Abstract

Recent visible light communication (VLC) studies mainly used positive-intrinsic-negative (PIN) and avalanche photodiode (APD). VLC using embedded complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) camera is attractive. Using the rolling shutter effect of CMOS camera can increase the VLC data rate; and different techniques have been proposed for improving the demodulation of the rolling shutter pattern. Important steps to demodulate the rolling shutter pattern are the smoothing and the application of efficient thresholding to distinguish data logic. Here, we propose and demonstrate for the first time two entropy thresholding algorithms, including maximum entropy thresholding and minimum cross entropy thresholding. Experimental evaluation to compare their bit-error-rate (BER) performances and efficiencies are also performed.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. C. Liu, J. Wang, L. Cheng, M. Zhu, and G. K. Chang, “Key microwave-photonics technologies for next-generation cloud-based radio access networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(20), 3452–3460 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  2. C. W. Chow, F. M. Kuo, J. W. Shi, C. H. Yeh, Y. F. Wu, C. H. Wang, Y. T. Li, and C. L. Pan, “100 GHz ultra-wideband (UWB) fiber-to-the-antenna (FTTA) system for in-building and in-home networks,” Opt. Express 18(2), 473–478 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. C. W. Chow, J. Y. Sung, and C. H. Yeh, “A convergent wireline and wireless time-and-wavelength-division-multiplexed passive optical network,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(3), 7902107 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  4. S. Wu, H. Wang, and C. H. Youn, “Visible light communications for 5G wireless networking systems: from fixed to mobile communications,” IEEE Netw. 28(6), 41–45 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  5. H. H. Lu, Y. P. Lin, P. Y. Wu, C. Y. Chen, M. C. Chen, and T. W. Jhang, “A multiple-input-multiple-output visible light communication system based on VCSELs and spatial light modulators,” Opt. Express 22(3), 3468–3474 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. B. Janjua, H. M. Oubei, J. R. Durán Retamal, T. K. Ng, C. T. Tsai, H. Y. Wang, Y. C. Chi, H. C. Kuo, G. R. Lin, J. H. He, and B. S. Ooi, “Going beyond 4 Gbps data rate by employing RGB laser diodes for visible light communication,” Opt. Express 23(14), 18746–18753 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. C. H. Chang, C. Y. Li, H. H. Lu, C. Y. Lin, J. H. Chen, Z. W. Wan, and C. J. Cheng, “A 100-Gb/s multiple-input multiple-output visible laser light communication system,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(24), 4723–4729 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  8. Z. Wang, C. Yu, W. D. Zhong, J. Chen, and W. Chen, “Performance of a novel LED lamp arrangement to reduce SNR fluctuation for multi-user visible light communication systems,” Opt. Express 20(4), 4564–4573 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. C. W. Chow, C. H. Yeh, Y. Liu, and Y. F. Liu, “Digital signal processing for light emitting diode based visible light communication,” IEEE Photonics Soc. Newslett. 26, 9–13 (2012).
  10. P. Luo, M. Zhang, Z. Ghassemlooy, H. L. Minh, H. M. Tsai, X. Tang, L. C. Png, and D. Han, “Experimental demonstration of RGB LED-based optical camera communications,” IEEE Photonics J. 7, 7904242 (2015).
  11. C. Danakis, M. Afgani, G. Povey, I. Underwood, and H. Haas, “Using a CMOS camera sensor for visible light communication,” in Proc. OWC’12 (2012), pp. 1244–1248.
    [Crossref]
  12. C. W. Chow, C. Y. Chen, and S. H. Chen, “Visible light communication using mobile-phone camera with data rate higher than frame rate,” Opt. Express 23(20), 26080–26085 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. C. W. Chow, C. Y. Chen, and S. H. Chen, “Enhancement of signal performance in LED visible light communications using mobile phone camera,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(5), 7903607 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  14. Y. Liu, C. W. Chow, K. Liang, H. Y. Chen, C. W. Hsu, C. Y. Chen, and S. H. Chen, “Comparison of thresholding schemes for visible light communication using mobile-phone image sensor,” Opt. Express 24(3), 1973–1978 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. J. N. Kapur, P. K. Sahoo, and A. K. C. Wong, “A new method for gray-level picture thresholding using the entropy of the histogram,” Comput. Vision. Graph. Image Proc. 29(3), 273–285 (1985).
    [Crossref]
  16. C. H. Li and P. K. S. Tam, “An iterative algorithm for minimum cross entropy thresholding,” Pattern Recognit. Lett. 19(8), 771–776 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  17. K. Liang, C. W. Chow, and Y. Liu, “Mobile-phone based visible light communication using region-grow light source tracking for unstable light source,” Opt. Express 24(15), 17505–17510 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (2)

2015 (5)

P. Luo, M. Zhang, Z. Ghassemlooy, H. L. Minh, H. M. Tsai, X. Tang, L. C. Png, and D. Han, “Experimental demonstration of RGB LED-based optical camera communications,” IEEE Photonics J. 7, 7904242 (2015).

C. W. Chow, C. Y. Chen, and S. H. Chen, “Visible light communication using mobile-phone camera with data rate higher than frame rate,” Opt. Express 23(20), 26080–26085 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. W. Chow, C. Y. Chen, and S. H. Chen, “Enhancement of signal performance in LED visible light communications using mobile phone camera,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(5), 7903607 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. W. Chow, J. Y. Sung, and C. H. Yeh, “A convergent wireline and wireless time-and-wavelength-division-multiplexed passive optical network,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(3), 7902107 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Janjua, H. M. Oubei, J. R. Durán Retamal, T. K. Ng, C. T. Tsai, H. Y. Wang, Y. C. Chi, H. C. Kuo, G. R. Lin, J. H. He, and B. S. Ooi, “Going beyond 4 Gbps data rate by employing RGB laser diodes for visible light communication,” Opt. Express 23(14), 18746–18753 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (4)

C. H. Chang, C. Y. Li, H. H. Lu, C. Y. Lin, J. H. Chen, Z. W. Wan, and C. J. Cheng, “A 100-Gb/s multiple-input multiple-output visible laser light communication system,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(24), 4723–4729 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Wu, H. Wang, and C. H. Youn, “Visible light communications for 5G wireless networking systems: from fixed to mobile communications,” IEEE Netw. 28(6), 41–45 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. H. Lu, Y. P. Lin, P. Y. Wu, C. Y. Chen, M. C. Chen, and T. W. Jhang, “A multiple-input-multiple-output visible light communication system based on VCSELs and spatial light modulators,” Opt. Express 22(3), 3468–3474 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Liu, J. Wang, L. Cheng, M. Zhu, and G. K. Chang, “Key microwave-photonics technologies for next-generation cloud-based radio access networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(20), 3452–3460 (2014).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

Z. Wang, C. Yu, W. D. Zhong, J. Chen, and W. Chen, “Performance of a novel LED lamp arrangement to reduce SNR fluctuation for multi-user visible light communication systems,” Opt. Express 20(4), 4564–4573 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. W. Chow, C. H. Yeh, Y. Liu, and Y. F. Liu, “Digital signal processing for light emitting diode based visible light communication,” IEEE Photonics Soc. Newslett. 26, 9–13 (2012).

2010 (1)

1998 (1)

C. H. Li and P. K. S. Tam, “An iterative algorithm for minimum cross entropy thresholding,” Pattern Recognit. Lett. 19(8), 771–776 (1998).
[Crossref]

1985 (1)

J. N. Kapur, P. K. Sahoo, and A. K. C. Wong, “A new method for gray-level picture thresholding using the entropy of the histogram,” Comput. Vision. Graph. Image Proc. 29(3), 273–285 (1985).
[Crossref]

Afgani, M.

C. Danakis, M. Afgani, G. Povey, I. Underwood, and H. Haas, “Using a CMOS camera sensor for visible light communication,” in Proc. OWC’12 (2012), pp. 1244–1248.
[Crossref]

Chang, C. H.

C. H. Chang, C. Y. Li, H. H. Lu, C. Y. Lin, J. H. Chen, Z. W. Wan, and C. J. Cheng, “A 100-Gb/s multiple-input multiple-output visible laser light communication system,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(24), 4723–4729 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chang, G. K.

Chen, C. Y.

Chen, H. Y.

Chen, J.

Chen, J. H.

C. H. Chang, C. Y. Li, H. H. Lu, C. Y. Lin, J. H. Chen, Z. W. Wan, and C. J. Cheng, “A 100-Gb/s multiple-input multiple-output visible laser light communication system,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(24), 4723–4729 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, M. C.

Chen, S. H.

Chen, W.

Cheng, C. J.

C. H. Chang, C. Y. Li, H. H. Lu, C. Y. Lin, J. H. Chen, Z. W. Wan, and C. J. Cheng, “A 100-Gb/s multiple-input multiple-output visible laser light communication system,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(24), 4723–4729 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cheng, L.

Chi, Y. C.

Chow, C. W.

Y. Liu, C. W. Chow, K. Liang, H. Y. Chen, C. W. Hsu, C. Y. Chen, and S. H. Chen, “Comparison of thresholding schemes for visible light communication using mobile-phone image sensor,” Opt. Express 24(3), 1973–1978 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Liang, C. W. Chow, and Y. Liu, “Mobile-phone based visible light communication using region-grow light source tracking for unstable light source,” Opt. Express 24(15), 17505–17510 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. W. Chow, C. Y. Chen, and S. H. Chen, “Visible light communication using mobile-phone camera with data rate higher than frame rate,” Opt. Express 23(20), 26080–26085 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. W. Chow, C. Y. Chen, and S. H. Chen, “Enhancement of signal performance in LED visible light communications using mobile phone camera,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(5), 7903607 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. W. Chow, J. Y. Sung, and C. H. Yeh, “A convergent wireline and wireless time-and-wavelength-division-multiplexed passive optical network,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(3), 7902107 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. W. Chow, C. H. Yeh, Y. Liu, and Y. F. Liu, “Digital signal processing for light emitting diode based visible light communication,” IEEE Photonics Soc. Newslett. 26, 9–13 (2012).

C. W. Chow, F. M. Kuo, J. W. Shi, C. H. Yeh, Y. F. Wu, C. H. Wang, Y. T. Li, and C. L. Pan, “100 GHz ultra-wideband (UWB) fiber-to-the-antenna (FTTA) system for in-building and in-home networks,” Opt. Express 18(2), 473–478 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Danakis, C.

C. Danakis, M. Afgani, G. Povey, I. Underwood, and H. Haas, “Using a CMOS camera sensor for visible light communication,” in Proc. OWC’12 (2012), pp. 1244–1248.
[Crossref]

Durán Retamal, J. R.

Ghassemlooy, Z.

P. Luo, M. Zhang, Z. Ghassemlooy, H. L. Minh, H. M. Tsai, X. Tang, L. C. Png, and D. Han, “Experimental demonstration of RGB LED-based optical camera communications,” IEEE Photonics J. 7, 7904242 (2015).

Haas, H.

C. Danakis, M. Afgani, G. Povey, I. Underwood, and H. Haas, “Using a CMOS camera sensor for visible light communication,” in Proc. OWC’12 (2012), pp. 1244–1248.
[Crossref]

Han, D.

P. Luo, M. Zhang, Z. Ghassemlooy, H. L. Minh, H. M. Tsai, X. Tang, L. C. Png, and D. Han, “Experimental demonstration of RGB LED-based optical camera communications,” IEEE Photonics J. 7, 7904242 (2015).

He, J. H.

Hsu, C. W.

Janjua, B.

Jhang, T. W.

Kapur, J. N.

J. N. Kapur, P. K. Sahoo, and A. K. C. Wong, “A new method for gray-level picture thresholding using the entropy of the histogram,” Comput. Vision. Graph. Image Proc. 29(3), 273–285 (1985).
[Crossref]

Kuo, F. M.

Kuo, H. C.

Li, C. H.

C. H. Li and P. K. S. Tam, “An iterative algorithm for minimum cross entropy thresholding,” Pattern Recognit. Lett. 19(8), 771–776 (1998).
[Crossref]

Li, C. Y.

C. H. Chang, C. Y. Li, H. H. Lu, C. Y. Lin, J. H. Chen, Z. W. Wan, and C. J. Cheng, “A 100-Gb/s multiple-input multiple-output visible laser light communication system,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(24), 4723–4729 (2014).
[Crossref]

Li, Y. T.

Liang, K.

Lin, C. Y.

C. H. Chang, C. Y. Li, H. H. Lu, C. Y. Lin, J. H. Chen, Z. W. Wan, and C. J. Cheng, “A 100-Gb/s multiple-input multiple-output visible laser light communication system,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(24), 4723–4729 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lin, G. R.

Lin, Y. P.

Liu, C.

Liu, Y.

Liu, Y. F.

C. W. Chow, C. H. Yeh, Y. Liu, and Y. F. Liu, “Digital signal processing for light emitting diode based visible light communication,” IEEE Photonics Soc. Newslett. 26, 9–13 (2012).

Lu, H. H.

C. H. Chang, C. Y. Li, H. H. Lu, C. Y. Lin, J. H. Chen, Z. W. Wan, and C. J. Cheng, “A 100-Gb/s multiple-input multiple-output visible laser light communication system,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(24), 4723–4729 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. H. Lu, Y. P. Lin, P. Y. Wu, C. Y. Chen, M. C. Chen, and T. W. Jhang, “A multiple-input-multiple-output visible light communication system based on VCSELs and spatial light modulators,” Opt. Express 22(3), 3468–3474 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Luo, P.

P. Luo, M. Zhang, Z. Ghassemlooy, H. L. Minh, H. M. Tsai, X. Tang, L. C. Png, and D. Han, “Experimental demonstration of RGB LED-based optical camera communications,” IEEE Photonics J. 7, 7904242 (2015).

Minh, H. L.

P. Luo, M. Zhang, Z. Ghassemlooy, H. L. Minh, H. M. Tsai, X. Tang, L. C. Png, and D. Han, “Experimental demonstration of RGB LED-based optical camera communications,” IEEE Photonics J. 7, 7904242 (2015).

Ng, T. K.

Ooi, B. S.

Oubei, H. M.

Pan, C. L.

Png, L. C.

P. Luo, M. Zhang, Z. Ghassemlooy, H. L. Minh, H. M. Tsai, X. Tang, L. C. Png, and D. Han, “Experimental demonstration of RGB LED-based optical camera communications,” IEEE Photonics J. 7, 7904242 (2015).

Povey, G.

C. Danakis, M. Afgani, G. Povey, I. Underwood, and H. Haas, “Using a CMOS camera sensor for visible light communication,” in Proc. OWC’12 (2012), pp. 1244–1248.
[Crossref]

Sahoo, P. K.

J. N. Kapur, P. K. Sahoo, and A. K. C. Wong, “A new method for gray-level picture thresholding using the entropy of the histogram,” Comput. Vision. Graph. Image Proc. 29(3), 273–285 (1985).
[Crossref]

Shi, J. W.

Sung, J. Y.

C. W. Chow, J. Y. Sung, and C. H. Yeh, “A convergent wireline and wireless time-and-wavelength-division-multiplexed passive optical network,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(3), 7902107 (2015).
[Crossref]

Tam, P. K. S.

C. H. Li and P. K. S. Tam, “An iterative algorithm for minimum cross entropy thresholding,” Pattern Recognit. Lett. 19(8), 771–776 (1998).
[Crossref]

Tang, X.

P. Luo, M. Zhang, Z. Ghassemlooy, H. L. Minh, H. M. Tsai, X. Tang, L. C. Png, and D. Han, “Experimental demonstration of RGB LED-based optical camera communications,” IEEE Photonics J. 7, 7904242 (2015).

Tsai, C. T.

Tsai, H. M.

P. Luo, M. Zhang, Z. Ghassemlooy, H. L. Minh, H. M. Tsai, X. Tang, L. C. Png, and D. Han, “Experimental demonstration of RGB LED-based optical camera communications,” IEEE Photonics J. 7, 7904242 (2015).

Underwood, I.

C. Danakis, M. Afgani, G. Povey, I. Underwood, and H. Haas, “Using a CMOS camera sensor for visible light communication,” in Proc. OWC’12 (2012), pp. 1244–1248.
[Crossref]

Wan, Z. W.

C. H. Chang, C. Y. Li, H. H. Lu, C. Y. Lin, J. H. Chen, Z. W. Wan, and C. J. Cheng, “A 100-Gb/s multiple-input multiple-output visible laser light communication system,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(24), 4723–4729 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, C. H.

Wang, H.

S. Wu, H. Wang, and C. H. Youn, “Visible light communications for 5G wireless networking systems: from fixed to mobile communications,” IEEE Netw. 28(6), 41–45 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, H. Y.

Wang, J.

Wang, Z.

Wong, A. K. C.

J. N. Kapur, P. K. Sahoo, and A. K. C. Wong, “A new method for gray-level picture thresholding using the entropy of the histogram,” Comput. Vision. Graph. Image Proc. 29(3), 273–285 (1985).
[Crossref]

Wu, P. Y.

Wu, S.

S. Wu, H. Wang, and C. H. Youn, “Visible light communications for 5G wireless networking systems: from fixed to mobile communications,” IEEE Netw. 28(6), 41–45 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wu, Y. F.

Yeh, C. H.

C. W. Chow, J. Y. Sung, and C. H. Yeh, “A convergent wireline and wireless time-and-wavelength-division-multiplexed passive optical network,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(3), 7902107 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. W. Chow, C. H. Yeh, Y. Liu, and Y. F. Liu, “Digital signal processing for light emitting diode based visible light communication,” IEEE Photonics Soc. Newslett. 26, 9–13 (2012).

C. W. Chow, F. M. Kuo, J. W. Shi, C. H. Yeh, Y. F. Wu, C. H. Wang, Y. T. Li, and C. L. Pan, “100 GHz ultra-wideband (UWB) fiber-to-the-antenna (FTTA) system for in-building and in-home networks,” Opt. Express 18(2), 473–478 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Youn, C. H.

S. Wu, H. Wang, and C. H. Youn, “Visible light communications for 5G wireless networking systems: from fixed to mobile communications,” IEEE Netw. 28(6), 41–45 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yu, C.

Zhang, M.

P. Luo, M. Zhang, Z. Ghassemlooy, H. L. Minh, H. M. Tsai, X. Tang, L. C. Png, and D. Han, “Experimental demonstration of RGB LED-based optical camera communications,” IEEE Photonics J. 7, 7904242 (2015).

Zhong, W. D.

Zhu, M.

Comput. Vision. Graph. Image Proc. (1)

J. N. Kapur, P. K. Sahoo, and A. K. C. Wong, “A new method for gray-level picture thresholding using the entropy of the histogram,” Comput. Vision. Graph. Image Proc. 29(3), 273–285 (1985).
[Crossref]

IEEE Netw. (1)

S. Wu, H. Wang, and C. H. Youn, “Visible light communications for 5G wireless networking systems: from fixed to mobile communications,” IEEE Netw. 28(6), 41–45 (2014).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics J. (3)

C. W. Chow, J. Y. Sung, and C. H. Yeh, “A convergent wireline and wireless time-and-wavelength-division-multiplexed passive optical network,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(3), 7902107 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Luo, M. Zhang, Z. Ghassemlooy, H. L. Minh, H. M. Tsai, X. Tang, L. C. Png, and D. Han, “Experimental demonstration of RGB LED-based optical camera communications,” IEEE Photonics J. 7, 7904242 (2015).

C. W. Chow, C. Y. Chen, and S. H. Chen, “Enhancement of signal performance in LED visible light communications using mobile phone camera,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(5), 7903607 (2015).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Soc. Newslett. (1)

C. W. Chow, C. H. Yeh, Y. Liu, and Y. F. Liu, “Digital signal processing for light emitting diode based visible light communication,” IEEE Photonics Soc. Newslett. 26, 9–13 (2012).

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

C. H. Chang, C. Y. Li, H. H. Lu, C. Y. Lin, J. H. Chen, Z. W. Wan, and C. J. Cheng, “A 100-Gb/s multiple-input multiple-output visible laser light communication system,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(24), 4723–4729 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Liu, J. Wang, L. Cheng, M. Zhu, and G. K. Chang, “Key microwave-photonics technologies for next-generation cloud-based radio access networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(20), 3452–3460 (2014).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (7)

C. W. Chow, F. M. Kuo, J. W. Shi, C. H. Yeh, Y. F. Wu, C. H. Wang, Y. T. Li, and C. L. Pan, “100 GHz ultra-wideband (UWB) fiber-to-the-antenna (FTTA) system for in-building and in-home networks,” Opt. Express 18(2), 473–478 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. H. Lu, Y. P. Lin, P. Y. Wu, C. Y. Chen, M. C. Chen, and T. W. Jhang, “A multiple-input-multiple-output visible light communication system based on VCSELs and spatial light modulators,” Opt. Express 22(3), 3468–3474 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Janjua, H. M. Oubei, J. R. Durán Retamal, T. K. Ng, C. T. Tsai, H. Y. Wang, Y. C. Chi, H. C. Kuo, G. R. Lin, J. H. He, and B. S. Ooi, “Going beyond 4 Gbps data rate by employing RGB laser diodes for visible light communication,” Opt. Express 23(14), 18746–18753 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Wang, C. Yu, W. D. Zhong, J. Chen, and W. Chen, “Performance of a novel LED lamp arrangement to reduce SNR fluctuation for multi-user visible light communication systems,” Opt. Express 20(4), 4564–4573 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Liu, C. W. Chow, K. Liang, H. Y. Chen, C. W. Hsu, C. Y. Chen, and S. H. Chen, “Comparison of thresholding schemes for visible light communication using mobile-phone image sensor,” Opt. Express 24(3), 1973–1978 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. W. Chow, C. Y. Chen, and S. H. Chen, “Visible light communication using mobile-phone camera with data rate higher than frame rate,” Opt. Express 23(20), 26080–26085 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Liang, C. W. Chow, and Y. Liu, “Mobile-phone based visible light communication using region-grow light source tracking for unstable light source,” Opt. Express 24(15), 17505–17510 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pattern Recognit. Lett. (1)

C. H. Li and P. K. S. Tam, “An iterative algorithm for minimum cross entropy thresholding,” Pattern Recognit. Lett. 19(8), 771–776 (1998).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

C. Danakis, M. Afgani, G. Povey, I. Underwood, and H. Haas, “Using a CMOS camera sensor for visible light communication,” in Proc. OWC’12 (2012), pp. 1244–1248.
[Crossref]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Experimental setup of the camera-based VLC system. Inset: (i) rolling shutter pattern captured by Iphone6, (ii) grayscale value pattern.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Experimental grayscale value pattern with maximum entropy thresholding for 32-bit data payload (a) before and (b) after smoothing; and for 96-bit data payload (c) before and (b) after smoothing.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Experimental grayscale value pattern with minimum cross entropy thresholding for 32-bit data payload (a) before and (b) after smoothing; and for 96-bit data payload (c) before and (b) after smoothing.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) (b) BER performances and the (c) processing time of different thresholding schemes; and the (d) corresponding net data rates.

Equations (5)

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p 0 / P B , p 1 / P B ,... p t / P B
( p t+1 )/(1 P B ),( p t+2 )/(1 P B ),...( p n )/(1 P B )
H F = i=0 t p i P B log( p i P B )
H B = i=t+1 255 p i (1 P B ) log( p i (1 P B ) )
H F = g=0 t q(g) log( q(g) p(g) )& H B = g=t+1 255 p'(g) log( p'(g) q'(g) )

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