Abstract

We proposed and demonstrated a new metamaterial architecture capable of high speed modulation of free-space space thermal infrared radiation using graphene. Our design completely eliminates channel resistance, thereby maximizing the electrostatic modulation speed, while at the same time effectively modulating infrared radiation. Experiment results verify that our device with area of 100 × 120 µm2 can achieve a modulation speed as high as 2.6 GHz. We further highlight the utility of our graphene metamaterial modulator by reconstructing a fast infrared signal using an equivalent time sampling technique. The graphene metamaterial modulator demonstrated here is not only limited to the thermal infrared, but may be scaled to longer infrared and terahertz wavelengths. Our work provides a path forward for realization of frequency selective and all-electronic high speed devices for infrared applications.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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2016 (1)

M. Liu, K. Fan, W. Padilla, D. A. Powell, X. Zhang, and I. V. Shadrivov, “Tunable meta-liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. 28, 1553–1558 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

X. Liu and W. J. Padilla, “Thermochromic infrared metamaterials,” Adv. Mater. 28, 871–875 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Miao, Q. Wu, X. Li, Q. He, K. Ding, Z. An, Y. Zhang, and L. Zhou, “Widely tunable terahertz phase modulation with gate-controlled graphene metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. X 5, 041027 (2015).

2013 (4)

K. Fan, X. Zhao, J. Zhang, K. Geng, G. R. Keiser, H. R. Seren, G. D. Metcalfe, M. Wraback, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Optically tunable terahertz metamaterials on highly flexible substrates,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz. Sci. Technol. 3, 702–708 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. Fan, A. C. Strikwerda, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Three-dimensional broadband tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 87, 161104 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Liu and W. J. Padilla, “Dynamic manipulation of infrared radiation with MEMS metamaterials,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1, 559–562 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Shrekenhamer, W.-C. Chen, and W. J. Padilla, “Liquid crystal tunable metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 177403 (2013)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (4)

J. Kischkat, S. Peters, B. Gruska, M. Semtsiv, M. Chashnikova, M. Klinkmüller, O. Fedosenko, S. Machulik, A. Aleksandrova, G. Monastyrskyi, Y. Flores, and W. T. Masselink, “Mid-infrared optical properties of thin films of aluminum oxide, titanium dioxide, silicon dioxide, aluminum nitride, and silicon nitride,” Appl. Opt. 51, 6789–6798 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Zhang, J. Zhou, Y.-S. Park, J. Rho, R. Singh, S. Nam, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, X. Yin, A. J. Taylor, and X. Zhang, “Photoinduced handedness switching in terahertz chiral metamolecules,” Nat. Commun. 3, 942 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. H. Lee, M. Choi, T.-T. Kim, S. Lee, M. Liu, X. Yin, H. K. Choi, S. S. Lee, C.-G. Choi, S.-Y. Choi, X. Zhang, and B. Min, “Switching terahertz waves with gate-controlled active graphene metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 11, 936–941 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Watanabe, A. Conwill, D. Tsuya, and Y. Koide, “Low contact resistance metals for graphene based devices,” Diamond Relat. Mater. 24, 171–174 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (6)

A. Hsu, H. Wang, K. K. Kim, J. Kong, and T. Palacios, “Impact of graphene interface quality on contact resistance and RF device performance,” IEEE Electron. Dev. Lett. 32, 1008–1010 (2011).
[Crossref]

B.-C. Huang, M. Zhang, Y. Wang, and J. Woo, “Contact resistance in top-gated graphene field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 032107 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. Shrekenhamer, S. Rout, A. C. Strikwerda, C. Bingham, R. D. Averitt, S. Sonkusale, and W. J. Padilla, “High speed terahertz modulation from metamaterials with embedded high electron mobility transistors,” Opt. Express 19, 9968–9975 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. M. Zhu, A. Q. Liu, W. Zhang, J. F. Tao, T. Bourouina, J. H. Teng, X. H. Zhang, Q. Y. Wu, H. Tanoto, H. C. Guo, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Polarization dependent state to polarization independent state change in THz metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 221102 (2011).
[Crossref]

X. Liang, B. A. Sperling, I. Calizo, G. Cheng, C. A. Hacker, Q. Zhang, Y. Obeng, K. Yan, H. Peng, Q. Li, X. Zhu, H. Yuan, A. R. H. Walker, Z. Liu, L.-M. Peng, and C. A. Richter, “Toward clean and crackless transfer of graphene,” ACS Nano 5, 9144–9153 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Horng, C.-F. Chen, B. Geng, C. Girit, Y. Zhang, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, M. Martin, A. Zettl, M. F. Crommie, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Drude conductivity of Dirac fermions in graphene,” Phys. Rev. B 83, 165113 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (5)

K. Nagashio, T. Nishimura, K. Kita, and A. Toriumi, “Contact resistivity and current flow path at metal/graphene contact,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 143514 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. Ergin, N. Stenger, P. Brenner, J. B. Pendry, and M. Wegener, “Three-dimensional invisibility cloak at optical wavelengths,” Science 328, 337–339 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. M. Pryce, K. Aydin, Y. A. Kelaita, R. M. Briggs, and H. A. Atwater, “Highly strained compliant optical metamaterials with large frequency tunability,” Nano Lett. 10, 4222–4227 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Zhu, Y. Feng, J. Zhao, C. Huang, Z. Wang, and T. Jiang, “Polarization modulation by tunable electromagnetic metamaterial reflector/absorber,” Opt. Express 18, 23196–23203 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Wang, Y. Wu, C. Cong, J. Shang, and T. Yu, “Hysteresis of electronic transport in graphene transistors,” ACS Nano 4, 7221–7228 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (5)

T. Driscoll, H.-T. Kim, B.-G. Chae, B.-J. Kim, Y.-W. Lee, N. M. Jokerst, S. Palit, D. R. Smith, M. Di Ventra, and D. N. Basov, “Memory metamaterials,” Science 325, 1518–1521 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Reconfigurable terahertz metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 147401 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photon. 3, 148–151 (2009).
[Crossref]

R. Liu, C. Ji, J. J. Mock, J. Y. Chin, T. J. Cui, and D. R. Smith, “Broadband ground-plane cloak,” Science 323, 366–369 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Kim, J. Nah, I. Jo, D. Shahrjerdi, L. Colombo, Z. Yao, E. Tutuc, and S. K. Banerjee, “Realization of a high mobility dual-gated graphene field-effect transistor with Al2O3 dielectric,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 062107 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (3)

L. A. Falkovsky, “Optical properties of graphene,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 129, 012004 (2008).

H. T. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, D. B. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, “Experimental demonstration of frequency-agile terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Photon. 2, 295–298 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature 455, 376–379 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

Z. Liu, H. Lee, Y. Xiong, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Far-field optical hyperlens magnifying sub-diffraction-limited objects,” Science 315, 1686 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Adam, E. H. Hwang, V. M. Galitski, and S. Das Sarma, “A self-consistent theory for graphene transport,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104, 18392–18397 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Falkovsky and S. Pershoguba, “Optical far-infrared properties of a graphene monolayer and multilayer,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 153410 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444, 597–600 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens,” Science 308, 534–537 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292, 77–79 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1972 (1)

G. M. Hieftje, “Signal-to-noise enhancement through instrumental techniques. II. Signal averaging, boxcar integration, and correlation techniques,” Anal. Chem. 44, 69A–78a (1972).

Adam, S.

S. Adam, E. H. Hwang, V. M. Galitski, and S. Das Sarma, “A self-consistent theory for graphene transport,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104, 18392–18397 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aleksandrova, A.

An, Z.

Z. Miao, Q. Wu, X. Li, Q. He, K. Ding, Z. An, Y. Zhang, and L. Zhou, “Widely tunable terahertz phase modulation with gate-controlled graphene metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. X 5, 041027 (2015).

Atwater, H. A.

I. M. Pryce, K. Aydin, Y. A. Kelaita, R. M. Briggs, and H. A. Atwater, “Highly strained compliant optical metamaterials with large frequency tunability,” Nano Lett. 10, 4222–4227 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Averitt, R. D.

K. Fan, A. C. Strikwerda, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Three-dimensional broadband tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 87, 161104 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. Fan, X. Zhao, J. Zhang, K. Geng, G. R. Keiser, H. R. Seren, G. D. Metcalfe, M. Wraback, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Optically tunable terahertz metamaterials on highly flexible substrates,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz. Sci. Technol. 3, 702–708 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Shrekenhamer, S. Rout, A. C. Strikwerda, C. Bingham, R. D. Averitt, S. Sonkusale, and W. J. Padilla, “High speed terahertz modulation from metamaterials with embedded high electron mobility transistors,” Opt. Express 19, 9968–9975 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photon. 3, 148–151 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Reconfigurable terahertz metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 147401 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. T. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, D. B. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, “Experimental demonstration of frequency-agile terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Photon. 2, 295–298 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444, 597–600 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aydin, K.

I. M. Pryce, K. Aydin, Y. A. Kelaita, R. M. Briggs, and H. A. Atwater, “Highly strained compliant optical metamaterials with large frequency tunability,” Nano Lett. 10, 4222–4227 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Azad, A. K.

S. Zhang, J. Zhou, Y.-S. Park, J. Rho, R. Singh, S. Nam, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, X. Yin, A. J. Taylor, and X. Zhang, “Photoinduced handedness switching in terahertz chiral metamolecules,” Nat. Commun. 3, 942 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photon. 3, 148–151 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. T. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, D. B. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, “Experimental demonstration of frequency-agile terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Photon. 2, 295–298 (2008).
[Crossref]

Banerjee, S. K.

S. Kim, J. Nah, I. Jo, D. Shahrjerdi, L. Colombo, Z. Yao, E. Tutuc, and S. K. Banerjee, “Realization of a high mobility dual-gated graphene field-effect transistor with Al2O3 dielectric,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 062107 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bartal, G.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature 455, 376–379 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Basov, D. N.

T. Driscoll, H.-T. Kim, B.-G. Chae, B.-J. Kim, Y.-W. Lee, N. M. Jokerst, S. Palit, D. R. Smith, M. Di Ventra, and D. N. Basov, “Memory metamaterials,” Science 325, 1518–1521 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bechtel, H. A.

J. Horng, C.-F. Chen, B. Geng, C. Girit, Y. Zhang, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, M. Martin, A. Zettl, M. F. Crommie, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Drude conductivity of Dirac fermions in graphene,” Phys. Rev. B 83, 165113 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bingham, C.

Bourouina, T.

W. M. Zhu, A. Q. Liu, W. Zhang, J. F. Tao, T. Bourouina, J. H. Teng, X. H. Zhang, Q. Y. Wu, H. Tanoto, H. C. Guo, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Polarization dependent state to polarization independent state change in THz metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 221102 (2011).
[Crossref]

Brenner, P.

T. Ergin, N. Stenger, P. Brenner, J. B. Pendry, and M. Wegener, “Three-dimensional invisibility cloak at optical wavelengths,” Science 328, 337–339 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Briggs, R. M.

I. M. Pryce, K. Aydin, Y. A. Kelaita, R. M. Briggs, and H. A. Atwater, “Highly strained compliant optical metamaterials with large frequency tunability,” Nano Lett. 10, 4222–4227 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Calizo, I.

X. Liang, B. A. Sperling, I. Calizo, G. Cheng, C. A. Hacker, Q. Zhang, Y. Obeng, K. Yan, H. Peng, Q. Li, X. Zhu, H. Yuan, A. R. H. Walker, Z. Liu, L.-M. Peng, and C. A. Richter, “Toward clean and crackless transfer of graphene,” ACS Nano 5, 9144–9153 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chae, B.-G.

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Shrekenhamer, D. B.

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S. Zhang, J. Zhou, Y.-S. Park, J. Rho, R. Singh, S. Nam, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, X. Yin, A. J. Taylor, and X. Zhang, “Photoinduced handedness switching in terahertz chiral metamolecules,” Nat. Commun. 3, 942 (2012).
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X. Liang, B. A. Sperling, I. Calizo, G. Cheng, C. A. Hacker, Q. Zhang, Y. Obeng, K. Yan, H. Peng, Q. Li, X. Zhu, H. Yuan, A. R. H. Walker, Z. Liu, L.-M. Peng, and C. A. Richter, “Toward clean and crackless transfer of graphene,” ACS Nano 5, 9144–9153 (2011).
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T. Ergin, N. Stenger, P. Brenner, J. B. Pendry, and M. Wegener, “Three-dimensional invisibility cloak at optical wavelengths,” Science 328, 337–339 (2010).
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K. Fan, A. C. Strikwerda, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Three-dimensional broadband tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 87, 161104 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Shrekenhamer, S. Rout, A. C. Strikwerda, C. Bingham, R. D. Averitt, S. Sonkusale, and W. J. Padilla, “High speed terahertz modulation from metamaterials with embedded high electron mobility transistors,” Opt. Express 19, 9968–9975 (2011).
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H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Reconfigurable terahertz metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 147401 (2009).
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Z. Liu, H. Lee, Y. Xiong, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Far-field optical hyperlens magnifying sub-diffraction-limited objects,” Science 315, 1686 (2007).
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N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens,” Science 308, 534–537 (2005).
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W. M. Zhu, A. Q. Liu, W. Zhang, J. F. Tao, T. Bourouina, J. H. Teng, X. H. Zhang, Q. Y. Wu, H. Tanoto, H. C. Guo, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Polarization dependent state to polarization independent state change in THz metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 221102 (2011).
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H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Reconfigurable terahertz metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 147401 (2009).
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[Crossref]

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444, 597–600 (2006).
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W. M. Zhu, A. Q. Liu, W. Zhang, J. F. Tao, T. Bourouina, J. H. Teng, X. H. Zhang, Q. Y. Wu, H. Tanoto, H. C. Guo, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Polarization dependent state to polarization independent state change in THz metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 221102 (2011).
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[Crossref]

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A. Hsu, H. Wang, K. K. Kim, J. Kong, and T. Palacios, “Impact of graphene interface quality on contact resistance and RF device performance,” IEEE Electron. Dev. Lett. 32, 1008–1010 (2011).
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H. Wang, Y. Wu, C. Cong, J. Shang, and T. Yu, “Hysteresis of electronic transport in graphene transistors,” ACS Nano 4, 7221–7228 (2010).
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B.-C. Huang, M. Zhang, Y. Wang, and J. Woo, “Contact resistance in top-gated graphene field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 032107 (2011).
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T. Ergin, N. Stenger, P. Brenner, J. B. Pendry, and M. Wegener, “Three-dimensional invisibility cloak at optical wavelengths,” Science 328, 337–339 (2010).
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B.-C. Huang, M. Zhang, Y. Wang, and J. Woo, “Contact resistance in top-gated graphene field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 032107 (2011).
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Z. Miao, Q. Wu, X. Li, Q. He, K. Ding, Z. An, Y. Zhang, and L. Zhou, “Widely tunable terahertz phase modulation with gate-controlled graphene metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. X 5, 041027 (2015).

Wu, Q. Y.

W. M. Zhu, A. Q. Liu, W. Zhang, J. F. Tao, T. Bourouina, J. H. Teng, X. H. Zhang, Q. Y. Wu, H. Tanoto, H. C. Guo, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Polarization dependent state to polarization independent state change in THz metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 221102 (2011).
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H. Wang, Y. Wu, C. Cong, J. Shang, and T. Yu, “Hysteresis of electronic transport in graphene transistors,” ACS Nano 4, 7221–7228 (2010).
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Z. Liu, H. Lee, Y. Xiong, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Far-field optical hyperlens magnifying sub-diffraction-limited objects,” Science 315, 1686 (2007).
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[Crossref] [PubMed]

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S. Kim, J. Nah, I. Jo, D. Shahrjerdi, L. Colombo, Z. Yao, E. Tutuc, and S. K. Banerjee, “Realization of a high mobility dual-gated graphene field-effect transistor with Al2O3 dielectric,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 062107 (2009).
[Crossref]

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S. Zhang, J. Zhou, Y.-S. Park, J. Rho, R. Singh, S. Nam, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, X. Yin, A. J. Taylor, and X. Zhang, “Photoinduced handedness switching in terahertz chiral metamolecules,” Nat. Commun. 3, 942 (2012).
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H. Wang, Y. Wu, C. Cong, J. Shang, and T. Yu, “Hysteresis of electronic transport in graphene transistors,” ACS Nano 4, 7221–7228 (2010).
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J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature 455, 376–379 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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J. Horng, C.-F. Chen, B. Geng, C. Girit, Y. Zhang, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, M. Martin, A. Zettl, M. F. Crommie, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Drude conductivity of Dirac fermions in graphene,” Phys. Rev. B 83, 165113 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhang, J.

K. Fan, X. Zhao, J. Zhang, K. Geng, G. R. Keiser, H. R. Seren, G. D. Metcalfe, M. Wraback, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Optically tunable terahertz metamaterials on highly flexible substrates,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz. Sci. Technol. 3, 702–708 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, M.

B.-C. Huang, M. Zhang, Y. Wang, and J. Woo, “Contact resistance in top-gated graphene field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 032107 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Q.

X. Liang, B. A. Sperling, I. Calizo, G. Cheng, C. A. Hacker, Q. Zhang, Y. Obeng, K. Yan, H. Peng, Q. Li, X. Zhu, H. Yuan, A. R. H. Walker, Z. Liu, L.-M. Peng, and C. A. Richter, “Toward clean and crackless transfer of graphene,” ACS Nano 5, 9144–9153 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, S.

S. Zhang, J. Zhou, Y.-S. Park, J. Rho, R. Singh, S. Nam, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, X. Yin, A. J. Taylor, and X. Zhang, “Photoinduced handedness switching in terahertz chiral metamolecules,” Nat. Commun. 3, 942 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature 455, 376–379 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, W.

W. M. Zhu, A. Q. Liu, W. Zhang, J. F. Tao, T. Bourouina, J. H. Teng, X. H. Zhang, Q. Y. Wu, H. Tanoto, H. C. Guo, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Polarization dependent state to polarization independent state change in THz metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 221102 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

M. Liu, K. Fan, W. Padilla, D. A. Powell, X. Zhang, and I. V. Shadrivov, “Tunable meta-liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. 28, 1553–1558 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. Fan, A. C. Strikwerda, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Three-dimensional broadband tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 87, 161104 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. Fan, X. Zhao, J. Zhang, K. Geng, G. R. Keiser, H. R. Seren, G. D. Metcalfe, M. Wraback, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Optically tunable terahertz metamaterials on highly flexible substrates,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz. Sci. Technol. 3, 702–708 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Zhang, J. Zhou, Y.-S. Park, J. Rho, R. Singh, S. Nam, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, X. Yin, A. J. Taylor, and X. Zhang, “Photoinduced handedness switching in terahertz chiral metamolecules,” Nat. Commun. 3, 942 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. H. Lee, M. Choi, T.-T. Kim, S. Lee, M. Liu, X. Yin, H. K. Choi, S. S. Lee, C.-G. Choi, S.-Y. Choi, X. Zhang, and B. Min, “Switching terahertz waves with gate-controlled active graphene metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 11, 936–941 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Reconfigurable terahertz metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 147401 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature 455, 376–379 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Liu, H. Lee, Y. Xiong, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Far-field optical hyperlens magnifying sub-diffraction-limited objects,” Science 315, 1686 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens,” Science 308, 534–537 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, X. H.

W. M. Zhu, A. Q. Liu, W. Zhang, J. F. Tao, T. Bourouina, J. H. Teng, X. H. Zhang, Q. Y. Wu, H. Tanoto, H. C. Guo, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Polarization dependent state to polarization independent state change in THz metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 221102 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y.

Z. Miao, Q. Wu, X. Li, Q. He, K. Ding, Z. An, Y. Zhang, and L. Zhou, “Widely tunable terahertz phase modulation with gate-controlled graphene metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. X 5, 041027 (2015).

J. Horng, C.-F. Chen, B. Geng, C. Girit, Y. Zhang, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, M. Martin, A. Zettl, M. F. Crommie, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Drude conductivity of Dirac fermions in graphene,” Phys. Rev. B 83, 165113 (2011).
[Crossref]

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Zhao, X.

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IEEE Trans. Terahertz. Sci. Technol. (1)

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Supplementary Material (1)

NameDescription
» Visualization 1: MP4 (2541 KB)      Real-time Modulation of blackbody radiation

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic of the tunable metamaterial absorber with metamaterial structures patterned on single layer graphene. Spectral tuning is achieved by gating the graphene via applying voltage between metamaterial layer and metallic ground plane. (b) Scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of the patterned metamaterial on graphene by electron beam lithography (EBL). The total area of metamaterial is 100 × 120 µm2. The scale bar is 5 µm. Inset: a close-up view of the metamaterial with dimensions. px = 2 µm, py = 1.2 µm, l = 1.3 µm, w1 = 200 nm, w2 = 300 nm, g = 100 nm.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Experimental and simulated wavelength dependent absorption of the graphene metamaterial. (a) Measured absorption for various gate voltages applied to the graphene. All spectra are normalized to the reflection from a 200 nm gold film on a silicon substrate. (b) 2D plot of the absorption spectra as a function of applied gate voltage. (c) and (d) are corresponding simulated absorption spectra for various voltages.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Modulation characteristics of the graphene-based metamaterial device. (a) Modulation depth (defined in the text) as a function of wavelength for various gate voltages. (b) Measured modulation signal as a function of the modulation frequency (red-dot curve) with the device connected to a series resistor Rs. The blue curve represents a fitted frequency response based on an equivalent circuit model. (shown in the inset) The purple curve shows the calculated modulation frequency of the graphene metamaterial device with external series resistor removed. (c) Filtered modulation bandwidth of our device as defined in the text. The inset shows the wavelength dependence of the power response of the IR camera using a 1.5× magnification lens. (d) Comparison of integrated modulation depth across different spectral ranges.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Equivalent time sampling measurements with the graphene metamaterial modulator and IR camera. (a) IR image of the sample, pixels 1–4, and ’Ref’ denoted. (b) A grayscale IR image of the chopper blade static image on the graphene metamaterial modulator. The red line shows the location of the measured temperature profile. (c) Reconstructed IR waveform (blue curve) with a 200 µs period and static measured differential temperature profile across the chopper blades (red curve). The black curve is the referenced signal without use of the graphene metamaterials device.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Raman spectrum of CVD graphene transferred to AlOx substrate. (b) Measured conductance of the patterned CVD graphene ribbon as a function of gate voltage. The inset shows the schematic of the measurement configuration.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Real and imaginary parts of the graphene sheet conductivity as a function of applied voltage ∆V = |VgVCNP| at room temperature. The scattering time of the graphene is estimated to be 8 fs.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a) Schematic of the transmission and reflection of a TM polarized electromagnetic wave from AlOx thin film with length l = 300 nm. The AlOx thin film is characterized by parameters ϵ2 and µ2. The permittivity and permeability of air and gold are ϵ1, µ1, and ϵ3, µ3, respectively. The wave reflected from the right boundaries of the slab is not shown. The direction of the wave propagation is depicted by dashed lines. (b) Fitted relative permittivity of AlOx thin film based on reflection measurements with ϵinf=2.02, ωp= 788.24 cm−1, ωo= 729.76 cm−1, γ = 56.80 cm−1, s = 91.44 cm−1. The blue line is the real part and the red line is the imaginary part of the permittivity.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 The IR camera measured relative differential irradiances under different blackbody radiator temperatures. The background fluctuations, e.g. solid purple curve for T = 1200 K were subtracted from these measured radiances. The purple curve is the measured reference from its mean at point ’Ref’ with the blackbody radiator temperature of 1200 K. The metamaterial modulator was modulated at 1 Hz with a square wave of voltage of 60 V. The curves are vertically offset for clarity.

Equations (5)

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σ ( ω ) = e 2 4 ħ [ 1 2 + 1 π arctan ( ħ ω 2 E F 2 k B T ) i 2 π ln ( ħ ω + 2 E F ) 2 ( ħ ω 2 E F ) 2 + 4 ( k B T ) 2 ] + i 2 e 2 k B T π ħ 2 ( ω + i π 1 ) ln [ 2 cosh ( E F 2 k B T ) ]
R = | M 21 M 22 | 2
M 21 = 1 2 [ 1 ϵ 3 ϵ 1 k 1 z k 3 z ] cos k 2 z l i 2 [ ϵ 3 ϵ 2 k 2 z k 3 z ϵ 2 ϵ 1 k 1 z k 2 z ] sin k 2 z l M 22 = 1 2 [ 1 + ϵ 3 ϵ 1 k 1 z k 3 z ] cos k 2 z l i 2 [ ϵ 3 ϵ 2 k 2 z k 3 z + ϵ 2 ϵ 1 k 1 z k 2 z ] sin k 2 z l
ϵ A l O x ( ω ) = ϵ inf + j = 1 n X j ( ω )
X j ( ω ) = 1 2 π s j exp ( ( x ω 0 , j ) 2 2 s j 2 ) ω p , j 2 x 2 ω 2 i ω γ j

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