Abstract

Here, we report on the hybrid hole transport materials 4,4′-bis-(carbazole-9-yl)biphenyl (CBP) or poly-N-vinylcarbazole (PVK) doped into poly(4-butyl-phenyl-diphenyl-amine) (Poly-TPD) as the hybrid hole transport layer (HTL) to tailor the energy band alignment between hole injection layer (HIL) and quantum dot (QD) light emitting layer in order to realize efficient quantum dot light emitting diodes (QLEDs) in all solution-processed fabrication. Compared to the pristine Poly-TPD based device, it is found that the electroluminescence (EL) performance of QLEDs can be significantly improved by 1.5 fold via addition of CBP into Poly-TPD, which can be attributed to the lowered highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) level of Poly-TPD to reduce the energy barrier between HTL and valance band (VB) of QDs. Thus, after doping small molecules into polymer under optimized proportion (Poly-TPD:CBP = 2:1 by weight), the hole transport rate can be balanced, facilitating the carrier injection from HTL to QDs and enhancing the efficiency of QLEDs. As a result, a maximum luminance, a maximum current efficiency and a maximum power efficiency of 7600 cd/m2, 5.41 cd/A and 4.25 lm/W can be obtained based on this variety of hybrid HTL employed QLEDs.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. V. L. Colvin, M. C. Schlamp, and A. P. Alivisatos, “Light-emitting diodes made from cadmium selenide nanocrystals and a semiconducting polymer,” Nature 370(6488), 354–357 (1994).
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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  15. J. M. Caruge, J. E. Halpert, V. Wood, V. Bulovic, and M. G. Bawendi, “Colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting diodes with metal-oxide charge transport layers,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 247–250 (2008).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. Q. Huang, J. Chen, J. Zhao, J. Pan, W. Lei, and Z. Zhang, “Enhanced photoluminescence property for quantum dot-gold nanoparticle hybrid,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 10(1), 400 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. L. Duan, L. Hou, T.-W. Lee, J. Qiao, D. Zhang, G. Dong, L. Wang, and Y. Qiu, “Solution processable small molecules for organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 20, 6392–6407 (2010).
  19. Y. Tao, C. Yang, and J. Qin, “Organic host materials for phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 40(5), 2943–2970 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]

2016 (4)

J. Pan, J. Chen, D. Zhao, Q. Huang, Q. Khan, X. Liu, Z. Tao, Z. Zhang, and W. Lei, “Surface plasmon-enhanced quantum dot light-emitting diodes by incorporating gold nanoparticles,” Opt. Express 24(2), A33–A43 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Pan, J. Chen, Q. Huang, Q. Khan, X. Liu, Z. Tao, Z. Zhang, W. Lei, and A. Nathan, “Size tunable ZnO nanoparticles to enhance electron injection in solution processed QLEDs,” ACS Photonics 3(2), 215–222 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Jiang, H. Liu, B. Liu, Z. Zhong, J. Zou, J. Wang, L. Wang, J. Peng, and Y. Cao, “Improved performance of inverted quantum dots light emitting devices by introducing double hole transport layers,” Org. Electron. 31, 82–89 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Zhang, H. Dai, J. Zhao, S. Wang, and X. Sun, “All-solution processed composite hole transport layer for quantum dot light emitting diode,” Thin Solid Films 603, 187–192 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

J. Pan, J. Chen, Q. Huang, Q. Khan, X. Liu, Z. Tao, W. Lei, F. Xu, and Z. Zhang, “Flexible quantum dot light emitting diodes based on ZnO nanoparticles,” RSC Advances 5(100), 82192–82198 (2015).
[Crossref]

Q. Huang, J. Chen, J. Zhao, J. Pan, W. Lei, and Z. Zhang, “Enhanced photoluminescence property for quantum dot-gold nanoparticle hybrid,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 10(1), 400 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (2)

X. Dai, Z. Zhang, Y. Jin, Y. Niu, H. Cao, X. Liang, L. Chen, J. Wang, and X. Peng, “Solution-processed, high-performance light-emitting diodes based on quantum dots,” Nature 515(7525), 96–99 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Chen, D. Zhao, C. Li, F. Xu, W. Lei, L. Sun, A. Nathan, and X. W. Sun, “All solution-processed stable white quantum dot light-emitting diodes with hybrid ZnO@TiO2 as blue emitters,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4085 (2014).
[PubMed]

2013 (5)

H.-M. Kim, A. R. bin Mohd Yusoff, J.-H. Youn, and J. Jang, “Inverted quantum-dot light emitting diodes with cesium carbonate doped aluminium-zinc-oxide as the cathode buffer layer for high brightness,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 1(25), 3924–3930 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. H. Lee, J. H. Lee, W. S. Song, H. Ko, C. Lee, J. H. Lee, and H. Yang, “Highly efficient, color-pure, color-stable blue quantum dot light-emitting devices,” ACS Nano 7(8), 7295–7302 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Fu, J. Chen, C. Shi, and D. Ma, “Room-temperature sol-gel derived molybdenum oxide thin films for efficient and stable solution-processed organic light-emitting diodes,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 5(13), 6024–6029 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Shi, V. Sadhu, R. Moubah, G. Schmerber, Q. Bao, and S. R. P. Silva, “Solution-processable graphene oxide as an efficient hole injection layer for high luminance organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 1(9), 1708–1712 (2013).
[Crossref]

W. K. Bae, Y. S. Park, J. Lim, D. Lee, L. A. Padilha, H. McDaniel, I. Robel, C. Lee, J. M. Pietryga, and V. I. Klimov, “Controlling the influence of Auger recombination on the performance of quantum-dot light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2661 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

R. Acharya and X. A. Cao, “High-brightness organic light-emitting diodes based on a simplified hybrid structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(5), 053306 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Kwak, W. K. Bae, D. Lee, I. Park, J. Lim, M. Park, H. Cho, H. Woo, D. Y. Yoon, K. Char, S. Lee, and C. Lee, “Bright and efficient full-color colloidal quantum dot light-emitting diodes using an inverted device structure,” Nano Lett. 12(5), 2362–2366 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

Y. Tao, C. Yang, and J. Qin, “Organic host materials for phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 40(5), 2943–2970 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

L. Duan, L. Hou, T.-W. Lee, J. Qiao, D. Zhang, G. Dong, L. Wang, and Y. Qiu, “Solution processable small molecules for organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 20, 6392–6407 (2010).

M. W. Thesen, B. Hofer, M. Debeaux, S. Janietz, A. Wedel, A. Kohler, H. H. Johannes, and H. Krueger, “Hole-transporting host-polymer series consisting of triphenylamine basic structures for phosphorescent polymer light-emitting diodes,” J. Polymer Sci. 48, 3417–3430 (2010).

D.-H. Lee, Y.-P. Liu, K.-H. Lee, H. Chae, and S. M. Cho, “Effect of hole transporting materials in phosphorescent white polymer light-emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 11(3), 427–433 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

K.-S. Cho, E. K. Lee, W.-J. Joo, E. Jang, T.-H. Kim, S. J. Lee, S.-J. Kwon, J. Y. Han, B.-K. Kim, B. L. Choi, and J. M. Kim, “High-performance crosslinked colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Photonics 3(6), 341–345 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

J. M. Caruge, J. E. Halpert, V. Wood, V. Bulovic, and M. G. Bawendi, “Colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting diodes with metal-oxide charge transport layers,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 247–250 (2008).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

S. Coe-Sullivan, J. S. Steckel, W. K. Woo, M. G. Bawendi, and V. Bulović, “Large-area ordered quantum-dot monolayers via phase separation during spin-casting,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 15, 1124 (2005).

1994 (1)

V. L. Colvin, M. C. Schlamp, and A. P. Alivisatos, “Light-emitting diodes made from cadmium selenide nanocrystals and a semiconducting polymer,” Nature 370(6488), 354–357 (1994).
[Crossref]

Acharya, R.

R. Acharya and X. A. Cao, “High-brightness organic light-emitting diodes based on a simplified hybrid structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(5), 053306 (2012).
[Crossref]

Alivisatos, A. P.

V. L. Colvin, M. C. Schlamp, and A. P. Alivisatos, “Light-emitting diodes made from cadmium selenide nanocrystals and a semiconducting polymer,” Nature 370(6488), 354–357 (1994).
[Crossref]

Bae, W. K.

W. K. Bae, Y. S. Park, J. Lim, D. Lee, L. A. Padilha, H. McDaniel, I. Robel, C. Lee, J. M. Pietryga, and V. I. Klimov, “Controlling the influence of Auger recombination on the performance of quantum-dot light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2661 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Kwak, W. K. Bae, D. Lee, I. Park, J. Lim, M. Park, H. Cho, H. Woo, D. Y. Yoon, K. Char, S. Lee, and C. Lee, “Bright and efficient full-color colloidal quantum dot light-emitting diodes using an inverted device structure,” Nano Lett. 12(5), 2362–2366 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bao, Q.

S. Shi, V. Sadhu, R. Moubah, G. Schmerber, Q. Bao, and S. R. P. Silva, “Solution-processable graphene oxide as an efficient hole injection layer for high luminance organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 1(9), 1708–1712 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bawendi, M. G.

J. M. Caruge, J. E. Halpert, V. Wood, V. Bulovic, and M. G. Bawendi, “Colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting diodes with metal-oxide charge transport layers,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 247–250 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. Coe-Sullivan, J. S. Steckel, W. K. Woo, M. G. Bawendi, and V. Bulović, “Large-area ordered quantum-dot monolayers via phase separation during spin-casting,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 15, 1124 (2005).

bin Mohd Yusoff, A. R.

H.-M. Kim, A. R. bin Mohd Yusoff, J.-H. Youn, and J. Jang, “Inverted quantum-dot light emitting diodes with cesium carbonate doped aluminium-zinc-oxide as the cathode buffer layer for high brightness,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 1(25), 3924–3930 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bulovic, V.

J. M. Caruge, J. E. Halpert, V. Wood, V. Bulovic, and M. G. Bawendi, “Colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting diodes with metal-oxide charge transport layers,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 247–250 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. Coe-Sullivan, J. S. Steckel, W. K. Woo, M. G. Bawendi, and V. Bulović, “Large-area ordered quantum-dot monolayers via phase separation during spin-casting,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 15, 1124 (2005).

Cao, H.

X. Dai, Z. Zhang, Y. Jin, Y. Niu, H. Cao, X. Liang, L. Chen, J. Wang, and X. Peng, “Solution-processed, high-performance light-emitting diodes based on quantum dots,” Nature 515(7525), 96–99 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cao, X. A.

R. Acharya and X. A. Cao, “High-brightness organic light-emitting diodes based on a simplified hybrid structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(5), 053306 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cao, Y.

C. Jiang, H. Liu, B. Liu, Z. Zhong, J. Zou, J. Wang, L. Wang, J. Peng, and Y. Cao, “Improved performance of inverted quantum dots light emitting devices by introducing double hole transport layers,” Org. Electron. 31, 82–89 (2016).
[Crossref]

Caruge, J. M.

J. M. Caruge, J. E. Halpert, V. Wood, V. Bulovic, and M. G. Bawendi, “Colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting diodes with metal-oxide charge transport layers,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 247–250 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chae, H.

D.-H. Lee, Y.-P. Liu, K.-H. Lee, H. Chae, and S. M. Cho, “Effect of hole transporting materials in phosphorescent white polymer light-emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 11(3), 427–433 (2010).
[Crossref]

Char, K.

J. Kwak, W. K. Bae, D. Lee, I. Park, J. Lim, M. Park, H. Cho, H. Woo, D. Y. Yoon, K. Char, S. Lee, and C. Lee, “Bright and efficient full-color colloidal quantum dot light-emitting diodes using an inverted device structure,” Nano Lett. 12(5), 2362–2366 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, J.

J. Pan, J. Chen, Q. Huang, Q. Khan, X. Liu, Z. Tao, Z. Zhang, W. Lei, and A. Nathan, “Size tunable ZnO nanoparticles to enhance electron injection in solution processed QLEDs,” ACS Photonics 3(2), 215–222 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Pan, J. Chen, D. Zhao, Q. Huang, Q. Khan, X. Liu, Z. Tao, Z. Zhang, and W. Lei, “Surface plasmon-enhanced quantum dot light-emitting diodes by incorporating gold nanoparticles,” Opt. Express 24(2), A33–A43 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Pan, J. Chen, Q. Huang, Q. Khan, X. Liu, Z. Tao, W. Lei, F. Xu, and Z. Zhang, “Flexible quantum dot light emitting diodes based on ZnO nanoparticles,” RSC Advances 5(100), 82192–82198 (2015).
[Crossref]

Q. Huang, J. Chen, J. Zhao, J. Pan, W. Lei, and Z. Zhang, “Enhanced photoluminescence property for quantum dot-gold nanoparticle hybrid,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 10(1), 400 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Chen, D. Zhao, C. Li, F. Xu, W. Lei, L. Sun, A. Nathan, and X. W. Sun, “All solution-processed stable white quantum dot light-emitting diodes with hybrid ZnO@TiO2 as blue emitters,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4085 (2014).
[PubMed]

Q. Fu, J. Chen, C. Shi, and D. Ma, “Room-temperature sol-gel derived molybdenum oxide thin films for efficient and stable solution-processed organic light-emitting diodes,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 5(13), 6024–6029 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, L.

X. Dai, Z. Zhang, Y. Jin, Y. Niu, H. Cao, X. Liang, L. Chen, J. Wang, and X. Peng, “Solution-processed, high-performance light-emitting diodes based on quantum dots,” Nature 515(7525), 96–99 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cho, H.

J. Kwak, W. K. Bae, D. Lee, I. Park, J. Lim, M. Park, H. Cho, H. Woo, D. Y. Yoon, K. Char, S. Lee, and C. Lee, “Bright and efficient full-color colloidal quantum dot light-emitting diodes using an inverted device structure,” Nano Lett. 12(5), 2362–2366 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cho, K.-S.

K.-S. Cho, E. K. Lee, W.-J. Joo, E. Jang, T.-H. Kim, S. J. Lee, S.-J. Kwon, J. Y. Han, B.-K. Kim, B. L. Choi, and J. M. Kim, “High-performance crosslinked colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Photonics 3(6), 341–345 (2009).
[Crossref]

Cho, S. M.

D.-H. Lee, Y.-P. Liu, K.-H. Lee, H. Chae, and S. M. Cho, “Effect of hole transporting materials in phosphorescent white polymer light-emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 11(3), 427–433 (2010).
[Crossref]

Choi, B. L.

K.-S. Cho, E. K. Lee, W.-J. Joo, E. Jang, T.-H. Kim, S. J. Lee, S.-J. Kwon, J. Y. Han, B.-K. Kim, B. L. Choi, and J. M. Kim, “High-performance crosslinked colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Photonics 3(6), 341–345 (2009).
[Crossref]

Coe-Sullivan, S.

S. Coe-Sullivan, J. S. Steckel, W. K. Woo, M. G. Bawendi, and V. Bulović, “Large-area ordered quantum-dot monolayers via phase separation during spin-casting,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 15, 1124 (2005).

Colvin, V. L.

V. L. Colvin, M. C. Schlamp, and A. P. Alivisatos, “Light-emitting diodes made from cadmium selenide nanocrystals and a semiconducting polymer,” Nature 370(6488), 354–357 (1994).
[Crossref]

Dai, H.

X. Zhang, H. Dai, J. Zhao, S. Wang, and X. Sun, “All-solution processed composite hole transport layer for quantum dot light emitting diode,” Thin Solid Films 603, 187–192 (2016).
[Crossref]

Dai, X.

X. Dai, Z. Zhang, Y. Jin, Y. Niu, H. Cao, X. Liang, L. Chen, J. Wang, and X. Peng, “Solution-processed, high-performance light-emitting diodes based on quantum dots,” Nature 515(7525), 96–99 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Debeaux, M.

M. W. Thesen, B. Hofer, M. Debeaux, S. Janietz, A. Wedel, A. Kohler, H. H. Johannes, and H. Krueger, “Hole-transporting host-polymer series consisting of triphenylamine basic structures for phosphorescent polymer light-emitting diodes,” J. Polymer Sci. 48, 3417–3430 (2010).

Dong, G.

L. Duan, L. Hou, T.-W. Lee, J. Qiao, D. Zhang, G. Dong, L. Wang, and Y. Qiu, “Solution processable small molecules for organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 20, 6392–6407 (2010).

Duan, L.

L. Duan, L. Hou, T.-W. Lee, J. Qiao, D. Zhang, G. Dong, L. Wang, and Y. Qiu, “Solution processable small molecules for organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 20, 6392–6407 (2010).

Fu, Q.

Q. Fu, J. Chen, C. Shi, and D. Ma, “Room-temperature sol-gel derived molybdenum oxide thin films for efficient and stable solution-processed organic light-emitting diodes,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 5(13), 6024–6029 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Halpert, J. E.

J. M. Caruge, J. E. Halpert, V. Wood, V. Bulovic, and M. G. Bawendi, “Colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting diodes with metal-oxide charge transport layers,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 247–250 (2008).
[Crossref]

Han, J. Y.

K.-S. Cho, E. K. Lee, W.-J. Joo, E. Jang, T.-H. Kim, S. J. Lee, S.-J. Kwon, J. Y. Han, B.-K. Kim, B. L. Choi, and J. M. Kim, “High-performance crosslinked colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Photonics 3(6), 341–345 (2009).
[Crossref]

Hofer, B.

M. W. Thesen, B. Hofer, M. Debeaux, S. Janietz, A. Wedel, A. Kohler, H. H. Johannes, and H. Krueger, “Hole-transporting host-polymer series consisting of triphenylamine basic structures for phosphorescent polymer light-emitting diodes,” J. Polymer Sci. 48, 3417–3430 (2010).

Hou, L.

L. Duan, L. Hou, T.-W. Lee, J. Qiao, D. Zhang, G. Dong, L. Wang, and Y. Qiu, “Solution processable small molecules for organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 20, 6392–6407 (2010).

Huang, Q.

J. Pan, J. Chen, Q. Huang, Q. Khan, X. Liu, Z. Tao, Z. Zhang, W. Lei, and A. Nathan, “Size tunable ZnO nanoparticles to enhance electron injection in solution processed QLEDs,” ACS Photonics 3(2), 215–222 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Pan, J. Chen, D. Zhao, Q. Huang, Q. Khan, X. Liu, Z. Tao, Z. Zhang, and W. Lei, “Surface plasmon-enhanced quantum dot light-emitting diodes by incorporating gold nanoparticles,” Opt. Express 24(2), A33–A43 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Pan, J. Chen, Q. Huang, Q. Khan, X. Liu, Z. Tao, W. Lei, F. Xu, and Z. Zhang, “Flexible quantum dot light emitting diodes based on ZnO nanoparticles,” RSC Advances 5(100), 82192–82198 (2015).
[Crossref]

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H.-M. Kim, A. R. bin Mohd Yusoff, J.-H. Youn, and J. Jang, “Inverted quantum-dot light emitting diodes with cesium carbonate doped aluminium-zinc-oxide as the cathode buffer layer for high brightness,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 1(25), 3924–3930 (2013).
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Jiang, C.

C. Jiang, H. Liu, B. Liu, Z. Zhong, J. Zou, J. Wang, L. Wang, J. Peng, and Y. Cao, “Improved performance of inverted quantum dots light emitting devices by introducing double hole transport layers,” Org. Electron. 31, 82–89 (2016).
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X. Dai, Z. Zhang, Y. Jin, Y. Niu, H. Cao, X. Liang, L. Chen, J. Wang, and X. Peng, “Solution-processed, high-performance light-emitting diodes based on quantum dots,” Nature 515(7525), 96–99 (2014).
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K.-S. Cho, E. K. Lee, W.-J. Joo, E. Jang, T.-H. Kim, S. J. Lee, S.-J. Kwon, J. Y. Han, B.-K. Kim, B. L. Choi, and J. M. Kim, “High-performance crosslinked colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Photonics 3(6), 341–345 (2009).
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J. Pan, J. Chen, Q. Huang, Q. Khan, X. Liu, Z. Tao, Z. Zhang, W. Lei, and A. Nathan, “Size tunable ZnO nanoparticles to enhance electron injection in solution processed QLEDs,” ACS Photonics 3(2), 215–222 (2016).
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J. Pan, J. Chen, D. Zhao, Q. Huang, Q. Khan, X. Liu, Z. Tao, Z. Zhang, and W. Lei, “Surface plasmon-enhanced quantum dot light-emitting diodes by incorporating gold nanoparticles,” Opt. Express 24(2), A33–A43 (2016).
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J. Pan, J. Chen, Q. Huang, Q. Khan, X. Liu, Z. Tao, W. Lei, F. Xu, and Z. Zhang, “Flexible quantum dot light emitting diodes based on ZnO nanoparticles,” RSC Advances 5(100), 82192–82198 (2015).
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K.-S. Cho, E. K. Lee, W.-J. Joo, E. Jang, T.-H. Kim, S. J. Lee, S.-J. Kwon, J. Y. Han, B.-K. Kim, B. L. Choi, and J. M. Kim, “High-performance crosslinked colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Photonics 3(6), 341–345 (2009).
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H.-M. Kim, A. R. bin Mohd Yusoff, J.-H. Youn, and J. Jang, “Inverted quantum-dot light emitting diodes with cesium carbonate doped aluminium-zinc-oxide as the cathode buffer layer for high brightness,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 1(25), 3924–3930 (2013).
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K.-S. Cho, E. K. Lee, W.-J. Joo, E. Jang, T.-H. Kim, S. J. Lee, S.-J. Kwon, J. Y. Han, B.-K. Kim, B. L. Choi, and J. M. Kim, “High-performance crosslinked colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Photonics 3(6), 341–345 (2009).
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K.-S. Cho, E. K. Lee, W.-J. Joo, E. Jang, T.-H. Kim, S. J. Lee, S.-J. Kwon, J. Y. Han, B.-K. Kim, B. L. Choi, and J. M. Kim, “High-performance crosslinked colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Photonics 3(6), 341–345 (2009).
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W. K. Bae, Y. S. Park, J. Lim, D. Lee, L. A. Padilha, H. McDaniel, I. Robel, C. Lee, J. M. Pietryga, and V. I. Klimov, “Controlling the influence of Auger recombination on the performance of quantum-dot light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2661 (2013).
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K. H. Lee, J. H. Lee, W. S. Song, H. Ko, C. Lee, J. H. Lee, and H. Yang, “Highly efficient, color-pure, color-stable blue quantum dot light-emitting devices,” ACS Nano 7(8), 7295–7302 (2013).
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M. W. Thesen, B. Hofer, M. Debeaux, S. Janietz, A. Wedel, A. Kohler, H. H. Johannes, and H. Krueger, “Hole-transporting host-polymer series consisting of triphenylamine basic structures for phosphorescent polymer light-emitting diodes,” J. Polymer Sci. 48, 3417–3430 (2010).

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J. Kwak, W. K. Bae, D. Lee, I. Park, J. Lim, M. Park, H. Cho, H. Woo, D. Y. Yoon, K. Char, S. Lee, and C. Lee, “Bright and efficient full-color colloidal quantum dot light-emitting diodes using an inverted device structure,” Nano Lett. 12(5), 2362–2366 (2012).
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K. H. Lee, J. H. Lee, W. S. Song, H. Ko, C. Lee, J. H. Lee, and H. Yang, “Highly efficient, color-pure, color-stable blue quantum dot light-emitting devices,” ACS Nano 7(8), 7295–7302 (2013).
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D.-H. Lee, Y.-P. Liu, K.-H. Lee, H. Chae, and S. M. Cho, “Effect of hole transporting materials in phosphorescent white polymer light-emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 11(3), 427–433 (2010).
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K. H. Lee, J. H. Lee, W. S. Song, H. Ko, C. Lee, J. H. Lee, and H. Yang, “Highly efficient, color-pure, color-stable blue quantum dot light-emitting devices,” ACS Nano 7(8), 7295–7302 (2013).
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K. H. Lee, J. H. Lee, W. S. Song, H. Ko, C. Lee, J. H. Lee, and H. Yang, “Highly efficient, color-pure, color-stable blue quantum dot light-emitting devices,” ACS Nano 7(8), 7295–7302 (2013).
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K. H. Lee, J. H. Lee, W. S. Song, H. Ko, C. Lee, J. H. Lee, and H. Yang, “Highly efficient, color-pure, color-stable blue quantum dot light-emitting devices,” ACS Nano 7(8), 7295–7302 (2013).
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J. Pan, J. Chen, Q. Huang, Q. Khan, X. Liu, Z. Tao, Z. Zhang, W. Lei, and A. Nathan, “Size tunable ZnO nanoparticles to enhance electron injection in solution processed QLEDs,” ACS Photonics 3(2), 215–222 (2016).
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J. Pan, J. Chen, D. Zhao, Q. Huang, Q. Khan, X. Liu, Z. Tao, Z. Zhang, and W. Lei, “Surface plasmon-enhanced quantum dot light-emitting diodes by incorporating gold nanoparticles,” Opt. Express 24(2), A33–A43 (2016).
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J. Pan, J. Chen, Q. Huang, Q. Khan, X. Liu, Z. Tao, W. Lei, F. Xu, and Z. Zhang, “Flexible quantum dot light emitting diodes based on ZnO nanoparticles,” RSC Advances 5(100), 82192–82198 (2015).
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W. K. Bae, Y. S. Park, J. Lim, D. Lee, L. A. Padilha, H. McDaniel, I. Robel, C. Lee, J. M. Pietryga, and V. I. Klimov, “Controlling the influence of Auger recombination on the performance of quantum-dot light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2661 (2013).
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C. Jiang, H. Liu, B. Liu, Z. Zhong, J. Zou, J. Wang, L. Wang, J. Peng, and Y. Cao, “Improved performance of inverted quantum dots light emitting devices by introducing double hole transport layers,” Org. Electron. 31, 82–89 (2016).
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C. Jiang, H. Liu, B. Liu, Z. Zhong, J. Zou, J. Wang, L. Wang, J. Peng, and Y. Cao, “Improved performance of inverted quantum dots light emitting devices by introducing double hole transport layers,” Org. Electron. 31, 82–89 (2016).
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J. Pan, J. Chen, Q. Huang, Q. Khan, X. Liu, Z. Tao, Z. Zhang, W. Lei, and A. Nathan, “Size tunable ZnO nanoparticles to enhance electron injection in solution processed QLEDs,” ACS Photonics 3(2), 215–222 (2016).
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J. Pan, J. Chen, D. Zhao, Q. Huang, Q. Khan, X. Liu, Z. Tao, Z. Zhang, and W. Lei, “Surface plasmon-enhanced quantum dot light-emitting diodes by incorporating gold nanoparticles,” Opt. Express 24(2), A33–A43 (2016).
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D.-H. Lee, Y.-P. Liu, K.-H. Lee, H. Chae, and S. M. Cho, “Effect of hole transporting materials in phosphorescent white polymer light-emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 11(3), 427–433 (2010).
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Q. Fu, J. Chen, C. Shi, and D. Ma, “Room-temperature sol-gel derived molybdenum oxide thin films for efficient and stable solution-processed organic light-emitting diodes,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 5(13), 6024–6029 (2013).
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S. Shi, V. Sadhu, R. Moubah, G. Schmerber, Q. Bao, and S. R. P. Silva, “Solution-processable graphene oxide as an efficient hole injection layer for high luminance organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 1(9), 1708–1712 (2013).
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J. Pan, J. Chen, Q. Huang, Q. Khan, X. Liu, Z. Tao, Z. Zhang, W. Lei, and A. Nathan, “Size tunable ZnO nanoparticles to enhance electron injection in solution processed QLEDs,” ACS Photonics 3(2), 215–222 (2016).
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J. Chen, D. Zhao, C. Li, F. Xu, W. Lei, L. Sun, A. Nathan, and X. W. Sun, “All solution-processed stable white quantum dot light-emitting diodes with hybrid ZnO@TiO2 as blue emitters,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4085 (2014).
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J. Kwak, W. K. Bae, D. Lee, I. Park, J. Lim, M. Park, H. Cho, H. Woo, D. Y. Yoon, K. Char, S. Lee, and C. Lee, “Bright and efficient full-color colloidal quantum dot light-emitting diodes using an inverted device structure,” Nano Lett. 12(5), 2362–2366 (2012).
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Y. Tao, C. Yang, and J. Qin, “Organic host materials for phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 40(5), 2943–2970 (2011).
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J. Chen, D. Zhao, C. Li, F. Xu, W. Lei, L. Sun, A. Nathan, and X. W. Sun, “All solution-processed stable white quantum dot light-emitting diodes with hybrid ZnO@TiO2 as blue emitters,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4085 (2014).
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J. Pan, J. Chen, Q. Huang, Q. Khan, X. Liu, Z. Tao, Z. Zhang, W. Lei, and A. Nathan, “Size tunable ZnO nanoparticles to enhance electron injection in solution processed QLEDs,” ACS Photonics 3(2), 215–222 (2016).
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[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Thesen, M. W.

M. W. Thesen, B. Hofer, M. Debeaux, S. Janietz, A. Wedel, A. Kohler, H. H. Johannes, and H. Krueger, “Hole-transporting host-polymer series consisting of triphenylamine basic structures for phosphorescent polymer light-emitting diodes,” J. Polymer Sci. 48, 3417–3430 (2010).

Wang, J.

C. Jiang, H. Liu, B. Liu, Z. Zhong, J. Zou, J. Wang, L. Wang, J. Peng, and Y. Cao, “Improved performance of inverted quantum dots light emitting devices by introducing double hole transport layers,” Org. Electron. 31, 82–89 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Dai, Z. Zhang, Y. Jin, Y. Niu, H. Cao, X. Liang, L. Chen, J. Wang, and X. Peng, “Solution-processed, high-performance light-emitting diodes based on quantum dots,” Nature 515(7525), 96–99 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, L.

C. Jiang, H. Liu, B. Liu, Z. Zhong, J. Zou, J. Wang, L. Wang, J. Peng, and Y. Cao, “Improved performance of inverted quantum dots light emitting devices by introducing double hole transport layers,” Org. Electron. 31, 82–89 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Duan, L. Hou, T.-W. Lee, J. Qiao, D. Zhang, G. Dong, L. Wang, and Y. Qiu, “Solution processable small molecules for organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 20, 6392–6407 (2010).

Wang, S.

X. Zhang, H. Dai, J. Zhao, S. Wang, and X. Sun, “All-solution processed composite hole transport layer for quantum dot light emitting diode,” Thin Solid Films 603, 187–192 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wedel, A.

M. W. Thesen, B. Hofer, M. Debeaux, S. Janietz, A. Wedel, A. Kohler, H. H. Johannes, and H. Krueger, “Hole-transporting host-polymer series consisting of triphenylamine basic structures for phosphorescent polymer light-emitting diodes,” J. Polymer Sci. 48, 3417–3430 (2010).

Woo, H.

J. Kwak, W. K. Bae, D. Lee, I. Park, J. Lim, M. Park, H. Cho, H. Woo, D. Y. Yoon, K. Char, S. Lee, and C. Lee, “Bright and efficient full-color colloidal quantum dot light-emitting diodes using an inverted device structure,” Nano Lett. 12(5), 2362–2366 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Woo, W. K.

S. Coe-Sullivan, J. S. Steckel, W. K. Woo, M. G. Bawendi, and V. Bulović, “Large-area ordered quantum-dot monolayers via phase separation during spin-casting,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 15, 1124 (2005).

Wood, V.

J. M. Caruge, J. E. Halpert, V. Wood, V. Bulovic, and M. G. Bawendi, “Colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting diodes with metal-oxide charge transport layers,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 247–250 (2008).
[Crossref]

Xu, F.

J. Pan, J. Chen, Q. Huang, Q. Khan, X. Liu, Z. Tao, W. Lei, F. Xu, and Z. Zhang, “Flexible quantum dot light emitting diodes based on ZnO nanoparticles,” RSC Advances 5(100), 82192–82198 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Chen, D. Zhao, C. Li, F. Xu, W. Lei, L. Sun, A. Nathan, and X. W. Sun, “All solution-processed stable white quantum dot light-emitting diodes with hybrid ZnO@TiO2 as blue emitters,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4085 (2014).
[PubMed]

Yang, C.

Y. Tao, C. Yang, and J. Qin, “Organic host materials for phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 40(5), 2943–2970 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, H.

K. H. Lee, J. H. Lee, W. S. Song, H. Ko, C. Lee, J. H. Lee, and H. Yang, “Highly efficient, color-pure, color-stable blue quantum dot light-emitting devices,” ACS Nano 7(8), 7295–7302 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yoon, D. Y.

J. Kwak, W. K. Bae, D. Lee, I. Park, J. Lim, M. Park, H. Cho, H. Woo, D. Y. Yoon, K. Char, S. Lee, and C. Lee, “Bright and efficient full-color colloidal quantum dot light-emitting diodes using an inverted device structure,” Nano Lett. 12(5), 2362–2366 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Youn, J.-H.

H.-M. Kim, A. R. bin Mohd Yusoff, J.-H. Youn, and J. Jang, “Inverted quantum-dot light emitting diodes with cesium carbonate doped aluminium-zinc-oxide as the cathode buffer layer for high brightness,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 1(25), 3924–3930 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, D.

L. Duan, L. Hou, T.-W. Lee, J. Qiao, D. Zhang, G. Dong, L. Wang, and Y. Qiu, “Solution processable small molecules for organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 20, 6392–6407 (2010).

Zhang, X.

X. Zhang, H. Dai, J. Zhao, S. Wang, and X. Sun, “All-solution processed composite hole transport layer for quantum dot light emitting diode,” Thin Solid Films 603, 187–192 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Z.

J. Pan, J. Chen, Q. Huang, Q. Khan, X. Liu, Z. Tao, Z. Zhang, W. Lei, and A. Nathan, “Size tunable ZnO nanoparticles to enhance electron injection in solution processed QLEDs,” ACS Photonics 3(2), 215–222 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Pan, J. Chen, D. Zhao, Q. Huang, Q. Khan, X. Liu, Z. Tao, Z. Zhang, and W. Lei, “Surface plasmon-enhanced quantum dot light-emitting diodes by incorporating gold nanoparticles,” Opt. Express 24(2), A33–A43 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Pan, J. Chen, Q. Huang, Q. Khan, X. Liu, Z. Tao, W. Lei, F. Xu, and Z. Zhang, “Flexible quantum dot light emitting diodes based on ZnO nanoparticles,” RSC Advances 5(100), 82192–82198 (2015).
[Crossref]

Q. Huang, J. Chen, J. Zhao, J. Pan, W. Lei, and Z. Zhang, “Enhanced photoluminescence property for quantum dot-gold nanoparticle hybrid,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 10(1), 400 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Dai, Z. Zhang, Y. Jin, Y. Niu, H. Cao, X. Liang, L. Chen, J. Wang, and X. Peng, “Solution-processed, high-performance light-emitting diodes based on quantum dots,” Nature 515(7525), 96–99 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, D.

J. Pan, J. Chen, D. Zhao, Q. Huang, Q. Khan, X. Liu, Z. Tao, Z. Zhang, and W. Lei, “Surface plasmon-enhanced quantum dot light-emitting diodes by incorporating gold nanoparticles,” Opt. Express 24(2), A33–A43 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Chen, D. Zhao, C. Li, F. Xu, W. Lei, L. Sun, A. Nathan, and X. W. Sun, “All solution-processed stable white quantum dot light-emitting diodes with hybrid ZnO@TiO2 as blue emitters,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4085 (2014).
[PubMed]

Zhao, J.

X. Zhang, H. Dai, J. Zhao, S. Wang, and X. Sun, “All-solution processed composite hole transport layer for quantum dot light emitting diode,” Thin Solid Films 603, 187–192 (2016).
[Crossref]

Q. Huang, J. Chen, J. Zhao, J. Pan, W. Lei, and Z. Zhang, “Enhanced photoluminescence property for quantum dot-gold nanoparticle hybrid,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 10(1), 400 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhong, Z.

C. Jiang, H. Liu, B. Liu, Z. Zhong, J. Zou, J. Wang, L. Wang, J. Peng, and Y. Cao, “Improved performance of inverted quantum dots light emitting devices by introducing double hole transport layers,” Org. Electron. 31, 82–89 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zou, J.

C. Jiang, H. Liu, B. Liu, Z. Zhong, J. Zou, J. Wang, L. Wang, J. Peng, and Y. Cao, “Improved performance of inverted quantum dots light emitting devices by introducing double hole transport layers,” Org. Electron. 31, 82–89 (2016).
[Crossref]

ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces (1)

Q. Fu, J. Chen, C. Shi, and D. Ma, “Room-temperature sol-gel derived molybdenum oxide thin films for efficient and stable solution-processed organic light-emitting diodes,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 5(13), 6024–6029 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

ACS Nano (1)

K. H. Lee, J. H. Lee, W. S. Song, H. Ko, C. Lee, J. H. Lee, and H. Yang, “Highly efficient, color-pure, color-stable blue quantum dot light-emitting devices,” ACS Nano 7(8), 7295–7302 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

ACS Photonics (1)

J. Pan, J. Chen, Q. Huang, Q. Khan, X. Liu, Z. Tao, Z. Zhang, W. Lei, and A. Nathan, “Size tunable ZnO nanoparticles to enhance electron injection in solution processed QLEDs,” ACS Photonics 3(2), 215–222 (2016).
[Crossref]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

S. Coe-Sullivan, J. S. Steckel, W. K. Woo, M. G. Bawendi, and V. Bulović, “Large-area ordered quantum-dot monolayers via phase separation during spin-casting,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 15, 1124 (2005).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

R. Acharya and X. A. Cao, “High-brightness organic light-emitting diodes based on a simplified hybrid structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(5), 053306 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chem. Soc. Rev. (1)

Y. Tao, C. Yang, and J. Qin, “Organic host materials for phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 40(5), 2943–2970 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices (3)

L. Duan, L. Hou, T.-W. Lee, J. Qiao, D. Zhang, G. Dong, L. Wang, and Y. Qiu, “Solution processable small molecules for organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 20, 6392–6407 (2010).

H.-M. Kim, A. R. bin Mohd Yusoff, J.-H. Youn, and J. Jang, “Inverted quantum-dot light emitting diodes with cesium carbonate doped aluminium-zinc-oxide as the cathode buffer layer for high brightness,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 1(25), 3924–3930 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Shi, V. Sadhu, R. Moubah, G. Schmerber, Q. Bao, and S. R. P. Silva, “Solution-processable graphene oxide as an efficient hole injection layer for high luminance organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 1(9), 1708–1712 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Polymer Sci. (1)

M. W. Thesen, B. Hofer, M. Debeaux, S. Janietz, A. Wedel, A. Kohler, H. H. Johannes, and H. Krueger, “Hole-transporting host-polymer series consisting of triphenylamine basic structures for phosphorescent polymer light-emitting diodes,” J. Polymer Sci. 48, 3417–3430 (2010).

Nano Lett. (1)

J. Kwak, W. K. Bae, D. Lee, I. Park, J. Lim, M. Park, H. Cho, H. Woo, D. Y. Yoon, K. Char, S. Lee, and C. Lee, “Bright and efficient full-color colloidal quantum dot light-emitting diodes using an inverted device structure,” Nano Lett. 12(5), 2362–2366 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nanoscale Res. Lett. (1)

Q. Huang, J. Chen, J. Zhao, J. Pan, W. Lei, and Z. Zhang, “Enhanced photoluminescence property for quantum dot-gold nanoparticle hybrid,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 10(1), 400 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Commun. (1)

W. K. Bae, Y. S. Park, J. Lim, D. Lee, L. A. Padilha, H. McDaniel, I. Robel, C. Lee, J. M. Pietryga, and V. I. Klimov, “Controlling the influence of Auger recombination on the performance of quantum-dot light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2661 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (2)

J. M. Caruge, J. E. Halpert, V. Wood, V. Bulovic, and M. G. Bawendi, “Colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting diodes with metal-oxide charge transport layers,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 247–250 (2008).
[Crossref]

K.-S. Cho, E. K. Lee, W.-J. Joo, E. Jang, T.-H. Kim, S. J. Lee, S.-J. Kwon, J. Y. Han, B.-K. Kim, B. L. Choi, and J. M. Kim, “High-performance crosslinked colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Photonics 3(6), 341–345 (2009).
[Crossref]

Nature (2)

X. Dai, Z. Zhang, Y. Jin, Y. Niu, H. Cao, X. Liang, L. Chen, J. Wang, and X. Peng, “Solution-processed, high-performance light-emitting diodes based on quantum dots,” Nature 515(7525), 96–99 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. L. Colvin, M. C. Schlamp, and A. P. Alivisatos, “Light-emitting diodes made from cadmium selenide nanocrystals and a semiconducting polymer,” Nature 370(6488), 354–357 (1994).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Org. Electron. (2)

D.-H. Lee, Y.-P. Liu, K.-H. Lee, H. Chae, and S. M. Cho, “Effect of hole transporting materials in phosphorescent white polymer light-emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 11(3), 427–433 (2010).
[Crossref]

C. Jiang, H. Liu, B. Liu, Z. Zhong, J. Zou, J. Wang, L. Wang, J. Peng, and Y. Cao, “Improved performance of inverted quantum dots light emitting devices by introducing double hole transport layers,” Org. Electron. 31, 82–89 (2016).
[Crossref]

RSC Advances (1)

J. Pan, J. Chen, Q. Huang, Q. Khan, X. Liu, Z. Tao, W. Lei, F. Xu, and Z. Zhang, “Flexible quantum dot light emitting diodes based on ZnO nanoparticles,” RSC Advances 5(100), 82192–82198 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (1)

J. Chen, D. Zhao, C. Li, F. Xu, W. Lei, L. Sun, A. Nathan, and X. W. Sun, “All solution-processed stable white quantum dot light-emitting diodes with hybrid ZnO@TiO2 as blue emitters,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4085 (2014).
[PubMed]

Thin Solid Films (1)

X. Zhang, H. Dai, J. Zhao, S. Wang, and X. Sun, “All-solution processed composite hole transport layer for quantum dot light emitting diode,” Thin Solid Films 603, 187–192 (2016).
[Crossref]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Absorption and PL spectra of QDs; (b) TEM image of QDs; (c) the structure schematic diagram and; (d) energy level diagram for the various layers of the QLEDs.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 AFM images of the different HTL spin coated on the PEDOT:PSS (a)Poly-TPD, (b) PVK, (c) CBP,(d) Poly-TPD:PVK, (e) Poly-TPD: CBP. The roughness of root mean square is indicated in the figure.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) The current density versus voltage of device; (b) current efficiency and (c) power efficiency of device; (d) EL spectra of device at different driving voltage, inset shows the real picture of working device.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Current versus voltage characteristics for hole only devices (HODs) and electron only device (EOD).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Operational lifetimes of QLEDs based on different HTL.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Summary of device performances for different hole transport materials.

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