–523 (2006).
[Crossref]

X. Mateos, R. Solé, J. Gavaldà, M. Aguiló, J. Massons, and F. Díaz, “Crystal growth, optical and spectroscopic characterisation of monoclinic KY(WO4)2 co-doped with Er3+ and Yb3+,” Opt. Mater. 28(4), 423–431 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. C. Pujol, M. A. Bursukova, F. Güell, X. Mateos, R. Solé, J. Gavaldà, M. Aguiló, J. Massons, F. Díaz, P. Klopp, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, “Growth, optical characterization, and laser operation of a stoichiometric crystal KYb(WO4)2,” Phys. Rev. B 65(16), 165121 (2002).
[Crossref]

M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, R. Solé, J. Massons, J. Gavaldà, X. Solans, F. Díaz, and M. Aguiló, “Structure, crystal growth and physical anisotropy of KYb(WO4)2, a new laser matrix,” J. Appl. Cryst. 35(1), 108–112 (2002).
[Crossref]

Eichhorn, M.

M. Eichhorn and M. Pollnau, “Spectroscopic foundations of lasers: spontaneous emission into a resonator mode,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(1), 900216 (2015).
[Crossref]

Fagundes-Peters, D.

K. Petermann, D. Fagundes-Peters, J. Johannsen, M. Mond, V. Peters, J. J. Romero, S. Kutovoi, J. Speiser, and A. Giesen, “Highly Yb-doped oxides for thin-disc lasers,” J. Cryst. Growth 275(1-2), 135–140 (2005).
[Crossref]

Fan, T. Y.

T. Y. Fan, D. J. Ripin, R. L. Aggarwal, J. R. Ochoa, B. Chann, M. Tilleman, and J. Spitzberg, “Cryogenic Yb3+-doped solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(3), 448–459 (2007).
[Crossref]

R. L. Aggarwal, D. J. Ripin, J. R. Ochoa, and T. Y. Fan, “Measurement of thermo-optic properties of Y3Al5O12, Lu3Al5O12, YAIO3, LiYF4, LiLuF4, BaY2F8, KGd(WO4)2, and KY(WO4)2 laser crystals in the 80–300,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 103514 (2005).
[Crossref]

Fredrich-Thornton, S. T.

Galan, M.

X. Mateos, M. C. Pujol, F. Guell, M. Galan, R. M. Sole, J. Gavalda, M. Aguilo, J. Massons, and F. Diaz, “Erbium spectroscopy and 1.5-μm emission in KGd(WO4)2: Er,Yb single crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(6), 759–770 (2004).
[Crossref]

García-Blanco, S. M.

S. Aravazhi, D. Geskus, K. van Dalfsen, S. A. Vázquez-Córdova, C. Grivas, U. Griebner, S. M. García-Blanco, and M. Pollnau, “Engineering lattice matching, doping level, and optical properties of KY(WO4)2:Gd, Lu, Yb layers for a cladding-side-pumped channel waveguide laser,” Appl. Phys. B 111(3), 433–446 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Geskus, S. Aravazhi, S. M. García-Blanco, and M. Pollnau, “Giant optical gain in a rare-earth-ion-doped microstructure,” Adv. Mater. 24(10), OP19–OP22 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gardillou, F.

M. Pollnau, Y. E. Romanyuk, F. Gardillou, C. N. Borca, U. Griebner, S. Rivier, and V. Petrov, “Double tungstate lasers: From bulk toward on-chip integrated waveguide devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(3), 661–671 (2007).
[Crossref]

Gavalda, J.

X. Mateos, M. C. Pujol, F. Guell, M. Galan, R. M. Sole, J. Gavalda, M. Aguilo, J. Massons, and F. Diaz, “Erbium spectroscopy and 1.5-μm emission in KGd(WO4)2: Er,Yb single crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(6), 759–770 (2004).
[Crossref]

P. Klopp, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, X. Mateos, M. A. Bursukova, M. C. Pujol, R. Sole, J. Gavalda, M. Aguilo, F. Güell, J. Massons, T. Kirilov, and F. Diaz, “Laser operation of the new stoichiometric crystal KYb(WO4)2,” Appl. Phys. B 74(2), 185–189 (2002).
[Crossref]

Gavaldà, J.

X. Mateos, R. Solé, J. Gavaldà, M. Aguiló, J. Massons, F. Díaz, V. Petrov, and U. Griebner, “Crystal growth, spectroscopic studies and laser operation of Yb3+-doped potassium lutetium tungstate,” Opt. Mater. 28(5), 519–523 (2006).
[Crossref]

X. Mateos, R. Solé, J. Gavaldà, M. Aguiló, J. Massons, and F. Díaz, “Crystal growth, optical and spectroscopic characterisation of monoclinic KY(WO4)2 co-doped with Er3+ and Yb3+,” Opt. Mater. 28(4), 423–431 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. C. Pujol, M. A. Bursukova, F. Güell, X. Mateos, R. Solé, J. Gavaldà, M. Aguiló, J. Massons, F. Díaz, P. Klopp, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, “Growth, optical characterization, and laser operation of a stoichiometric crystal KYb(WO4)2,” Phys. Rev. B 65(16), 165121 (2002).
[Crossref]

M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, R. Solé, J. Massons, J. Gavaldà, X. Solans, F. Díaz, and M. Aguiló, “Structure, crystal growth and physical anisotropy of KYb(WO4)2, a new laser matrix,” J. Appl. Cryst. 35(1), 108–112 (2002).
[Crossref]

Georges, P.

Georges, T.

Geskus, D.

D. Geskus, E. H. Bernhardi, K. van Dalfsen, S. Aravazhi, and M. Pollnau, “Highly efficient Yb3+-doped channel waveguide laser at 981 nm,” Opt. Express 21(11), 13773–13778 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Aravazhi, D. Geskus, K. van Dalfsen, S. A. Vázquez-Córdova, C. Grivas, U. Griebner, S. M. García-Blanco, and M. Pollnau, “Engineering lattice matching, doping level, and optical properties of KY(WO4)2:Gd, Lu, Yb layers for a cladding-side-pumped channel waveguide laser,” Appl. Phys. B 111(3), 433–446 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Geskus, S. Aravazhi, S. M. García-Blanco, and M. Pollnau, “Giant optical gain in a rare-earth-ion-doped microstructure,” Adv. Mater. 24(10), OP19–OP22 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Giesen, A.

K. Petermann, D. Fagundes-Peters, J. Johannsen, M. Mond, V. Peters, J. J. Romero, S. Kutovoi, J. Speiser, and A. Giesen, “Highly Yb-doped oxides for thin-disc lasers,” J. Cryst. Growth 275(1-2), 135–140 (2005).
[Crossref]

Griebner, U.

S. Aravazhi, D. Geskus, K. van Dalfsen, S. A. Vázquez-Córdova, C. Grivas, U. Griebner, S. M. García-Blanco, and M. Pollnau, “Engineering lattice matching, doping level, and optical properties of KY(WO4)2:Gd, Lu, Yb layers for a cladding-side-pumped channel waveguide laser,” Appl. Phys. B 111(3), 433–446 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Pollnau, Y. E. Romanyuk, F. Gardillou, C. N. Borca, U. Griebner, S. Rivier, and V. Petrov, “Double tungstate lasers: From bulk toward on-chip integrated waveguide devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(3), 661–671 (2007).
[Crossref]

V. Petrov, M. Cinta Pujol, X. Mateos, Ò. Silvestre, S. Rivier, M. Aguiló, R. M. Solé, J. Liu, U. Griebner, and F. Díaz, “Growth and properties of KLu(WO4)2, and novel ytterbium and thulium lasers based on this monoclinic crystalline host,” Laser Photonics Rev. 1(2), 179–212 (2007).
[Crossref]

X. Mateos, R. Solé, J. Gavaldà, M. Aguiló, J. Massons, F. Díaz, V. Petrov, and U. Griebner, “Crystal growth, spectroscopic studies and laser operation of Yb3+-doped potassium lutetium tungstate,” Opt. Mater. 28(5), 519–523 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. C. Pujol, M. A. Bursukova, F. Güell, X. Mateos, R. Solé, J. Gavaldà, M. Aguiló, J. Massons, F. Díaz, P. Klopp, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, “Growth, optical characterization, and laser operation of a stoichiometric crystal KYb(WO4)2,” Phys. Rev. B 65(16), 165121 (2002).
[Crossref]

P. Klopp, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, X. Mateos, M. A. Bursukova, M. C. Pujol, R. Sole, J. Gavalda, M. Aguilo, F. Güell, J. Massons, T. Kirilov, and F. Diaz, “Laser operation of the new stoichiometric crystal KYb(WO4)2,” Appl. Phys. B 74(2), 185–189 (2002).
[Crossref]

Grivas, C.

S. Aravazhi, D. Geskus, K. van Dalfsen, S. A. Vázquez-Córdova, C. Grivas, U. Griebner, S. M. García-Blanco, and M. Pollnau, “Engineering lattice matching, doping level, and optical properties of KY(WO4)2:Gd, Lu, Yb layers for a cladding-side-pumped channel waveguide laser,” Appl. Phys. B 111(3), 433–446 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gruber, J. B.

G. G. Demirkhanyan, H. G. Demirkhanyan, E. P. Kokanyan, R. B. Kostanyan, J. B. Gruber, K. L. Nash, and D. K. Sardar, “Phonon effects on zero-phonon transitions between Stark levels in NaBi(WO4)2:Yb3+,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(6), 063106 (2009).
[Crossref]

Guell, F.

X. Mateos, M. C. Pujol, F. Guell, M. Galan, R. M. Sole, J. Gavalda, M. Aguilo, J. Massons, and F. Diaz, “Erbium spectroscopy and 1.5-μm emission in KGd(WO4)2: Er,Yb single crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(6), 759–770 (2004).
[Crossref]

Güell, F.

P. Klopp, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, X. Mateos, M. A. Bursukova, M. C. Pujol, R. Sole, J. Gavalda, M. Aguilo, F. Güell, J. Massons, T. Kirilov, and F. Diaz, “Laser operation of the new stoichiometric crystal KYb(WO4)2,” Appl. Phys. B 74(2), 185–189 (2002).
[Crossref]

M. C. Pujol, M. A. Bursukova, F. Güell, X. Mateos, R. Solé, J. Gavaldà, M. Aguiló, J. Massons, F. Díaz, P. Klopp, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, “Growth, optical characterization, and laser operation of a stoichiometric crystal KYb(WO4)2,” Phys. Rev. B 65(16), 165121 (2002).
[Crossref]

Hein, J.

J. Körner, V. Jambunathan, J. Hein, R. Seifert, M. Loeser, M. Siebold, U. Schramm, P. Sikocinski, A. Lucianetti, T. Mocek, and M. C. Kaluza, “Spectroscopic characterization of Yb3+-doped laser materials at cryogenic temperatures,” Appl. Phys. B 116(1), 75–81 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Koerner, C. Vorholt, H. Liebetrau, M. Kahle, D. Kloepfel, R. Seifert, J. Hein, and M. C. Kaluza, “Measurement of temperature-dependent absorption and emission spectra of Yb:YAG, Yb:LuAG, and Yb:CaF2 between 20 °C and 200 °C and predictions on their influence on laser performance,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 29(9), 2493 (2012).
[Crossref]

Huber, G.

Jacobsson, B.

Jambunathan, V.

J. Körner, V. Jambunathan, J. Hein, R. Seifert, M. Loeser, M. Siebold, U. Schramm, P. Sikocinski, A. Lucianetti, T. Mocek, and M. C. Kaluza, “Spectroscopic characterization of Yb3+-doped laser materials at cryogenic temperatures,” Appl. Phys. B 116(1), 75–81 (2014).
[Crossref]

Johannsen, J.

K. Petermann, D. Fagundes-Peters, J. Johannsen, M. Mond, V. Peters, J. J. Romero, S. Kutovoi, J. Speiser, and A. Giesen, “Highly Yb-doped oxides for thin-disc lasers,” J. Cryst. Growth 275(1-2), 135–140 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kahle, M.

Kaluza, M. C.

J. Körner, V. Jambunathan, J. Hein, R. Seifert, M. Loeser, M. Siebold, U. Schramm, P. Sikocinski, A. Lucianetti, T. Mocek, and M. C. Kaluza, “Spectroscopic characterization of Yb3+-doped laser materials at cryogenic temperatures,” Appl. Phys. B 116(1), 75–81 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Koerner, C. Vorholt, H. Liebetrau, M. Kahle, D. Kloepfel, R. Seifert, J. Hein, and M. C. Kaluza, “Measurement of temperature-dependent absorption and emission spectra of Yb:YAG, Yb:LuAG, and Yb:CaF2 between 20 °C and 200 °C and predictions on their influence on laser performance,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 29(9), 2493 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kirilov, T.

P. Klopp, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, X. Mateos, M. A. Bursukova, M. C. Pujol, R. Sole, J. Gavalda, M. Aguilo, F. Güell, J. Massons, T. Kirilov, and F. Diaz, “Laser operation of the new stoichiometric crystal KYb(WO4)2,” Appl. Phys. B 74(2), 185–189 (2002).
[Crossref]

Kloepfel, D.

Klopp, P.

P. Klopp, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, X. Mateos, M. A. Bursukova, M. C. Pujol, R. Sole, J. Gavalda, M. Aguilo, F. Güell, J. Massons, T. Kirilov, and F. Diaz, “Laser operation of the new stoichiometric crystal KYb(WO4)2,” Appl. Phys. B 74(2), 185–189 (2002).
[Crossref]

M. C. Pujol, M. A. Bursukova, F. Güell, X. Mateos, R. Solé, J. Gavaldà, M. Aguiló, J. Massons, F. Díaz, P. Klopp, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, “Growth, optical characterization, and laser operation of a stoichiometric crystal KYb(WO4)2,” Phys. Rev. B 65(16), 165121 (2002).
[Crossref]

Koerner, J.

Kokanyan, E. P.

G. G. Demirkhanyan, H. G. Demirkhanyan, E. P. Kokanyan, R. B. Kostanyan, J. B. Gruber, K. L. Nash, and D. K. Sardar, “Phonon effects on zero-phonon transitions between Stark levels in NaBi(WO4)2:Yb3+,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(6), 063106 (2009).
[Crossref]

Körner, J.

J. Körner, V. Jambunathan, J. Hein, R. Seifert, M. Loeser, M. Siebold, U. Schramm, P. Sikocinski, A. Lucianetti, T. Mocek, and M. C. Kaluza, “Spectroscopic characterization of Yb3+-doped laser materials at cryogenic temperatures,” Appl. Phys. B 116(1), 75–81 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kostanyan, R. B.

G. G. Demirkhanyan and R. B. Kostanyan, “Temperature dependence of spectral-line intensities in YAG:Yb3+,” Laser Phys. 18(2), 104–111 (2011).
[Crossref]

G. G. Demirkhanyan, H. G. Demirkhanyan, E. P. Kokanyan, R. B. Kostanyan, J. B. Gruber, K. L. Nash, and D. K. Sardar, “Phonon effects on zero-phonon transitions between Stark levels in NaBi(WO4)2:Yb3+,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(6), 063106 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kränkel, C.

Krupke, W. F.

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and W. F. Krupke, “Infrared cross-section measurement for crystals doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(11), 2619–2630 (1992).
[Crossref]

Kühn, H.

Kuleshov, N. V.

Kutovoi, S.

K. Petermann, D. Fagundes-Peters, J. Johannsen, M. Mond, V. Peters, J. J. Romero, S. Kutovoi, J. Speiser, and A. Giesen, “Highly Yb-doped oxides for thin-disc lasers,” J. Cryst. Growth 275(1-2), 135–140 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kway, W. L.

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and W. F. Krupke, “Infrared cross-section measurement for crystals doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(11), 2619–2630 (1992).
[Crossref]

Lagatsky, A. A.

Liebetrau, H.

Lin, H.

Liu, J.

V. Petrov, M. Cinta Pujol, X. Mateos, Ò. Silvestre, S. Rivier, M. Aguiló, R. M. Solé, J. Liu, U. Griebner, and F. Díaz, “Growth and properties of KLu(WO4)2, and novel ytterbium and thulium lasers based on this monoclinic crystalline host,” Laser Photonics Rev. 1(2), 179–212 (2007).
[Crossref]

Loeser, M.

J. Körner, V. Jambunathan, J. Hein, R. Seifert, M. Loeser, M. Siebold, U. Schramm, P. Sikocinski, A. Lucianetti, T. Mocek, and M. C. Kaluza, “Spectroscopic characterization of Yb3+-doped laser materials at cryogenic temperatures,” Appl. Phys. B 116(1), 75–81 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lucianetti, A.

J. Körner, V. Jambunathan, J. Hein, R. Seifert, M. Loeser, M. Siebold, U. Schramm, P. Sikocinski, A. Lucianetti, T. Mocek, and M. C. Kaluza, “Spectroscopic characterization of Yb3+-doped laser materials at cryogenic temperatures,” Appl. Phys. B 116(1), 75–81 (2014).
[Crossref]

Luo, D.

Massons, J.

O. Silvestre, M. C. Pujol, R. Solé, W. Bolaños, J. J. Carvajal, J. Massons, M. Aguiló, and F. Diaz, “Ln3+:KLu(WO4)2/KLu(WO4)2 epitaxial layers: Crystal growth and physical characterisation,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 146(1-3), 59–65 (2008).
[Crossref]

X. Mateos, R. Solé, J. Gavaldà, M. Aguiló, J. Massons, F. Díaz, V. Petrov, and U. Griebner, “Crystal growth, spectroscopic studies and laser operation of Yb3+-doped potassium lutetium tungstate,” Opt. Mater. 28(5), 519–523 (2006).
[Crossref]

X. Mateos, R. Solé, J. Gavaldà, M. Aguiló, J. Massons, and F. Díaz, “Crystal growth, optical and spectroscopic characterisation of monoclinic KY(WO4)2 co-doped with Er3+ and Yb3+,” Opt. Mater. 28(4), 423–431 (2006).
[Crossref]

X. Mateos, M. C. Pujol, F. Guell, M. Galan, R. M. Sole, J. Gavalda, M. Aguilo, J. Massons, and F. Diaz, “Erbium spectroscopy and 1.5-μm emission in KGd(WO4)2: Er,Yb single crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(6), 759–770 (2004).
[Crossref]

M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, R. Solé, J. Massons, J. Gavaldà, X. Solans, F. Díaz, and M. Aguiló, “Structure, crystal growth and physical anisotropy of KYb(WO4)2, a new laser matrix,” J. Appl. Cryst. 35(1), 108–112 (2002).
[Crossref]

P. Klopp, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, X. Mateos, M. A. Bursukova, M. C. Pujol, R. Sole, J. Gavalda, M. Aguilo, F. Güell, J. Massons, T. Kirilov, and F. Diaz, “Laser operation of the new stoichiometric crystal KYb(WO4)2,” Appl. Phys. B 74(2), 185–189 (2002).
[Crossref]

M. C. Pujol, M. A. Bursukova, F. Güell, X. Mateos, R. Solé, J. Gavaldà, M. Aguiló, J. Massons, F. Díaz, P. Klopp, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, “Growth, optical characterization, and laser operation of a stoichiometric crystal KYb(WO4)2,” Phys. Rev. B 65(16), 165121 (2002).
[Crossref]

Mateos, X.

V. Petrov, M. Cinta Pujol, X. Mateos, Ò. Silvestre, S. Rivier, M. Aguiló, R. M. Solé, J. Liu, U. Griebner, and F. Díaz, “Growth and properties of KLu(WO4)2, and novel ytterbium and thulium lasers based on this monoclinic crystalline host,” Laser Photonics Rev. 1(2), 179–212 (2007).
[Crossref]

X. Mateos, R. Solé, J. Gavaldà, M. Aguiló, J. Massons, F. Díaz, V. Petrov, and U. Griebner, “Crystal growth, spectroscopic studies and laser operation of Yb3+-doped potassium lutetium tungstate,” Opt. Mater. 28(5), 519–523 (2006).
[Crossref]

X. Mateos, R. Solé, J. Gavaldà, M. Aguiló, J. Massons, and F. Díaz, “Crystal growth, optical and spectroscopic characterisation of monoclinic KY(WO4)2 co-doped with Er3+ and Yb3+,” Opt. Mater. 28(4), 423–431 (2006).
[Crossref]

X. Mateos, M. C. Pujol, F. Guell, M. Galan, R. M. Sole, J. Gavalda, M. Aguilo, J. Massons, and F. Diaz, “Erbium spectroscopy and 1.5-μm emission in KGd(WO4)2: Er,Yb single crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(6), 759–770 (2004).
[Crossref]

M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, R. Solé, J. Massons, J. Gavaldà, X. Solans, F. Díaz, and M. Aguiló, “Structure, crystal growth and physical anisotropy of KYb(WO4)2, a new laser matrix,” J. Appl. Cryst. 35(1), 108–112 (2002).
[Crossref]

P. Klopp, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, X. Mateos, M. A. Bursukova, M. C. Pujol, R. Sole, J. Gavalda, M. Aguilo, F. Güell, J. Massons, T. Kirilov, and F. Diaz, “Laser operation of the new stoichiometric crystal KYb(WO4)2,” Appl. Phys. B 74(2), 185–189 (2002).
[Crossref]

M. C. Pujol, M. A. Bursukova, F. Güell, X. Mateos, R. Solé, J. Gavaldà, M. Aguiló, J. Massons, F. Díaz, P. Klopp, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, “Growth, optical characterization, and laser operation of a stoichiometric crystal KYb(WO4)2,” Phys. Rev. B 65(16), 165121 (2002).
[Crossref]

Mikhailov, V. P.

Mocek, T.

J. Körner, V. Jambunathan, J. Hein, R. Seifert, M. Loeser, M. Siebold, U. Schramm, P. Sikocinski, A. Lucianetti, T. Mocek, and M. C. Kaluza, “Spectroscopic characterization of Yb3+-doped laser materials at cryogenic temperatures,” Appl. Phys. B 116(1), 75–81 (2014).
[Crossref]

Mond, M.

K. Petermann, D. Fagundes-Peters, J. Johannsen, M. Mond, V. Peters, J. J. Romero, S. Kutovoi, J. Speiser, and A. Giesen, “Highly Yb-doped oxides for thin-disc lasers,” J. Cryst. Growth 275(1-2), 135–140 (2005).
[Crossref]

Nash, K. L.

G. G. Demirkhanyan, H. G. Demirkhanyan, E. P. Kokanyan, R. B. Kostanyan, J. B. Gruber, K. L. Nash, and D. K. Sardar, “Phonon effects on zero-phonon transitions between Stark levels in NaBi(WO4)2:Yb3+,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(6), 063106 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ochoa, J. R.

T. Y. Fan, D. J. Ripin, R. L. Aggarwal, J. R. Ochoa, B. Chann, M. Tilleman, and J. Spitzberg, “Cryogenic Yb3+-doped solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(3), 448–459 (2007).
[Crossref]

R. L. Aggarwal, D. J. Ripin, J. R. Ochoa, and T. Y. Fan, “Measurement of thermo-optic properties of Y3Al5O12, Lu3Al5O12, YAIO3, LiYF4, LiLuF4, BaY2F8, KGd(WO4)2, and KY(WO4)2 laser crystals in the 80–300,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 103514 (2005).
[Crossref]

Payne, S. A.

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and W. F. Krupke, “Infrared cross-section measurement for crystals doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(11), 2619–2630 (1992).
[Crossref]

Petermann, K.

H. Kühn, S. T. Fredrich-Thornton, C. Kränkel, R. Peters, and K. Petermann, “Model for the calculation of radiation trapping and description of the pinhole method,” Opt. Lett. 32(13), 1908–1910 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Petermann, D. Fagundes-Peters, J. Johannsen, M. Mond, V. Peters, J. J. Romero, S. Kutovoi, J. Speiser, and A. Giesen, “Highly Yb-doped oxides for thin-disc lasers,” J. Cryst. Growth 275(1-2), 135–140 (2005).
[Crossref]

Peters, R.

Peters, V.

K. Petermann, D. Fagundes-Peters, J. Johannsen, M. Mond, V. Peters, J. J. Romero, S. Kutovoi, J. Speiser, and A. Giesen, “Highly Yb-doped oxides for thin-disc lasers,” J. Cryst. Growth 275(1-2), 135–140 (2005).
[Crossref]

Petrov, V.

M. Pollnau, Y. E. Romanyuk, F. Gardillou, C. N. Borca, U. Griebner, S. Rivier, and V. Petrov, “Double tungstate lasers: From bulk toward on-chip integrated waveguide devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(3), 661–671 (2007).
[Crossref]

V. Petrov, M. Cinta Pujol, X. Mateos, Ò. Silvestre, S. Rivier, M. Aguiló, R. M. Solé, J. Liu, U. Griebner, and F. Díaz, “Growth and properties of KLu(WO4)2, and novel ytterbium and thulium lasers based on this monoclinic crystalline host,” Laser Photonics Rev. 1(2), 179–212 (2007).
[Crossref]

X. Mateos, R. Solé, J. Gavaldà, M. Aguiló, J. Massons, F. Díaz, V. Petrov, and U. Griebner, “Crystal growth, spectroscopic studies and laser operation of Yb3+-doped potassium lutetium tungstate,” Opt. Mater. 28(5), 519–523 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. C. Pujol, M. A. Bursukova, F. Güell, X. Mateos, R. Solé, J. Gavaldà, M. Aguiló, J. Massons, F. Díaz, P. Klopp, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, “Growth, optical characterization, and laser operation of a stoichiometric crystal KYb(WO4)2,” Phys. Rev. B 65(16), 165121 (2002).
[Crossref]

P. Klopp, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, X. Mateos, M. A. Bursukova, M. C. Pujol, R. Sole, J. Gavalda, M. Aguilo, F. Güell, J. Massons, T. Kirilov, and F. Diaz, “Laser operation of the new stoichiometric crystal KYb(WO4)2,” Appl. Phys. B 74(2), 185–189 (2002).
[Crossref]

Podlipensky, A. V.

Pollnau, M.

M. Eichhorn and M. Pollnau, “Spectroscopic foundations of lasers: spontaneous emission into a resonator mode,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(1), 900216 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Aravazhi, D. Geskus, K. van Dalfsen, S. A. Vázquez-Córdova, C. Grivas, U. Griebner, S. M. García-Blanco, and M. Pollnau, “Engineering lattice matching, doping level, and optical properties of KY(WO4)2:Gd, Lu, Yb layers for a cladding-side-pumped channel waveguide laser,” Appl. Phys. B 111(3), 433–446 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Geskus, E. H. Bernhardi, K. van Dalfsen, S. Aravazhi, and M. Pollnau, “Highly efficient Yb3+-doped channel waveguide laser at 981 nm,” Opt. Express 21(11), 13773–13778 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Geskus, S. Aravazhi, S. M. García-Blanco, and M. Pollnau, “Giant optical gain in a rare-earth-ion-doped microstructure,” Adv. Mater. 24(10), OP19–OP22 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Pollnau, Y. E. Romanyuk, F. Gardillou, C. N. Borca, U. Griebner, S. Rivier, and V. Petrov, “Double tungstate lasers: From bulk toward on-chip integrated waveguide devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(3), 661–671 (2007).
[Crossref]

Pujol, M. C.

O. Silvestre, M. C. Pujol, R. Solé, W. Bolaños, J. J. Carvajal, J. Massons, M. Aguiló, and F. Diaz, “Ln3+:KLu(WO4)2/KLu(WO4)2 epitaxial layers: Crystal growth and physical characterisation,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 146(1-3), 59–65 (2008).
[Crossref]

O. Silvestre, A. Aznar, R. Solé, M. C. Pujol, F. Díaz, and M. Aguiló, “Lattice mismatch and crystal growth of monoclinic KY1−xYbx(WO4)2/KY(WO4)2 layers by liquid phase epitaxy,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 20(22), 225004 (2008).
[Crossref]

X. Mateos, M. C. Pujol, F. Guell, M. Galan, R. M. Sole, J. Gavalda, M. Aguilo, J. Massons, and F. Diaz, “Erbium spectroscopy and 1.5-μm emission in KGd(WO4)2: Er,Yb single crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(6), 759–770 (2004).
[Crossref]

P. Klopp, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, X. Mateos, M. A. Bursukova, M. C. Pujol, R. Sole, J. Gavalda, M. Aguilo, F. Güell, J. Massons, T. Kirilov, and F. Diaz, “Laser operation of the new stoichiometric crystal KYb(WO4)2,” Appl. Phys. B 74(2), 185–189 (2002).
[Crossref]

M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, R. Solé, J. Massons, J. Gavaldà, X. Solans, F. Díaz, and M. Aguiló, “Structure, crystal growth and physical anisotropy of KYb(WO4)2, a new laser matrix,” J. Appl. Cryst. 35(1), 108–112 (2002).
[Crossref]

M. C. Pujol, M. A. Bursukova, F. Güell, X. Mateos, R. Solé, J. Gavaldà, M. Aguiló, J. Massons, F. Díaz, P. Klopp, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, “Growth, optical characterization, and laser operation of a stoichiometric crystal KYb(WO4)2,” Phys. Rev. B 65(16), 165121 (2002).
[Crossref]

Ripin, D. J.

T. Y. Fan, D. J. Ripin, R. L. Aggarwal, J. R. Ochoa, B. Chann, M. Tilleman, and J. Spitzberg, “Cryogenic Yb3+-doped solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(3), 448–459 (2007).
[Crossref]

R. L. Aggarwal, D. J. Ripin, J. R. Ochoa, and T. Y. Fan, “Measurement of thermo-optic properties of Y3Al5O12, Lu3Al5O12, YAIO3, LiYF4, LiLuF4, BaY2F8, KGd(WO4)2, and KY(WO4)2 laser crystals in the 80–300,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 103514 (2005).
[Crossref]

Rivier, S.

V. Petrov, M. Cinta Pujol, X. Mateos, Ò. Silvestre, S. Rivier, M. Aguiló, R. M. Solé, J. Liu, U. Griebner, and F. Díaz, “Growth and properties of KLu(WO4)2, and novel ytterbium and thulium lasers based on this monoclinic crystalline host,” Laser Photonics Rev. 1(2), 179–212 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. Pollnau, Y. E. Romanyuk, F. Gardillou, C. N. Borca, U. Griebner, S. Rivier, and V. Petrov, “Double tungstate lasers: From bulk toward on-chip integrated waveguide devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(3), 661–671 (2007).
[Crossref]

Romanyuk, Y. E.

M. Pollnau, Y. E. Romanyuk, F. Gardillou, C. N. Borca, U. Griebner, S. Rivier, and V. Petrov, “Double tungstate lasers: From bulk toward on-chip integrated waveguide devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(3), 661–671 (2007).
[Crossref]

Romero, J. J.

K. Petermann, D. Fagundes-Peters, J. Johannsen, M. Mond, V. Peters, J. J. Romero, S. Kutovoi, J. Speiser, and A. Giesen, “Highly Yb-doped oxides for thin-disc lasers,” J. Cryst. Growth 275(1-2), 135–140 (2005).
[Crossref]

Sardar, D. K.

G. G. Demirkhanyan, H. G. Demirkhanyan, E. P. Kokanyan, R. B. Kostanyan, J. B. Gruber, K. L. Nash, and D. K. Sardar, “Phonon effects on zero-phonon transitions between Stark levels in NaBi(WO4)2:Yb3+,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(6), 063106 (2009).
[Crossref]

Schramm, U.

J. Körner, V. Jambunathan, J. Hein, R. Seifert, M. Loeser, M. Siebold, U. Schramm, P. Sikocinski, A. Lucianetti, T. Mocek, and M. C. Kaluza, “Spectroscopic characterization of Yb3+-doped laser materials at cryogenic temperatures,” Appl. Phys. B 116(1), 75–81 (2014).
[Crossref]

Seifert, R.

J. Körner, V. Jambunathan, J. Hein, R. Seifert, M. Loeser, M. Siebold, U. Schramm, P. Sikocinski, A. Lucianetti, T. Mocek, and M. C. Kaluza, “Spectroscopic characterization of Yb3+-doped laser materials at cryogenic temperatures,” Appl. Phys. B 116(1), 75–81 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Koerner, C. Vorholt, H. Liebetrau, M. Kahle, D. Kloepfel, R. Seifert, J. Hein, and M. C. Kaluza, “Measurement of temperature-dependent absorption and emission spectra of Yb:YAG, Yb:LuAG, and Yb:CaF2 between 20 °C and 200 °C and predictions on their influence on laser performance,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 29(9), 2493 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sharpe, M. R.

M. R. Sharpe, “Stray light in UV-VIS spectrophotometers,” Anal. Chem. 56, 339–356 (1984).

Siebold, M.

J. Körner, V. Jambunathan, J. Hein, R. Seifert, M. Loeser, M. Siebold, U. Schramm, P. Sikocinski, A. Lucianetti, T. Mocek, and M. C. Kaluza, “Spectroscopic characterization of Yb3+-doped laser materials at cryogenic temperatures,” Appl. Phys. B 116(1), 75–81 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sikocinski, P.

J. Körner, V. Jambunathan, J. Hein, R. Seifert, M. Loeser, M. Siebold, U. Schramm, P. Sikocinski, A. Lucianetti, T. Mocek, and M. C. Kaluza, “Spectroscopic characterization of Yb3+-doped laser materials at cryogenic temperatures,” Appl. Phys. B 116(1), 75–81 (2014).
[Crossref]

Silvestre, O.

O. Silvestre, A. Aznar, R. Solé, M. C. Pujol, F. Díaz, and M. Aguiló, “Lattice mismatch and crystal growth of monoclinic KY1−xYbx(WO4)2/KY(WO4)2 layers by liquid phase epitaxy,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 20(22), 225004 (2008).
[Crossref]

O. Silvestre, M. C. Pujol, R. Solé, W. Bolaños, J. J. Carvajal, J. Massons, M. Aguiló, and F. Diaz, “Ln3+:KLu(WO4)2/KLu(WO4)2 epitaxial layers: Crystal growth and physical characterisation,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 146(1-3), 59–65 (2008).
[Crossref]

Silvestre, Ò.

V. Petrov, M. Cinta Pujol, X. Mateos, Ò. Silvestre, S. Rivier, M. Aguiló, R. M. Solé, J. Liu, U. Griebner, and F. Díaz, “Growth and properties of KLu(WO4)2, and novel ytterbium and thulium lasers based on this monoclinic crystalline host,” Laser Photonics Rev. 1(2), 179–212 (2007).
[Crossref]

Smith, L. K.

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and W. F. Krupke, “Infrared cross-section measurement for crystals doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(11), 2619–2630 (1992).
[Crossref]

Solans, X.

M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, R. Solé, J. Massons, J. Gavaldà, X. Solans, F. Díaz, and M. Aguiló, “Structure, crystal growth and physical anisotropy of KYb(WO4)2, a new laser matrix,” J. Appl. Cryst. 35(1), 108–112 (2002).
[Crossref]

Sole, R.

P. Klopp, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, X. Mateos, M. A. Bursukova, M. C. Pujol, R. Sole, J. Gavalda, M. Aguilo, F. Güell, J. Massons, T. Kirilov, and F. Diaz, “Laser operation of the new stoichiometric crystal KYb(WO4)2,” Appl. Phys. B 74(2), 185–189 (2002).
[Crossref]

Sole, R. M.

X. Mateos, M. C. Pujol, F. Guell, M. Galan, R. M. Sole, J. Gavalda, M. Aguilo, J. Massons, and F. Diaz, “Erbium spectroscopy and 1.5-μm emission in KGd(WO4)2: Er,Yb single crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(6), 759–770 (2004).
[Crossref]

Solé, R.

O. Silvestre, M. C. Pujol, R. Solé, W. Bolaños, J. J. Carvajal, J. Massons, M. Aguiló, and F. Diaz, “Ln3+:KLu(WO4)2/KLu(WO4)2 epitaxial layers: Crystal growth and physical characterisation,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 146(1-3), 59–65 (2008).
[Crossref]

O. Silvestre, A. Aznar, R. Solé, M. C. Pujol, F. Díaz, and M. Aguiló, “Lattice mismatch and crystal growth of monoclinic KY1−xYbx(WO4)2/KY(WO4)2 layers by liquid phase epitaxy,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 20(22), 225004 (2008).
[Crossref]

X. Mateos, R. Solé, J. Gavaldà, M. Aguiló, J. Massons, and F. Díaz, “Crystal growth, optical and spectroscopic characterisation of monoclinic KY(WO4)2 co-doped with Er3+ and Yb3+,” Opt. Mater. 28(4), 423–431 (2006).
[Crossref]

X. Mateos, R. Solé, J. Gavaldà, M. Aguiló, J. Massons, F. Díaz, V. Petrov, and U. Griebner, “Crystal growth, spectroscopic studies and laser operation of Yb3+-doped potassium lutetium tungstate,” Opt. Mater. 28(5), 519–523 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. C. Pujol, M. A. Bursukova, F. Güell, X. Mateos, R. Solé, J. Gavaldà, M. Aguiló, J. Massons, F. Díaz, P. Klopp, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, “Growth, optical characterization, and laser operation of a stoichiometric crystal KYb(WO4)2,” Phys. Rev. B 65(16), 165121 (2002).
[Crossref]

M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, R. Solé, J. Massons, J. Gavaldà, X. Solans, F. Díaz, and M. Aguiló, “Structure, crystal growth and physical anisotropy of KYb(WO4)2, a new laser matrix,” J. Appl. Cryst. 35(1), 108–112 (2002).
[Crossref]

Solé, R. M.

V. Petrov, M. Cinta Pujol, X. Mateos, Ò. Silvestre, S. Rivier, M. Aguiló, R. M. Solé, J. Liu, U. Griebner, and F. Díaz, “Growth and properties of KLu(WO4)2, and novel ytterbium and thulium lasers based on this monoclinic crystalline host,” Laser Photonics Rev. 1(2), 179–212 (2007).
[Crossref]

Song, P.

Speiser, J.

K. Petermann, D. Fagundes-Peters, J. Johannsen, M. Mond, V. Peters, J. J. Romero, S. Kutovoi, J. Speiser, and A. Giesen, “Highly Yb-doped oxides for thin-disc lasers,” J. Cryst. Growth 275(1-2), 135–140 (2005).
[Crossref]

Spitzberg, J.

T. Y. Fan, D. J. Ripin, R. L. Aggarwal, J. R. Ochoa, B. Chann, M. Tilleman, and J. Spitzberg, “Cryogenic Yb3+-doped solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(3), 448–459 (2007).
[Crossref]

Tang, D.

Tilleman, M.

T. Y. Fan, D. J. Ripin, R. L. Aggarwal, J. R. Ochoa, B. Chann, M. Tilleman, and J. Spitzberg, “Cryogenic Yb3+-doped solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(3), 448–459 (2007).
[Crossref]

van Dalfsen, K.

S. Aravazhi, D. Geskus, K. van Dalfsen, S. A. Vázquez-Córdova, C. Grivas, U. Griebner, S. M. García-Blanco, and M. Pollnau, “Engineering lattice matching, doping level, and optical properties of KY(WO4)2:Gd, Lu, Yb layers for a cladding-side-pumped channel waveguide laser,” Appl. Phys. B 111(3), 433–446 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Geskus, E. H. Bernhardi, K. van Dalfsen, S. Aravazhi, and M. Pollnau, “Highly efficient Yb3+-doped channel waveguide laser at 981 nm,” Opt. Express 21(11), 13773–13778 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vázquez-Córdova, S. A.

S. Aravazhi, D. Geskus, K. van Dalfsen, S. A. Vázquez-Córdova, C. Grivas, U. Griebner, S. M. García-Blanco, and M. Pollnau, “Engineering lattice matching, doping level, and optical properties of KY(WO4)2:Gd, Lu, Yb layers for a cladding-side-pumped channel waveguide laser,” Appl. Phys. B 111(3), 433–446 (2013).
[Crossref]

Vorholt, C.

Xu, C.

Xu, J.

Xu, X.

Yang, H.

Zhang, J.

Zhao, Z.

Zhou, G.

Zhu, H.

Adv. Mater. (1)

D. Geskus, S. Aravazhi, S. M. García-Blanco, and M. Pollnau, “Giant optical gain in a rare-earth-ion-doped microstructure,” Adv. Mater. 24(10), OP19–OP22 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anal. Chem. (1)

M. R. Sharpe, “Stray light in UV-VIS spectrophotometers,” Anal. Chem. 56, 339–356 (1984).

Appl. Phys. B (3)

P. Klopp, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, X. Mateos, M. A. Bursukova, M. C. Pujol, R. Sole, J. Gavalda, M. Aguilo, F. Güell, J. Massons, T. Kirilov, and F. Diaz, “Laser operation of the new stoichiometric crystal KYb(WO4)2,” Appl. Phys. B 74(2), 185–189 (2002).
[Crossref]

S. Aravazhi, D. Geskus, K. van Dalfsen, S. A. Vázquez-Córdova, C. Grivas, U. Griebner, S. M. García-Blanco, and M. Pollnau, “Engineering lattice matching, doping level, and optical properties of KY(WO4)2:Gd, Lu, Yb layers for a cladding-side-pumped channel waveguide laser,” Appl. Phys. B 111(3), 433–446 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Körner, V. Jambunathan, J. Hein, R. Seifert, M. Loeser, M. Siebold, U. Schramm, P. Sikocinski, A. Lucianetti, T. Mocek, and M. C. Kaluza, “Spectroscopic characterization of Yb3+-doped laser materials at cryogenic temperatures,” Appl. Phys. B 116(1), 75–81 (2014).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and W. F. Krupke, “Infrared cross-section measurement for crystals doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(11), 2619–2630 (1992).
[Crossref]

X. Mateos, M. C. Pujol, F. Guell, M. Galan, R. M. Sole, J. Gavalda, M. Aguilo, J. Massons, and F. Diaz, “Erbium spectroscopy and 1.5-μm emission in KGd(WO4)2: Er,Yb single crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(6), 759–770 (2004).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (3)

M. Pollnau, Y. E. Romanyuk, F. Gardillou, C. N. Borca, U. Griebner, S. Rivier, and V. Petrov, “Double tungstate lasers: From bulk toward on-chip integrated waveguide devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(3), 661–671 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. Eichhorn and M. Pollnau, “Spectroscopic foundations of lasers: spontaneous emission into a resonator mode,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(1), 900216 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Y. Fan, D. J. Ripin, R. L. Aggarwal, J. R. Ochoa, B. Chann, M. Tilleman, and J. Spitzberg, “Cryogenic Yb3+-doped solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(3), 448–459 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Cryst. (1)

M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, R. Solé, J. Massons, J. Gavaldà, X. Solans, F. Díaz, and M. Aguiló, “Structure, crystal growth and physical anisotropy of KYb(WO4)2, a new laser matrix,” J. Appl. Cryst. 35(1), 108–112 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

R. L. Aggarwal, D. J. Ripin, J. R. Ochoa, and T. Y. Fan, “Measurement of thermo-optic properties of Y3Al5O12, Lu3Al5O12, YAIO3, LiYF4, LiLuF4, BaY2F8, KGd(WO4)2, and KY(WO4)2 laser crystals in the 80–300,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 103514 (2005).
[Crossref]

G. G. Demirkhanyan, H. G. Demirkhanyan, E. P. Kokanyan, R. B. Kostanyan, J. B. Gruber, K. L. Nash, and D. K. Sardar, “Phonon effects on zero-phonon transitions between Stark levels in NaBi(WO4)2:Yb3+,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(6), 063106 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Cryst. Growth (1)

K. Petermann, D. Fagundes-Peters, J. Johannsen, M. Mond, V. Peters, J. J. Romero, S. Kutovoi, J. Speiser, and A. Giesen, “Highly Yb-doped oxides for thin-disc lasers,” J. Cryst. Growth 275(1-2), 135–140 (2005).
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J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (3)

J. Phys. Condens. Matter (1)

O. Silvestre, A. Aznar, R. Solé, M. C. Pujol, F. Díaz, and M. Aguiló, “Lattice mismatch and crystal growth of monoclinic KY1−xYbx(WO4)2/KY(WO4)2 layers by liquid phase epitaxy,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 20(22), 225004 (2008).
[Crossref]

Laser Photonics Rev. (1)

V. Petrov, M. Cinta Pujol, X. Mateos, Ò. Silvestre, S. Rivier, M. Aguiló, R. M. Solé, J. Liu, U. Griebner, and F. Díaz, “Growth and properties of KLu(WO4)2, and novel ytterbium and thulium lasers based on this monoclinic crystalline host,” Laser Photonics Rev. 1(2), 179–212 (2007).
[Crossref]

Laser Phys. (1)

G. G. Demirkhanyan and R. B. Kostanyan, “Temperature dependence of spectral-line intensities in YAG:Yb3+,” Laser Phys. 18(2), 104–111 (2011).
[Crossref]

Mater. Sci. Eng. B (1)

O. Silvestre, M. C. Pujol, R. Solé, W. Bolaños, J. J. Carvajal, J. Massons, M. Aguiló, and F. Diaz, “Ln3+:KLu(WO4)2/KLu(WO4)2 epitaxial layers: Crystal growth and physical characterisation,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 146(1-3), 59–65 (2008).
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Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Opt. Mater. (2)

X. Mateos, R. Solé, J. Gavaldà, M. Aguiló, J. Massons, and F. Díaz, “Crystal growth, optical and spectroscopic characterisation of monoclinic KY(WO4)2 co-doped with Er3+ and Yb3+,” Opt. Mater. 28(4), 423–431 (2006).
[Crossref]

X. Mateos, R. Solé, J. Gavaldà, M. Aguiló, J. Massons, F. Díaz, V. Petrov, and U. Griebner, “Crystal growth, spectroscopic studies and laser operation of Yb3+-doped potassium lutetium tungstate,” Opt. Mater. 28(5), 519–523 (2006).
[Crossref]

Opt. Mater. Express (1)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

M. C. Pujol, M. A. Bursukova, F. Güell, X. Mateos, R. Solé, J. Gavaldà, M. Aguiló, J. Massons, F. Díaz, P. Klopp, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, “Growth, optical characterization, and laser operation of a stoichiometric crystal KYb(WO4)2,” Phys. Rev. B 65(16), 165121 (2002).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

B. E. A. Saleh and M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics, 2nd ed. (Wiley-Interscience, 2007), Chap. 13.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Energy-level diagram of Yb3+ in various potassium rare-earth double tungstates [1–4]. The thick horizontal bars in blue represent the estimated fractional populations within the upper (2F5/2) and lower (2F7/2) manifolds at 300 K, calculated using the level energies of KY(WO4)2:Yb3+.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Schematic diagrams of (a) the commercial dual-beam spectrophotometer with a polarizer, (b) the free-space measurement setup with optical detection by a power meter, and (c) the free-space measurement setup with optical detection by a cooled detector attached to a spectrometer. The sample holder used for the temperature-dependent study is shown at the right of (a).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Absorption spectra polarized to E||Nm for the KYb0.76Lu0.24(WO4)2 sample with high total absorbance measured using the spectrophotometer (blue solid curve), free-space setup with power meter (red dashed curve), and free-space setup with cooled detector attached to a spectrometer (black dotted curve). (b) Calculated effective absorption cross-section in the KYb0.76Lu0.24(WO4)2 and KYb0.57Gd0.43(WO4)2 samples.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Temperature dependence of the absorption cross-section of the KYb0.57Gd0.43(WO4)2 sample. Multi-peak fitted absorption cross-section at (b) 20 °C and (c) 170 °C. The dotted lines show the decomposed peaks corresponding to different inter-Stark transitions. The eight transitions wavelengths are labeled and positioned near to one of the curves where its decomposed peak is more pronounced.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Spectroscopic data as a function of temperature: (a) calculated fractional population b11, (b) extracted Δν (FWHM) of the absorption peaks near 933 nm and 981 nm and the fitted curve using Eq. (11), and (c) relative change of peak-absorption cross-section σabs of the transitions near 933 nm and 981 nm in KYb0.57Gd0.43(WO4)2 and the calculated curves using Eq. (9).
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) Temperature dependence of the effective emission cross-section of the KYb0.57Gd0.43(WO4)2 sample as calculated with the reciprocity method from the spectra of Fig. 4(a). (b) Comparison of temperature dependence of effective emission and absorption peak cross-sections at 981 nm and 933 nm. The dashed lines are a guide for the eye.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Calculated ratio of effective peak-absorption cross section, σabs, at 981 nm, fractional population of lowest Stark level, b11, of the ground state and the FWHM Δν as a function of cooling temperature, T.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Comparison of peak effective absorption cross-section values of Yb3+-doped potassium rare-earth double tungstates near 981 nm.

Equations (11)

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σ abs ( λ,T )= α( λ,T ) / N Yb .
σ abs ( λ,T )= b 1N ( T ) σ atom ( λ,T ),
b 1N ( T )= exp[ ( E 1N E 11 ) / k B T ] j=1 4 exp[ ( E 1j E 11 ) / k B T ] .
σ atom ( ν )=S γ ˜ ( v ),
γ ˜ ( ν )= 1 π Δν /2 ( ν ν 0 ) 2 + ( Δν /2 ) 2 with γ ˜ ( v )dv =1,
S= σ atom ( ν )dv = σ atom ( ν 0 ) π 2 Δν γ ˜ ( ν )dv = σ atom ( ν 0 ) π 2 Δν
σ abs ( T ) b 11 ( T )S 2 πΔν( T )
σ abs ( T ) b 11 ( T ) Δν( T ) .
σ abs ( T )= σ abs ( T 0 ) b 11 ( T ) b 11 ( T 0 ) Δν( T 0 ) Δν( T ) .
σ em ( λ,T )= σ abs ( λ,T ) Z g Z e exp( E zl hc /λ kT ), Z i = i d i e E i kT ,
Δν( T ) [ exp( ω / k B T )1 ] 1 ,

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