Abstract

In this paper, we demonstrate an integrated microwave photonics phased array antenna feeder at 60 GHz with a record-low footprint. Our design is based on ultra-compact plasmonic phase modulators (active area <2.5µm2) that not only provide small size but also ultra-fast tuning speed. In our design, the integrated circuit footprint is in fact only limited by the contact pads of the electrodes and by the optical feeding waveguides. Using the high speed of the plasmonic modulators, we demonstrate beam steering with less than 1 ns reconfiguration time, i.e. the beam direction is reconfigured in-between 1 GBd transmitted symbols.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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Corrections

15 December 2016: Corrections were made to the author listing and abstract.


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References

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2016 (3)

T. Nagatsuma, G. Ducournau, and C. C. Renaud, “Advances in terahertz communications accelerated by photonics,” Nat. Photonics 10(6), 371–379 (2016).
[Crossref]

W. Jin, P. V. Johnston, D. L. Elder, K. T. Manner, K. E. Garrett, W. Kaminsky, R. Xu, B. H. Robinson, and L. R. Dalton, “Structure-function relationship exploration for enhanced thermal stability and electro-optic activity in monolithic organic nlo chromophores,” J. Mater. Chem. 4, 3119–3124 (2016).

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, C. Hoessbacher, Y. Salamin, U. Koch, P. Mousel, R. Bonjour, E. A. D. Hillerkuss, P. Leuchtmann, D. L. Elder, L. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “Plasmonic organic hybrid modulators - scaling highest speed photonics to the microscale,” Proc. IEEE 99, 1–18 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (11)

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, D. L. Elder, B. Baeuerle, Y. Salamin, A. Josten, U. Koch, C. Hoessbacher, F. Ducry, L. Juchli, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, M. Kohl, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “All-plasmonic mach–zehnder modulator enabling optical high-speed communication at the microscale,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 525–528 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Bonjour, S. A. Gebrewold, D. Hillerkuss, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “Continuously tunable true-time delays with ultra-low settling time,” Opt. Express 23(5), 6952–6964 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Cao, G. Zheng, S. Wang, and C. Wei, “Ultrafast beam steering using gradient Au-Ge2Sb2Te5-Au plasmonic resonators,” Opt. Express 23(14), 18029–18039 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Cao, N. Tessema, S. Latkowski, X. Zhao, Z. Chen, V. Moskalenko, K. A. Williams, H. P. A. van der Boom, E. Tangdiongga, and A. M. J. Koonen, “Integrated remotely tunable optical delay line for millimeter-wave beam steering fabricated in an InP generic foundry,” Opt. Lett. 40(17), 3930–3933 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Heni, C. Hoessbacher, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, B. Baeuerle, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, Y. Salamin, R. Bonjour, A. Melikyan, M. Kohl, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “High speed plasmonic modulator array enabling dense optical interconnect solutions,” Opt. Express 23(23), 29746–29757 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Heni, C. Haffner, B. Baeuerle, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, M. Kohl, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “108 gbit/s plasmonic mach-zehnder modulator with >70 ghz electrical bandwidth,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34, 393–400 (2015).

R. Waterhouse and D. Novak, “Realizing 5g: Microwave photonics for 5g mobile wireless systems,” IEEE Microw. Mag. 16(8), 84–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Pan, D. Zhu, S. Liu, K. Xu, Y. Dai, T. Wang, J. Liu, N. Zhu, Y. Xue, and N. Liu, “Satellite payloads pay off,” IEEE Microw. Mag. 16(8), 61–73 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Cao, G. Zheng, and S. Wang, “Chemical control of continuous light-steering using an array of gradient au/bi2se3/au strips,” RSC Advances 5(85), 69319–69324 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Bonjour, M. Singleton, P. Leuchtmann, and J. Leuthold, “Comparison of steering angle and bandwidth for various phased array antenna concepts,” Opt. Commun. 373, 35–43 (2015).

R. Bonjour, M. Singleton, S. A. Gebrewold, Y. Salamin, F. C. Abrecht, B. Baeuerle, A. Josten, P. Leuchtmann, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “Ultra-fast millimeter wave beam steering,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 52, 0600708 (2015).

2014 (8)

J. Bai, S. Shi, G. J. Schneider, J. P. Wilson, Y. Zhang, W. Pan, and D. W. Prather, “Optically driven ultrawideband phased array with an optical interleaving feed network,” IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett. 13, 47–50 (2014).
[Crossref]

W. Jin, P. V. Johnston, D. L. Elder, A. F. Tillack, B. C. Olbricht, J. Song, P. J. Reid, R. Xu, B. H. Robinson, and L. R. Dalton, “Benzocyclobutene barrier layer for suppressing conductance in nonlinear optical devices during electric field poling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(24), 243304 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 229–233 (2014).
[Crossref]

E. Larsson, O. Edfors, F. Tufvesson, and T. Marzetta, “Massive mimo for next generation wireless systems,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 52(2), 186–195 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Shu, T. S. Rappaport, R. W. Heath, A. Nix, and S. Rangan, “Mimo for millimeter-wave wireless communications: Beamforming, spatial multiplexing, or both?” IEEE Commun. Mag. 52(12), 110–121 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Bai, A. Alkhateeb, and R. W. Heath, “Coverage and capacity of millimeter-wave cellular networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 52(9), 70–77 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Boccardi, R. W. Heath, A. Lozano, T. L. Marzetta, and P. Popovski, “Five disruptive technology directions for 5g,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 52(2), 74–80 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Rangan, T. S. Rappaport, and E. Erkip, “Millimeter-wave cellular wireless networks: Potentials and challenges,” Proc. IEEE 102(3), 366–385 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (4)

T. S. Rappaport, S. Shu, R. Mayzus, Z. Hang, Y. Azar, K. Wang, G. N. Wong, J. K. Schulz, M. Samimi, and F. Gutierrez, “Millimeter wave mobile communications for 5g cellular: It will work!” IEEE Access 1, 335–349 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Marpaung, C. Roeloffzen, R. Heideman, A. Leinse, S. Sales, and J. Capmany, “Integrated microwave photonics,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(4), 506–538 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Koenig, D. Lopez Diaz, J. Antes, F. Boes, R. Henneberger, A. Leuther, A. Tessmann, R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, R. Palmer, T. Zwick, C. Koos, W. Freude, O. Ambacher, J. Leuthold, and I. Kallfass, “Wireless sub-thz communication system with high data rate,” Nat. Photonics 7(12), 977–981 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. G. H. Roeloffzen, L. Zhuang, C. Taddei, A. Leinse, R. G. Heideman, P. W. L. van Dijk, R. M. Oldenbeuving, D. A. I. Marpaung, M. Burla, and K. J. Boller, “Silicon nitride microwave photonic circuits,” Opt. Express 21(19), 22937–22961 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

2010 (2)

2009 (1)

2004 (1)

T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Surface plasmon polariton based modulators and switches operating at telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(24), 5833–5835 (2004).
[Crossref]

Abrecht, F. C.

R. Bonjour, M. Singleton, S. A. Gebrewold, Y. Salamin, F. C. Abrecht, B. Baeuerle, A. Josten, P. Leuchtmann, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “Ultra-fast millimeter wave beam steering,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 52, 0600708 (2015).

Alkhateeb, A.

T. Bai, A. Alkhateeb, and R. W. Heath, “Coverage and capacity of millimeter-wave cellular networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 52(9), 70–77 (2014).
[Crossref]

Alloatti, L.

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 229–233 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ambacher, O.

S. Koenig, D. Lopez Diaz, J. Antes, F. Boes, R. Henneberger, A. Leuther, A. Tessmann, R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, R. Palmer, T. Zwick, C. Koos, W. Freude, O. Ambacher, J. Leuthold, and I. Kallfass, “Wireless sub-thz communication system with high data rate,” Nat. Photonics 7(12), 977–981 (2013).
[Crossref]

Antes, J.

S. Koenig, D. Lopez Diaz, J. Antes, F. Boes, R. Henneberger, A. Leuther, A. Tessmann, R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, R. Palmer, T. Zwick, C. Koos, W. Freude, O. Ambacher, J. Leuthold, and I. Kallfass, “Wireless sub-thz communication system with high data rate,” Nat. Photonics 7(12), 977–981 (2013).
[Crossref]

Azar, Y.

T. S. Rappaport, S. Shu, R. Mayzus, Z. Hang, Y. Azar, K. Wang, G. N. Wong, J. K. Schulz, M. Samimi, and F. Gutierrez, “Millimeter wave mobile communications for 5g cellular: It will work!” IEEE Access 1, 335–349 (2013).
[Crossref]

Baeuerle, B.

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, C. Hoessbacher, Y. Salamin, U. Koch, P. Mousel, R. Bonjour, E. A. D. Hillerkuss, P. Leuchtmann, D. L. Elder, L. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “Plasmonic organic hybrid modulators - scaling highest speed photonics to the microscale,” Proc. IEEE 99, 1–18 (2016).
[Crossref]

W. Heni, C. Hoessbacher, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, B. Baeuerle, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, Y. Salamin, R. Bonjour, A. Melikyan, M. Kohl, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “High speed plasmonic modulator array enabling dense optical interconnect solutions,” Opt. Express 23(23), 29746–29757 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Heni, C. Haffner, B. Baeuerle, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, M. Kohl, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “108 gbit/s plasmonic mach-zehnder modulator with >70 ghz electrical bandwidth,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34, 393–400 (2015).

R. Bonjour, M. Singleton, S. A. Gebrewold, Y. Salamin, F. C. Abrecht, B. Baeuerle, A. Josten, P. Leuchtmann, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “Ultra-fast millimeter wave beam steering,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 52, 0600708 (2015).

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, D. L. Elder, B. Baeuerle, Y. Salamin, A. Josten, U. Koch, C. Hoessbacher, F. Ducry, L. Juchli, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, M. Kohl, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “All-plasmonic mach–zehnder modulator enabling optical high-speed communication at the microscale,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 525–528 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bai, J.

J. Bai, S. Shi, G. J. Schneider, J. P. Wilson, Y. Zhang, W. Pan, and D. W. Prather, “Optically driven ultrawideband phased array with an optical interleaving feed network,” IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett. 13, 47–50 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bai, T.

T. Bai, A. Alkhateeb, and R. W. Heath, “Coverage and capacity of millimeter-wave cellular networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 52(9), 70–77 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bentum, M. J.

Boccardi, F.

F. Boccardi, R. W. Heath, A. Lozano, T. L. Marzetta, and P. Popovski, “Five disruptive technology directions for 5g,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 52(2), 74–80 (2014).
[Crossref]

Boes, F.

S. Koenig, D. Lopez Diaz, J. Antes, F. Boes, R. Henneberger, A. Leuther, A. Tessmann, R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, R. Palmer, T. Zwick, C. Koos, W. Freude, O. Ambacher, J. Leuthold, and I. Kallfass, “Wireless sub-thz communication system with high data rate,” Nat. Photonics 7(12), 977–981 (2013).
[Crossref]

Boller, K. J.

Bonjour, R.

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, C. Hoessbacher, Y. Salamin, U. Koch, P. Mousel, R. Bonjour, E. A. D. Hillerkuss, P. Leuchtmann, D. L. Elder, L. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “Plasmonic organic hybrid modulators - scaling highest speed photonics to the microscale,” Proc. IEEE 99, 1–18 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. Bonjour, S. A. Gebrewold, D. Hillerkuss, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “Continuously tunable true-time delays with ultra-low settling time,” Opt. Express 23(5), 6952–6964 (2015).
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W. Heni, C. Hoessbacher, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, B. Baeuerle, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, Y. Salamin, R. Bonjour, A. Melikyan, M. Kohl, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “High speed plasmonic modulator array enabling dense optical interconnect solutions,” Opt. Express 23(23), 29746–29757 (2015).
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R. Bonjour, M. Singleton, S. A. Gebrewold, Y. Salamin, F. C. Abrecht, B. Baeuerle, A. Josten, P. Leuchtmann, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “Ultra-fast millimeter wave beam steering,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 52, 0600708 (2015).

R. Bonjour, M. Singleton, P. Leuchtmann, and J. Leuthold, “Comparison of steering angle and bandwidth for various phased array antenna concepts,” Opt. Commun. 373, 35–43 (2015).

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C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, C. Hoessbacher, Y. Salamin, U. Koch, P. Mousel, R. Bonjour, E. A. D. Hillerkuss, P. Leuchtmann, D. L. Elder, L. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “Plasmonic organic hybrid modulators - scaling highest speed photonics to the microscale,” Proc. IEEE 99, 1–18 (2016).
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W. Jin, P. V. Johnston, D. L. Elder, K. T. Manner, K. E. Garrett, W. Kaminsky, R. Xu, B. H. Robinson, and L. R. Dalton, “Structure-function relationship exploration for enhanced thermal stability and electro-optic activity in monolithic organic nlo chromophores,” J. Mater. Chem. 4, 3119–3124 (2016).

W. Heni, C. Hoessbacher, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, B. Baeuerle, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, Y. Salamin, R. Bonjour, A. Melikyan, M. Kohl, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “High speed plasmonic modulator array enabling dense optical interconnect solutions,” Opt. Express 23(23), 29746–29757 (2015).
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C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, D. L. Elder, B. Baeuerle, Y. Salamin, A. Josten, U. Koch, C. Hoessbacher, F. Ducry, L. Juchli, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, M. Kohl, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “All-plasmonic mach–zehnder modulator enabling optical high-speed communication at the microscale,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 525–528 (2015).
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C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, C. Hoessbacher, Y. Salamin, U. Koch, P. Mousel, R. Bonjour, E. A. D. Hillerkuss, P. Leuchtmann, D. L. Elder, L. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “Plasmonic organic hybrid modulators - scaling highest speed photonics to the microscale,” Proc. IEEE 99, 1–18 (2016).
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W. Heni, C. Haffner, B. Baeuerle, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, M. Kohl, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “108 gbit/s plasmonic mach-zehnder modulator with >70 ghz electrical bandwidth,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34, 393–400 (2015).

W. Heni, C. Hoessbacher, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, B. Baeuerle, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, Y. Salamin, R. Bonjour, A. Melikyan, M. Kohl, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “High speed plasmonic modulator array enabling dense optical interconnect solutions,” Opt. Express 23(23), 29746–29757 (2015).
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C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, D. L. Elder, B. Baeuerle, Y. Salamin, A. Josten, U. Koch, C. Hoessbacher, F. Ducry, L. Juchli, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, M. Kohl, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “All-plasmonic mach–zehnder modulator enabling optical high-speed communication at the microscale,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 525–528 (2015).
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W. Jin, P. V. Johnston, D. L. Elder, A. F. Tillack, B. C. Olbricht, J. Song, P. J. Reid, R. Xu, B. H. Robinson, and L. R. Dalton, “Benzocyclobutene barrier layer for suppressing conductance in nonlinear optical devices during electric field poling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(24), 243304 (2014).
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C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, D. L. Elder, B. Baeuerle, Y. Salamin, A. Josten, U. Koch, C. Hoessbacher, F. Ducry, L. Juchli, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, M. Kohl, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “All-plasmonic mach–zehnder modulator enabling optical high-speed communication at the microscale,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 525–528 (2015).
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C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, C. Hoessbacher, Y. Salamin, U. Koch, P. Mousel, R. Bonjour, E. A. D. Hillerkuss, P. Leuchtmann, D. L. Elder, L. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “Plasmonic organic hybrid modulators - scaling highest speed photonics to the microscale,” Proc. IEEE 99, 1–18 (2016).
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W. Heni, C. Hoessbacher, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, B. Baeuerle, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, Y. Salamin, R. Bonjour, A. Melikyan, M. Kohl, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “High speed plasmonic modulator array enabling dense optical interconnect solutions,” Opt. Express 23(23), 29746–29757 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Heni, C. Haffner, B. Baeuerle, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, M. Kohl, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “108 gbit/s plasmonic mach-zehnder modulator with >70 ghz electrical bandwidth,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34, 393–400 (2015).

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, D. L. Elder, B. Baeuerle, Y. Salamin, A. Josten, U. Koch, C. Hoessbacher, F. Ducry, L. Juchli, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, M. Kohl, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “All-plasmonic mach–zehnder modulator enabling optical high-speed communication at the microscale,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 525–528 (2015).
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A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 229–233 (2014).
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S. Koenig, D. Lopez Diaz, J. Antes, F. Boes, R. Henneberger, A. Leuther, A. Tessmann, R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, R. Palmer, T. Zwick, C. Koos, W. Freude, O. Ambacher, J. Leuthold, and I. Kallfass, “Wireless sub-thz communication system with high data rate,” Nat. Photonics 7(12), 977–981 (2013).
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Garrett, K. E.

W. Jin, P. V. Johnston, D. L. Elder, K. T. Manner, K. E. Garrett, W. Kaminsky, R. Xu, B. H. Robinson, and L. R. Dalton, “Structure-function relationship exploration for enhanced thermal stability and electro-optic activity in monolithic organic nlo chromophores,” J. Mater. Chem. 4, 3119–3124 (2016).

Gebrewold, S. A.

R. Bonjour, M. Singleton, S. A. Gebrewold, Y. Salamin, F. C. Abrecht, B. Baeuerle, A. Josten, P. Leuchtmann, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “Ultra-fast millimeter wave beam steering,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 52, 0600708 (2015).

R. Bonjour, S. A. Gebrewold, D. Hillerkuss, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “Continuously tunable true-time delays with ultra-low settling time,” Opt. Express 23(5), 6952–6964 (2015).
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Gutierrez, F.

T. S. Rappaport, S. Shu, R. Mayzus, Z. Hang, Y. Azar, K. Wang, G. N. Wong, J. K. Schulz, M. Samimi, and F. Gutierrez, “Millimeter wave mobile communications for 5g cellular: It will work!” IEEE Access 1, 335–349 (2013).
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Haffner, C.

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, C. Hoessbacher, Y. Salamin, U. Koch, P. Mousel, R. Bonjour, E. A. D. Hillerkuss, P. Leuchtmann, D. L. Elder, L. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “Plasmonic organic hybrid modulators - scaling highest speed photonics to the microscale,” Proc. IEEE 99, 1–18 (2016).
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W. Heni, C. Hoessbacher, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, B. Baeuerle, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, Y. Salamin, R. Bonjour, A. Melikyan, M. Kohl, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “High speed plasmonic modulator array enabling dense optical interconnect solutions,” Opt. Express 23(23), 29746–29757 (2015).
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W. Heni, C. Haffner, B. Baeuerle, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, M. Kohl, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “108 gbit/s plasmonic mach-zehnder modulator with >70 ghz electrical bandwidth,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34, 393–400 (2015).

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, D. L. Elder, B. Baeuerle, Y. Salamin, A. Josten, U. Koch, C. Hoessbacher, F. Ducry, L. Juchli, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, M. Kohl, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “All-plasmonic mach–zehnder modulator enabling optical high-speed communication at the microscale,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 525–528 (2015).
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C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, C. Hoessbacher, Y. Salamin, U. Koch, P. Mousel, R. Bonjour, E. A. D. Hillerkuss, P. Leuchtmann, D. L. Elder, L. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “Plasmonic organic hybrid modulators - scaling highest speed photonics to the microscale,” Proc. IEEE 99, 1–18 (2016).
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R. Bonjour, S. A. Gebrewold, D. Hillerkuss, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “Continuously tunable true-time delays with ultra-low settling time,” Opt. Express 23(5), 6952–6964 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Heni, C. Hoessbacher, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, B. Baeuerle, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, Y. Salamin, R. Bonjour, A. Melikyan, M. Kohl, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “High speed plasmonic modulator array enabling dense optical interconnect solutions,” Opt. Express 23(23), 29746–29757 (2015).
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W. Heni, C. Haffner, B. Baeuerle, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, M. Kohl, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “108 gbit/s plasmonic mach-zehnder modulator with >70 ghz electrical bandwidth,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34, 393–400 (2015).

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, D. L. Elder, B. Baeuerle, Y. Salamin, A. Josten, U. Koch, C. Hoessbacher, F. Ducry, L. Juchli, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, M. Kohl, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “All-plasmonic mach–zehnder modulator enabling optical high-speed communication at the microscale,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 525–528 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Bonjour, M. Singleton, S. A. Gebrewold, Y. Salamin, F. C. Abrecht, B. Baeuerle, A. Josten, P. Leuchtmann, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “Ultra-fast millimeter wave beam steering,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 52, 0600708 (2015).

Hang, Z.

T. S. Rappaport, S. Shu, R. Mayzus, Z. Hang, Y. Azar, K. Wang, G. N. Wong, J. K. Schulz, M. Samimi, and F. Gutierrez, “Millimeter wave mobile communications for 5g cellular: It will work!” IEEE Access 1, 335–349 (2013).
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D. Marpaung, C. Roeloffzen, R. Heideman, A. Leinse, S. Sales, and J. Capmany, “Integrated microwave photonics,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(4), 506–538 (2013).
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Heideman, R. G.

Heni, W.

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, C. Hoessbacher, Y. Salamin, U. Koch, P. Mousel, R. Bonjour, E. A. D. Hillerkuss, P. Leuchtmann, D. L. Elder, L. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “Plasmonic organic hybrid modulators - scaling highest speed photonics to the microscale,” Proc. IEEE 99, 1–18 (2016).
[Crossref]

W. Heni, C. Hoessbacher, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, B. Baeuerle, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, Y. Salamin, R. Bonjour, A. Melikyan, M. Kohl, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “High speed plasmonic modulator array enabling dense optical interconnect solutions,” Opt. Express 23(23), 29746–29757 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Heni, C. Haffner, B. Baeuerle, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, M. Kohl, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “108 gbit/s plasmonic mach-zehnder modulator with >70 ghz electrical bandwidth,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34, 393–400 (2015).

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, D. L. Elder, B. Baeuerle, Y. Salamin, A. Josten, U. Koch, C. Hoessbacher, F. Ducry, L. Juchli, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, M. Kohl, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “All-plasmonic mach–zehnder modulator enabling optical high-speed communication at the microscale,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 525–528 (2015).
[Crossref]

Henneberger, R.

S. Koenig, D. Lopez Diaz, J. Antes, F. Boes, R. Henneberger, A. Leuther, A. Tessmann, R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, R. Palmer, T. Zwick, C. Koos, W. Freude, O. Ambacher, J. Leuthold, and I. Kallfass, “Wireless sub-thz communication system with high data rate,” Nat. Photonics 7(12), 977–981 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hillerkuss, D.

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, D. L. Elder, B. Baeuerle, Y. Salamin, A. Josten, U. Koch, C. Hoessbacher, F. Ducry, L. Juchli, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, M. Kohl, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “All-plasmonic mach–zehnder modulator enabling optical high-speed communication at the microscale,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 525–528 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. Heni, C. Haffner, B. Baeuerle, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, M. Kohl, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “108 gbit/s plasmonic mach-zehnder modulator with >70 ghz electrical bandwidth,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34, 393–400 (2015).

W. Heni, C. Hoessbacher, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, B. Baeuerle, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, Y. Salamin, R. Bonjour, A. Melikyan, M. Kohl, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “High speed plasmonic modulator array enabling dense optical interconnect solutions,” Opt. Express 23(23), 29746–29757 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Bonjour, S. A. Gebrewold, D. Hillerkuss, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “Continuously tunable true-time delays with ultra-low settling time,” Opt. Express 23(5), 6952–6964 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 229–233 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Koenig, D. Lopez Diaz, J. Antes, F. Boes, R. Henneberger, A. Leuther, A. Tessmann, R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, R. Palmer, T. Zwick, C. Koos, W. Freude, O. Ambacher, J. Leuthold, and I. Kallfass, “Wireless sub-thz communication system with high data rate,” Nat. Photonics 7(12), 977–981 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hillerkuss, E. A. D.

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, C. Hoessbacher, Y. Salamin, U. Koch, P. Mousel, R. Bonjour, E. A. D. Hillerkuss, P. Leuchtmann, D. L. Elder, L. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “Plasmonic organic hybrid modulators - scaling highest speed photonics to the microscale,” Proc. IEEE 99, 1–18 (2016).
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Hoessbacher, C.

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, C. Hoessbacher, Y. Salamin, U. Koch, P. Mousel, R. Bonjour, E. A. D. Hillerkuss, P. Leuchtmann, D. L. Elder, L. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “Plasmonic organic hybrid modulators - scaling highest speed photonics to the microscale,” Proc. IEEE 99, 1–18 (2016).
[Crossref]

W. Heni, C. Hoessbacher, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, B. Baeuerle, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, Y. Salamin, R. Bonjour, A. Melikyan, M. Kohl, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “High speed plasmonic modulator array enabling dense optical interconnect solutions,” Opt. Express 23(23), 29746–29757 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, D. L. Elder, B. Baeuerle, Y. Salamin, A. Josten, U. Koch, C. Hoessbacher, F. Ducry, L. Juchli, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, M. Kohl, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “All-plasmonic mach–zehnder modulator enabling optical high-speed communication at the microscale,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 525–528 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hulzinga, A.

Jin, W.

W. Jin, P. V. Johnston, D. L. Elder, K. T. Manner, K. E. Garrett, W. Kaminsky, R. Xu, B. H. Robinson, and L. R. Dalton, “Structure-function relationship exploration for enhanced thermal stability and electro-optic activity in monolithic organic nlo chromophores,” J. Mater. Chem. 4, 3119–3124 (2016).

W. Jin, P. V. Johnston, D. L. Elder, A. F. Tillack, B. C. Olbricht, J. Song, P. J. Reid, R. Xu, B. H. Robinson, and L. R. Dalton, “Benzocyclobutene barrier layer for suppressing conductance in nonlinear optical devices during electric field poling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(24), 243304 (2014).
[Crossref]

Johansson, L.

Johnston, P. V.

W. Jin, P. V. Johnston, D. L. Elder, K. T. Manner, K. E. Garrett, W. Kaminsky, R. Xu, B. H. Robinson, and L. R. Dalton, “Structure-function relationship exploration for enhanced thermal stability and electro-optic activity in monolithic organic nlo chromophores,” J. Mater. Chem. 4, 3119–3124 (2016).

W. Jin, P. V. Johnston, D. L. Elder, A. F. Tillack, B. C. Olbricht, J. Song, P. J. Reid, R. Xu, B. H. Robinson, and L. R. Dalton, “Benzocyclobutene barrier layer for suppressing conductance in nonlinear optical devices during electric field poling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(24), 243304 (2014).
[Crossref]

Jorna, P.

Josten, A.

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, C. Hoessbacher, Y. Salamin, U. Koch, P. Mousel, R. Bonjour, E. A. D. Hillerkuss, P. Leuchtmann, D. L. Elder, L. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “Plasmonic organic hybrid modulators - scaling highest speed photonics to the microscale,” Proc. IEEE 99, 1–18 (2016).
[Crossref]

W. Heni, C. Hoessbacher, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, B. Baeuerle, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, Y. Salamin, R. Bonjour, A. Melikyan, M. Kohl, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “High speed plasmonic modulator array enabling dense optical interconnect solutions,” Opt. Express 23(23), 29746–29757 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Heni, C. Haffner, B. Baeuerle, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, M. Kohl, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “108 gbit/s plasmonic mach-zehnder modulator with >70 ghz electrical bandwidth,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34, 393–400 (2015).

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, D. L. Elder, B. Baeuerle, Y. Salamin, A. Josten, U. Koch, C. Hoessbacher, F. Ducry, L. Juchli, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, M. Kohl, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “All-plasmonic mach–zehnder modulator enabling optical high-speed communication at the microscale,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 525–528 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Bonjour, M. Singleton, S. A. Gebrewold, Y. Salamin, F. C. Abrecht, B. Baeuerle, A. Josten, P. Leuchtmann, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “Ultra-fast millimeter wave beam steering,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 52, 0600708 (2015).

Juchli, L.

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, D. L. Elder, B. Baeuerle, Y. Salamin, A. Josten, U. Koch, C. Hoessbacher, F. Ducry, L. Juchli, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, M. Kohl, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “All-plasmonic mach–zehnder modulator enabling optical high-speed communication at the microscale,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 525–528 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kallfass, I.

S. Koenig, D. Lopez Diaz, J. Antes, F. Boes, R. Henneberger, A. Leuther, A. Tessmann, R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, R. Palmer, T. Zwick, C. Koos, W. Freude, O. Ambacher, J. Leuthold, and I. Kallfass, “Wireless sub-thz communication system with high data rate,” Nat. Photonics 7(12), 977–981 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kaminsky, W.

W. Jin, P. V. Johnston, D. L. Elder, K. T. Manner, K. E. Garrett, W. Kaminsky, R. Xu, B. H. Robinson, and L. R. Dalton, “Structure-function relationship exploration for enhanced thermal stability and electro-optic activity in monolithic organic nlo chromophores,” J. Mater. Chem. 4, 3119–3124 (2016).

Koch, U.

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, C. Hoessbacher, Y. Salamin, U. Koch, P. Mousel, R. Bonjour, E. A. D. Hillerkuss, P. Leuchtmann, D. L. Elder, L. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “Plasmonic organic hybrid modulators - scaling highest speed photonics to the microscale,” Proc. IEEE 99, 1–18 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, D. L. Elder, B. Baeuerle, Y. Salamin, A. Josten, U. Koch, C. Hoessbacher, F. Ducry, L. Juchli, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, M. Kohl, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “All-plasmonic mach–zehnder modulator enabling optical high-speed communication at the microscale,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 525–528 (2015).
[Crossref]

Koenig, S.

S. Koenig, D. Lopez Diaz, J. Antes, F. Boes, R. Henneberger, A. Leuther, A. Tessmann, R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, R. Palmer, T. Zwick, C. Koos, W. Freude, O. Ambacher, J. Leuthold, and I. Kallfass, “Wireless sub-thz communication system with high data rate,” Nat. Photonics 7(12), 977–981 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kohl, M.

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, D. L. Elder, B. Baeuerle, Y. Salamin, A. Josten, U. Koch, C. Hoessbacher, F. Ducry, L. Juchli, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, M. Kohl, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “All-plasmonic mach–zehnder modulator enabling optical high-speed communication at the microscale,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 525–528 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. Heni, C. Hoessbacher, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, B. Baeuerle, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, Y. Salamin, R. Bonjour, A. Melikyan, M. Kohl, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “High speed plasmonic modulator array enabling dense optical interconnect solutions,” Opt. Express 23(23), 29746–29757 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Heni, C. Haffner, B. Baeuerle, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, M. Kohl, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “108 gbit/s plasmonic mach-zehnder modulator with >70 ghz electrical bandwidth,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34, 393–400 (2015).

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 229–233 (2014).
[Crossref]

Koonen, A. M. J.

Koos, C.

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 229–233 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Koenig, D. Lopez Diaz, J. Antes, F. Boes, R. Henneberger, A. Leuther, A. Tessmann, R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, R. Palmer, T. Zwick, C. Koos, W. Freude, O. Ambacher, J. Leuthold, and I. Kallfass, “Wireless sub-thz communication system with high data rate,” Nat. Photonics 7(12), 977–981 (2013).
[Crossref]

Korn, D.

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 229–233 (2014).
[Crossref]

Krishnamachari, U.

Larsson, E.

E. Larsson, O. Edfors, F. Tufvesson, and T. Marzetta, “Massive mimo for next generation wireless systems,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 52(2), 186–195 (2014).
[Crossref]

Latkowski, S.

Leinse, A.

Leosson, K.

T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Surface plasmon polariton based modulators and switches operating at telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(24), 5833–5835 (2004).
[Crossref]

Leuchtmann, P.

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, C. Hoessbacher, Y. Salamin, U. Koch, P. Mousel, R. Bonjour, E. A. D. Hillerkuss, P. Leuchtmann, D. L. Elder, L. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “Plasmonic organic hybrid modulators - scaling highest speed photonics to the microscale,” Proc. IEEE 99, 1–18 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. Bonjour, M. Singleton, P. Leuchtmann, and J. Leuthold, “Comparison of steering angle and bandwidth for various phased array antenna concepts,” Opt. Commun. 373, 35–43 (2015).

R. Bonjour, M. Singleton, S. A. Gebrewold, Y. Salamin, F. C. Abrecht, B. Baeuerle, A. Josten, P. Leuchtmann, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “Ultra-fast millimeter wave beam steering,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 52, 0600708 (2015).

Leuther, A.

S. Koenig, D. Lopez Diaz, J. Antes, F. Boes, R. Henneberger, A. Leuther, A. Tessmann, R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, R. Palmer, T. Zwick, C. Koos, W. Freude, O. Ambacher, J. Leuthold, and I. Kallfass, “Wireless sub-thz communication system with high data rate,” Nat. Photonics 7(12), 977–981 (2013).
[Crossref]

Leuthold, J.

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, C. Hoessbacher, Y. Salamin, U. Koch, P. Mousel, R. Bonjour, E. A. D. Hillerkuss, P. Leuchtmann, D. L. Elder, L. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “Plasmonic organic hybrid modulators - scaling highest speed photonics to the microscale,” Proc. IEEE 99, 1–18 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. Bonjour, S. A. Gebrewold, D. Hillerkuss, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “Continuously tunable true-time delays with ultra-low settling time,” Opt. Express 23(5), 6952–6964 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Heni, C. Haffner, B. Baeuerle, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, M. Kohl, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “108 gbit/s plasmonic mach-zehnder modulator with >70 ghz electrical bandwidth,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34, 393–400 (2015).

W. Heni, C. Hoessbacher, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, B. Baeuerle, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, Y. Salamin, R. Bonjour, A. Melikyan, M. Kohl, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “High speed plasmonic modulator array enabling dense optical interconnect solutions,” Opt. Express 23(23), 29746–29757 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Bonjour, M. Singleton, S. A. Gebrewold, Y. Salamin, F. C. Abrecht, B. Baeuerle, A. Josten, P. Leuchtmann, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “Ultra-fast millimeter wave beam steering,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 52, 0600708 (2015).

R. Bonjour, M. Singleton, P. Leuchtmann, and J. Leuthold, “Comparison of steering angle and bandwidth for various phased array antenna concepts,” Opt. Commun. 373, 35–43 (2015).

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, D. L. Elder, B. Baeuerle, Y. Salamin, A. Josten, U. Koch, C. Hoessbacher, F. Ducry, L. Juchli, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, M. Kohl, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “All-plasmonic mach–zehnder modulator enabling optical high-speed communication at the microscale,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 525–528 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 229–233 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Koenig, D. Lopez Diaz, J. Antes, F. Boes, R. Henneberger, A. Leuther, A. Tessmann, R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, R. Palmer, T. Zwick, C. Koos, W. Freude, O. Ambacher, J. Leuthold, and I. Kallfass, “Wireless sub-thz communication system with high data rate,” Nat. Photonics 7(12), 977–981 (2013).
[Crossref]

Li, J.

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 229–233 (2014).
[Crossref]

Liu, J.

S. Pan, D. Zhu, S. Liu, K. Xu, Y. Dai, T. Wang, J. Liu, N. Zhu, Y. Xue, and N. Liu, “Satellite payloads pay off,” IEEE Microw. Mag. 16(8), 61–73 (2015).
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Liu, N.

S. Pan, D. Zhu, S. Liu, K. Xu, Y. Dai, T. Wang, J. Liu, N. Zhu, Y. Xue, and N. Liu, “Satellite payloads pay off,” IEEE Microw. Mag. 16(8), 61–73 (2015).
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Liu, S.

S. Pan, D. Zhu, S. Liu, K. Xu, Y. Dai, T. Wang, J. Liu, N. Zhu, Y. Xue, and N. Liu, “Satellite payloads pay off,” IEEE Microw. Mag. 16(8), 61–73 (2015).
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Lopez Diaz, D.

S. Koenig, D. Lopez Diaz, J. Antes, F. Boes, R. Henneberger, A. Leuther, A. Tessmann, R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, R. Palmer, T. Zwick, C. Koos, W. Freude, O. Ambacher, J. Leuthold, and I. Kallfass, “Wireless sub-thz communication system with high data rate,” Nat. Photonics 7(12), 977–981 (2013).
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Lozano, A.

F. Boccardi, R. W. Heath, A. Lozano, T. L. Marzetta, and P. Popovski, “Five disruptive technology directions for 5g,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 52(2), 74–80 (2014).
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Manner, K. T.

W. Jin, P. V. Johnston, D. L. Elder, K. T. Manner, K. E. Garrett, W. Kaminsky, R. Xu, B. H. Robinson, and L. R. Dalton, “Structure-function relationship exploration for enhanced thermal stability and electro-optic activity in monolithic organic nlo chromophores,” J. Mater. Chem. 4, 3119–3124 (2016).

Marpaung, D.

D. Marpaung, C. Roeloffzen, R. Heideman, A. Leinse, S. Sales, and J. Capmany, “Integrated microwave photonics,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(4), 506–538 (2013).
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Marpaung, D. A. I.

Marzetta, T.

E. Larsson, O. Edfors, F. Tufvesson, and T. Marzetta, “Massive mimo for next generation wireless systems,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 52(2), 186–195 (2014).
[Crossref]

Marzetta, T. L.

F. Boccardi, R. W. Heath, A. Lozano, T. L. Marzetta, and P. Popovski, “Five disruptive technology directions for 5g,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 52(2), 74–80 (2014).
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T. S. Rappaport, S. Shu, R. Mayzus, Z. Hang, Y. Azar, K. Wang, G. N. Wong, J. K. Schulz, M. Samimi, and F. Gutierrez, “Millimeter wave mobile communications for 5g cellular: It will work!” IEEE Access 1, 335–349 (2013).
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Meijerink, A.

Meijerink, R.

Melikyan, A.

W. Heni, C. Hoessbacher, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, B. Baeuerle, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, Y. Salamin, R. Bonjour, A. Melikyan, M. Kohl, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “High speed plasmonic modulator array enabling dense optical interconnect solutions,” Opt. Express 23(23), 29746–29757 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Heni, C. Haffner, B. Baeuerle, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, M. Kohl, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “108 gbit/s plasmonic mach-zehnder modulator with >70 ghz electrical bandwidth,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34, 393–400 (2015).

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, D. L. Elder, B. Baeuerle, Y. Salamin, A. Josten, U. Koch, C. Hoessbacher, F. Ducry, L. Juchli, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, M. Kohl, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “All-plasmonic mach–zehnder modulator enabling optical high-speed communication at the microscale,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 525–528 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 229–233 (2014).
[Crossref]

Moskalenko, V.

Mousel, P.

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, C. Hoessbacher, Y. Salamin, U. Koch, P. Mousel, R. Bonjour, E. A. D. Hillerkuss, P. Leuchtmann, D. L. Elder, L. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “Plasmonic organic hybrid modulators - scaling highest speed photonics to the microscale,” Proc. IEEE 99, 1–18 (2016).
[Crossref]

Muehlbrandt, S.

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 229–233 (2014).
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Muslija, A.

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 229–233 (2014).
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T. Nagatsuma, G. Ducournau, and C. C. Renaud, “Advances in terahertz communications accelerated by photonics,” Nat. Photonics 10(6), 371–379 (2016).
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Niegemann, J.

W. Heni, C. Haffner, B. Baeuerle, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, M. Kohl, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “108 gbit/s plasmonic mach-zehnder modulator with >70 ghz electrical bandwidth,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34, 393–400 (2015).

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, D. L. Elder, B. Baeuerle, Y. Salamin, A. Josten, U. Koch, C. Hoessbacher, F. Ducry, L. Juchli, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, M. Kohl, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “All-plasmonic mach–zehnder modulator enabling optical high-speed communication at the microscale,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 525–528 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nikolajsen, T.

T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Surface plasmon polariton based modulators and switches operating at telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(24), 5833–5835 (2004).
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Nix, A.

S. Shu, T. S. Rappaport, R. W. Heath, A. Nix, and S. Rangan, “Mimo for millimeter-wave wireless communications: Beamforming, spatial multiplexing, or both?” IEEE Commun. Mag. 52(12), 110–121 (2014).
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W. Jin, P. V. Johnston, D. L. Elder, A. F. Tillack, B. C. Olbricht, J. Song, P. J. Reid, R. Xu, B. H. Robinson, and L. R. Dalton, “Benzocyclobutene barrier layer for suppressing conductance in nonlinear optical devices during electric field poling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(24), 243304 (2014).
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Oldenbeuving, R. M.

Palmer, R.

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 229–233 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Koenig, D. Lopez Diaz, J. Antes, F. Boes, R. Henneberger, A. Leuther, A. Tessmann, R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, R. Palmer, T. Zwick, C. Koos, W. Freude, O. Ambacher, J. Leuthold, and I. Kallfass, “Wireless sub-thz communication system with high data rate,” Nat. Photonics 7(12), 977–981 (2013).
[Crossref]

Pan, S.

S. Pan, D. Zhu, S. Liu, K. Xu, Y. Dai, T. Wang, J. Liu, N. Zhu, Y. Xue, and N. Liu, “Satellite payloads pay off,” IEEE Microw. Mag. 16(8), 61–73 (2015).
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F. Boccardi, R. W. Heath, A. Lozano, T. L. Marzetta, and P. Popovski, “Five disruptive technology directions for 5g,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 52(2), 74–80 (2014).
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J. Bai, S. Shi, G. J. Schneider, J. P. Wilson, Y. Zhang, W. Pan, and D. W. Prather, “Optically driven ultrawideband phased array with an optical interleaving feed network,” IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett. 13, 47–50 (2014).
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S. Rangan, T. S. Rappaport, and E. Erkip, “Millimeter-wave cellular wireless networks: Potentials and challenges,” Proc. IEEE 102(3), 366–385 (2014).
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S. Shu, T. S. Rappaport, R. W. Heath, A. Nix, and S. Rangan, “Mimo for millimeter-wave wireless communications: Beamforming, spatial multiplexing, or both?” IEEE Commun. Mag. 52(12), 110–121 (2014).
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Rappaport, T. S.

S. Shu, T. S. Rappaport, R. W. Heath, A. Nix, and S. Rangan, “Mimo for millimeter-wave wireless communications: Beamforming, spatial multiplexing, or both?” IEEE Commun. Mag. 52(12), 110–121 (2014).
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S. Rangan, T. S. Rappaport, and E. Erkip, “Millimeter-wave cellular wireless networks: Potentials and challenges,” Proc. IEEE 102(3), 366–385 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. S. Rappaport, S. Shu, R. Mayzus, Z. Hang, Y. Azar, K. Wang, G. N. Wong, J. K. Schulz, M. Samimi, and F. Gutierrez, “Millimeter wave mobile communications for 5g cellular: It will work!” IEEE Access 1, 335–349 (2013).
[Crossref]

Reid, P. J.

W. Jin, P. V. Johnston, D. L. Elder, A. F. Tillack, B. C. Olbricht, J. Song, P. J. Reid, R. Xu, B. H. Robinson, and L. R. Dalton, “Benzocyclobutene barrier layer for suppressing conductance in nonlinear optical devices during electric field poling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(24), 243304 (2014).
[Crossref]

Renaud, C. C.

T. Nagatsuma, G. Ducournau, and C. C. Renaud, “Advances in terahertz communications accelerated by photonics,” Nat. Photonics 10(6), 371–379 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ristic, S.

Robinson, B. H.

W. Jin, P. V. Johnston, D. L. Elder, K. T. Manner, K. E. Garrett, W. Kaminsky, R. Xu, B. H. Robinson, and L. R. Dalton, “Structure-function relationship exploration for enhanced thermal stability and electro-optic activity in monolithic organic nlo chromophores,” J. Mater. Chem. 4, 3119–3124 (2016).

W. Jin, P. V. Johnston, D. L. Elder, A. F. Tillack, B. C. Olbricht, J. Song, P. J. Reid, R. Xu, B. H. Robinson, and L. R. Dalton, “Benzocyclobutene barrier layer for suppressing conductance in nonlinear optical devices during electric field poling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(24), 243304 (2014).
[Crossref]

Roeloffzen, C.

D. Marpaung, C. Roeloffzen, R. Heideman, A. Leinse, S. Sales, and J. Capmany, “Integrated microwave photonics,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(4), 506–538 (2013).
[Crossref]

Roeloffzen, C. G. H.

Salamin, Y.

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, C. Hoessbacher, Y. Salamin, U. Koch, P. Mousel, R. Bonjour, E. A. D. Hillerkuss, P. Leuchtmann, D. L. Elder, L. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “Plasmonic organic hybrid modulators - scaling highest speed photonics to the microscale,” Proc. IEEE 99, 1–18 (2016).
[Crossref]

W. Heni, C. Hoessbacher, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, B. Baeuerle, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, Y. Salamin, R. Bonjour, A. Melikyan, M. Kohl, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “High speed plasmonic modulator array enabling dense optical interconnect solutions,” Opt. Express 23(23), 29746–29757 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Bonjour, M. Singleton, S. A. Gebrewold, Y. Salamin, F. C. Abrecht, B. Baeuerle, A. Josten, P. Leuchtmann, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “Ultra-fast millimeter wave beam steering,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 52, 0600708 (2015).

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, D. L. Elder, B. Baeuerle, Y. Salamin, A. Josten, U. Koch, C. Hoessbacher, F. Ducry, L. Juchli, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, M. Kohl, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “All-plasmonic mach–zehnder modulator enabling optical high-speed communication at the microscale,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 525–528 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sales, S.

D. Marpaung, C. Roeloffzen, R. Heideman, A. Leinse, S. Sales, and J. Capmany, “Integrated microwave photonics,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(4), 506–538 (2013).
[Crossref]

Samimi, M.

T. S. Rappaport, S. Shu, R. Mayzus, Z. Hang, Y. Azar, K. Wang, G. N. Wong, J. K. Schulz, M. Samimi, and F. Gutierrez, “Millimeter wave mobile communications for 5g cellular: It will work!” IEEE Access 1, 335–349 (2013).
[Crossref]

Schindler, P. C.

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 229–233 (2014).
[Crossref]

Schmogrow, R.

S. Koenig, D. Lopez Diaz, J. Antes, F. Boes, R. Henneberger, A. Leuther, A. Tessmann, R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, R. Palmer, T. Zwick, C. Koos, W. Freude, O. Ambacher, J. Leuthold, and I. Kallfass, “Wireless sub-thz communication system with high data rate,” Nat. Photonics 7(12), 977–981 (2013).
[Crossref]

Schneider, G. J.

J. Bai, S. Shi, G. J. Schneider, J. P. Wilson, Y. Zhang, W. Pan, and D. W. Prather, “Optically driven ultrawideband phased array with an optical interleaving feed network,” IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett. 13, 47–50 (2014).
[Crossref]

Schulz, J. K.

T. S. Rappaport, S. Shu, R. Mayzus, Z. Hang, Y. Azar, K. Wang, G. N. Wong, J. K. Schulz, M. Samimi, and F. Gutierrez, “Millimeter wave mobile communications for 5g cellular: It will work!” IEEE Access 1, 335–349 (2013).
[Crossref]

Shi, S.

J. Bai, S. Shi, G. J. Schneider, J. P. Wilson, Y. Zhang, W. Pan, and D. W. Prather, “Optically driven ultrawideband phased array with an optical interleaving feed network,” IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett. 13, 47–50 (2014).
[Crossref]

Shu, S.

S. Shu, T. S. Rappaport, R. W. Heath, A. Nix, and S. Rangan, “Mimo for millimeter-wave wireless communications: Beamforming, spatial multiplexing, or both?” IEEE Commun. Mag. 52(12), 110–121 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. S. Rappaport, S. Shu, R. Mayzus, Z. Hang, Y. Azar, K. Wang, G. N. Wong, J. K. Schulz, M. Samimi, and F. Gutierrez, “Millimeter wave mobile communications for 5g cellular: It will work!” IEEE Access 1, 335–349 (2013).
[Crossref]

Singleton, M.

R. Bonjour, M. Singleton, S. A. Gebrewold, Y. Salamin, F. C. Abrecht, B. Baeuerle, A. Josten, P. Leuchtmann, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “Ultra-fast millimeter wave beam steering,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 52, 0600708 (2015).

R. Bonjour, M. Singleton, P. Leuchtmann, and J. Leuthold, “Comparison of steering angle and bandwidth for various phased array antenna concepts,” Opt. Commun. 373, 35–43 (2015).

Sommer, M.

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 229–233 (2014).
[Crossref]

Song, J.

W. Jin, P. V. Johnston, D. L. Elder, A. F. Tillack, B. C. Olbricht, J. Song, P. J. Reid, R. Xu, B. H. Robinson, and L. R. Dalton, “Benzocyclobutene barrier layer for suppressing conductance in nonlinear optical devices during electric field poling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(24), 243304 (2014).
[Crossref]

Soref, R.

R. Soref, “Silicon photonics: a review of recent literature,” Silicon 2(1), 1–6 (2010).
[Crossref]

Taddei, C.

Tangdiongga, E.

Tessema, N.

Tessmann, A.

S. Koenig, D. Lopez Diaz, J. Antes, F. Boes, R. Henneberger, A. Leuther, A. Tessmann, R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, R. Palmer, T. Zwick, C. Koos, W. Freude, O. Ambacher, J. Leuthold, and I. Kallfass, “Wireless sub-thz communication system with high data rate,” Nat. Photonics 7(12), 977–981 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tillack, A. F.

W. Jin, P. V. Johnston, D. L. Elder, A. F. Tillack, B. C. Olbricht, J. Song, P. J. Reid, R. Xu, B. H. Robinson, and L. R. Dalton, “Benzocyclobutene barrier layer for suppressing conductance in nonlinear optical devices during electric field poling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(24), 243304 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tufvesson, F.

E. Larsson, O. Edfors, F. Tufvesson, and T. Marzetta, “Massive mimo for next generation wireless systems,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 52(2), 186–195 (2014).
[Crossref]

van der Boom, H. P. A.

van Dijk, P. W. L.

van Etten, W.

Van Thourhout, D.

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 229–233 (2014).
[Crossref]

Verpoorte, J.

Wang, K.

T. S. Rappaport, S. Shu, R. Mayzus, Z. Hang, Y. Azar, K. Wang, G. N. Wong, J. K. Schulz, M. Samimi, and F. Gutierrez, “Millimeter wave mobile communications for 5g cellular: It will work!” IEEE Access 1, 335–349 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wang, S.

T. Cao, G. Zheng, and S. Wang, “Chemical control of continuous light-steering using an array of gradient au/bi2se3/au strips,” RSC Advances 5(85), 69319–69324 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Cao, G. Zheng, S. Wang, and C. Wei, “Ultrafast beam steering using gradient Au-Ge2Sb2Te5-Au plasmonic resonators,” Opt. Express 23(14), 18029–18039 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, T.

S. Pan, D. Zhu, S. Liu, K. Xu, Y. Dai, T. Wang, J. Liu, N. Zhu, Y. Xue, and N. Liu, “Satellite payloads pay off,” IEEE Microw. Mag. 16(8), 61–73 (2015).
[Crossref]

Waterhouse, R.

R. Waterhouse and D. Novak, “Realizing 5g: Microwave photonics for 5g mobile wireless systems,” IEEE Microw. Mag. 16(8), 84–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wei, C.

Williams, K. A.

Wilson, J. P.

J. Bai, S. Shi, G. J. Schneider, J. P. Wilson, Y. Zhang, W. Pan, and D. W. Prather, “Optically driven ultrawideband phased array with an optical interleaving feed network,” IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett. 13, 47–50 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wong, G. N.

T. S. Rappaport, S. Shu, R. Mayzus, Z. Hang, Y. Azar, K. Wang, G. N. Wong, J. K. Schulz, M. Samimi, and F. Gutierrez, “Millimeter wave mobile communications for 5g cellular: It will work!” IEEE Access 1, 335–349 (2013).
[Crossref]

Xu, K.

S. Pan, D. Zhu, S. Liu, K. Xu, Y. Dai, T. Wang, J. Liu, N. Zhu, Y. Xue, and N. Liu, “Satellite payloads pay off,” IEEE Microw. Mag. 16(8), 61–73 (2015).
[Crossref]

Xu, R.

W. Jin, P. V. Johnston, D. L. Elder, K. T. Manner, K. E. Garrett, W. Kaminsky, R. Xu, B. H. Robinson, and L. R. Dalton, “Structure-function relationship exploration for enhanced thermal stability and electro-optic activity in monolithic organic nlo chromophores,” J. Mater. Chem. 4, 3119–3124 (2016).

W. Jin, P. V. Johnston, D. L. Elder, A. F. Tillack, B. C. Olbricht, J. Song, P. J. Reid, R. Xu, B. H. Robinson, and L. R. Dalton, “Benzocyclobutene barrier layer for suppressing conductance in nonlinear optical devices during electric field poling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(24), 243304 (2014).
[Crossref]

Xue, Y.

S. Pan, D. Zhu, S. Liu, K. Xu, Y. Dai, T. Wang, J. Liu, N. Zhu, Y. Xue, and N. Liu, “Satellite payloads pay off,” IEEE Microw. Mag. 16(8), 61–73 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yao, J.

Zhang, Y.

J. Bai, S. Shi, G. J. Schneider, J. P. Wilson, Y. Zhang, W. Pan, and D. W. Prather, “Optically driven ultrawideband phased array with an optical interleaving feed network,” IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett. 13, 47–50 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhao, X.

Zheng, G.

T. Cao, G. Zheng, S. Wang, and C. Wei, “Ultrafast beam steering using gradient Au-Ge2Sb2Te5-Au plasmonic resonators,” Opt. Express 23(14), 18029–18039 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Cao, G. Zheng, and S. Wang, “Chemical control of continuous light-steering using an array of gradient au/bi2se3/au strips,” RSC Advances 5(85), 69319–69324 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhu, D.

S. Pan, D. Zhu, S. Liu, K. Xu, Y. Dai, T. Wang, J. Liu, N. Zhu, Y. Xue, and N. Liu, “Satellite payloads pay off,” IEEE Microw. Mag. 16(8), 61–73 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhu, N.

S. Pan, D. Zhu, S. Liu, K. Xu, Y. Dai, T. Wang, J. Liu, N. Zhu, Y. Xue, and N. Liu, “Satellite payloads pay off,” IEEE Microw. Mag. 16(8), 61–73 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhuang, L.

Zwick, T.

S. Koenig, D. Lopez Diaz, J. Antes, F. Boes, R. Henneberger, A. Leuther, A. Tessmann, R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, R. Palmer, T. Zwick, C. Koos, W. Freude, O. Ambacher, J. Leuthold, and I. Kallfass, “Wireless sub-thz communication system with high data rate,” Nat. Photonics 7(12), 977–981 (2013).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Surface plasmon polariton based modulators and switches operating at telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(24), 5833–5835 (2004).
[Crossref]

W. Jin, P. V. Johnston, D. L. Elder, A. F. Tillack, B. C. Olbricht, J. Song, P. J. Reid, R. Xu, B. H. Robinson, and L. R. Dalton, “Benzocyclobutene barrier layer for suppressing conductance in nonlinear optical devices during electric field poling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(24), 243304 (2014).
[Crossref]

IEEE Access (1)

T. S. Rappaport, S. Shu, R. Mayzus, Z. Hang, Y. Azar, K. Wang, G. N. Wong, J. K. Schulz, M. Samimi, and F. Gutierrez, “Millimeter wave mobile communications for 5g cellular: It will work!” IEEE Access 1, 335–349 (2013).
[Crossref]

IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett. (1)

J. Bai, S. Shi, G. J. Schneider, J. P. Wilson, Y. Zhang, W. Pan, and D. W. Prather, “Optically driven ultrawideband phased array with an optical interleaving feed network,” IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett. 13, 47–50 (2014).
[Crossref]

IEEE Commun. Mag. (4)

E. Larsson, O. Edfors, F. Tufvesson, and T. Marzetta, “Massive mimo for next generation wireless systems,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 52(2), 186–195 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Shu, T. S. Rappaport, R. W. Heath, A. Nix, and S. Rangan, “Mimo for millimeter-wave wireless communications: Beamforming, spatial multiplexing, or both?” IEEE Commun. Mag. 52(12), 110–121 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Bai, A. Alkhateeb, and R. W. Heath, “Coverage and capacity of millimeter-wave cellular networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 52(9), 70–77 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Boccardi, R. W. Heath, A. Lozano, T. L. Marzetta, and P. Popovski, “Five disruptive technology directions for 5g,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 52(2), 74–80 (2014).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. Bonjour, M. Singleton, S. A. Gebrewold, Y. Salamin, F. C. Abrecht, B. Baeuerle, A. Josten, P. Leuchtmann, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “Ultra-fast millimeter wave beam steering,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 52, 0600708 (2015).

IEEE Microw. Mag. (2)

R. Waterhouse and D. Novak, “Realizing 5g: Microwave photonics for 5g mobile wireless systems,” IEEE Microw. Mag. 16(8), 84–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Pan, D. Zhu, S. Liu, K. Xu, Y. Dai, T. Wang, J. Liu, N. Zhu, Y. Xue, and N. Liu, “Satellite payloads pay off,” IEEE Microw. Mag. 16(8), 61–73 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (4)

J. Mater. Chem. (1)

W. Jin, P. V. Johnston, D. L. Elder, K. T. Manner, K. E. Garrett, W. Kaminsky, R. Xu, B. H. Robinson, and L. R. Dalton, “Structure-function relationship exploration for enhanced thermal stability and electro-optic activity in monolithic organic nlo chromophores,” J. Mater. Chem. 4, 3119–3124 (2016).

Laser Photonics Rev. (1)

D. Marpaung, C. Roeloffzen, R. Heideman, A. Leinse, S. Sales, and J. Capmany, “Integrated microwave photonics,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(4), 506–538 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (4)

T. Nagatsuma, G. Ducournau, and C. C. Renaud, “Advances in terahertz communications accelerated by photonics,” Nat. Photonics 10(6), 371–379 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Koenig, D. Lopez Diaz, J. Antes, F. Boes, R. Henneberger, A. Leuther, A. Tessmann, R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, R. Palmer, T. Zwick, C. Koos, W. Freude, O. Ambacher, J. Leuthold, and I. Kallfass, “Wireless sub-thz communication system with high data rate,” Nat. Photonics 7(12), 977–981 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 229–233 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, D. L. Elder, B. Baeuerle, Y. Salamin, A. Josten, U. Koch, C. Hoessbacher, F. Ducry, L. Juchli, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, M. Kohl, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “All-plasmonic mach–zehnder modulator enabling optical high-speed communication at the microscale,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 525–528 (2015).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

R. Bonjour, M. Singleton, P. Leuchtmann, and J. Leuthold, “Comparison of steering angle and bandwidth for various phased array antenna concepts,” Opt. Commun. 373, 35–43 (2015).

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. IEEE (2)

S. Rangan, T. S. Rappaport, and E. Erkip, “Millimeter-wave cellular wireless networks: Potentials and challenges,” Proc. IEEE 102(3), 366–385 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, C. Hoessbacher, Y. Salamin, U. Koch, P. Mousel, R. Bonjour, E. A. D. Hillerkuss, P. Leuchtmann, D. L. Elder, L. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “Plasmonic organic hybrid modulators - scaling highest speed photonics to the microscale,” Proc. IEEE 99, 1–18 (2016).
[Crossref]

RSC Advances (1)

T. Cao, G. Zheng, and S. Wang, “Chemical control of continuous light-steering using an array of gradient au/bi2se3/au strips,” RSC Advances 5(85), 69319–69324 (2015).
[Crossref]

Silicon (1)

R. Soref, “Silicon photonics: a review of recent literature,” Silicon 2(1), 1–6 (2010).
[Crossref]

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C. L. Callender, P. Dumais, C. Blanchetiere, S. Jacob, C. Ledderhof, C. W. Smelser, K. Yadav, and J. Albert, “Compact silica-on-silicon planar lightwave circuits for high speed optical signal processing,” in SPIE Photonics West 2012 (SPIE, 2012), paper 82570P.

C. Roeloffzen, R. Oldenbeuving, R. B. Timens, P. van Dijk, C. Taddei, A. Leinse, M. Hoekman, R. G. Heideman, L. Zhuang, D. Marpaung, and M. Burla, “Integrated optical beamformers,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper Tu3F.4.

C. Hoessbacher, W. Heni, A. Melikyan, Y. Fedoryshyn, C. Haffner, B. Baeuerle, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, Y. Salamin, M. Kohl, D. Elder, L. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “Dense plasmonic mach-zehnder modulator array for high-speed optical interconnects,” in Advanced Photonics 2015 (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper IM2B.1.

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W. Heni, C. Haffner, P. V. Johnston, D. L. Elder, Y. Fedoryshyn, R. Cottier, Y. Salamin, C. Hoessbacher, A. F. Tillack, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “Optimizing plasmonic modulators for in-device nonlinearities of up to 275 pm/v,” in Advanced Photonics 2016 (Optical Society of America, 2016), paper ITu1A.1.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Symbol-by-symbol beam steering scenario. (a) The baseband unit (BBU) in the basement of the building sends time division multiplexed (TDM) data to multiple users via (b) a remote radio head (RRH). The RRH uses a steering control signal from the BBU to steer the single TDM symbols in different directions, acting as a spatial de-multiplexer. (c) Here, the RRH comprises of a plasmonic phased array feeder (PAF). (d) Since the user only receives a tributary of the TDM signal, the user equipment can be based on slow and low cost electronics.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Colorized SEM image of a the plasmonic phased array feeder (PAF). The plasmonic phase modulators (PPM) used in the PAF are composed of a 25 μm-long and 100 nm-wide metal-insulator-metal (MIM) slot waveguides. The slot is filled with a second-order nonlinear material to allow for phase modulation based on the Pockels effect. (b) Microscope image of a low footprint PPM used in the PAF.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured optical transmission spectrum for −3 dBm RF modulation of the PPM used in the system experiments, from 10 GHz to 70 GHz. The higher sidebands at large frequencies are related to variations in the impedance matching between the pico-probe and the device through the measurement bandwidth.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental setup. (a) In the BBU, data from AWG are encoded by means of an IQ modulator onto a carrier laser (at frequency νC). After optical amplification, the carrier laser is transmitted to the RRH. A second reference laser (at frequency νR) having a frequency difference corresponding to the desired millimeter wave frequency (60 GHz) is fed to the RRH as well. (b) In the RRH the two lasers are combined within the plasmonic PAF chip and mapped onto photodiodes, where they are converted to millimeter wave (mmW) signals. (c) To emulate a 0.7 and 1.4 GHz bandwidth UE (at a carrier of 60 GHz) we use a high-bandwidth DSO. For this, we receive the signal with 60 GHz high-gain antenna and down-convert the signal to an intermediate frequency (IF) of 11 GHz. The DSO is then used to perform the recording. The IF signals are then analyzed with a vector software analyzer (VSA) performing: the down-conversion to IQ baseband signals, low pass filtering to emulate a 0.7 and 1.4 GHz bandwidth UE, and digital signal processing (DSP) with standard recovery algorithm (timing, carrier, equalization). (d) The plot shows time traces right after the ADC (without DSP) for a “low” steering speed of 8 MHz, i.e. frames of 62 symbols are steered towards user 1 or 2 alternatively.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Picture of the experiment setup. The PAA, zoom in inset (a), is built with two photodiodes (70 GHz), two amplifiers (28 dB gain), and two horn antennas (directivity of 20 dBi) and antenna spacing of 2 cm. The two users are 3m apart from the transmitter PAA and separated by 30°. In the inset (b), the mmW components used for user 2 are detailed the antenna, an amplifier (20 dB gain), and an RF mixer (LO at 49 GHz). The signals of the two users at an intermediate frequency of 11 GHz are directly recorded with a DSO.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Received signals for 1GBd transmitted QPSK signal received as two independent 0.5GBd bit streams in full bandwidth receivers (1.4 GHz).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Received signals for receivers with only half the bandwidth of the transmitter (~700 MHz), compared to Fig. 6 the quality degradation is low.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

EVM Results for BPSK at 1GBd, QPSK at 1 and 2 GBd (symbol rate of the transmitted signal). For simplicity, the corresponding bitrate per user is used on the x-axis of the plot.

Equations (1)

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a n = n 2 π f R F c 0 d cos ψ 0

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