Abstract

We demonstrate efficient optical modulation of surface-normal reflection in a novel device structure integrating graphene on a high contrast grating (HCG) resonator. As high as 11 dB extinction ratio is achieved by varying the voltage applied to a single atomic layer of graphene on a HCG resonator. The device topology facilitates easy fabrication of large 2D arrays, and free-space operation. We also demonstrate a graphene-oxide-graphene structure which can potentially operate at MHz operation speed. The devices are fully fabricated by standard CMOS compatible processes indicating that the integrated structure of graphene-on-HCG shows great promise for display, imaging and interconnects applications with low-cost and large scalability.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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2016 (2)

Z. Sun, A. Martinez, and F. Wang, “Optical modulators with 2D layered materials,” Nat. Photonics 10(4), 227–238 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Sun, S. Kan, G. Marriott, and C. Chang-Hasnain, “High-contrast grating resonators for label-free detection of disease biomarkers,” Sci. Rep. 6, 27482 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (3)

T. Sun, W. Yang, and C. Chang-Hasnain, “Surface-normal coupled four-wave mixing in a high contrast gratings resonator,” Opt. Express 23(23), 29565–29572 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Gao, R.-J. Shiue, X. Gan, L. Li, C. Peng, I. Meric, L. Wang, A. Szep, D. Walker, J. Hone, and D. Englund, “High-speed electro-optic modulator integrated with graphene-boron nitride heterostructure and photonic crystal nanocavity,” Nano Lett. 15(3), 2001–2005 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. T. Phare, Y.-H. Daniel Lee, J. Cardenas, and M. Lipson, “Graphene electro-optic modulator with 30 GHz bandwidth,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 511–514 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

C. Qiu, W. Gao, R. Vajtai, P. M. Ajayan, J. Kono, and Q. Xu, “Efficient modulation of 1.55 μm radiation with gated graphene on a silicon microring resonator,” Nano Lett. 14(12), 6811–6815 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (3)

Y. Yao, M. A. Kats, P. Genevet, N. Yu, Y. Song, J. Kong, and F. Capasso, “Broad electrical tuning of graphene-loaded plasmonic antennas,” Nano Lett. 13(3), 1257–1264 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Majumdar, J. Kim, J. Vuckovic, and F. Wang, “Electrical control of silicon photonic crystal cavity by graphene,” Nano Lett. 13(2), 515–518 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B.-W. Yoo, M. Megens, T. Chan, T. Sun, W. Yang, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, D. A. Horsley, and M. C. Wu, “Optical phased array using high contrast gratings for two dimensional beamforming and beamsteering,” Opt. Express 21(10), 12238–12248 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (3)

J. Kim, H. Son, D. J. Cho, B. Geng, W. Regan, S. Shi, K. Kim, A. Zettl, Y.-R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Electrical control of optical plasmon resonance with graphene,” Nano Lett. 12(11), 5598–5602 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. J. Chang-Hasnain and W. Yang, “High-contrast gratins for integrated optoelectronics,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 4(3), 379–440 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Liu, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Double-layer graphene optical modulator,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1482–1485 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

Y.-M. Lin, A. Valdes-Garcia, S.-J. Han, D. B. Farmer, I. Meric, Y. Sun, Y. Wu, C. Dimitrakopoulos, A. Grill, P. Avouris, and K. A. Jenkins, “Wafer-scale graphene integrated circuit,” Science 332(6035), 1294–1297 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

Y. Lee, S. Bae, H. Jang, S. Jang, S.-E. Zhu, S. H. Sim, Y. I. Song, B. H. Hong, and J.-H. Ahn, “Wafer-scale synthesis and transfer of graphene films,” Nano Lett. 10(2), 490–493 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 611–622 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulator,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J.-H. Ahn, P. Kim, J.-Y. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature 457(7230), 706–710 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Li, W. Cai, J. An, S. Kim, J. Nah, D. Yang, R. Piner, A. Velamakanni, I. Jung, E. Tutuc, S. K. Banerjee, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Large-area synthesis of high-quality and uniform graphene films on copper foils,” Science 324(5932), 1312–1314 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (4)

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320(5881), 1308 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. F. Mak, M. Y. Sfeir, Y. Wu, C. H. Lui, J. A. Misewich, and T. F. Heinz, “Measurement of the optical conductivity of graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(19), 196405 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Wang, Y. Zhang, C. Tian, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. Crommie, and Y. R. Shen, “Gate-variable optical transitions in graphene,” Science 320(5873), 206–209 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Q. Li, E. A. Henriksen, Z. Jiang, Z. Hao, M. C. Martin, P. Kim, H. L. Stormer, and D. N. Basov, “Dirac charge dynamics in graphene by infrared spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 4(7), 532–535 (2008).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

1990 (1)

J. A. Neff, R. A. Athale, and S. H. Lee, “Two-dimensional spatial light modulator: a tutorial,” Proc. IEEE 78(5), 826–855 (1990).
[Crossref]

Ahn, J.-H.

Y. Lee, S. Bae, H. Jang, S. Jang, S.-E. Zhu, S. H. Sim, Y. I. Song, B. H. Hong, and J.-H. Ahn, “Wafer-scale synthesis and transfer of graphene films,” Nano Lett. 10(2), 490–493 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J.-H. Ahn, P. Kim, J.-Y. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature 457(7230), 706–710 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ajayan, P. M.

C. Qiu, W. Gao, R. Vajtai, P. M. Ajayan, J. Kono, and Q. Xu, “Efficient modulation of 1.55 μm radiation with gated graphene on a silicon microring resonator,” Nano Lett. 14(12), 6811–6815 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Almqvist, S.

An, J.

X. Li, W. Cai, J. An, S. Kim, J. Nah, D. Yang, R. Piner, A. Velamakanni, I. Jung, E. Tutuc, S. K. Banerjee, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Large-area synthesis of high-quality and uniform graphene films on copper foils,” Science 324(5932), 1312–1314 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Andersson, J. Y.

Athale, R. A.

J. A. Neff, R. A. Athale, and S. H. Lee, “Two-dimensional spatial light modulator: a tutorial,” Proc. IEEE 78(5), 826–855 (1990).
[Crossref]

Avouris, P.

Y.-M. Lin, A. Valdes-Garcia, S.-J. Han, D. B. Farmer, I. Meric, Y. Sun, Y. Wu, C. Dimitrakopoulos, A. Grill, P. Avouris, and K. A. Jenkins, “Wafer-scale graphene integrated circuit,” Science 332(6035), 1294–1297 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bae, S.

Y. Lee, S. Bae, H. Jang, S. Jang, S.-E. Zhu, S. H. Sim, Y. I. Song, B. H. Hong, and J.-H. Ahn, “Wafer-scale synthesis and transfer of graphene films,” Nano Lett. 10(2), 490–493 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Banerjee, S. K.

X. Li, W. Cai, J. An, S. Kim, J. Nah, D. Yang, R. Piner, A. Velamakanni, I. Jung, E. Tutuc, S. K. Banerjee, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Large-area synthesis of high-quality and uniform graphene films on copper foils,” Science 324(5932), 1312–1314 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Basov, D. N.

Z. Q. Li, E. A. Henriksen, Z. Jiang, Z. Hao, M. C. Martin, P. Kim, H. L. Stormer, and D. N. Basov, “Dirac charge dynamics in graphene by infrared spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 4(7), 532–535 (2008).
[Crossref]

Blake, P.

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320(5881), 1308 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bonaccorso, F.

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 611–622 (2010).
[Crossref]

Booth, T. J.

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320(5881), 1308 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cai, W.

X. Li, W. Cai, J. An, S. Kim, J. Nah, D. Yang, R. Piner, A. Velamakanni, I. Jung, E. Tutuc, S. K. Banerjee, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Large-area synthesis of high-quality and uniform graphene films on copper foils,” Science 324(5932), 1312–1314 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Capasso, F.

Y. Yao, M. A. Kats, P. Genevet, N. Yu, Y. Song, J. Kong, and F. Capasso, “Broad electrical tuning of graphene-loaded plasmonic antennas,” Nano Lett. 13(3), 1257–1264 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cardenas, J.

C. T. Phare, Y.-H. Daniel Lee, J. Cardenas, and M. Lipson, “Graphene electro-optic modulator with 30 GHz bandwidth,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 511–514 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chan, T.

Chang-Hasnain, C.

T. Sun, S. Kan, G. Marriott, and C. Chang-Hasnain, “High-contrast grating resonators for label-free detection of disease biomarkers,” Sci. Rep. 6, 27482 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Sun, W. Yang, and C. Chang-Hasnain, “Surface-normal coupled four-wave mixing in a high contrast gratings resonator,” Opt. Express 23(23), 29565–29572 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang-Hasnain, C. J.

Cho, D. J.

J. Kim, H. Son, D. J. Cho, B. Geng, W. Regan, S. Shi, K. Kim, A. Zettl, Y.-R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Electrical control of optical plasmon resonance with graphene,” Nano Lett. 12(11), 5598–5602 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choi, J.-Y.

K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J.-H. Ahn, P. Kim, J.-Y. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature 457(7230), 706–710 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Colombo, L.

X. Li, W. Cai, J. An, S. Kim, J. Nah, D. Yang, R. Piner, A. Velamakanni, I. Jung, E. Tutuc, S. K. Banerjee, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Large-area synthesis of high-quality and uniform graphene films on copper foils,” Science 324(5932), 1312–1314 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Crommie, M.

F. Wang, Y. Zhang, C. Tian, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. Crommie, and Y. R. Shen, “Gate-variable optical transitions in graphene,” Science 320(5873), 206–209 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Daniel Lee, Y.-H.

C. T. Phare, Y.-H. Daniel Lee, J. Cardenas, and M. Lipson, “Graphene electro-optic modulator with 30 GHz bandwidth,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 511–514 (2015).
[Crossref]

Dimitrakopoulos, C.

Y.-M. Lin, A. Valdes-Garcia, S.-J. Han, D. B. Farmer, I. Meric, Y. Sun, Y. Wu, C. Dimitrakopoulos, A. Grill, P. Avouris, and K. A. Jenkins, “Wafer-scale graphene integrated circuit,” Science 332(6035), 1294–1297 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Englund, D.

Y. Gao, R.-J. Shiue, X. Gan, L. Li, C. Peng, I. Meric, L. Wang, A. Szep, D. Walker, J. Hone, and D. Englund, “High-speed electro-optic modulator integrated with graphene-boron nitride heterostructure and photonic crystal nanocavity,” Nano Lett. 15(3), 2001–2005 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Farmer, D. B.

Y.-M. Lin, A. Valdes-Garcia, S.-J. Han, D. B. Farmer, I. Meric, Y. Sun, Y. Wu, C. Dimitrakopoulos, A. Grill, P. Avouris, and K. A. Jenkins, “Wafer-scale graphene integrated circuit,” Science 332(6035), 1294–1297 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ferrari, A. C.

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 611–622 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gan, X.

Y. Gao, R.-J. Shiue, X. Gan, L. Li, C. Peng, I. Meric, L. Wang, A. Szep, D. Walker, J. Hone, and D. Englund, “High-speed electro-optic modulator integrated with graphene-boron nitride heterostructure and photonic crystal nanocavity,” Nano Lett. 15(3), 2001–2005 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gao, W.

C. Qiu, W. Gao, R. Vajtai, P. M. Ajayan, J. Kono, and Q. Xu, “Efficient modulation of 1.55 μm radiation with gated graphene on a silicon microring resonator,” Nano Lett. 14(12), 6811–6815 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gao, Y.

Y. Gao, R.-J. Shiue, X. Gan, L. Li, C. Peng, I. Meric, L. Wang, A. Szep, D. Walker, J. Hone, and D. Englund, “High-speed electro-optic modulator integrated with graphene-boron nitride heterostructure and photonic crystal nanocavity,” Nano Lett. 15(3), 2001–2005 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gardes, F. Y.

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulator,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[Crossref]

Geim, A. K.

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320(5881), 1308 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Genevet, P.

Y. Yao, M. A. Kats, P. Genevet, N. Yu, Y. Song, J. Kong, and F. Capasso, “Broad electrical tuning of graphene-loaded plasmonic antennas,” Nano Lett. 13(3), 1257–1264 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Geng, B.

J. Kim, H. Son, D. J. Cho, B. Geng, W. Regan, S. Shi, K. Kim, A. Zettl, Y.-R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Electrical control of optical plasmon resonance with graphene,” Nano Lett. 12(11), 5598–5602 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Girit, C.

F. Wang, Y. Zhang, C. Tian, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. Crommie, and Y. R. Shen, “Gate-variable optical transitions in graphene,” Science 320(5873), 206–209 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grigorenko, A. N.

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320(5881), 1308 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grill, A.

Y.-M. Lin, A. Valdes-Garcia, S.-J. Han, D. B. Farmer, I. Meric, Y. Sun, Y. Wu, C. Dimitrakopoulos, A. Grill, P. Avouris, and K. A. Jenkins, “Wafer-scale graphene integrated circuit,” Science 332(6035), 1294–1297 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guo, J.

Han, S.-J.

Y.-M. Lin, A. Valdes-Garcia, S.-J. Han, D. B. Farmer, I. Meric, Y. Sun, Y. Wu, C. Dimitrakopoulos, A. Grill, P. Avouris, and K. A. Jenkins, “Wafer-scale graphene integrated circuit,” Science 332(6035), 1294–1297 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hao, Z.

Z. Q. Li, E. A. Henriksen, Z. Jiang, Z. Hao, M. C. Martin, P. Kim, H. L. Stormer, and D. N. Basov, “Dirac charge dynamics in graphene by infrared spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 4(7), 532–535 (2008).
[Crossref]

Hasan, T.

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 611–622 (2010).
[Crossref]

Heinz, T. F.

K. F. Mak, M. Y. Sfeir, Y. Wu, C. H. Lui, J. A. Misewich, and T. F. Heinz, “Measurement of the optical conductivity of graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(19), 196405 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Henriksen, E. A.

Z. Q. Li, E. A. Henriksen, Z. Jiang, Z. Hao, M. C. Martin, P. Kim, H. L. Stormer, and D. N. Basov, “Dirac charge dynamics in graphene by infrared spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 4(7), 532–535 (2008).
[Crossref]

Hone, J.

Y. Gao, R.-J. Shiue, X. Gan, L. Li, C. Peng, I. Meric, L. Wang, A. Szep, D. Walker, J. Hone, and D. Englund, “High-speed electro-optic modulator integrated with graphene-boron nitride heterostructure and photonic crystal nanocavity,” Nano Lett. 15(3), 2001–2005 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hong, B. H.

Y. Lee, S. Bae, H. Jang, S. Jang, S.-E. Zhu, S. H. Sim, Y. I. Song, B. H. Hong, and J.-H. Ahn, “Wafer-scale synthesis and transfer of graphene films,” Nano Lett. 10(2), 490–493 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J.-H. Ahn, P. Kim, J.-Y. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature 457(7230), 706–710 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Horsley, D. A.

Hyeong, K.

B. Sukang and K. Hyeong, X. XianFang, B. Jayakumar, L. Tian, S. Youngil, K. Young Jin, O. Barbaros, A. Jong-Hyun, H. Byung Hee, and I. Sumio, “30-inch roll-based production of high-quality graphene films for flexible transparent electrodes,” in CORD Conference Proceedings (2009).

Jang, H.

Y. Lee, S. Bae, H. Jang, S. Jang, S.-E. Zhu, S. H. Sim, Y. I. Song, B. H. Hong, and J.-H. Ahn, “Wafer-scale synthesis and transfer of graphene films,” Nano Lett. 10(2), 490–493 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J.-H. Ahn, P. Kim, J.-Y. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature 457(7230), 706–710 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jang, S.

Y. Lee, S. Bae, H. Jang, S. Jang, S.-E. Zhu, S. H. Sim, Y. I. Song, B. H. Hong, and J.-H. Ahn, “Wafer-scale synthesis and transfer of graphene films,” Nano Lett. 10(2), 490–493 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jenkins, K. A.

Y.-M. Lin, A. Valdes-Garcia, S.-J. Han, D. B. Farmer, I. Meric, Y. Sun, Y. Wu, C. Dimitrakopoulos, A. Grill, P. Avouris, and K. A. Jenkins, “Wafer-scale graphene integrated circuit,” Science 332(6035), 1294–1297 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jiang, Z.

Z. Q. Li, E. A. Henriksen, Z. Jiang, Z. Hao, M. C. Martin, P. Kim, H. L. Stormer, and D. N. Basov, “Dirac charge dynamics in graphene by infrared spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 4(7), 532–535 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ju, L.

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jung, I.

X. Li, W. Cai, J. An, S. Kim, J. Nah, D. Yang, R. Piner, A. Velamakanni, I. Jung, E. Tutuc, S. K. Banerjee, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Large-area synthesis of high-quality and uniform graphene films on copper foils,” Science 324(5932), 1312–1314 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Junique, S.

Kan, S.

T. Sun, S. Kan, G. Marriott, and C. Chang-Hasnain, “High-contrast grating resonators for label-free detection of disease biomarkers,” Sci. Rep. 6, 27482 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kats, M. A.

Y. Yao, M. A. Kats, P. Genevet, N. Yu, Y. Song, J. Kong, and F. Capasso, “Broad electrical tuning of graphene-loaded plasmonic antennas,” Nano Lett. 13(3), 1257–1264 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, J.

A. Majumdar, J. Kim, J. Vuckovic, and F. Wang, “Electrical control of silicon photonic crystal cavity by graphene,” Nano Lett. 13(2), 515–518 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Kim, H. Son, D. J. Cho, B. Geng, W. Regan, S. Shi, K. Kim, A. Zettl, Y.-R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Electrical control of optical plasmon resonance with graphene,” Nano Lett. 12(11), 5598–5602 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, J. M.

K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J.-H. Ahn, P. Kim, J.-Y. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature 457(7230), 706–710 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, K.

J. Kim, H. Son, D. J. Cho, B. Geng, W. Regan, S. Shi, K. Kim, A. Zettl, Y.-R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Electrical control of optical plasmon resonance with graphene,” Nano Lett. 12(11), 5598–5602 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, K. S.

K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J.-H. Ahn, P. Kim, J.-Y. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature 457(7230), 706–710 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J.-H. Ahn, P. Kim, J.-Y. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature 457(7230), 706–710 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, P.

K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J.-H. Ahn, P. Kim, J.-Y. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature 457(7230), 706–710 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Q. Li, E. A. Henriksen, Z. Jiang, Z. Hao, M. C. Martin, P. Kim, H. L. Stormer, and D. N. Basov, “Dirac charge dynamics in graphene by infrared spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 4(7), 532–535 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kim, S.

X. Li, W. Cai, J. An, S. Kim, J. Nah, D. Yang, R. Piner, A. Velamakanni, I. Jung, E. Tutuc, S. K. Banerjee, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Large-area synthesis of high-quality and uniform graphene films on copper foils,” Science 324(5932), 1312–1314 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kong, J.

Y. Yao, M. A. Kats, P. Genevet, N. Yu, Y. Song, J. Kong, and F. Capasso, “Broad electrical tuning of graphene-loaded plasmonic antennas,” Nano Lett. 13(3), 1257–1264 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kono, J.

C. Qiu, W. Gao, R. Vajtai, P. M. Ajayan, J. Kono, and Q. Xu, “Efficient modulation of 1.55 μm radiation with gated graphene on a silicon microring resonator,” Nano Lett. 14(12), 6811–6815 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, S. H.

J. A. Neff, R. A. Athale, and S. H. Lee, “Two-dimensional spatial light modulator: a tutorial,” Proc. IEEE 78(5), 826–855 (1990).
[Crossref]

Lee, S. Y.

K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J.-H. Ahn, P. Kim, J.-Y. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature 457(7230), 706–710 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, Y.

Y. Lee, S. Bae, H. Jang, S. Jang, S.-E. Zhu, S. H. Sim, Y. I. Song, B. H. Hong, and J.-H. Ahn, “Wafer-scale synthesis and transfer of graphene films,” Nano Lett. 10(2), 490–493 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, L.

Y. Gao, R.-J. Shiue, X. Gan, L. Li, C. Peng, I. Meric, L. Wang, A. Szep, D. Walker, J. Hone, and D. Englund, “High-speed electro-optic modulator integrated with graphene-boron nitride heterostructure and photonic crystal nanocavity,” Nano Lett. 15(3), 2001–2005 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, X.

X. Li, W. Cai, J. An, S. Kim, J. Nah, D. Yang, R. Piner, A. Velamakanni, I. Jung, E. Tutuc, S. K. Banerjee, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Large-area synthesis of high-quality and uniform graphene films on copper foils,” Science 324(5932), 1312–1314 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, Z. Q.

Z. Q. Li, E. A. Henriksen, Z. Jiang, Z. Hao, M. C. Martin, P. Kim, H. L. Stormer, and D. N. Basov, “Dirac charge dynamics in graphene by infrared spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 4(7), 532–535 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lin, Y.-M.

Y.-M. Lin, A. Valdes-Garcia, S.-J. Han, D. B. Farmer, I. Meric, Y. Sun, Y. Wu, C. Dimitrakopoulos, A. Grill, P. Avouris, and K. A. Jenkins, “Wafer-scale graphene integrated circuit,” Science 332(6035), 1294–1297 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lipson, M.

C. T. Phare, Y.-H. Daniel Lee, J. Cardenas, and M. Lipson, “Graphene electro-optic modulator with 30 GHz bandwidth,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 511–514 (2015).
[Crossref]

Liu, M.

M. Liu, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Double-layer graphene optical modulator,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1482–1485 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lui, C. H.

K. F. Mak, M. Y. Sfeir, Y. Wu, C. H. Lui, J. A. Misewich, and T. F. Heinz, “Measurement of the optical conductivity of graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(19), 196405 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Majumdar, A.

A. Majumdar, J. Kim, J. Vuckovic, and F. Wang, “Electrical control of silicon photonic crystal cavity by graphene,” Nano Lett. 13(2), 515–518 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mak, K. F.

K. F. Mak, M. Y. Sfeir, Y. Wu, C. H. Lui, J. A. Misewich, and T. F. Heinz, “Measurement of the optical conductivity of graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(19), 196405 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Marriott, G.

T. Sun, S. Kan, G. Marriott, and C. Chang-Hasnain, “High-contrast grating resonators for label-free detection of disease biomarkers,” Sci. Rep. 6, 27482 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Martijn, H.

Martin, M. C.

Z. Q. Li, E. A. Henriksen, Z. Jiang, Z. Hao, M. C. Martin, P. Kim, H. L. Stormer, and D. N. Basov, “Dirac charge dynamics in graphene by infrared spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 4(7), 532–535 (2008).
[Crossref]

Martinez, A.

Z. Sun, A. Martinez, and F. Wang, “Optical modulators with 2D layered materials,” Nat. Photonics 10(4), 227–238 (2016).
[Crossref]

Mashanovich, G.

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulator,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[Crossref]

Megens, M.

Meric, I.

Y. Gao, R.-J. Shiue, X. Gan, L. Li, C. Peng, I. Meric, L. Wang, A. Szep, D. Walker, J. Hone, and D. Englund, “High-speed electro-optic modulator integrated with graphene-boron nitride heterostructure and photonic crystal nanocavity,” Nano Lett. 15(3), 2001–2005 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y.-M. Lin, A. Valdes-Garcia, S.-J. Han, D. B. Farmer, I. Meric, Y. Sun, Y. Wu, C. Dimitrakopoulos, A. Grill, P. Avouris, and K. A. Jenkins, “Wafer-scale graphene integrated circuit,” Science 332(6035), 1294–1297 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Misewich, J. A.

K. F. Mak, M. Y. Sfeir, Y. Wu, C. H. Lui, J. A. Misewich, and T. F. Heinz, “Measurement of the optical conductivity of graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(19), 196405 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nah, J.

X. Li, W. Cai, J. An, S. Kim, J. Nah, D. Yang, R. Piner, A. Velamakanni, I. Jung, E. Tutuc, S. K. Banerjee, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Large-area synthesis of high-quality and uniform graphene films on copper foils,” Science 324(5932), 1312–1314 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nair, R. R.

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320(5881), 1308 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Neff, J. A.

J. A. Neff, R. A. Athale, and S. H. Lee, “Two-dimensional spatial light modulator: a tutorial,” Proc. IEEE 78(5), 826–855 (1990).
[Crossref]

Noharet, B.

Novoselov, K. S.

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320(5881), 1308 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Peng, C.

Y. Gao, R.-J. Shiue, X. Gan, L. Li, C. Peng, I. Meric, L. Wang, A. Szep, D. Walker, J. Hone, and D. Englund, “High-speed electro-optic modulator integrated with graphene-boron nitride heterostructure and photonic crystal nanocavity,” Nano Lett. 15(3), 2001–2005 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Peres, N. M. R.

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320(5881), 1308 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phare, C. T.

C. T. Phare, Y.-H. Daniel Lee, J. Cardenas, and M. Lipson, “Graphene electro-optic modulator with 30 GHz bandwidth,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 511–514 (2015).
[Crossref]

Piner, R.

X. Li, W. Cai, J. An, S. Kim, J. Nah, D. Yang, R. Piner, A. Velamakanni, I. Jung, E. Tutuc, S. K. Banerjee, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Large-area synthesis of high-quality and uniform graphene films on copper foils,” Science 324(5932), 1312–1314 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qiu, C.

C. Qiu, W. Gao, R. Vajtai, P. M. Ajayan, J. Kono, and Q. Xu, “Efficient modulation of 1.55 μm radiation with gated graphene on a silicon microring resonator,” Nano Lett. 14(12), 6811–6815 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reed, G. T.

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulator,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[Crossref]

Regan, W.

J. Kim, H. Son, D. J. Cho, B. Geng, W. Regan, S. Shi, K. Kim, A. Zettl, Y.-R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Electrical control of optical plasmon resonance with graphene,” Nano Lett. 12(11), 5598–5602 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ruoff, R. S.

X. Li, W. Cai, J. An, S. Kim, J. Nah, D. Yang, R. Piner, A. Velamakanni, I. Jung, E. Tutuc, S. K. Banerjee, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Large-area synthesis of high-quality and uniform graphene films on copper foils,” Science 324(5932), 1312–1314 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sfeir, M. Y.

K. F. Mak, M. Y. Sfeir, Y. Wu, C. H. Lui, J. A. Misewich, and T. F. Heinz, “Measurement of the optical conductivity of graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(19), 196405 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shen, Y. R.

F. Wang, Y. Zhang, C. Tian, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. Crommie, and Y. R. Shen, “Gate-variable optical transitions in graphene,” Science 320(5873), 206–209 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shen, Y.-R.

J. Kim, H. Son, D. J. Cho, B. Geng, W. Regan, S. Shi, K. Kim, A. Zettl, Y.-R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Electrical control of optical plasmon resonance with graphene,” Nano Lett. 12(11), 5598–5602 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shi, S.

J. Kim, H. Son, D. J. Cho, B. Geng, W. Regan, S. Shi, K. Kim, A. Zettl, Y.-R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Electrical control of optical plasmon resonance with graphene,” Nano Lett. 12(11), 5598–5602 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shiue, R.-J.

Y. Gao, R.-J. Shiue, X. Gan, L. Li, C. Peng, I. Meric, L. Wang, A. Szep, D. Walker, J. Hone, and D. Englund, “High-speed electro-optic modulator integrated with graphene-boron nitride heterostructure and photonic crystal nanocavity,” Nano Lett. 15(3), 2001–2005 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sim, S. H.

Y. Lee, S. Bae, H. Jang, S. Jang, S.-E. Zhu, S. H. Sim, Y. I. Song, B. H. Hong, and J.-H. Ahn, “Wafer-scale synthesis and transfer of graphene films,” Nano Lett. 10(2), 490–493 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Son, H.

J. Kim, H. Son, D. J. Cho, B. Geng, W. Regan, S. Shi, K. Kim, A. Zettl, Y.-R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Electrical control of optical plasmon resonance with graphene,” Nano Lett. 12(11), 5598–5602 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Song, Y.

Y. Yao, M. A. Kats, P. Genevet, N. Yu, Y. Song, J. Kong, and F. Capasso, “Broad electrical tuning of graphene-loaded plasmonic antennas,” Nano Lett. 13(3), 1257–1264 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Song, Y. I.

Y. Lee, S. Bae, H. Jang, S. Jang, S.-E. Zhu, S. H. Sim, Y. I. Song, B. H. Hong, and J.-H. Ahn, “Wafer-scale synthesis and transfer of graphene films,” Nano Lett. 10(2), 490–493 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stauber, T.

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320(5881), 1308 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stormer, H. L.

Z. Q. Li, E. A. Henriksen, Z. Jiang, Z. Hao, M. C. Martin, P. Kim, H. L. Stormer, and D. N. Basov, “Dirac charge dynamics in graphene by infrared spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 4(7), 532–535 (2008).
[Crossref]

Sukang, B.

B. Sukang and K. Hyeong, X. XianFang, B. Jayakumar, L. Tian, S. Youngil, K. Young Jin, O. Barbaros, A. Jong-Hyun, H. Byung Hee, and I. Sumio, “30-inch roll-based production of high-quality graphene films for flexible transparent electrodes,” in CORD Conference Proceedings (2009).

Sun, T.

Sun, Y.

Y.-M. Lin, A. Valdes-Garcia, S.-J. Han, D. B. Farmer, I. Meric, Y. Sun, Y. Wu, C. Dimitrakopoulos, A. Grill, P. Avouris, and K. A. Jenkins, “Wafer-scale graphene integrated circuit,” Science 332(6035), 1294–1297 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sun, Z.

Z. Sun, A. Martinez, and F. Wang, “Optical modulators with 2D layered materials,” Nat. Photonics 10(4), 227–238 (2016).
[Crossref]

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 611–622 (2010).
[Crossref]

Szep, A.

Y. Gao, R.-J. Shiue, X. Gan, L. Li, C. Peng, I. Meric, L. Wang, A. Szep, D. Walker, J. Hone, and D. Englund, “High-speed electro-optic modulator integrated with graphene-boron nitride heterostructure and photonic crystal nanocavity,” Nano Lett. 15(3), 2001–2005 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thomson, D. J.

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulator,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[Crossref]

Tian, C.

F. Wang, Y. Zhang, C. Tian, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. Crommie, and Y. R. Shen, “Gate-variable optical transitions in graphene,” Science 320(5873), 206–209 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tutuc, E.

X. Li, W. Cai, J. An, S. Kim, J. Nah, D. Yang, R. Piner, A. Velamakanni, I. Jung, E. Tutuc, S. K. Banerjee, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Large-area synthesis of high-quality and uniform graphene films on copper foils,” Science 324(5932), 1312–1314 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ulin-Avila, E.

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vajtai, R.

C. Qiu, W. Gao, R. Vajtai, P. M. Ajayan, J. Kono, and Q. Xu, “Efficient modulation of 1.55 μm radiation with gated graphene on a silicon microring resonator,” Nano Lett. 14(12), 6811–6815 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Valdes-Garcia, A.

Y.-M. Lin, A. Valdes-Garcia, S.-J. Han, D. B. Farmer, I. Meric, Y. Sun, Y. Wu, C. Dimitrakopoulos, A. Grill, P. Avouris, and K. A. Jenkins, “Wafer-scale graphene integrated circuit,” Science 332(6035), 1294–1297 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Velamakanni, A.

X. Li, W. Cai, J. An, S. Kim, J. Nah, D. Yang, R. Piner, A. Velamakanni, I. Jung, E. Tutuc, S. K. Banerjee, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Large-area synthesis of high-quality and uniform graphene films on copper foils,” Science 324(5932), 1312–1314 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vuckovic, J.

A. Majumdar, J. Kim, J. Vuckovic, and F. Wang, “Electrical control of silicon photonic crystal cavity by graphene,” Nano Lett. 13(2), 515–518 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Walker, D.

Y. Gao, R.-J. Shiue, X. Gan, L. Li, C. Peng, I. Meric, L. Wang, A. Szep, D. Walker, J. Hone, and D. Englund, “High-speed electro-optic modulator integrated with graphene-boron nitride heterostructure and photonic crystal nanocavity,” Nano Lett. 15(3), 2001–2005 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, F.

Z. Sun, A. Martinez, and F. Wang, “Optical modulators with 2D layered materials,” Nat. Photonics 10(4), 227–238 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Majumdar, J. Kim, J. Vuckovic, and F. Wang, “Electrical control of silicon photonic crystal cavity by graphene,” Nano Lett. 13(2), 515–518 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Kim, H. Son, D. J. Cho, B. Geng, W. Regan, S. Shi, K. Kim, A. Zettl, Y.-R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Electrical control of optical plasmon resonance with graphene,” Nano Lett. 12(11), 5598–5602 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Wang, Y. Zhang, C. Tian, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. Crommie, and Y. R. Shen, “Gate-variable optical transitions in graphene,” Science 320(5873), 206–209 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, L.

Y. Gao, R.-J. Shiue, X. Gan, L. Li, C. Peng, I. Meric, L. Wang, A. Szep, D. Walker, J. Hone, and D. Englund, “High-speed electro-optic modulator integrated with graphene-boron nitride heterostructure and photonic crystal nanocavity,” Nano Lett. 15(3), 2001–2005 (2015).
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Wang, Q.

Wu, M. C.

Wu, Y.

Y.-M. Lin, A. Valdes-Garcia, S.-J. Han, D. B. Farmer, I. Meric, Y. Sun, Y. Wu, C. Dimitrakopoulos, A. Grill, P. Avouris, and K. A. Jenkins, “Wafer-scale graphene integrated circuit,” Science 332(6035), 1294–1297 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. F. Mak, M. Y. Sfeir, Y. Wu, C. H. Lui, J. A. Misewich, and T. F. Heinz, “Measurement of the optical conductivity of graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(19), 196405 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, Q.

C. Qiu, W. Gao, R. Vajtai, P. M. Ajayan, J. Kono, and Q. Xu, “Efficient modulation of 1.55 μm radiation with gated graphene on a silicon microring resonator,” Nano Lett. 14(12), 6811–6815 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, D.

X. Li, W. Cai, J. An, S. Kim, J. Nah, D. Yang, R. Piner, A. Velamakanni, I. Jung, E. Tutuc, S. K. Banerjee, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Large-area synthesis of high-quality and uniform graphene films on copper foils,” Science 324(5932), 1312–1314 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, W.

Yao, Y.

Y. Yao, M. A. Kats, P. Genevet, N. Yu, Y. Song, J. Kong, and F. Capasso, “Broad electrical tuning of graphene-loaded plasmonic antennas,” Nano Lett. 13(3), 1257–1264 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yin, X.

M. Liu, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Double-layer graphene optical modulator,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1482–1485 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yoo, B.-W.

Yu, N.

Y. Yao, M. A. Kats, P. Genevet, N. Yu, Y. Song, J. Kong, and F. Capasso, “Broad electrical tuning of graphene-loaded plasmonic antennas,” Nano Lett. 13(3), 1257–1264 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zentgraf, T.

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
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Zettl, A.

J. Kim, H. Son, D. J. Cho, B. Geng, W. Regan, S. Shi, K. Kim, A. Zettl, Y.-R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Electrical control of optical plasmon resonance with graphene,” Nano Lett. 12(11), 5598–5602 (2012).
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F. Wang, Y. Zhang, C. Tian, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. Crommie, and Y. R. Shen, “Gate-variable optical transitions in graphene,” Science 320(5873), 206–209 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

M. Liu, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Double-layer graphene optical modulator,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1482–1485 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y.

F. Wang, Y. Zhang, C. Tian, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. Crommie, and Y. R. Shen, “Gate-variable optical transitions in graphene,” Science 320(5873), 206–209 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, Y.

K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J.-H. Ahn, P. Kim, J.-Y. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature 457(7230), 706–710 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhu, S.-E.

Y. Lee, S. Bae, H. Jang, S. Jang, S.-E. Zhu, S. H. Sim, Y. I. Song, B. H. Hong, and J.-H. Ahn, “Wafer-scale synthesis and transfer of graphene films,” Nano Lett. 10(2), 490–493 (2010).
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Adv. Opt. Photonics (1)

C. J. Chang-Hasnain and W. Yang, “High-contrast gratins for integrated optoelectronics,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 4(3), 379–440 (2012).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Nano Lett. (7)

M. Liu, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Double-layer graphene optical modulator,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1482–1485 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Lee, S. Bae, H. Jang, S. Jang, S.-E. Zhu, S. H. Sim, Y. I. Song, B. H. Hong, and J.-H. Ahn, “Wafer-scale synthesis and transfer of graphene films,” Nano Lett. 10(2), 490–493 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Qiu, W. Gao, R. Vajtai, P. M. Ajayan, J. Kono, and Q. Xu, “Efficient modulation of 1.55 μm radiation with gated graphene on a silicon microring resonator,” Nano Lett. 14(12), 6811–6815 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Yao, M. A. Kats, P. Genevet, N. Yu, Y. Song, J. Kong, and F. Capasso, “Broad electrical tuning of graphene-loaded plasmonic antennas,” Nano Lett. 13(3), 1257–1264 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Kim, H. Son, D. J. Cho, B. Geng, W. Regan, S. Shi, K. Kim, A. Zettl, Y.-R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Electrical control of optical plasmon resonance with graphene,” Nano Lett. 12(11), 5598–5602 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Majumdar, J. Kim, J. Vuckovic, and F. Wang, “Electrical control of silicon photonic crystal cavity by graphene,” Nano Lett. 13(2), 515–518 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Gao, R.-J. Shiue, X. Gan, L. Li, C. Peng, I. Meric, L. Wang, A. Szep, D. Walker, J. Hone, and D. Englund, “High-speed electro-optic modulator integrated with graphene-boron nitride heterostructure and photonic crystal nanocavity,” Nano Lett. 15(3), 2001–2005 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (4)

C. T. Phare, Y.-H. Daniel Lee, J. Cardenas, and M. Lipson, “Graphene electro-optic modulator with 30 GHz bandwidth,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 511–514 (2015).
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F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 611–622 (2010).
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Z. Sun, A. Martinez, and F. Wang, “Optical modulators with 2D layered materials,” Nat. Photonics 10(4), 227–238 (2016).
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G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulator,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
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Z. Q. Li, E. A. Henriksen, Z. Jiang, Z. Hao, M. C. Martin, P. Kim, H. L. Stormer, and D. N. Basov, “Dirac charge dynamics in graphene by infrared spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 4(7), 532–535 (2008).
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Nature (2)

K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J.-H. Ahn, P. Kim, J.-Y. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature 457(7230), 706–710 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

K. F. Mak, M. Y. Sfeir, Y. Wu, C. H. Lui, J. A. Misewich, and T. F. Heinz, “Measurement of the optical conductivity of graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(19), 196405 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Proc. IEEE (1)

J. A. Neff, R. A. Athale, and S. H. Lee, “Two-dimensional spatial light modulator: a tutorial,” Proc. IEEE 78(5), 826–855 (1990).
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Sci. Rep. (1)

T. Sun, S. Kan, G. Marriott, and C. Chang-Hasnain, “High-contrast grating resonators for label-free detection of disease biomarkers,” Sci. Rep. 6, 27482 (2016).
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Science (4)

Y.-M. Lin, A. Valdes-Garcia, S.-J. Han, D. B. Farmer, I. Meric, Y. Sun, Y. Wu, C. Dimitrakopoulos, A. Grill, P. Avouris, and K. A. Jenkins, “Wafer-scale graphene integrated circuit,” Science 332(6035), 1294–1297 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Wang, Y. Zhang, C. Tian, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. Crommie, and Y. R. Shen, “Gate-variable optical transitions in graphene,” Science 320(5873), 206–209 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320(5881), 1308 (2008).
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X. Li, W. Cai, J. An, S. Kim, J. Nah, D. Yang, R. Piner, A. Velamakanni, I. Jung, E. Tutuc, S. K. Banerjee, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Large-area synthesis of high-quality and uniform graphene films on copper foils,” Science 324(5932), 1312–1314 (2009).
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Other (1)

B. Sukang and K. Hyeong, X. XianFang, B. Jayakumar, L. Tian, S. Youngil, K. Young Jin, O. Barbaros, A. Jong-Hyun, H. Byung Hee, and I. Sumio, “30-inch roll-based production of high-quality graphene films for flexible transparent electrodes,” in CORD Conference Proceedings (2009).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic of HCG. (b) Side view of simulated optical mode inside one period of HCG resonator. (c) Top view of HCG resonator under excitation of 10um Gaussian beam. (d) Simulated reflection spectrum for HCG resonator
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Schematic of HCG graphene spatial light modulator. (b) Optical image of graphene on top of HCG. (c) SEM of HCG structure with mono-layer graphene on top.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Cavity reflection (power) before and after graphene transfer. (b) and (c) Illustration of gate-tunable interband transition in graphene at cavity resonance frequency w R ( = 0.86 eV).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Cavity reflectivity for gating voltage from −2V to 0V. (b) Resonance wavelength as function of gate voltage. Red curve shows theoretical fitting. (c) Resonance linewidth as function of applied voltage. Red curve shows theoretical fitting. (d) Cavity peak reflection as function of applied voltage. An 11dB modulation is achieved within 2V voltage swing.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) SEM image of a fabricated graphene-oxide-graphene HCG modulator with top and bottom contact. (b) Schematic of modulator structure from a side view. (c) Cavity reflection response to 1 MHz drivig voltage.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) SEM image of a fabricated 10 x 10 HCG array with 95% filling factor and 1mm x 1mm single device footprint. (b) HCG resonance wavelength varies with different period and duty cycle inside the same array in (a).

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