Abstract

Simple optical techniques that can accurately and selectively identify organic and inorganic material in a reproducible manner are of paramount importance in biological sensing applications. In this work, we demonstrate that a nanoimprinted plasmonic pattern with locked-in dimensions supports sharp deterministic hybrid resonances when coupled with an optical cavity suitable for high sensitive surface detection. The surface sensing property of this hybrid system is quantified by precise atomic layer growth of aluminum oxide using the atomic layer deposition technique. The analyte specific sensing ability is demonstrated in the detection of two dissimilar analytes, inorganic amine-coated iron oxide nanoparticles and organic streptavidin protein. Femto to nanomolar detection limits were achieved with the proposed coupled plasmonic system based on the versatile and robust soft nanoimprinting technique, which promises practical low cost biosensors.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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2015 (5)

M. K. Kang, J. Lee, A. H. Nguyen, and S. J. Sim, “Label-free detection of ApoE4-mediated β-amyloid aggregation on single nanoparticle uncovering Alzheimer’s disease,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 72, 197–204 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Mesch, C. Zhang, P. V. Braun, and H. Giessen, “Functionalized hydrogel on plasmonic nanoantennas for noninvasive glucose sensing,” ACS Photonics 2(4), 475–480 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Guo, J. A. Jackman, H.-H. Yang, P. Chen, N.-J. Cho, and D.-H. Kim, “Strategies for enhancing the sensitivity of plasmonic nanosensors,” Nano Today 10(2), 213–239 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Bahramipanah, S. Dutta-Gupta, B. Abasahl, and O. J. F. Martin, “Cavity-coupled plasmonic device with enhanced sensitivity and figure-of-merit,” ACS Nano 9(7), 7621–7633 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Li, J. Ye, C. Chen, Y. Li, N. Verellen, V. V. Moshchalkov, L. Lagae, and P. Van Dorpe, “Revisiting the surface sensitivity of nanoplasmonic biosensors,” ACS Photonics 2(3), 425–431 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (7)

A. Nemiroski, M. Gonidec, J. M. Fox, P. Jean-Remy, E. Turnage, and G. M. Whitesides, “Engineering shadows to fabricate optical metasurfaces,” ACS Nano 8(11), 11061–11070 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Vázquez-Guardado, A. Safaei, S. Modak, D. Franklin, and D. Chanda, “Hybrid coupling mechanism in a system supporting high order diffraction, plasmonic, and cavity resonances,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(26), 263902 (2014).
[Crossref]

C.-A. Peng and S. Pachpinde, “Longitudinal plasmonic detection of glucose using gold nanorods,” Nanomater. Nanotechnol. 4, 9 (2014).

S. Zhang, Y. Moustafa, and Q. Huo, “Different interaction modes of biomolecules with citrate-capped gold nanoparticles,” ACS Appl. Mater. Inter. 6(23), 21184–21192 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Im, H. Shao, Y. Il Park, V. M. Peterson, C. M. Castro, R. Weissleder, and H. Lee, “Label-free detection and molecular profiling of exosomes with a nanoplasmonic sensor,” Nat. Biotechnol. 32(5), 490–495 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. S. Aćimović, M. A. Ortega, V. Sanz, J. Berthelot, J. L. Garcia-Cordero, J. Renger, S. J. Maerkl, M. P. Kreuzer, and R. Quidant, “LSPR chip for parallel, rapid, and sensitive detection of cancer markers in serum,” Nano Lett. 14(5), 2636–2641 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Kooy, K. Mohamed, L. T. Pin, and O. S. Guan, “A review of roll-to-roll nanoimprint lithography,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 9(1), 320 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (3)

X. Liu, S. Zhang, P. Tan, J. Zhou, Y. Huang, Z. Nie, and S. Yao, “A plasmonic blood glucose monitor based on enzymatic etching of gold nanorods,” Chem. Commun. 49(18), 1856 (2013).
[Crossref]

V. G. Kravets, F. Schedin, R. Jalil, L. Britnell, R. V. Gorbachev, D. Ansell, B. Thackray, K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, A. V. Kabashin, and A. N. Grigorenko, “Singular phase nano-optics in plasmonic metamaterials for label-free single-molecule detection,” Nat. Mater. 12(4), 304–309 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Shen, J. Zhou, T. Liu, Y. Tao, R. Jiang, M. Liu, G. Xiao, J. Zhu, Z.-K. Zhou, X. Wang, C. Jin, and J. Wang, “Plasmonic gold mushroom arrays with refractive index sensing figures of merit approaching the theoretical limit,” Nat. Commn. 4, 2381 (2013).

2012 (8)

A. E. Cetin and H. Altug, “Fano resonant ring/disk plasmonic nanocavities on conducting substrates for advanced biosensing,” ACS Nano 6(11), 9989–9995 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Yokogawa, S. P. Burgos, and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonic color filters for CMOS image sensor applications,” Nano Lett. 12(8), 4349–4354 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Escobedo, A. G. Brolo, R. Gordon, and D. Sinton, “Optofluidic concentration: plasmonic nanostructure as concentrator and sensor,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1592–1596 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Altintas, Y. Uludag, Y. Gurbuz, and I. Tothill, “Development of surface chemistry for surface plasmon resonance based sensors for the detection of proteins and DNA molecules,” Anal. Chim. Acta. 712, 138–144 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Cottat, N. Thioune, A.-M. Gabudean, N. Lidgi-Guigui, M. Focsan, S. Astilean, and M. Lamy de la Chapelle, “Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance (LSPR) biosensor for the protein detection,” Plasmonics 8(2), 699–704 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. V. Vlassov, S. Magdaleno, R. Setterquist, and R. Conrad, “Exosomes: current knowledge of their composition, biological functions, and diagnostic and therapeutic potentials,” BBA - Gen. Subjects 1820, 940–948 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. Kharaziha, S. Ceder, Q. Li, and T. Panaretakis, “Tumor cell-derived exosomes: a message in a bottle,” BBA-Rev. Cancer 1826(1), 103–111 (2012).

K. Lodewijks, W. Van Roy, G. Borghs, L. Lagae, and P. Van Dorpe, “Boosting the figure-of-merit of LSPR-based refractive index sensing by phase-sensitive measurements,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1655–1659 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (4)

P. L. Mai, N. Wentzensen, and M. H. Greene, “Challenges related to developing serum-based biomarkers for early ovarian cancer detection,” Cancer Prev. Res. 4, 303–306 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. Chanda, K. Shigeta, T. Truong, E. Lui, A. Mihi, M. Schulmerich, P. V. Braun, R. Bhargava, and J. A. Rogers, “Coupling of plasmonic and optical cavity modes in quasi-three-dimensional plasmonic crystals,” Nat. Commun. 2, 479 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Cattoni, P. Ghenuche, A.-M. Haghiri-Gosnet, D. Decanini, J. Chen, J.-L. Pelouard, and S. Collin, “λ 3/1000 plasmonic nanocavities for biosensing fabricated by soft UV nanoimprint lithography,” Nano Lett. 11(9), 3557–3563 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. A. Yanik, A. E. Cetin, M. Huang, A. Artar, S. H. Mousavi, A. Khanikaev, J. H. Connor, G. Shvets, and H. Altug, “Seeing protein monolayers with naked eye through plasmonic Fano resonances,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108(29), 11784–11789 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (4)

R. Ameling, L. Langguth, M. Hentschel, M. Mesch, P. V. Braun, and H. Giessen, “Cavity-enhanced localized plasmon resonance sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(25), 253116 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. A. Otte, B. Sepúlveda, W. Ni, J. P. Juste, L. M. Liz-Marzán, and L. M. Lechuga, “Identification of the optimal spectral region for plasmonic and nanoplasmonic sensing,” ACS Nano 4(1), 349–357 (2010).
[Crossref]

N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared perfect absorber and its application as plasmonic sensor,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2342–2348 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Guo, G. Chen, and D.-H. Kim, “Three-dimensionally assembled gold nanostructures for plasmonic biosensors,” Anal. Chem. 82(12), 5147–5153 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

S. Chen, M. Svedendahl, M. Käll, L. Gunnarsson, and A. Dmitriev, “Ultrahigh sensitivity made simple: nanoplasmonic label-free biosensing with an extremely low limit-of-detection for bacterial and cancer diagnostics,” Nanotechnology 20(43), 434015 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (4)

J. Anker, W. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. E. Stewart, C. R. Anderton, L. B. Thompson, J. Maria, S. K. Gray, J. A. Rogers, and R. G. Nuzzo, “Nanostructured plasmonic sensors,” Chem. Rev. 108(2), 494–521 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Loeb and W. J. Catalona, “What to do with an abnormal PSA test,” Oncologist 13, 299–305 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yao, M. E. Stewart, J. Maria, T.-W. Lee, S. K. Gray, J. A. Rogers, and R. G. Nuzzo, “Seeing molecules by eye: surface plasmon resonance imaging at visible wavelengths with high spatial resolution and submonolayer sensitivity,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 47(27), 5013–5017 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

H. Fredriksson, Y. Alaverdyan, A. Dmitriev, C. Langhammer, D. S. Sutherland, M. Zäch, and B. Kasemo, “Hole–mask colloidal lithography,” Adv. Mater. 19(23), 4297–4302 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

J. Zhao, A. Das, X. Zhang, G. C. Schatz, S. G. Sligar, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Resonance surface plasmon spectroscopy: low molecular weight substrate binding to cytochrome P450,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(34), 11004–11005 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. E. Stewart, N. H. Mack, V. Malyarchuk, J. A. N. T. Soares, T.-W. Lee, S. K. Gray, R. G. Nuzzo, and J. A. Rogers, “Quantitative multispectral biosensing and 1D imaging using quasi-3D plasmonic crystals,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 103(46), 17143–17148 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (6)

J. A. Rogers and R. G. Nuzzo, “Recent progress in soft lithography,” Materials Today 8(2), 50–56 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. A. Maier and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonics: localization and guiding of electromagnetic energy in metal/dielectric structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 011101 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. Y. Hwang, C. H. Yoon, J. Y. Jeon, S. C. Choi, and E. K. Lee, “Quantitative assay of Hepatitis B surface antigen by using surface plasmon resonance biosensor,” Biotechnol. Bioproc. E. 10(4), 309–314 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. W. Chung, S. D. Kim, R. Bernhardt, and J. C. Pyun, “Application of SPR biosensor for medical diagnostics of human Hepatitis B virus (hHBV),” Sensor Actuat. B-Chem. 111–112, 416–422 (2005).
[Crossref]

A. J. Haes, L. Chang, W. L. Klein, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Detection of a biomarker for Alzheimer’s disease from synthetic and clinical samples using a nanoscale optical biosensor,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127(7), 2264–2271 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Malyarchuk, F. Hua, N. Mack, V. Velasquez, J. White, R. Nuzzo, and J. Rogers, “High performance plasmonic crystal sensor formed by soft nanoimprint lithography,” Opt. Express 13(15), 5669–5675 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

A. J. Haes and R. P. Van Duyne, “A Nanoscale optical biosensor: sensitivity and selectivity of an approach based on the localized surface plasmon resonance sectroscopy of triangular silver nanoparticles,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124(35), 10596–10604 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

M. D. Malinsky, K. L. Kelly, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Chain length dependence and sensing capabilities of the localized surface plasmon resonance of silver nanoparticles chemically modified with alkanethiol self-assembled monolayers,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123, 1471–1482 (2001).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

X.-M. Zhao, Y. Xia, and G. M. Whitesides, “Soft lithographic methods for nano-fabrication,” J. Mater. Chem. 7(7), 1069–1074 (1997).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

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A. E. Cetin and H. Altug, “Fano resonant ring/disk plasmonic nanocavities on conducting substrates for advanced biosensing,” ACS Nano 6(11), 9989–9995 (2012).
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A. Vázquez-Guardado, A. Safaei, S. Modak, D. Franklin, and D. Chanda, “Hybrid coupling mechanism in a system supporting high order diffraction, plasmonic, and cavity resonances,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(26), 263902 (2014).
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L. Guo, J. A. Jackman, H.-H. Yang, P. Chen, N.-J. Cho, and D.-H. Kim, “Strategies for enhancing the sensitivity of plasmonic nanosensors,” Nano Today 10(2), 213–239 (2015).
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A. A. Yanik, A. E. Cetin, M. Huang, A. Artar, S. H. Mousavi, A. Khanikaev, J. H. Connor, G. Shvets, and H. Altug, “Seeing protein monolayers with naked eye through plasmonic Fano resonances,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108(29), 11784–11789 (2011).
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A. Cattoni, P. Ghenuche, A.-M. Haghiri-Gosnet, D. Decanini, J. Chen, J.-L. Pelouard, and S. Collin, “λ 3/1000 plasmonic nanocavities for biosensing fabricated by soft UV nanoimprint lithography,” Nano Lett. 11(9), 3557–3563 (2011).
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Dmitriev, A.

S. Chen, M. Svedendahl, M. Käll, L. Gunnarsson, and A. Dmitriev, “Ultrahigh sensitivity made simple: nanoplasmonic label-free biosensing with an extremely low limit-of-detection for bacterial and cancer diagnostics,” Nanotechnology 20(43), 434015 (2009).
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H. Fredriksson, Y. Alaverdyan, A. Dmitriev, C. Langhammer, D. S. Sutherland, M. Zäch, and B. Kasemo, “Hole–mask colloidal lithography,” Adv. Mater. 19(23), 4297–4302 (2007).
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Dutta-Gupta, S.

M. Bahramipanah, S. Dutta-Gupta, B. Abasahl, and O. J. F. Martin, “Cavity-coupled plasmonic device with enhanced sensitivity and figure-of-merit,” ACS Nano 9(7), 7621–7633 (2015).
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Escobedo, C.

C. Escobedo, A. G. Brolo, R. Gordon, and D. Sinton, “Optofluidic concentration: plasmonic nanostructure as concentrator and sensor,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1592–1596 (2012).
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Focsan, M.

M. Cottat, N. Thioune, A.-M. Gabudean, N. Lidgi-Guigui, M. Focsan, S. Astilean, and M. Lamy de la Chapelle, “Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance (LSPR) biosensor for the protein detection,” Plasmonics 8(2), 699–704 (2012).
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A. Nemiroski, M. Gonidec, J. M. Fox, P. Jean-Remy, E. Turnage, and G. M. Whitesides, “Engineering shadows to fabricate optical metasurfaces,” ACS Nano 8(11), 11061–11070 (2014).
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Franklin, D.

A. Vázquez-Guardado, A. Safaei, S. Modak, D. Franklin, and D. Chanda, “Hybrid coupling mechanism in a system supporting high order diffraction, plasmonic, and cavity resonances,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(26), 263902 (2014).
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H. Fredriksson, Y. Alaverdyan, A. Dmitriev, C. Langhammer, D. S. Sutherland, M. Zäch, and B. Kasemo, “Hole–mask colloidal lithography,” Adv. Mater. 19(23), 4297–4302 (2007).
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M. Cottat, N. Thioune, A.-M. Gabudean, N. Lidgi-Guigui, M. Focsan, S. Astilean, and M. Lamy de la Chapelle, “Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance (LSPR) biosensor for the protein detection,” Plasmonics 8(2), 699–704 (2012).
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V. G. Kravets, F. Schedin, R. Jalil, L. Britnell, R. V. Gorbachev, D. Ansell, B. Thackray, K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, A. V. Kabashin, and A. N. Grigorenko, “Singular phase nano-optics in plasmonic metamaterials for label-free single-molecule detection,” Nat. Mater. 12(4), 304–309 (2013).
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A. Cattoni, P. Ghenuche, A.-M. Haghiri-Gosnet, D. Decanini, J. Chen, J.-L. Pelouard, and S. Collin, “λ 3/1000 plasmonic nanocavities for biosensing fabricated by soft UV nanoimprint lithography,” Nano Lett. 11(9), 3557–3563 (2011).
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Giessen, H.

M. Mesch, C. Zhang, P. V. Braun, and H. Giessen, “Functionalized hydrogel on plasmonic nanoantennas for noninvasive glucose sensing,” ACS Photonics 2(4), 475–480 (2015).
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N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared perfect absorber and its application as plasmonic sensor,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2342–2348 (2010).
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A. Nemiroski, M. Gonidec, J. M. Fox, P. Jean-Remy, E. Turnage, and G. M. Whitesides, “Engineering shadows to fabricate optical metasurfaces,” ACS Nano 8(11), 11061–11070 (2014).
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V. G. Kravets, F. Schedin, R. Jalil, L. Britnell, R. V. Gorbachev, D. Ansell, B. Thackray, K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, A. V. Kabashin, and A. N. Grigorenko, “Singular phase nano-optics in plasmonic metamaterials for label-free single-molecule detection,” Nat. Mater. 12(4), 304–309 (2013).
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Gordon, R.

C. Escobedo, A. G. Brolo, R. Gordon, and D. Sinton, “Optofluidic concentration: plasmonic nanostructure as concentrator and sensor,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1592–1596 (2012).
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M. E. Stewart, C. R. Anderton, L. B. Thompson, J. Maria, S. K. Gray, J. A. Rogers, and R. G. Nuzzo, “Nanostructured plasmonic sensors,” Chem. Rev. 108(2), 494–521 (2008).
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J. Yao, M. E. Stewart, J. Maria, T.-W. Lee, S. K. Gray, J. A. Rogers, and R. G. Nuzzo, “Seeing molecules by eye: surface plasmon resonance imaging at visible wavelengths with high spatial resolution and submonolayer sensitivity,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 47(27), 5013–5017 (2008).
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S. Chen, M. Svedendahl, M. Käll, L. Gunnarsson, and A. Dmitriev, “Ultrahigh sensitivity made simple: nanoplasmonic label-free biosensing with an extremely low limit-of-detection for bacterial and cancer diagnostics,” Nanotechnology 20(43), 434015 (2009).
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Guo, L.

L. Guo, J. A. Jackman, H.-H. Yang, P. Chen, N.-J. Cho, and D.-H. Kim, “Strategies for enhancing the sensitivity of plasmonic nanosensors,” Nano Today 10(2), 213–239 (2015).
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L. Guo, G. Chen, and D.-H. Kim, “Three-dimensionally assembled gold nanostructures for plasmonic biosensors,” Anal. Chem. 82(12), 5147–5153 (2010).
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Z. Altintas, Y. Uludag, Y. Gurbuz, and I. Tothill, “Development of surface chemistry for surface plasmon resonance based sensors for the detection of proteins and DNA molecules,” Anal. Chim. Acta. 712, 138–144 (2012).
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Haes, A. J.

A. J. Haes, L. Chang, W. L. Klein, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Detection of a biomarker for Alzheimer’s disease from synthetic and clinical samples using a nanoscale optical biosensor,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127(7), 2264–2271 (2005).
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G. W. Litman, J. P. Rast, M. J. Shamblott, R. N. Haire, M. Hulst, W. Roess, R. T. Litman, K. R. Hinds-Frey, A. Zilch, and C. T. Amemiya, “Phylogenetic diversification of immunoglobulin genes and the antibody repertoire,” Mol. Biol. Evol. 10(1), 60–72 (1993).
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J. Anker, W. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
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N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared perfect absorber and its application as plasmonic sensor,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2342–2348 (2010).
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Schatz, G. C.

J. Zhao, A. Das, X. Zhang, G. C. Schatz, S. G. Sligar, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Resonance surface plasmon spectroscopy: low molecular weight substrate binding to cytochrome P450,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(34), 11004–11005 (2006).
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G. W. Litman, J. P. Rast, M. J. Shamblott, R. N. Haire, M. Hulst, W. Roess, R. T. Litman, K. R. Hinds-Frey, A. Zilch, and C. T. Amemiya, “Phylogenetic diversification of immunoglobulin genes and the antibody repertoire,” Mol. Biol. Evol. 10(1), 60–72 (1993).
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M. E. Stewart, N. H. Mack, V. Malyarchuk, J. A. N. T. Soares, T.-W. Lee, S. K. Gray, R. G. Nuzzo, and J. A. Rogers, “Quantitative multispectral biosensing and 1D imaging using quasi-3D plasmonic crystals,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 103(46), 17143–17148 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stewart, M. E.

J. Yao, M. E. Stewart, J. Maria, T.-W. Lee, S. K. Gray, J. A. Rogers, and R. G. Nuzzo, “Seeing molecules by eye: surface plasmon resonance imaging at visible wavelengths with high spatial resolution and submonolayer sensitivity,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 47(27), 5013–5017 (2008).
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M. E. Stewart, C. R. Anderton, L. B. Thompson, J. Maria, S. K. Gray, J. A. Rogers, and R. G. Nuzzo, “Nanostructured plasmonic sensors,” Chem. Rev. 108(2), 494–521 (2008).
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M. E. Stewart, N. H. Mack, V. Malyarchuk, J. A. N. T. Soares, T.-W. Lee, S. K. Gray, R. G. Nuzzo, and J. A. Rogers, “Quantitative multispectral biosensing and 1D imaging using quasi-3D plasmonic crystals,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 103(46), 17143–17148 (2006).
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Sutherland, D. S.

H. Fredriksson, Y. Alaverdyan, A. Dmitriev, C. Langhammer, D. S. Sutherland, M. Zäch, and B. Kasemo, “Hole–mask colloidal lithography,” Adv. Mater. 19(23), 4297–4302 (2007).
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S. Chen, M. Svedendahl, M. Käll, L. Gunnarsson, and A. Dmitriev, “Ultrahigh sensitivity made simple: nanoplasmonic label-free biosensing with an extremely low limit-of-detection for bacterial and cancer diagnostics,” Nanotechnology 20(43), 434015 (2009).
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X. Liu, S. Zhang, P. Tan, J. Zhou, Y. Huang, Z. Nie, and S. Yao, “A plasmonic blood glucose monitor based on enzymatic etching of gold nanorods,” Chem. Commun. 49(18), 1856 (2013).
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Tao, Y.

Y. Shen, J. Zhou, T. Liu, Y. Tao, R. Jiang, M. Liu, G. Xiao, J. Zhu, Z.-K. Zhou, X. Wang, C. Jin, and J. Wang, “Plasmonic gold mushroom arrays with refractive index sensing figures of merit approaching the theoretical limit,” Nat. Commn. 4, 2381 (2013).

Thackray, B.

V. G. Kravets, F. Schedin, R. Jalil, L. Britnell, R. V. Gorbachev, D. Ansell, B. Thackray, K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, A. V. Kabashin, and A. N. Grigorenko, “Singular phase nano-optics in plasmonic metamaterials for label-free single-molecule detection,” Nat. Mater. 12(4), 304–309 (2013).
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M. Cottat, N. Thioune, A.-M. Gabudean, N. Lidgi-Guigui, M. Focsan, S. Astilean, and M. Lamy de la Chapelle, “Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance (LSPR) biosensor for the protein detection,” Plasmonics 8(2), 699–704 (2012).
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M. E. Stewart, C. R. Anderton, L. B. Thompson, J. Maria, S. K. Gray, J. A. Rogers, and R. G. Nuzzo, “Nanostructured plasmonic sensors,” Chem. Rev. 108(2), 494–521 (2008).
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Turnage, E.

A. Nemiroski, M. Gonidec, J. M. Fox, P. Jean-Remy, E. Turnage, and G. M. Whitesides, “Engineering shadows to fabricate optical metasurfaces,” ACS Nano 8(11), 11061–11070 (2014).
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J. Anker, W. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
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A. J. Haes, L. Chang, W. L. Klein, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Detection of a biomarker for Alzheimer’s disease from synthetic and clinical samples using a nanoscale optical biosensor,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127(7), 2264–2271 (2005).
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A. J. Haes and R. P. Van Duyne, “A Nanoscale optical biosensor: sensitivity and selectivity of an approach based on the localized surface plasmon resonance sectroscopy of triangular silver nanoparticles,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124(35), 10596–10604 (2002).
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M. D. Malinsky, K. L. Kelly, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Chain length dependence and sensing capabilities of the localized surface plasmon resonance of silver nanoparticles chemically modified with alkanethiol self-assembled monolayers,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123, 1471–1482 (2001).
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Van Roy, W.

K. Lodewijks, W. Van Roy, G. Borghs, L. Lagae, and P. Van Dorpe, “Boosting the figure-of-merit of LSPR-based refractive index sensing by phase-sensitive measurements,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1655–1659 (2012).
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Vázquez-Guardado, A.

A. Vázquez-Guardado, A. Safaei, S. Modak, D. Franklin, and D. Chanda, “Hybrid coupling mechanism in a system supporting high order diffraction, plasmonic, and cavity resonances,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(26), 263902 (2014).
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Velasquez, V.

Verellen, N.

J. Li, J. Ye, C. Chen, Y. Li, N. Verellen, V. V. Moshchalkov, L. Lagae, and P. Van Dorpe, “Revisiting the surface sensitivity of nanoplasmonic biosensors,” ACS Photonics 2(3), 425–431 (2015).
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Vlassov, A. V.

A. V. Vlassov, S. Magdaleno, R. Setterquist, and R. Conrad, “Exosomes: current knowledge of their composition, biological functions, and diagnostic and therapeutic potentials,” BBA - Gen. Subjects 1820, 940–948 (2012).
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Wang, J.

Y. Shen, J. Zhou, T. Liu, Y. Tao, R. Jiang, M. Liu, G. Xiao, J. Zhu, Z.-K. Zhou, X. Wang, C. Jin, and J. Wang, “Plasmonic gold mushroom arrays with refractive index sensing figures of merit approaching the theoretical limit,” Nat. Commn. 4, 2381 (2013).

Wang, X.

Y. Shen, J. Zhou, T. Liu, Y. Tao, R. Jiang, M. Liu, G. Xiao, J. Zhu, Z.-K. Zhou, X. Wang, C. Jin, and J. Wang, “Plasmonic gold mushroom arrays with refractive index sensing figures of merit approaching the theoretical limit,” Nat. Commn. 4, 2381 (2013).

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H. Im, H. Shao, Y. Il Park, V. M. Peterson, C. M. Castro, R. Weissleder, and H. Lee, “Label-free detection and molecular profiling of exosomes with a nanoplasmonic sensor,” Nat. Biotechnol. 32(5), 490–495 (2014).
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L. Guo, J. A. Jackman, H.-H. Yang, P. Chen, N.-J. Cho, and D.-H. Kim, “Strategies for enhancing the sensitivity of plasmonic nanosensors,” Nano Today 10(2), 213–239 (2015).
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Yao, J.

J. Yao, M. E. Stewart, J. Maria, T.-W. Lee, S. K. Gray, J. A. Rogers, and R. G. Nuzzo, “Seeing molecules by eye: surface plasmon resonance imaging at visible wavelengths with high spatial resolution and submonolayer sensitivity,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 47(27), 5013–5017 (2008).
[Crossref]

Yao, S.

X. Liu, S. Zhang, P. Tan, J. Zhou, Y. Huang, Z. Nie, and S. Yao, “A plasmonic blood glucose monitor based on enzymatic etching of gold nanorods,” Chem. Commun. 49(18), 1856 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ye, J.

J. Li, J. Ye, C. Chen, Y. Li, N. Verellen, V. V. Moshchalkov, L. Lagae, and P. Van Dorpe, “Revisiting the surface sensitivity of nanoplasmonic biosensors,” ACS Photonics 2(3), 425–431 (2015).
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Zhang, C.

M. Mesch, C. Zhang, P. V. Braun, and H. Giessen, “Functionalized hydrogel on plasmonic nanoantennas for noninvasive glucose sensing,” ACS Photonics 2(4), 475–480 (2015).
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Zhang, S.

S. Zhang, Y. Moustafa, and Q. Huo, “Different interaction modes of biomolecules with citrate-capped gold nanoparticles,” ACS Appl. Mater. Inter. 6(23), 21184–21192 (2014).
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X. Liu, S. Zhang, P. Tan, J. Zhou, Y. Huang, Z. Nie, and S. Yao, “A plasmonic blood glucose monitor based on enzymatic etching of gold nanorods,” Chem. Commun. 49(18), 1856 (2013).
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Zhang, X.

J. Zhao, A. Das, X. Zhang, G. C. Schatz, S. G. Sligar, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Resonance surface plasmon spectroscopy: low molecular weight substrate binding to cytochrome P450,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(34), 11004–11005 (2006).
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Zhao, J.

J. Anker, W. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Zhao, A. Das, X. Zhang, G. C. Schatz, S. G. Sligar, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Resonance surface plasmon spectroscopy: low molecular weight substrate binding to cytochrome P450,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(34), 11004–11005 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, X.-M.

X.-M. Zhao, Y. Xia, and G. M. Whitesides, “Soft lithographic methods for nano-fabrication,” J. Mater. Chem. 7(7), 1069–1074 (1997).
[Crossref]

Zhou, J.

Y. Shen, J. Zhou, T. Liu, Y. Tao, R. Jiang, M. Liu, G. Xiao, J. Zhu, Z.-K. Zhou, X. Wang, C. Jin, and J. Wang, “Plasmonic gold mushroom arrays with refractive index sensing figures of merit approaching the theoretical limit,” Nat. Commn. 4, 2381 (2013).

X. Liu, S. Zhang, P. Tan, J. Zhou, Y. Huang, Z. Nie, and S. Yao, “A plasmonic blood glucose monitor based on enzymatic etching of gold nanorods,” Chem. Commun. 49(18), 1856 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhou, Z.-K.

Y. Shen, J. Zhou, T. Liu, Y. Tao, R. Jiang, M. Liu, G. Xiao, J. Zhu, Z.-K. Zhou, X. Wang, C. Jin, and J. Wang, “Plasmonic gold mushroom arrays with refractive index sensing figures of merit approaching the theoretical limit,” Nat. Commn. 4, 2381 (2013).

Zhu, J.

Y. Shen, J. Zhou, T. Liu, Y. Tao, R. Jiang, M. Liu, G. Xiao, J. Zhu, Z.-K. Zhou, X. Wang, C. Jin, and J. Wang, “Plasmonic gold mushroom arrays with refractive index sensing figures of merit approaching the theoretical limit,” Nat. Commn. 4, 2381 (2013).

Zilch, A.

G. W. Litman, J. P. Rast, M. J. Shamblott, R. N. Haire, M. Hulst, W. Roess, R. T. Litman, K. R. Hinds-Frey, A. Zilch, and C. T. Amemiya, “Phylogenetic diversification of immunoglobulin genes and the antibody repertoire,” Mol. Biol. Evol. 10(1), 60–72 (1993).
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ACS Appl. Mater. Inter. (1)

S. Zhang, Y. Moustafa, and Q. Huo, “Different interaction modes of biomolecules with citrate-capped gold nanoparticles,” ACS Appl. Mater. Inter. 6(23), 21184–21192 (2014).
[Crossref]

ACS Nano (4)

A. Nemiroski, M. Gonidec, J. M. Fox, P. Jean-Remy, E. Turnage, and G. M. Whitesides, “Engineering shadows to fabricate optical metasurfaces,” ACS Nano 8(11), 11061–11070 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. E. Cetin and H. Altug, “Fano resonant ring/disk plasmonic nanocavities on conducting substrates for advanced biosensing,” ACS Nano 6(11), 9989–9995 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic representation of the hybrid cavity-coupled plasmonic system and SEM image of one fabricated device.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Calculated FDTD reflectance dispersion of the hybrid cavity-coupled plasmonic system as a function of cavity thickness (L). Inset represents the cross section profile of the simulated model. (b) Top and cross sectional spatial field profiles for a plasmonic device without cavity coupling at λ = 835 nm. (c) Top and cross sectional spatial field profiles for a plasmonic device with cavity coupling at L = 760 nm and λ = 842 nm. (d) FDTD calculated reflectance spectra of an uncoupled plasmonic system (green) and the hybrid system (red), which show a LSPR at λ = 835 nm and λ = 842 nm, respectively. Reflectance spectra comparison between experimentally measured (blue) and FDTD predicted reflectance spectra (red) for L = 760 nm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Theoretical reflectance of a multistack showing a Fabry-Perot resonance (white dashed line) independent of the Al2O3 thickness (d). The multistack is comprised of air superstrate, Al2O3 film (0–81nm), gold thin film (30 nm), SU8 as a dielectric (760 nm) and gold back reflector (200 nm). (b) FDTD reflectance dispersion of a hybrid cavity-coupled plasmonic system as a function of Al2O3 thickness showing the hybrid resonance dispersion (white dashed line). (c) Experimental reflectance of the hybrid cavity-coupled plasmonic system as a function of Al2O3 conformal layers at different thicknesses. The inset SEM Image corresponds to a coated device with 36 nm Al2O3. (d) Experimental (blue circle) and FDTD (green squares) LSPR shift as a function of Al2O3 thickness. (e) Experimental (blue circles) and FDTD (green squares) surface sensitivity as a function of Al2O3 thickness.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Reflection spectra of a hybrid system with perfect electrical conductor (PEC) interchanging the top gold film. (a) Reflection spectra dispersion as a function of cavity thickness. This graph shows a Fabry-Perot (FP) resonance (dashed line). (b) Reflection spectra dispersion as a function of conformal coating film thickness that shows no dispersion of a FP resonance at L = 760 nm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Gold surface functionalization and detection schemes for selective analyte detection. (a) Amine-coated IONP binding. LA is bound to the gold surface by reduction of its sulfur bond through DTT. EDC/NHS chemistry activates the DHLA terminal group to bind amine-coated IONP. (b) Avidin binding. The synthetized LA-PEG11-Biotin is bound to the gold surface by reduction of its sulfur bond through DTT. Streptavidin binds directly to biotin with high affinity.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Schematic representation of A-IONP capturing. DHLA-EDC/NHS surface functionalization and A-IONP capture through amine-NHS interchange. (b) Average LSPR spectral shift of A-IONP with respect to DHLA activated with different concentrations (C) of EDC/NHS chemistry. Continuous line represents logarithmic fit (R2 = 0.70) to the experimental data. Inset shows the LSPR shift response from the un-functionalized sensor (blue curve) to a concentration of C = 100 nM (red curve). (c) Schematic representation of Avidin capturing through sensor’s Biotin functionalization and BSA surface saturation for reduction of nonspecific binding. (d) Average LSPR spectral shift with respect of Avidin concentration (C). Continuous lines represent logarithmic fit (R2 = 0.92) to the experimental data. Inset shows the LSPR shift response of an un-functionalized sensor (blue curve) to a concentration of C = 14 M (red curve).

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