Abstract

We analyze a photonic integrated circuit (PIC) platform comprised of a crystalline AlxGa1-xN optical guiding layer on an AlN substrate for the ultraviolet to visible (UV-vis) wavelength range. An Al composition of x~0.65 provides a refractive index difference of ~0.1 between AlxGa1-xN and AlN, and a small lattice mismatch (< 1%) that minimizes crystal dislocations at the AlxGa1-xN/AlN interface. This small refractive index difference is beneficial at shorter wavelengths to avoid extra-small waveguide dimensions. The platform enables compact waveguides and bends with high field confinement in the wavelength range from 700 nm down to 300 nm (and potentially lower) with waveguide cross-section dimensions comparable to those used for telecom PICs such as silicon and silicon nitride waveguides, allowing for well-established optical lithography. This platform can potentially enable cost-effective, manufacturable, monolithic UV-vis photonic integrated circuits.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]

2016 (1)

2015 (4)

M. Soltani and R. Soref, “Free-carrier electrorefraction and electroabsorption in wurtzite GaN,” Opt. Express 23(19), 24984–24990 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. H. Li, X. Liu, Q. Wang, S. Zhao, and Z. Mi, “Ultralow-threshold electrically injected AlGaN nanowire ultraviolet lasers on Si operating at low temperature,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(2), 140–144 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. W. Bruch, C. Xiong, B. Leung, M. Poot, J. Han, and H. X. Tang, “Broadband nanophotonic waveguides and resonators based on epitaxial GaN thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(14), 141113 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Rigler, J. Buh, M. P. Huffman, R. Kirste, M. Bobea, S. Mita, M. D. Gerhold, R. Collazo, Z. Sitar, and M. Zgonik, “Optical characterization of Al- and N-polar AlN waveguides for integrated optics,” Appl. Phys. Express 8(4), 042603 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

A. E. Lim, J. Song, Q. Fang, C. Li, X. Tu, N. Duan, K. K. Chen, R. P. Tern, and T. Liow, ““Review of silicon photonic foundry efforts,” IEEE J. Sel,” IEEE J. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 8300112 (2014).

H. Hirayama, N. Maeda, S. Fujikawa, S. Toyoda, and N. Kamata, “Recent progress and future prospects of AlGaN-based high-efficiency deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53(10), 100209 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. J. M. Hausmann, I. Bulu, V. Venkataraman, P. Deotare, and M. Loncar, “Diamond nonlinear photonics,” Nat. Photonics 8(5), 369–374 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

H. Jung, C. Xiong, K. Y. Fong, X. Zhang, and H. X. Tang, “Optical frequency comb generation from aluminum nitride microring resonator,” Opt. Lett. 38(15), 2810–2813 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Zhu, D. J. Wallis, and C. J. Humphreys, “Prospects of III-nitride optoelectronics grown on Si,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 76(10), 106501 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (4)

C. Kao, A. Bhattacharyya, C. Thomidis, A. Moldawer, R. Paiella, and T. D. Moustakas, “A comparative study of UV electroabsorption modulators on bulk III-nitride films and multiple quantum wells,” Phys. Status Solidi., C Curr. Top. Solid State Phys. 9(3-4), 770–773 (2012).
[Crossref]

U. Dharanipathy, N. Vico Triviño, C. Yan, Z. Diao, J. F. Carlin, N. Grandjean, and R. Houdré, “Near-infrared characterization of gallium nitride photonic-crystal waveguides and cavities,” Opt. Lett. 37(22), 4588–4590 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Xiong, W. H. P. Pernice, and H. X. Tang, “Low-loss, silicon integrated, aluminum nitride photonic circuits and their use for electro-optic signal processing,” Nano Lett. 12(7), 3562–3568 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Wunderer, C. L. Chua, J. E. Northrop, Z. Yang, N. M. Johnson, M. Kneissl, G. A. Garrett, H. Shen, B. Wraback, B Moody, H. S Craft, R Schlesser, R. F Dalmau, and Z Sitar, “Optically pumped UV lasers grown on bulk AlN substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi. 9, 1–4 (2012).

2011 (3)

M. Kneissl, T. Kolbe, C. Chua, V. Kueller, N. Lobo, J. Stellmach, A. Knauer, H. Rodriguez, S. Einfeldt, Z. Yang, N. M. Johnson, and M. Weyers, “Advances in group III-Nitride-based deep UV light-emitting diode technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(1), 014036 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. Xiong, W. Pernice, K. K. Ryu, C. Schuck, K. Y. Fong, T. Palacios, and H. X. Tang, “Integrated GaN photonic circuits on silicon (100) for second harmonic generation,” Opt. Express 19(11), 10462–10470 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Dalmau, B. Moody, R. Schlesser, S. Mita, J. Xie, M. Feneberg, B. Neuschl, K. Thonke, R. Collaze, A. Rice, J. Tweedie, and Z. Sitar, “Growth and characterization of AlN and AlGaN epitaxial films on AlN single crystal substrates,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 158(5), H530–H535 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

M. Bickermann, B. M. Epelbaum, O. Filip, P. Heimann, S. Nagata, and A. Winnacker, “UV transparent single-crystalline bulk AlN substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi 7(c), 21–24 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. Jianchang, W. Junxi, L. Naixin, L. Zhe, R. Jun, and L. Jinmin, “High quality AlGaN grown on a high temperature AlN template by MOCVD,” J. Semiconductors 30(10), 103001 (2010).
[Crossref]

N. Tansu, H. Zhao, G. Liu, X. H. Li, J. Zhang, H. Tong, and Y. K. Ee, “III-nitride photonics,” IEEE Photonics J. 2(2), 241–248 (2010).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

N. Watanabe, T. Kimoto, and J. Suda, “The temperature dependence of the refractive indices of GaN and AlN from room temperatures up to 515° C,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(10), 106101 (2008).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

M. Asif Khan, M. Shatalov, H. P. Maruska, H. M. Wang, and E. Koukstis, “III-nitride UV devices,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(10), 7191–7206 (2005).
[Crossref]

R. Hui, Y. Wan, J. Li, S. Jin, J. Lin, and H. Jiang, “III-nitride-based planar lightwave circuits for long wavelength optical communications,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41(1), 100–110 (2005).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

N. A. Sanford, L. H. Robins, A. V. Davydov, A. Shapiro, D. V. Tsvetkov, A. V. Dmitriev, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Refractive index study of AlxGa1-xN films grown on sapphire substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(5), 2980–2991 (2003).
[Crossref]

N. Antoine-Vincent, F. Natali, M. Mihailovic, A. Vasson, J. Leymarie, P. Disseix, D. Byrne, F. Semond, and J. Massies, “Determination of the refractive indices of AlN, GaN, and AlxGa1-xN grown on (111) Si substrate,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(9), 5223–5226 (2003).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

G. Webb-Wood, Ü. Özgür, H. O. Everitt, F. Yun, and H. Morkoc, “Measurement of AlxGa1-xN refractive indices,” Phys. Status Solidi 188, 793–797 (2001).
[Crossref]

Antoine-Vincent, N.

N. Antoine-Vincent, F. Natali, M. Mihailovic, A. Vasson, J. Leymarie, P. Disseix, D. Byrne, F. Semond, and J. Massies, “Determination of the refractive indices of AlN, GaN, and AlxGa1-xN grown on (111) Si substrate,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(9), 5223–5226 (2003).
[Crossref]

Asif Khan, M.

M. Asif Khan, M. Shatalov, H. P. Maruska, H. M. Wang, and E. Koukstis, “III-nitride UV devices,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(10), 7191–7206 (2005).
[Crossref]

Bhattacharyya, A.

C. Kao, A. Bhattacharyya, C. Thomidis, A. Moldawer, R. Paiella, and T. D. Moustakas, “A comparative study of UV electroabsorption modulators on bulk III-nitride films and multiple quantum wells,” Phys. Status Solidi., C Curr. Top. Solid State Phys. 9(3-4), 770–773 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bickermann, M.

M. Bickermann, B. M. Epelbaum, O. Filip, P. Heimann, S. Nagata, and A. Winnacker, “UV transparent single-crystalline bulk AlN substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi 7(c), 21–24 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bobea, M.

M. Rigler, J. Buh, M. P. Huffman, R. Kirste, M. Bobea, S. Mita, M. D. Gerhold, R. Collazo, Z. Sitar, and M. Zgonik, “Optical characterization of Al- and N-polar AlN waveguides for integrated optics,” Appl. Phys. Express 8(4), 042603 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bruch, A. W.

A. W. Bruch, C. Xiong, B. Leung, M. Poot, J. Han, and H. X. Tang, “Broadband nanophotonic waveguides and resonators based on epitaxial GaN thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(14), 141113 (2015).
[Crossref]

Buh, J.

M. Rigler, J. Buh, M. P. Huffman, R. Kirste, M. Bobea, S. Mita, M. D. Gerhold, R. Collazo, Z. Sitar, and M. Zgonik, “Optical characterization of Al- and N-polar AlN waveguides for integrated optics,” Appl. Phys. Express 8(4), 042603 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bulu, I.

B. J. M. Hausmann, I. Bulu, V. Venkataraman, P. Deotare, and M. Loncar, “Diamond nonlinear photonics,” Nat. Photonics 8(5), 369–374 (2014).
[Crossref]

Byrne, D.

N. Antoine-Vincent, F. Natali, M. Mihailovic, A. Vasson, J. Leymarie, P. Disseix, D. Byrne, F. Semond, and J. Massies, “Determination of the refractive indices of AlN, GaN, and AlxGa1-xN grown on (111) Si substrate,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(9), 5223–5226 (2003).
[Crossref]

Carlin, J. F.

Chen, K. K.

A. E. Lim, J. Song, Q. Fang, C. Li, X. Tu, N. Duan, K. K. Chen, R. P. Tern, and T. Liow, ““Review of silicon photonic foundry efforts,” IEEE J. Sel,” IEEE J. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 8300112 (2014).

Chua, C.

M. Kneissl, T. Kolbe, C. Chua, V. Kueller, N. Lobo, J. Stellmach, A. Knauer, H. Rodriguez, S. Einfeldt, Z. Yang, N. M. Johnson, and M. Weyers, “Advances in group III-Nitride-based deep UV light-emitting diode technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(1), 014036 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chua, C. L.

T. Wunderer, C. L. Chua, J. E. Northrop, Z. Yang, N. M. Johnson, M. Kneissl, G. A. Garrett, H. Shen, B. Wraback, B Moody, H. S Craft, R Schlesser, R. F Dalmau, and Z Sitar, “Optically pumped UV lasers grown on bulk AlN substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi. 9, 1–4 (2012).

Collaze, R.

R. Dalmau, B. Moody, R. Schlesser, S. Mita, J. Xie, M. Feneberg, B. Neuschl, K. Thonke, R. Collaze, A. Rice, J. Tweedie, and Z. Sitar, “Growth and characterization of AlN and AlGaN epitaxial films on AlN single crystal substrates,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 158(5), H530–H535 (2011).
[Crossref]

Collazo, R.

M. Rigler, J. Buh, M. P. Huffman, R. Kirste, M. Bobea, S. Mita, M. D. Gerhold, R. Collazo, Z. Sitar, and M. Zgonik, “Optical characterization of Al- and N-polar AlN waveguides for integrated optics,” Appl. Phys. Express 8(4), 042603 (2015).
[Crossref]

Craft, H. S

T. Wunderer, C. L. Chua, J. E. Northrop, Z. Yang, N. M. Johnson, M. Kneissl, G. A. Garrett, H. Shen, B. Wraback, B Moody, H. S Craft, R Schlesser, R. F Dalmau, and Z Sitar, “Optically pumped UV lasers grown on bulk AlN substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi. 9, 1–4 (2012).

Dalmau, R.

R. Dalmau, B. Moody, R. Schlesser, S. Mita, J. Xie, M. Feneberg, B. Neuschl, K. Thonke, R. Collaze, A. Rice, J. Tweedie, and Z. Sitar, “Growth and characterization of AlN and AlGaN epitaxial films on AlN single crystal substrates,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 158(5), H530–H535 (2011).
[Crossref]

Dalmau, R. F

T. Wunderer, C. L. Chua, J. E. Northrop, Z. Yang, N. M. Johnson, M. Kneissl, G. A. Garrett, H. Shen, B. Wraback, B Moody, H. S Craft, R Schlesser, R. F Dalmau, and Z Sitar, “Optically pumped UV lasers grown on bulk AlN substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi. 9, 1–4 (2012).

Davydov, A. V.

N. A. Sanford, L. H. Robins, A. V. Davydov, A. Shapiro, D. V. Tsvetkov, A. V. Dmitriev, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Refractive index study of AlxGa1-xN films grown on sapphire substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(5), 2980–2991 (2003).
[Crossref]

DenBaars, S. P.

N. A. Sanford, L. H. Robins, A. V. Davydov, A. Shapiro, D. V. Tsvetkov, A. V. Dmitriev, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Refractive index study of AlxGa1-xN films grown on sapphire substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(5), 2980–2991 (2003).
[Crossref]

Deotare, P.

B. J. M. Hausmann, I. Bulu, V. Venkataraman, P. Deotare, and M. Loncar, “Diamond nonlinear photonics,” Nat. Photonics 8(5), 369–374 (2014).
[Crossref]

Dharanipathy, U.

Diao, Z.

Disseix, P.

N. Antoine-Vincent, F. Natali, M. Mihailovic, A. Vasson, J. Leymarie, P. Disseix, D. Byrne, F. Semond, and J. Massies, “Determination of the refractive indices of AlN, GaN, and AlxGa1-xN grown on (111) Si substrate,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(9), 5223–5226 (2003).
[Crossref]

Dmitriev, A. V.

N. A. Sanford, L. H. Robins, A. V. Davydov, A. Shapiro, D. V. Tsvetkov, A. V. Dmitriev, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Refractive index study of AlxGa1-xN films grown on sapphire substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(5), 2980–2991 (2003).
[Crossref]

Duan, N.

A. E. Lim, J. Song, Q. Fang, C. Li, X. Tu, N. Duan, K. K. Chen, R. P. Tern, and T. Liow, ““Review of silicon photonic foundry efforts,” IEEE J. Sel,” IEEE J. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 8300112 (2014).

Ee, Y. K.

N. Tansu, H. Zhao, G. Liu, X. H. Li, J. Zhang, H. Tong, and Y. K. Ee, “III-nitride photonics,” IEEE Photonics J. 2(2), 241–248 (2010).
[Crossref]

Einfeldt, S.

M. Kneissl, T. Kolbe, C. Chua, V. Kueller, N. Lobo, J. Stellmach, A. Knauer, H. Rodriguez, S. Einfeldt, Z. Yang, N. M. Johnson, and M. Weyers, “Advances in group III-Nitride-based deep UV light-emitting diode technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(1), 014036 (2011).
[Crossref]

Epelbaum, B. M.

M. Bickermann, B. M. Epelbaum, O. Filip, P. Heimann, S. Nagata, and A. Winnacker, “UV transparent single-crystalline bulk AlN substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi 7(c), 21–24 (2010).
[Crossref]

Everitt, H. O.

G. Webb-Wood, Ü. Özgür, H. O. Everitt, F. Yun, and H. Morkoc, “Measurement of AlxGa1-xN refractive indices,” Phys. Status Solidi 188, 793–797 (2001).
[Crossref]

Fang, Q.

A. E. Lim, J. Song, Q. Fang, C. Li, X. Tu, N. Duan, K. K. Chen, R. P. Tern, and T. Liow, ““Review of silicon photonic foundry efforts,” IEEE J. Sel,” IEEE J. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 8300112 (2014).

Feneberg, M.

R. Dalmau, B. Moody, R. Schlesser, S. Mita, J. Xie, M. Feneberg, B. Neuschl, K. Thonke, R. Collaze, A. Rice, J. Tweedie, and Z. Sitar, “Growth and characterization of AlN and AlGaN epitaxial films on AlN single crystal substrates,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 158(5), H530–H535 (2011).
[Crossref]

Filip, O.

M. Bickermann, B. M. Epelbaum, O. Filip, P. Heimann, S. Nagata, and A. Winnacker, “UV transparent single-crystalline bulk AlN substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi 7(c), 21–24 (2010).
[Crossref]

Fong, K. Y.

Fujikawa, S.

H. Hirayama, N. Maeda, S. Fujikawa, S. Toyoda, and N. Kamata, “Recent progress and future prospects of AlGaN-based high-efficiency deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53(10), 100209 (2014).
[Crossref]

Garrett, G. A.

T. Wunderer, C. L. Chua, J. E. Northrop, Z. Yang, N. M. Johnson, M. Kneissl, G. A. Garrett, H. Shen, B. Wraback, B Moody, H. S Craft, R Schlesser, R. F Dalmau, and Z Sitar, “Optically pumped UV lasers grown on bulk AlN substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi. 9, 1–4 (2012).

Gerhold, M. D.

M. Rigler, J. Buh, M. P. Huffman, R. Kirste, M. Bobea, S. Mita, M. D. Gerhold, R. Collazo, Z. Sitar, and M. Zgonik, “Optical characterization of Al- and N-polar AlN waveguides for integrated optics,” Appl. Phys. Express 8(4), 042603 (2015).
[Crossref]

Grandjean, N.

Guo, X.

Han, J.

A. W. Bruch, C. Xiong, B. Leung, M. Poot, J. Han, and H. X. Tang, “Broadband nanophotonic waveguides and resonators based on epitaxial GaN thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(14), 141113 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hausmann, B. J. M.

B. J. M. Hausmann, I. Bulu, V. Venkataraman, P. Deotare, and M. Loncar, “Diamond nonlinear photonics,” Nat. Photonics 8(5), 369–374 (2014).
[Crossref]

Heimann, P.

M. Bickermann, B. M. Epelbaum, O. Filip, P. Heimann, S. Nagata, and A. Winnacker, “UV transparent single-crystalline bulk AlN substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi 7(c), 21–24 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hirayama, H.

H. Hirayama, N. Maeda, S. Fujikawa, S. Toyoda, and N. Kamata, “Recent progress and future prospects of AlGaN-based high-efficiency deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53(10), 100209 (2014).
[Crossref]

Houdré, R.

Huffman, M. P.

M. Rigler, J. Buh, M. P. Huffman, R. Kirste, M. Bobea, S. Mita, M. D. Gerhold, R. Collazo, Z. Sitar, and M. Zgonik, “Optical characterization of Al- and N-polar AlN waveguides for integrated optics,” Appl. Phys. Express 8(4), 042603 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hui, R.

R. Hui, Y. Wan, J. Li, S. Jin, J. Lin, and H. Jiang, “III-nitride-based planar lightwave circuits for long wavelength optical communications,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41(1), 100–110 (2005).
[Crossref]

Humphreys, C. J.

D. Zhu, D. J. Wallis, and C. J. Humphreys, “Prospects of III-nitride optoelectronics grown on Si,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 76(10), 106501 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jianchang, Y.

Y. Jianchang, W. Junxi, L. Naixin, L. Zhe, R. Jun, and L. Jinmin, “High quality AlGaN grown on a high temperature AlN template by MOCVD,” J. Semiconductors 30(10), 103001 (2010).
[Crossref]

Jiang, H.

R. Hui, Y. Wan, J. Li, S. Jin, J. Lin, and H. Jiang, “III-nitride-based planar lightwave circuits for long wavelength optical communications,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41(1), 100–110 (2005).
[Crossref]

Jin, S.

R. Hui, Y. Wan, J. Li, S. Jin, J. Lin, and H. Jiang, “III-nitride-based planar lightwave circuits for long wavelength optical communications,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41(1), 100–110 (2005).
[Crossref]

Jinmin, L.

Y. Jianchang, W. Junxi, L. Naixin, L. Zhe, R. Jun, and L. Jinmin, “High quality AlGaN grown on a high temperature AlN template by MOCVD,” J. Semiconductors 30(10), 103001 (2010).
[Crossref]

Johnson, N. M.

T. Wunderer, C. L. Chua, J. E. Northrop, Z. Yang, N. M. Johnson, M. Kneissl, G. A. Garrett, H. Shen, B. Wraback, B Moody, H. S Craft, R Schlesser, R. F Dalmau, and Z Sitar, “Optically pumped UV lasers grown on bulk AlN substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi. 9, 1–4 (2012).

M. Kneissl, T. Kolbe, C. Chua, V. Kueller, N. Lobo, J. Stellmach, A. Knauer, H. Rodriguez, S. Einfeldt, Z. Yang, N. M. Johnson, and M. Weyers, “Advances in group III-Nitride-based deep UV light-emitting diode technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(1), 014036 (2011).
[Crossref]

Jun, R.

Y. Jianchang, W. Junxi, L. Naixin, L. Zhe, R. Jun, and L. Jinmin, “High quality AlGaN grown on a high temperature AlN template by MOCVD,” J. Semiconductors 30(10), 103001 (2010).
[Crossref]

Jung, H.

Junxi, W.

Y. Jianchang, W. Junxi, L. Naixin, L. Zhe, R. Jun, and L. Jinmin, “High quality AlGaN grown on a high temperature AlN template by MOCVD,” J. Semiconductors 30(10), 103001 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kamata, N.

H. Hirayama, N. Maeda, S. Fujikawa, S. Toyoda, and N. Kamata, “Recent progress and future prospects of AlGaN-based high-efficiency deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53(10), 100209 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kao, C.

C. Kao, A. Bhattacharyya, C. Thomidis, A. Moldawer, R. Paiella, and T. D. Moustakas, “A comparative study of UV electroabsorption modulators on bulk III-nitride films and multiple quantum wells,” Phys. Status Solidi., C Curr. Top. Solid State Phys. 9(3-4), 770–773 (2012).
[Crossref]

Keller, S.

N. A. Sanford, L. H. Robins, A. V. Davydov, A. Shapiro, D. V. Tsvetkov, A. V. Dmitriev, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Refractive index study of AlxGa1-xN films grown on sapphire substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(5), 2980–2991 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kimoto, T.

N. Watanabe, T. Kimoto, and J. Suda, “The temperature dependence of the refractive indices of GaN and AlN from room temperatures up to 515° C,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(10), 106101 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kirste, R.

M. Rigler, J. Buh, M. P. Huffman, R. Kirste, M. Bobea, S. Mita, M. D. Gerhold, R. Collazo, Z. Sitar, and M. Zgonik, “Optical characterization of Al- and N-polar AlN waveguides for integrated optics,” Appl. Phys. Express 8(4), 042603 (2015).
[Crossref]

Knauer, A.

M. Kneissl, T. Kolbe, C. Chua, V. Kueller, N. Lobo, J. Stellmach, A. Knauer, H. Rodriguez, S. Einfeldt, Z. Yang, N. M. Johnson, and M. Weyers, “Advances in group III-Nitride-based deep UV light-emitting diode technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(1), 014036 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kneissl, M.

T. Wunderer, C. L. Chua, J. E. Northrop, Z. Yang, N. M. Johnson, M. Kneissl, G. A. Garrett, H. Shen, B. Wraback, B Moody, H. S Craft, R Schlesser, R. F Dalmau, and Z Sitar, “Optically pumped UV lasers grown on bulk AlN substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi. 9, 1–4 (2012).

M. Kneissl, T. Kolbe, C. Chua, V. Kueller, N. Lobo, J. Stellmach, A. Knauer, H. Rodriguez, S. Einfeldt, Z. Yang, N. M. Johnson, and M. Weyers, “Advances in group III-Nitride-based deep UV light-emitting diode technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(1), 014036 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kolbe, T.

M. Kneissl, T. Kolbe, C. Chua, V. Kueller, N. Lobo, J. Stellmach, A. Knauer, H. Rodriguez, S. Einfeldt, Z. Yang, N. M. Johnson, and M. Weyers, “Advances in group III-Nitride-based deep UV light-emitting diode technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(1), 014036 (2011).
[Crossref]

Koukstis, E.

M. Asif Khan, M. Shatalov, H. P. Maruska, H. M. Wang, and E. Koukstis, “III-nitride UV devices,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(10), 7191–7206 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kueller, V.

M. Kneissl, T. Kolbe, C. Chua, V. Kueller, N. Lobo, J. Stellmach, A. Knauer, H. Rodriguez, S. Einfeldt, Z. Yang, N. M. Johnson, and M. Weyers, “Advances in group III-Nitride-based deep UV light-emitting diode technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(1), 014036 (2011).
[Crossref]

Leung, B.

A. W. Bruch, C. Xiong, B. Leung, M. Poot, J. Han, and H. X. Tang, “Broadband nanophotonic waveguides and resonators based on epitaxial GaN thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(14), 141113 (2015).
[Crossref]

Leymarie, J.

N. Antoine-Vincent, F. Natali, M. Mihailovic, A. Vasson, J. Leymarie, P. Disseix, D. Byrne, F. Semond, and J. Massies, “Determination of the refractive indices of AlN, GaN, and AlxGa1-xN grown on (111) Si substrate,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(9), 5223–5226 (2003).
[Crossref]

Li, C.

A. E. Lim, J. Song, Q. Fang, C. Li, X. Tu, N. Duan, K. K. Chen, R. P. Tern, and T. Liow, ““Review of silicon photonic foundry efforts,” IEEE J. Sel,” IEEE J. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 8300112 (2014).

Li, J.

R. Hui, Y. Wan, J. Li, S. Jin, J. Lin, and H. Jiang, “III-nitride-based planar lightwave circuits for long wavelength optical communications,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41(1), 100–110 (2005).
[Crossref]

Li, K. H.

K. H. Li, X. Liu, Q. Wang, S. Zhao, and Z. Mi, “Ultralow-threshold electrically injected AlGaN nanowire ultraviolet lasers on Si operating at low temperature,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(2), 140–144 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, X. H.

N. Tansu, H. Zhao, G. Liu, X. H. Li, J. Zhang, H. Tong, and Y. K. Ee, “III-nitride photonics,” IEEE Photonics J. 2(2), 241–248 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lim, A. E.

A. E. Lim, J. Song, Q. Fang, C. Li, X. Tu, N. Duan, K. K. Chen, R. P. Tern, and T. Liow, ““Review of silicon photonic foundry efforts,” IEEE J. Sel,” IEEE J. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 8300112 (2014).

Lin, J.

R. Hui, Y. Wan, J. Li, S. Jin, J. Lin, and H. Jiang, “III-nitride-based planar lightwave circuits for long wavelength optical communications,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41(1), 100–110 (2005).
[Crossref]

Liow, T.

A. E. Lim, J. Song, Q. Fang, C. Li, X. Tu, N. Duan, K. K. Chen, R. P. Tern, and T. Liow, ““Review of silicon photonic foundry efforts,” IEEE J. Sel,” IEEE J. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 8300112 (2014).

Liu, G.

N. Tansu, H. Zhao, G. Liu, X. H. Li, J. Zhang, H. Tong, and Y. K. Ee, “III-nitride photonics,” IEEE Photonics J. 2(2), 241–248 (2010).
[Crossref]

Liu, X.

K. H. Li, X. Liu, Q. Wang, S. Zhao, and Z. Mi, “Ultralow-threshold electrically injected AlGaN nanowire ultraviolet lasers on Si operating at low temperature,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(2), 140–144 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lobo, N.

M. Kneissl, T. Kolbe, C. Chua, V. Kueller, N. Lobo, J. Stellmach, A. Knauer, H. Rodriguez, S. Einfeldt, Z. Yang, N. M. Johnson, and M. Weyers, “Advances in group III-Nitride-based deep UV light-emitting diode technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(1), 014036 (2011).
[Crossref]

Loncar, M.

B. J. M. Hausmann, I. Bulu, V. Venkataraman, P. Deotare, and M. Loncar, “Diamond nonlinear photonics,” Nat. Photonics 8(5), 369–374 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ma, X. S.

Maeda, N.

H. Hirayama, N. Maeda, S. Fujikawa, S. Toyoda, and N. Kamata, “Recent progress and future prospects of AlGaN-based high-efficiency deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53(10), 100209 (2014).
[Crossref]

Maruska, H. P.

M. Asif Khan, M. Shatalov, H. P. Maruska, H. M. Wang, and E. Koukstis, “III-nitride UV devices,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(10), 7191–7206 (2005).
[Crossref]

Massies, J.

N. Antoine-Vincent, F. Natali, M. Mihailovic, A. Vasson, J. Leymarie, P. Disseix, D. Byrne, F. Semond, and J. Massies, “Determination of the refractive indices of AlN, GaN, and AlxGa1-xN grown on (111) Si substrate,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(9), 5223–5226 (2003).
[Crossref]

Mi, Z.

K. H. Li, X. Liu, Q. Wang, S. Zhao, and Z. Mi, “Ultralow-threshold electrically injected AlGaN nanowire ultraviolet lasers on Si operating at low temperature,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(2), 140–144 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mihailovic, M.

N. Antoine-Vincent, F. Natali, M. Mihailovic, A. Vasson, J. Leymarie, P. Disseix, D. Byrne, F. Semond, and J. Massies, “Determination of the refractive indices of AlN, GaN, and AlxGa1-xN grown on (111) Si substrate,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(9), 5223–5226 (2003).
[Crossref]

Mishra, U. K.

N. A. Sanford, L. H. Robins, A. V. Davydov, A. Shapiro, D. V. Tsvetkov, A. V. Dmitriev, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Refractive index study of AlxGa1-xN films grown on sapphire substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(5), 2980–2991 (2003).
[Crossref]

Mita, S.

M. Rigler, J. Buh, M. P. Huffman, R. Kirste, M. Bobea, S. Mita, M. D. Gerhold, R. Collazo, Z. Sitar, and M. Zgonik, “Optical characterization of Al- and N-polar AlN waveguides for integrated optics,” Appl. Phys. Express 8(4), 042603 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Dalmau, B. Moody, R. Schlesser, S. Mita, J. Xie, M. Feneberg, B. Neuschl, K. Thonke, R. Collaze, A. Rice, J. Tweedie, and Z. Sitar, “Growth and characterization of AlN and AlGaN epitaxial films on AlN single crystal substrates,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 158(5), H530–H535 (2011).
[Crossref]

Moldawer, A.

C. Kao, A. Bhattacharyya, C. Thomidis, A. Moldawer, R. Paiella, and T. D. Moustakas, “A comparative study of UV electroabsorption modulators on bulk III-nitride films and multiple quantum wells,” Phys. Status Solidi., C Curr. Top. Solid State Phys. 9(3-4), 770–773 (2012).
[Crossref]

Moody, B

T. Wunderer, C. L. Chua, J. E. Northrop, Z. Yang, N. M. Johnson, M. Kneissl, G. A. Garrett, H. Shen, B. Wraback, B Moody, H. S Craft, R Schlesser, R. F Dalmau, and Z Sitar, “Optically pumped UV lasers grown on bulk AlN substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi. 9, 1–4 (2012).

Moody, B.

R. Dalmau, B. Moody, R. Schlesser, S. Mita, J. Xie, M. Feneberg, B. Neuschl, K. Thonke, R. Collaze, A. Rice, J. Tweedie, and Z. Sitar, “Growth and characterization of AlN and AlGaN epitaxial films on AlN single crystal substrates,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 158(5), H530–H535 (2011).
[Crossref]

Morkoc, H.

G. Webb-Wood, Ü. Özgür, H. O. Everitt, F. Yun, and H. Morkoc, “Measurement of AlxGa1-xN refractive indices,” Phys. Status Solidi 188, 793–797 (2001).
[Crossref]

Moustakas, T. D.

C. Kao, A. Bhattacharyya, C. Thomidis, A. Moldawer, R. Paiella, and T. D. Moustakas, “A comparative study of UV electroabsorption modulators on bulk III-nitride films and multiple quantum wells,” Phys. Status Solidi., C Curr. Top. Solid State Phys. 9(3-4), 770–773 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nagata, S.

M. Bickermann, B. M. Epelbaum, O. Filip, P. Heimann, S. Nagata, and A. Winnacker, “UV transparent single-crystalline bulk AlN substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi 7(c), 21–24 (2010).
[Crossref]

Naixin, L.

Y. Jianchang, W. Junxi, L. Naixin, L. Zhe, R. Jun, and L. Jinmin, “High quality AlGaN grown on a high temperature AlN template by MOCVD,” J. Semiconductors 30(10), 103001 (2010).
[Crossref]

Natali, F.

N. Antoine-Vincent, F. Natali, M. Mihailovic, A. Vasson, J. Leymarie, P. Disseix, D. Byrne, F. Semond, and J. Massies, “Determination of the refractive indices of AlN, GaN, and AlxGa1-xN grown on (111) Si substrate,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(9), 5223–5226 (2003).
[Crossref]

Neuschl, B.

R. Dalmau, B. Moody, R. Schlesser, S. Mita, J. Xie, M. Feneberg, B. Neuschl, K. Thonke, R. Collaze, A. Rice, J. Tweedie, and Z. Sitar, “Growth and characterization of AlN and AlGaN epitaxial films on AlN single crystal substrates,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 158(5), H530–H535 (2011).
[Crossref]

Northrop, J. E.

T. Wunderer, C. L. Chua, J. E. Northrop, Z. Yang, N. M. Johnson, M. Kneissl, G. A. Garrett, H. Shen, B. Wraback, B Moody, H. S Craft, R Schlesser, R. F Dalmau, and Z Sitar, “Optically pumped UV lasers grown on bulk AlN substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi. 9, 1–4 (2012).

Özgür, Ü.

G. Webb-Wood, Ü. Özgür, H. O. Everitt, F. Yun, and H. Morkoc, “Measurement of AlxGa1-xN refractive indices,” Phys. Status Solidi 188, 793–797 (2001).
[Crossref]

Paiella, R.

C. Kao, A. Bhattacharyya, C. Thomidis, A. Moldawer, R. Paiella, and T. D. Moustakas, “A comparative study of UV electroabsorption modulators on bulk III-nitride films and multiple quantum wells,” Phys. Status Solidi., C Curr. Top. Solid State Phys. 9(3-4), 770–773 (2012).
[Crossref]

Palacios, T.

Pernice, W.

Pernice, W. H. P.

C. Xiong, W. H. P. Pernice, and H. X. Tang, “Low-loss, silicon integrated, aluminum nitride photonic circuits and their use for electro-optic signal processing,” Nano Lett. 12(7), 3562–3568 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Poot, M.

M. Poot, C. Schuck, X. S. Ma, X. Guo, and H. X. Tang, “Design and characterization of integrated components for SiN photonic quantum circuits,” Opt. Express 24(7), 6843–6860 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. W. Bruch, C. Xiong, B. Leung, M. Poot, J. Han, and H. X. Tang, “Broadband nanophotonic waveguides and resonators based on epitaxial GaN thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(14), 141113 (2015).
[Crossref]

Rice, A.

R. Dalmau, B. Moody, R. Schlesser, S. Mita, J. Xie, M. Feneberg, B. Neuschl, K. Thonke, R. Collaze, A. Rice, J. Tweedie, and Z. Sitar, “Growth and characterization of AlN and AlGaN epitaxial films on AlN single crystal substrates,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 158(5), H530–H535 (2011).
[Crossref]

Rigler, M.

M. Rigler, J. Buh, M. P. Huffman, R. Kirste, M. Bobea, S. Mita, M. D. Gerhold, R. Collazo, Z. Sitar, and M. Zgonik, “Optical characterization of Al- and N-polar AlN waveguides for integrated optics,” Appl. Phys. Express 8(4), 042603 (2015).
[Crossref]

Robins, L. H.

N. A. Sanford, L. H. Robins, A. V. Davydov, A. Shapiro, D. V. Tsvetkov, A. V. Dmitriev, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Refractive index study of AlxGa1-xN films grown on sapphire substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(5), 2980–2991 (2003).
[Crossref]

Rodriguez, H.

M. Kneissl, T. Kolbe, C. Chua, V. Kueller, N. Lobo, J. Stellmach, A. Knauer, H. Rodriguez, S. Einfeldt, Z. Yang, N. M. Johnson, and M. Weyers, “Advances in group III-Nitride-based deep UV light-emitting diode technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(1), 014036 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ryu, K. K.

Sanford, N. A.

N. A. Sanford, L. H. Robins, A. V. Davydov, A. Shapiro, D. V. Tsvetkov, A. V. Dmitriev, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Refractive index study of AlxGa1-xN films grown on sapphire substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(5), 2980–2991 (2003).
[Crossref]

Schlesser, R

T. Wunderer, C. L. Chua, J. E. Northrop, Z. Yang, N. M. Johnson, M. Kneissl, G. A. Garrett, H. Shen, B. Wraback, B Moody, H. S Craft, R Schlesser, R. F Dalmau, and Z Sitar, “Optically pumped UV lasers grown on bulk AlN substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi. 9, 1–4 (2012).

Schlesser, R.

R. Dalmau, B. Moody, R. Schlesser, S. Mita, J. Xie, M. Feneberg, B. Neuschl, K. Thonke, R. Collaze, A. Rice, J. Tweedie, and Z. Sitar, “Growth and characterization of AlN and AlGaN epitaxial films on AlN single crystal substrates,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 158(5), H530–H535 (2011).
[Crossref]

Schuck, C.

Semond, F.

N. Antoine-Vincent, F. Natali, M. Mihailovic, A. Vasson, J. Leymarie, P. Disseix, D. Byrne, F. Semond, and J. Massies, “Determination of the refractive indices of AlN, GaN, and AlxGa1-xN grown on (111) Si substrate,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(9), 5223–5226 (2003).
[Crossref]

Shapiro, A.

N. A. Sanford, L. H. Robins, A. V. Davydov, A. Shapiro, D. V. Tsvetkov, A. V. Dmitriev, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Refractive index study of AlxGa1-xN films grown on sapphire substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(5), 2980–2991 (2003).
[Crossref]

Shatalov, M.

M. Asif Khan, M. Shatalov, H. P. Maruska, H. M. Wang, and E. Koukstis, “III-nitride UV devices,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(10), 7191–7206 (2005).
[Crossref]

Shen, H.

T. Wunderer, C. L. Chua, J. E. Northrop, Z. Yang, N. M. Johnson, M. Kneissl, G. A. Garrett, H. Shen, B. Wraback, B Moody, H. S Craft, R Schlesser, R. F Dalmau, and Z Sitar, “Optically pumped UV lasers grown on bulk AlN substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi. 9, 1–4 (2012).

Sitar, Z

T. Wunderer, C. L. Chua, J. E. Northrop, Z. Yang, N. M. Johnson, M. Kneissl, G. A. Garrett, H. Shen, B. Wraback, B Moody, H. S Craft, R Schlesser, R. F Dalmau, and Z Sitar, “Optically pumped UV lasers grown on bulk AlN substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi. 9, 1–4 (2012).

Sitar, Z.

M. Rigler, J. Buh, M. P. Huffman, R. Kirste, M. Bobea, S. Mita, M. D. Gerhold, R. Collazo, Z. Sitar, and M. Zgonik, “Optical characterization of Al- and N-polar AlN waveguides for integrated optics,” Appl. Phys. Express 8(4), 042603 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Dalmau, B. Moody, R. Schlesser, S. Mita, J. Xie, M. Feneberg, B. Neuschl, K. Thonke, R. Collaze, A. Rice, J. Tweedie, and Z. Sitar, “Growth and characterization of AlN and AlGaN epitaxial films on AlN single crystal substrates,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 158(5), H530–H535 (2011).
[Crossref]

Soltani, M.

Song, J.

A. E. Lim, J. Song, Q. Fang, C. Li, X. Tu, N. Duan, K. K. Chen, R. P. Tern, and T. Liow, ““Review of silicon photonic foundry efforts,” IEEE J. Sel,” IEEE J. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 8300112 (2014).

Soref, R.

Stellmach, J.

M. Kneissl, T. Kolbe, C. Chua, V. Kueller, N. Lobo, J. Stellmach, A. Knauer, H. Rodriguez, S. Einfeldt, Z. Yang, N. M. Johnson, and M. Weyers, “Advances in group III-Nitride-based deep UV light-emitting diode technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(1), 014036 (2011).
[Crossref]

Suda, J.

N. Watanabe, T. Kimoto, and J. Suda, “The temperature dependence of the refractive indices of GaN and AlN from room temperatures up to 515° C,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(10), 106101 (2008).
[Crossref]

Tang, H. X.

Tansu, N.

N. Tansu, H. Zhao, G. Liu, X. H. Li, J. Zhang, H. Tong, and Y. K. Ee, “III-nitride photonics,” IEEE Photonics J. 2(2), 241–248 (2010).
[Crossref]

Tern, R. P.

A. E. Lim, J. Song, Q. Fang, C. Li, X. Tu, N. Duan, K. K. Chen, R. P. Tern, and T. Liow, ““Review of silicon photonic foundry efforts,” IEEE J. Sel,” IEEE J. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 8300112 (2014).

Thomidis, C.

C. Kao, A. Bhattacharyya, C. Thomidis, A. Moldawer, R. Paiella, and T. D. Moustakas, “A comparative study of UV electroabsorption modulators on bulk III-nitride films and multiple quantum wells,” Phys. Status Solidi., C Curr. Top. Solid State Phys. 9(3-4), 770–773 (2012).
[Crossref]

Thonke, K.

R. Dalmau, B. Moody, R. Schlesser, S. Mita, J. Xie, M. Feneberg, B. Neuschl, K. Thonke, R. Collaze, A. Rice, J. Tweedie, and Z. Sitar, “Growth and characterization of AlN and AlGaN epitaxial films on AlN single crystal substrates,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 158(5), H530–H535 (2011).
[Crossref]

Tong, H.

N. Tansu, H. Zhao, G. Liu, X. H. Li, J. Zhang, H. Tong, and Y. K. Ee, “III-nitride photonics,” IEEE Photonics J. 2(2), 241–248 (2010).
[Crossref]

Toyoda, S.

H. Hirayama, N. Maeda, S. Fujikawa, S. Toyoda, and N. Kamata, “Recent progress and future prospects of AlGaN-based high-efficiency deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53(10), 100209 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tsvetkov, D. V.

N. A. Sanford, L. H. Robins, A. V. Davydov, A. Shapiro, D. V. Tsvetkov, A. V. Dmitriev, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Refractive index study of AlxGa1-xN films grown on sapphire substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(5), 2980–2991 (2003).
[Crossref]

Tu, X.

A. E. Lim, J. Song, Q. Fang, C. Li, X. Tu, N. Duan, K. K. Chen, R. P. Tern, and T. Liow, ““Review of silicon photonic foundry efforts,” IEEE J. Sel,” IEEE J. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 8300112 (2014).

Tweedie, J.

R. Dalmau, B. Moody, R. Schlesser, S. Mita, J. Xie, M. Feneberg, B. Neuschl, K. Thonke, R. Collaze, A. Rice, J. Tweedie, and Z. Sitar, “Growth and characterization of AlN and AlGaN epitaxial films on AlN single crystal substrates,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 158(5), H530–H535 (2011).
[Crossref]

Vasson, A.

N. Antoine-Vincent, F. Natali, M. Mihailovic, A. Vasson, J. Leymarie, P. Disseix, D. Byrne, F. Semond, and J. Massies, “Determination of the refractive indices of AlN, GaN, and AlxGa1-xN grown on (111) Si substrate,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(9), 5223–5226 (2003).
[Crossref]

Venkataraman, V.

B. J. M. Hausmann, I. Bulu, V. Venkataraman, P. Deotare, and M. Loncar, “Diamond nonlinear photonics,” Nat. Photonics 8(5), 369–374 (2014).
[Crossref]

Vico Triviño, N.

Wallis, D. J.

D. Zhu, D. J. Wallis, and C. J. Humphreys, “Prospects of III-nitride optoelectronics grown on Si,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 76(10), 106501 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wan, Y.

R. Hui, Y. Wan, J. Li, S. Jin, J. Lin, and H. Jiang, “III-nitride-based planar lightwave circuits for long wavelength optical communications,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41(1), 100–110 (2005).
[Crossref]

Wang, H. M.

M. Asif Khan, M. Shatalov, H. P. Maruska, H. M. Wang, and E. Koukstis, “III-nitride UV devices,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(10), 7191–7206 (2005).
[Crossref]

Wang, Q.

K. H. Li, X. Liu, Q. Wang, S. Zhao, and Z. Mi, “Ultralow-threshold electrically injected AlGaN nanowire ultraviolet lasers on Si operating at low temperature,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(2), 140–144 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Watanabe, N.

N. Watanabe, T. Kimoto, and J. Suda, “The temperature dependence of the refractive indices of GaN and AlN from room temperatures up to 515° C,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(10), 106101 (2008).
[Crossref]

Webb-Wood, G.

G. Webb-Wood, Ü. Özgür, H. O. Everitt, F. Yun, and H. Morkoc, “Measurement of AlxGa1-xN refractive indices,” Phys. Status Solidi 188, 793–797 (2001).
[Crossref]

Weyers, M.

M. Kneissl, T. Kolbe, C. Chua, V. Kueller, N. Lobo, J. Stellmach, A. Knauer, H. Rodriguez, S. Einfeldt, Z. Yang, N. M. Johnson, and M. Weyers, “Advances in group III-Nitride-based deep UV light-emitting diode technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(1), 014036 (2011).
[Crossref]

Winnacker, A.

M. Bickermann, B. M. Epelbaum, O. Filip, P. Heimann, S. Nagata, and A. Winnacker, “UV transparent single-crystalline bulk AlN substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi 7(c), 21–24 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wraback, B.

T. Wunderer, C. L. Chua, J. E. Northrop, Z. Yang, N. M. Johnson, M. Kneissl, G. A. Garrett, H. Shen, B. Wraback, B Moody, H. S Craft, R Schlesser, R. F Dalmau, and Z Sitar, “Optically pumped UV lasers grown on bulk AlN substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi. 9, 1–4 (2012).

Wunderer, T.

T. Wunderer, C. L. Chua, J. E. Northrop, Z. Yang, N. M. Johnson, M. Kneissl, G. A. Garrett, H. Shen, B. Wraback, B Moody, H. S Craft, R Schlesser, R. F Dalmau, and Z Sitar, “Optically pumped UV lasers grown on bulk AlN substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi. 9, 1–4 (2012).

Xie, J.

R. Dalmau, B. Moody, R. Schlesser, S. Mita, J. Xie, M. Feneberg, B. Neuschl, K. Thonke, R. Collaze, A. Rice, J. Tweedie, and Z. Sitar, “Growth and characterization of AlN and AlGaN epitaxial films on AlN single crystal substrates,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 158(5), H530–H535 (2011).
[Crossref]

Xiong, C.

A. W. Bruch, C. Xiong, B. Leung, M. Poot, J. Han, and H. X. Tang, “Broadband nanophotonic waveguides and resonators based on epitaxial GaN thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(14), 141113 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Jung, C. Xiong, K. Y. Fong, X. Zhang, and H. X. Tang, “Optical frequency comb generation from aluminum nitride microring resonator,” Opt. Lett. 38(15), 2810–2813 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Xiong, W. H. P. Pernice, and H. X. Tang, “Low-loss, silicon integrated, aluminum nitride photonic circuits and their use for electro-optic signal processing,” Nano Lett. 12(7), 3562–3568 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Xiong, W. Pernice, K. K. Ryu, C. Schuck, K. Y. Fong, T. Palacios, and H. X. Tang, “Integrated GaN photonic circuits on silicon (100) for second harmonic generation,” Opt. Express 19(11), 10462–10470 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yan, C.

Yang, Z.

T. Wunderer, C. L. Chua, J. E. Northrop, Z. Yang, N. M. Johnson, M. Kneissl, G. A. Garrett, H. Shen, B. Wraback, B Moody, H. S Craft, R Schlesser, R. F Dalmau, and Z Sitar, “Optically pumped UV lasers grown on bulk AlN substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi. 9, 1–4 (2012).

M. Kneissl, T. Kolbe, C. Chua, V. Kueller, N. Lobo, J. Stellmach, A. Knauer, H. Rodriguez, S. Einfeldt, Z. Yang, N. M. Johnson, and M. Weyers, “Advances in group III-Nitride-based deep UV light-emitting diode technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(1), 014036 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yun, F.

G. Webb-Wood, Ü. Özgür, H. O. Everitt, F. Yun, and H. Morkoc, “Measurement of AlxGa1-xN refractive indices,” Phys. Status Solidi 188, 793–797 (2001).
[Crossref]

Zgonik, M.

M. Rigler, J. Buh, M. P. Huffman, R. Kirste, M. Bobea, S. Mita, M. D. Gerhold, R. Collazo, Z. Sitar, and M. Zgonik, “Optical characterization of Al- and N-polar AlN waveguides for integrated optics,” Appl. Phys. Express 8(4), 042603 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, J.

N. Tansu, H. Zhao, G. Liu, X. H. Li, J. Zhang, H. Tong, and Y. K. Ee, “III-nitride photonics,” IEEE Photonics J. 2(2), 241–248 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

Zhao, H.

N. Tansu, H. Zhao, G. Liu, X. H. Li, J. Zhang, H. Tong, and Y. K. Ee, “III-nitride photonics,” IEEE Photonics J. 2(2), 241–248 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zhao, S.

K. H. Li, X. Liu, Q. Wang, S. Zhao, and Z. Mi, “Ultralow-threshold electrically injected AlGaN nanowire ultraviolet lasers on Si operating at low temperature,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(2), 140–144 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhe, L.

Y. Jianchang, W. Junxi, L. Naixin, L. Zhe, R. Jun, and L. Jinmin, “High quality AlGaN grown on a high temperature AlN template by MOCVD,” J. Semiconductors 30(10), 103001 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zhu, D.

D. Zhu, D. J. Wallis, and C. J. Humphreys, “Prospects of III-nitride optoelectronics grown on Si,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 76(10), 106501 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Express (1)

M. Rigler, J. Buh, M. P. Huffman, R. Kirste, M. Bobea, S. Mita, M. D. Gerhold, R. Collazo, Z. Sitar, and M. Zgonik, “Optical characterization of Al- and N-polar AlN waveguides for integrated optics,” Appl. Phys. Express 8(4), 042603 (2015).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

A. W. Bruch, C. Xiong, B. Leung, M. Poot, J. Han, and H. X. Tang, “Broadband nanophotonic waveguides and resonators based on epitaxial GaN thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(14), 141113 (2015).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. Hui, Y. Wan, J. Li, S. Jin, J. Lin, and H. Jiang, “III-nitride-based planar lightwave circuits for long wavelength optical communications,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41(1), 100–110 (2005).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

A. E. Lim, J. Song, Q. Fang, C. Li, X. Tu, N. Duan, K. K. Chen, R. P. Tern, and T. Liow, ““Review of silicon photonic foundry efforts,” IEEE J. Sel,” IEEE J. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 8300112 (2014).

IEEE Photonics J. (1)

N. Tansu, H. Zhao, G. Liu, X. H. Li, J. Zhang, H. Tong, and Y. K. Ee, “III-nitride photonics,” IEEE Photonics J. 2(2), 241–248 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

N. A. Sanford, L. H. Robins, A. V. Davydov, A. Shapiro, D. V. Tsvetkov, A. V. Dmitriev, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Refractive index study of AlxGa1-xN films grown on sapphire substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(5), 2980–2991 (2003).
[Crossref]

N. Antoine-Vincent, F. Natali, M. Mihailovic, A. Vasson, J. Leymarie, P. Disseix, D. Byrne, F. Semond, and J. Massies, “Determination of the refractive indices of AlN, GaN, and AlxGa1-xN grown on (111) Si substrate,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(9), 5223–5226 (2003).
[Crossref]

N. Watanabe, T. Kimoto, and J. Suda, “The temperature dependence of the refractive indices of GaN and AlN from room temperatures up to 515° C,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(10), 106101 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Electrochem. Soc. (1)

R. Dalmau, B. Moody, R. Schlesser, S. Mita, J. Xie, M. Feneberg, B. Neuschl, K. Thonke, R. Collaze, A. Rice, J. Tweedie, and Z. Sitar, “Growth and characterization of AlN and AlGaN epitaxial films on AlN single crystal substrates,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 158(5), H530–H535 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Semiconductors (1)

Y. Jianchang, W. Junxi, L. Naixin, L. Zhe, R. Jun, and L. Jinmin, “High quality AlGaN grown on a high temperature AlN template by MOCVD,” J. Semiconductors 30(10), 103001 (2010).
[Crossref]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (2)

H. Hirayama, N. Maeda, S. Fujikawa, S. Toyoda, and N. Kamata, “Recent progress and future prospects of AlGaN-based high-efficiency deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53(10), 100209 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Asif Khan, M. Shatalov, H. P. Maruska, H. M. Wang, and E. Koukstis, “III-nitride UV devices,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(10), 7191–7206 (2005).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (1)

C. Xiong, W. H. P. Pernice, and H. X. Tang, “Low-loss, silicon integrated, aluminum nitride photonic circuits and their use for electro-optic signal processing,” Nano Lett. 12(7), 3562–3568 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Nanotechnol. (1)

K. H. Li, X. Liu, Q. Wang, S. Zhao, and Z. Mi, “Ultralow-threshold electrically injected AlGaN nanowire ultraviolet lasers on Si operating at low temperature,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(2), 140–144 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

B. J. M. Hausmann, I. Bulu, V. Venkataraman, P. Deotare, and M. Loncar, “Diamond nonlinear photonics,” Nat. Photonics 8(5), 369–374 (2014).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Status Solidi (2)

M. Bickermann, B. M. Epelbaum, O. Filip, P. Heimann, S. Nagata, and A. Winnacker, “UV transparent single-crystalline bulk AlN substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi 7(c), 21–24 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. Webb-Wood, Ü. Özgür, H. O. Everitt, F. Yun, and H. Morkoc, “Measurement of AlxGa1-xN refractive indices,” Phys. Status Solidi 188, 793–797 (2001).
[Crossref]

Phys. Status Solidi. (1)

T. Wunderer, C. L. Chua, J. E. Northrop, Z. Yang, N. M. Johnson, M. Kneissl, G. A. Garrett, H. Shen, B. Wraback, B Moody, H. S Craft, R Schlesser, R. F Dalmau, and Z Sitar, “Optically pumped UV lasers grown on bulk AlN substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi. 9, 1–4 (2012).

Phys. Status Solidi., C Curr. Top. Solid State Phys. (1)

C. Kao, A. Bhattacharyya, C. Thomidis, A. Moldawer, R. Paiella, and T. D. Moustakas, “A comparative study of UV electroabsorption modulators on bulk III-nitride films and multiple quantum wells,” Phys. Status Solidi., C Curr. Top. Solid State Phys. 9(3-4), 770–773 (2012).
[Crossref]

Rep. Prog. Phys. (1)

D. Zhu, D. J. Wallis, and C. J. Humphreys, “Prospects of III-nitride optoelectronics grown on Si,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 76(10), 106501 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Semicond. Sci. Technol. (1)

M. Kneissl, T. Kolbe, C. Chua, V. Kueller, N. Lobo, J. Stellmach, A. Knauer, H. Rodriguez, S. Einfeldt, Z. Yang, N. M. Johnson, and M. Weyers, “Advances in group III-Nitride-based deep UV light-emitting diode technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(1), 014036 (2011).
[Crossref]

Other (4)

K. Takahashi, A. Yoshikawa, and A. Sandhu, Wide Bandgap Semiconductors, Fundamental Properties and Modern Photonic and Electronic Devices (Springer-Verlag, 2007).

S. Nakamura, S. Pearton, and G. Fasol, The Blue Laser Diode: The Complete Strory (Springer-Verlag, 2013).

X. Guo, C. Zou, C. Schuck, H. Jung, R. Cheng, and H. X. Tang, “Parametric down-conversion photon pair source on a nanophotonic chip,” arxiv: 1603.03726v1 (2016).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Example of target applications benefiting from UV-visible integrated photonics.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) cross section of the AlxGa1-xN waveguide discussed here. (b) Variation of AlxGa1‑xN/AlN lattice-mismatch vs. x. The top horizontal axis shows the bandgap of AlxGa1-xN in the wavelength unit for the each x value.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Plots of the refractive index difference between the AlxGa1-xN and AlN for (a) ordinary and (b) extraordinary indices with the x values and lattice mismatches shown in the inset of (a).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Simulated guided-mode map for an Al0.65Ga0.35N waveguide with the general structure shown in Fig. 2(a) when W = 2.5 H and for the following cases: (a) TE polarization, h = 0, (b) TM polarization, h = 0, (c) TE polarization, h = H/2, (d) TM polarization, h = H/2. In each figure, the colormap represents the power confinement factor in the core of the waveguide. The regions of single-mode, multi-mode, and cut-off have been highlighted. The colorbars for each figure correspond to the colormap data. The insets in a-d show the waveguide mode intensity profile corresponding to the white star marker in the guided-mode map.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 A straight line approximation showing the single-mode condition for TE and TM polarization modes of an AlxGa1-xN waveguide for x = 0.65 and 0.75, and for the case of h = 0, and W = 2.5 H. The single-mode condition in these plots corresponds to a mode confinement factor close or above 80%. The h = H/2 results are not shown as they are close to those of h = 0.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Simulated guided-mode map for an Al0.65Ga0.35N waveguide for different heights (H) and widths (W) and a pedestal h = 0, at a wavelength of 300 nm for (a) TE and (b) TM polarizations. The colormap represents the power confinement factor in the core of the waveguide. The regions of single-mode, multi-mode, and cut-off have been highlighted. For each waveguide height, the waveguide width varies from that height value to 700 nm; therefore, the gray region is excluded in our analysis.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a) Simulated radiation Q for the TE mode of an Al0.65Ga0.35N ring resonator vs. its radius for a resonance wavelength ~300 nm and for h = 0 and h = H/2. The inset shows the ring cross section. For this simulation W = 700 nm, H = 350 nm. (b)-(c) Cross section of the radial electric field mode profiles for a ring radius of 15 microns for h = H/2 and h = 0, respectively. (d) Roundtrip loss of the rings in (a).
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 (a) AlGaN-on-AlN waveguide structure on a substrate that can be AlN, SiC, Si or Al2O3. The thickness D is large enough (e.g. 2-3 µm) to avoid the leaking of the optical mode to the underneath substrate if not AlN. (b) Lattice parameters and temperature expansion of crystal wafers upon which AlN has been epitaxially grown.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Comparison of AlN and GaN with other UV bandgap integrated photonic materials*

Tables Icon

Table 2 Coefficients used for the refractive index expression in Eq. (1) [28]. The numbers in the prantheses are the ones that we selected to match Eq. (1) with the the data in [29].

Equations (1)

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n (λ) 2 =1+ A 0 λ 2 λ 2 L 0 2 , ( A 0 = B 0 + B 1 x, L 0 (x)= C 0 + C 1 x+ C 2 x 2 ),

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